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A commander-in-chief or supreme commander is the person who exercises supreme
command and control Command and control is a "set of organizational and technical attributes and processes ...
hat A collection of 18th and 19th century men's beaver felt hats A hat is a head covering which is worn for various reasons, including protection against weather conditions, ceremonial reasons such as university graduation, religious reasons, safet ...

hat
employs human, physical, and information resources to solve problems and accomplish missions" to achieve the goals of an organization or enterpris ...
over
armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or para ...
or a
military branch Military branch (also service branch or armed service) is according to common standard a subdivision of the national armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily int ...
. As a technical term, it refers to military competencies that reside in a country's executive leadership, a
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional ch ...
or a
head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred ...
.


Definition

The formal role and title of a ruler commanding the armed forces derives from ''
Imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as a title roughly equivalent to ''commander'' under the Roman Republic. Later it became a part of t ...

Imperator
'' of the
Roman Kingdom The Roman Kingdom, also referred to as the Roman monarchy, or the regal period of ancient Rome, was the earliest period of Roman history The history of Rome includes the history of the Rome, city of Rome as well as the Ancient Rome, civilis ...
,
Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the , run through of the . Beginning with the of the (traditionally dated to 509 BC) and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the , Rome's control rapidly expanded durin ...
and
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
, who possessed ''imperium'' (command and other regal) powers. In English use, the term first applied to
King Charles I of England Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. ...

King Charles I of England
in 1639. It continued to be used during the
English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country A country is a distinct territory, ...
. A nation's
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional ch ...
(monarchical or republican) usually holds the nominal position of commander-in-chief, even if effective executive power is held by a separate
head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred ...
. In a
parliamentary system A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' an ...
, the
executive branch The executive (short for executive branch or executive power) is the part of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, a ...
is ultimately dependent upon the will of the
legislature A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure i ...
; although the legislature does not issue orders directly to the armed forces and therefore does not control the military in any operational sense. Governors-general and colonial governors are also often appointed commander-in-chief of the military forces within their territory. A commander-in-chief is sometimes referred to as ''supreme commander'', which is sometimes used as a specific term. The term is also used for military officers who hold such power and authority, not always through dictatorship, and as a subordinate (usually) to a head of state (see
Generalissimo ''Generalissimo'' ( ) is a Highest military ranks, military rank of the highest degree, superior to field marshal and other five-star ranks in the states where they are used. Usage The word (), an Italian language, Italian term, is the superla ...
). The term is also used for officers who hold authority over an individual
military branch Military branch (also service branch or armed service) is according to common standard a subdivision of the national armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily int ...
,
special branch Special Branch is a label customarily used to identify units responsible for matters of national security and intelligence in British, Commonwealth, Irish, and other police forces. A Special Branch unit acquires and develops intelligence, us ...
or within a
theatre of operations In war War is an intense armed conflict between states, government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative def ...
.


Heads of state as commanders-in-chief

This includes heads of states who: * Are chief executives with the political mandate to undertake discretionary decision-making, including command of the armed forces. * Mostly ceremonial heads of state (constitutional monarchs, viceroys and presidents in parliamentary republics) with residual substantive reserve powers over the armed forces, acting under normal circumstances on the constitutional advice of chief executives with the political mandate to undertake discretionary decision-making.


Albania

According to the
Constitution of Albania The present Constitution of Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It is located on the Adriatic Sea, Adriat ...
, the president of the Republic of Albania is the commander-in-chief of
Albanian Armed Forces The Albanian Armed Forces ( sq, Forcat e Armatosura të Republikës së Shqipërisë (FARSH)) are the military of Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a cou ...

Albanian Armed Forces
.


Argentina

Under part II, chapter III, article 99, subsections 12, 13, 14 and 15, the
Constitution of Argentina The Constitution of the Argentine Nation ( es, Constitución de la Nación Argentina) is the basic governing document of Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located most ...
states that the president of the Argentine Nation is the "Commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of the Nation". It also states that the president is entitled to provide military posts in the granting of the jobs or grades of senior officers of the armed forces, and by itself on the battlefield; runs with its organization and distribution according to needs of the Nation and declares war and orders reprisals with the consent and approval of the
Argentine National Congress The Congress of the Argentine Nation ( es, Congreso de la Nación Argentina) is the legislative branch of the government of Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located ...

Argentine National Congress
. The
Ministry of DefenseMinistry of Defence or Ministry of Defense may refer to: * Ministry of defenceMinistry of Defence or Ministry of Defense may refer to: * Ministry of defence, a type of government department responsible for matters of defence Current ministries ...
is the government department that assists and serves the president in the management of the armed forces (
Army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land-based military branch, service branc ...
,
Navy A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense ...
and Air Force).


Armenia

The
prime minister of Armenia The prime minister of Armenia is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region, or ...
holds the title of Supreme Commander in Chief of the
Armenian Armed Forces The Armed Forces of Armenia ( hy, Հայաստանի զինված ուժեր), sometimes referred to as the Armenian Army ( hy, Հայկական բանակ, Haykakan Banak), is the national military of the Republic of Armenia A republic ( la ...
(). The hereditary title and rank of ''
Sparapet ''Sparapet'' ( hy, սպարապետ) was a hereditary title of supreme commander of the armed forces in ancient and medieval Armenia Armenia (; hy, Հայաստան, translit=Hayastan, ), officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocke ...
( hy, սպարապետ) was a used to describe the supreme commander of the military forces of ancient and medieval
Armenia Armenia (; hy, Հայաստան, translit=Hayastan, ), officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is ...

Armenia
. Since its introduction in the 2nd century BC, it is often used today to describe famous and high-ranking military officials. Notable Armenians to have held the title include
Garegin Nzhdeh Garegin Ter-Harutyunyan ( hy, Գարեգին Տէր Յարութիւնեան) better known by his '' nom de guerre'' Garegin Nzhdeh ( hy, Գարեգին Նժդեհ, ; 1 January 1886 – 21 December 1955), was an Armenian statesman and military ...

Garegin Nzhdeh
, the supreme commander of the
Republic of Mountainous Armenia A republic ( la, res publica ''Res publica'' (also spelt as ''rēs pūblica'' to indicate vowel length In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived length of a vowel sound: the corresponding physical measurement is length (phonetics), du ...
. and
Vazgen Sargsyan Vazgen Zaveni Sargsyan ( hy, Վազգեն Զավենի Սարգսյան, ; 5 March 1959 – 27 October 1999) was an Armenian military commander and politician. He was the first Defence Minister of Armenia from 1991 to 1992 and then from 19 ...

Vazgen Sargsyan
, the two-time
defense minister of Armenia The Defence Minister of the Republic of Armenia () is the head of the Ministry of Defence {{unsourced, date=February 2021 A ministry of defence or defense (see spelling differences), also known as a department of defence or defense, is an often-u ...
and prime minister in the 1990s.


Australia

Under chapter II of section 68 titled ''Command of the naval and military forces'', the
Constitution of Australia The Constitution of Australia (or Australian Constitution) is a written constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it ...

Constitution of Australia
states that: In practice, however, the Governor-General does not play an active part in the
Australian Defence Force Australians, colloquially referred to as "Aussies", are the citizens Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determine ...
's command structure, and the democratically accountable Australian Cabinet (chaired by the
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
) ''de facto'' controls the ADF. The Minister for Defence and several subordinate ministers exercise this control through the
Australian Defence Organisation The Australian Defence Organisation (ADO), also known as simply Defence, is an Australian Government organisation that consists of both the Australian Defence Force (ADF) and the Department of Defence (DoD). The ADO's collective aims are to " ...
. Section 8 of the Defence Act 1903 states:


Austria


Bangladesh

The commander-in-chief of
Bangladesh Armed Forces The Bangladesh Armed Forces ( bn, বাংলাদেশ সশস্ত্র বাহিনী, Bangladesh Shoshostro Bahinī) consists of the three uniformed military services of Bangladesh: the Bangladesh Army, the Bangladesh Navy and th ...
is the
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
, although executive power and responsibility for national defense resides with the
prime minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
. This is discharged through the
Ministry of DefenceMinistry of Defence or Ministry of Defense may refer to: * Ministry of defence, a type of government department responsible for matters of defence Current ministries * Ministry of Defense (Afghanistan) * Ministry of Defence (Albania) * Ministry ...
, headed by the minister of defence, which provides the policy framework and resources to the Armed Forces to discharge their responsibilities in the context of the defence of the country. The only exception was the first commander-in-chief, General M. A. G. Osmani, during
Bangladesh Liberation War The Bangladesh Liberation War ( bn, মুক্তিযুদ্ধ, ), also known as the Bangladesh War of Independence, or simply the Liberation War in Bangladesh, was a revolution In political science Political science is the ...
in 1971, who was commander of all
Bangladesh Forces The Mukti Bahini ( bn, মুক্তিবাহিনী, translates as 'freedom fighters', or liberation army), also known as the Bangladesh Forces, was the guerrilla resistance movement A resistance movement is an organized effort by some p ...
, reinstated to active duty by official BD government order, which after independence was gazetted in 1972. He retired on 7 April 1972 and relinquished all authority and duties to the president of Bangladesh.


Belarus

The
president of Belarus The president of the Republic of Belarus ( be, Прэзідэнт Рэспублікі Беларусь, russian: Президент Республики Беларусь) is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the pub ...
is the Commander-in-Chief of the
Belarusian Armed Forces The Armed Forces of the Republic of Belarus (, ''Uzbrojenyja siły Respubliki Biełaruś S RB', , ''Vooruzhennye sily Respubliki Belarus'') consist of the Ground Forces and the Belarusian Air Force, Air and Air Defence Forces, all under the co ...
(). The Belarusian commander in chief has an official uniform befitting of the rank, which the president wears on official occasion and ceremonies in relation to the military. The role of commander in chief is laid out in Article 28 of the
Constitution of Belarus The Constitution of the Republic of Belarus ( be, Канстытуцыя Рэспублікі Беларусь, russian: Конституция Республики Беларусь) is the ultimate law of Belarus. Adopted in 1994, three years aft ...

Constitution of Belarus
, which states that he/she has the authority to "appoint and dismiss the high command of the Armed Forces".


Belgium

Article 167 of the
Constitution of Belgium The Constitution of Belgium ( nl, Belgische Grondwet, french: Constitution belge, german: Verfassung Belgiens) dates back to 1831. Since then Belgium has been a parliamentary monarchy that applies the principles of ministerial responsibility for ...
designates the
king King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, queen, which title is also given to the queen consort, consort of a king. *In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contempora ...
as the commander-in-chief. In practice, the Chief of Defence is the head and commander of the
Belgian Armed Forces french: La Défense belgegerman: Belgische Streitkräfte , image = Coats of arms of Belgium Military Forces.svg , alt = , caption = Emblem of the Belgian Armed Forces , image2 = , alt2 ...
. He reports directly to the
Minister of Defence A defence minister or minister of defence is a cabinet official position in charge of a ministry of defense, which regulates the armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force ...
and is responsible for advising the Minister, for the implementation of defence policy and for the administration of the department.


Bosnia and Herzegovina

According to the
Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina The Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian: ''Ustav Bosne i Hercegovine'' / Устав Босне и Херцеговине) is the highest legal document of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abb ...
, the collective
Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina The Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Serbo-Croatian Serbo-Croatian () – also called Serbo-Croat (), Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), and Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS) – is a South Slavic langu ...
is the commander-in-chief of the
Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina The Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina (OSBiH; ''Oružane snage Bosne i Hercegovine'' / Оружане снаге Босне и Херцеговине, ОСБИХ) is the official military A military, also known collectively as armed ...
. In peace, the commander-in-chief exercises his command through the
minister of defence A defence minister or minister of defence is a cabinet official position in charge of a ministry of defense, which regulates the armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force ...
. In war and in cases where the minister of defence is not fulfilling orders, the commander-in-chief exercises his command directly through the Chief of Joint Staff.


Brazil

Article 142 of the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 states that the
Brazilian Armed Forces The Brazilian Armed Forces ( pt, Forças Armadas Brasileiras, ) is the unified military organization comprising the Brazilian Army (including the Brazilian Army Aviation Command, Brazilian Army Aviation), the Brazilian Navy (including the Brazil ...
is under the supreme command of the
president of the Republic The President of the Republic is a title used for heads of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of statebeing an embodiment of the State itself or r ...
.


Brunei

The
Sultan of Brunei The sultan of Brunei is the monarchial head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personali ...
is the commander-in-chief of the
Royal Brunei Armed Forces The Royal Brunei Armed Forces (RBAF; ms, Angkatan Bersenjata Diraja Brunei, ''ABDB'') are the military forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare ...
.


Canada

The powers of command-in-chief over the
Canadian Armed Forces The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF; french: Forces armées canadiennes; ''FAC'') is the unified military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typ ...
are vested in the
Canadian monarch The monarchy of Canada is at the core of Canada's constitutional Canadian federalism, federal structure and Westminster system, Westminster-style Parliamentary system, parliamentary democracy. The monarchy is the foundation of the Executive (gover ...
, and are delegated to the
governor general of Canada The governor general of Canada (french: gouverneure générale du Canada) is the federal viceregal A viceroy () is an official who runs a polity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective ...
, who also uses the title ''Commander-in-Chief''. In this capacity, the Governor General is entitled to the uniform of a general/flag officer, with the crest of the office and special cuff braid serving as rank insignia. By constitutional convention, the Crown’s prerogative powers over the armed forces and constitutional powers as commander-in-chief are exercised on the advice of the
prime minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
and the rest of
Cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent glass sheets or transparent polycarbonate sheets * Filing ...
, the governing ministry that commands the confidence of the
House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorpor ...
. According to the
National Defence Act The ''National Defence Act'' (NDA; French: ''Loi sur la défense nationale''; ''LDN'') is the primary enabling legislation for organizing and funding Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territ ...
, the Minister of National Defence is responsible and accountable to the
Parliament of Canada The Parliament of Canada (french: Parlement du Canada) is the Canadian federalism, federal legislature of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, and is composed of three parts: the Monarch, the Senate of Canada, Senate, and the House of C ...

Parliament of Canada
for all matters related to national defence and the Canadian Armed Forces. In theory, the governor general could use his or her powers as commander-in-chief to stop any attempts to use the Canadian Forces unconstitutionally, though this has never occurred and would likely be highly controversial.


China

Article 93 of the
Constitution of the People's Republic of China The Constitution of the People's Republic of China is nominally the constitution, supreme law of the People's Republic of China. It was adopted by the 5th National People's Congress on December 4, 1982, with Constitution of the People's Repu ...
states the authority to direct the
Central Military Commission A Central Military Commission or National Defense Commission is an organization typical of socialist Socialism is a Political philosophy, political, Social philosophy, social, and economic philosophy encompassing a range of Economic systems, ...
(CMC) of the
Chinese Communist Party The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), officially the Communist Party of China (CPC), is the founding and One-party state, sole ruling party of the China, People's Republic of China (PRC). The CCP leads List of political parties in China, eight other ...
(CCP) and the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China is vested with the Central Military Commission; composed of a Chairman, and numerous Vice-Chairmen and members. The same article also states that the Chairman of the Central Military Commission assumes overall responsibility for the work of the Central Military Commission, as Supreme Military Commander, and that it is responsible to the
National People's Congress The National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China (), often referred to as the National People's Congress (NPC) (), is the highest organ of state power and the national legislature of the People's Republic of China ...
and the
Standing Committee A committee or commission is a body of one or more persons subordinate to an assembly. A committee is not itself considered to be a form of assembly. Usually, the assembly sends matters into a committee as a way to explore them more fully than wo ...
. Furthermore, Article 80 gives the
president of the People's Republic of China The president of the People's Republic of China is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public imag ...
(in addition to ceremonial
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional ch ...
duties) the power to proclaim martial law, proclaim a state of war, and to issue mobilisation orders upon the decision of National People's Congress and its Standing Committee. The CMC Chairman and the president are distinctly separate state offices and they have not always been held by the same persons. However, beginning in 1993, during the tenure of
Jiang Zemin Jiang Zemin (; ; born 17 August 1926) is a retired Chinese politician who served as General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party from 1989 to 2002, as Chairman of the Central Military Commission (China), Chairman of the Central Military ...

Jiang Zemin
as CMC Chairman and
General Secretary of the Communist Party General Secretary or First Secretary is the official title of leaders of most Communist political parties. When a Communist party is the ruling party in a Communist-led one-party state A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or ...
, it has been standard practice to have the president, the CMC chairman, and the CCP general secretary to be normally held by the same person; although the slight differences in the start and end of terms for those respective offices means that there is some overlap between an occupant and his predecessor.


Hong Kong

When
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Pe ...

Hong Kong
was under British authority, the civilian governor was the ''ex officio'' commander-in-chief of the
British Forces Overseas Hong Kong British Forces Overseas Hong Kong comprised the elements of the British Army, Royal Navy (including Royal Marines) and Royal Air Force stationed in British Hong Kong. The Governor of Hong Kong also assumed the position of the Commander-in-chief ...
. After the territory's
handover In cellular telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire, radio, Optical system, optical, or other Electromagnetism, electromagnetic systems. It has its origin in t ...
to the People's Republic of China in 1997, the commanders of the
People's Liberation Army The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between St ...
Hong Kong Garrison The People's Liberation Army Hong Kong Garrison is a garrison of the People's Liberation Army The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, hig ...
are PLA personnel from
mainland China The term "mainland China" refers to the area directly governed by the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies ...

mainland China
and commanded by the CMC.


Croatia

According to the
Croatian constitution The Constitution of the Republic of Croatia ( hr, Ustav Republike Hrvatske) is promulgated by the Croatian Parliament. History While it was part of the socialist Yugoslavia, the Socialist Republic of Croatia had its own Constitution under th ...
, the
president of Croatia The president of Croatia, officially denoted as the President of the Republic of Croatia ( hr, Predsjednik / Predsjednica Republike Hrvatske), is the head of state, commander-in-chief of the Military of Croatia, military and chief representative ...
is the commander-in-chief of the
Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia The Republic of Croatia Armed Forces ( hr, Oružane snage Republike Hrvatske – OSRH) is the military service of Croatia. The President of Croatia, President is the Armed Forces Commander-in-Chief, and exercises administrative powers in times of ...
. In peace, the commander-in-chief exercises his command through the minister of defence. In war and in cases where the Ministry of Defense (Croatia), minister of defence is not fulfilling orders, the commander-in-chief exercises his command directly through the chief of General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia, General Staff.


Czech Republic

According to the Constitution of the Czech Republic, 1992 constitution, the president of the Czech Republic is the commander-in-chief of the Military of the Czech Republic, Armed Forces according to Article 63(1)(c), and appoints and promotes generals under Article 63(1)(f). The president needs the countersignature of the Prime Minister of the Czech Republic, prime minister for decisions concerning the above-mentioned provisions as per Articles 63(3-4), or otherwise, they are not valid. The prime minister may delegate to other ministers the right to countersign these decisions of the president. The political responsibility for the Armed Forces is borne by the Government of the Czech Republic, Government, which in Article 67 is defined as the "supreme body of executive power". According to Articles 39 & 43, the Parliament of the Czech Republic, Parliament must give consent to the dispatch of Czech military forces outside the territory of the Czech Republic. The Ministry of Defence (Czech Republic), Ministry of Defence is the central authority of the state administration for the control of the Armed Forces. The actual day-to-day management is vested in the chief of the general staff, the Czech chief of defence equivalent.


Denmark

The position of the Monarchy of Denmark, Danish monarch as the head of the military is deeply rooted in tradition. While the Constitution of Denmark, 1953 constitution does not explicitly designate the monarch as commander-in-chief; it is implicit, given the general provision in article 12 and the more specific wording of article 19 (2): "Except for purposes of defence against an armed attack upon the Realm or Danish forces, the King shall not use military force against any foreign state without the consent of the Folketing. Any measure which the King may take in pursuance of this provision shall forthwith be submitted to the Folketing". However, when reading the Danish Constitution, it is important to bear in mind that the k''ing'' in this context is understood by Danish jurists to be read as the ''Cabinet of Denmark, government'' (consisting of the Prime Minister of Denmark, prime minister and other ministers). This is a logical consequence of articles 12, 13 and 14, all of which in essence stipulates that the powers vested in the monarch can only be exercised through ministers, who are responsible for all acts. Thus, the Government, in effect, holds the supreme command authority implied in articles 12 and 19(2). The Danish Defence Law ( da, Forsvarsloven) designates in article 9 the Minister of Defence (Denmark), minister of defence as the supreme authority in Danish Defence, Defence ( da, højeste ansvarlige myndighed for forsvaret). Under the minister is the Chief of Defence (Denmark), chief of defence, the senior-ranking professional military officer heading the Defence Command (Denmark), Defence Command, who commands the Royal Danish Army, Army, the Royal Danish Navy, Navy, the Royal Danish Air Force, Air Force and other units not reporting directly to the Ministry of Defence (Denmark), Ministry of Defence.


Dominican Republic

According to the Constitution of the Dominican Republic, Constitution, Article 128, Section II, Title IV, the President of the Dominican Republic, president is the head of foreign policy, the civil administration and the Commander-in-Chief of the Military of the Dominican Republic, Armed Forces, the Dominican National Police, National Police and all other state's security agencies.


Egypt

In Egypt, the President of Egypt, president of the Republic holds the ceremonial title of Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces. A member of the government, usually defence minister, is commander-in-chief of the Egyptian Armed Forces, the incumbent being Mohamed Ahmed Zaki. The president is the only individual capable of declaring war. With the exception of Mohamed Morsi, who briefly served as president from 2012 to 2013, all Egyptian presidents have been former military officers, including the incumbent Abdel Fattah el-Sisi. During the Yom Kippur War, the president played a major role at all levels of the planning of the war, and was, in a literal sense, Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, giving direct orders to the commanders from the headquarters during the war as field marshal of the Egyptian Army, army, marshal of the air force and air defence forces and admiral of the Egyptian Navy, navy. Anwar Sadat often wore his military uniform, while president Hosni Mubarak had abandoned this tradition.


Eswatini

The king of Eswatini is the commander in chief of the Umbutfo Eswatini Defence Force.


Finland

According to the Constitution of Finland, Finnish constitution, the president of Finland is the commander-in-chief of all Military of Finland, Finnish military forces. In practice, the everyday command and control is in the hands of Chief of Defence (Finland), Chief of Defence and the commander of the Finnish Border Guard. The economic administration of the Finnish Defence Force is the responsibility of Ministry of Defence (Finland), Ministry of Defence. The duty of the president is to decide uponLaki puolustusvoimista (551/2007)
(Act on the Defence Forces) Retrieved on 30 August 2015.
* main principles of the military defence of the realm * principles of the execution of the military defence * other military command matters with wide-ranging importance to the military activity or the military establishment * any other military command issue that he wishes to decide upon Since the constitutional reform of 2000, the Minister of Defence (Finland), minister of defence has the right to be present when the president uses his command powers, unless the matter is of immediate concern. In questions of strategic importance, the Prime Minister of Finland, prime minister has the same right. The president commissions and promotes officers and decides on activating reservists for extraordinary service and on the mobilisation of the Defence Forces. If Parliament of Finland, Parliament is not in session when a decision to mobilise is taken, it must be immediately convened. Declarations of a state of emergency ( fi, valmiustila, literally, "state of preparedness") and state of war ( fi, puolustustila, lit. "state of defence") are declared by a presidential decree, given after a motion by the government, which is then submitted to the Parliament for ratification. The president has, in a state of emergency, the right to transfer the position of the commander-in-chief to another Finnish citizen.Suomen perustuslaki. (731/1999, as amended by later amendments)
(Finnish Constitution). Retrieved 30 August 2015.


France

In France, the President of France, President of the Republic is designated as "''Chef des Armées''" (literally "Chief of the Armies") under article 15 of the Constitution of France, Constitution; the officeholder is as such the supreme executive authority in military affairs. Article 16 provides the President with extensive emergency powers.Constitution of 4 October 1958
National Assembly (France), National Assembly of France. Retrieved on 13 May 2013.
However, owing to the nature of the semi-presidential system, the Prime Minister of France, Prime Minister also has key constitutional powers under article 21: "He shall be responsible for national defence" and has "power to make regulations and shall make appointments to civil and military posts".


Pre-1958

Since the reign of Louis XIV, France has been strongly centralised. After crushing local nobles engaged in warlord-ism, the kings of France retained all authority with the help of able yet discreet Prime ministers (Cardinal Mazarin, Mazarin, Cardinal Richelieu, Richelieu). The French Revolution transferred the supreme authority to the King (in the context of the short-lived constitutional monarchy), then to the multi-member ''Committee of Public Safety, Comité de Salut Public'' during the ''National Convention, Convention'', as well as later to the ''French Directory, Directoire'', before being regained in the hands of French Consulate, Consul Napoleon, Napoléon Bonaparte, later First French Empire, Emperor Napoléon I, alone. The ''Bourbon Restoration in France, Restoration'' restored the authority of the King, first in an absolute monarchy, then the constitutional July Monarchy of Louis Philippe I, Louis Philippe, before it was overthrown in turn by the French Second Republic, Second Republic and later the Second French Empire, Second Empire of Napoleon III. The following French Third Republic, Third Republic was a parliamentary system, where the military authority was held by the Prime Minister of France, President of the Council of Ministers, head of government, although the President, head of state, retained ceremonial powers. During World War I, the many visits to the trenches by the elder statesman Georges Clemenceau impressed the soldiers and earned him the nickname ''Father of Victory'' (french: Le Père de la Victoire). During World War II, ''Marshal of France, Maréchal'' Philippe Pétain assumed power and held the supreme authority in Vichy France, while Général Charles de Gaulle, acting on behalf of the previous regime, founded the Free France, Free French Forces, upon which he held supreme authority all through the war. The following and short-lived French Fourth Republic, Fourth Republic was a parliamentary system, which was replaced by the present French Fifth Republic, Fifth Republic, a semi-presidential system.


Ghana

According to the Constitution of Ghana, the president of Ghana is the commander-in-chief of the Ghana Armed Forces.


Guyana

According to the Guyanese constitution, the president is commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces. There is a rank insignia for the position.


India

Supreme command of the Indian Armed Forces is vested in the president of India, although effective executive power and responsibility for national defence resides with the Cabinet of India headed by the Prime Minister of India, prime minister. This is discharged through the Ministry of Defence (India), Ministry of Defence, headed by the Minister of Defence (India), minister of defence, which provides the policy framework and resources to the Armed Forces to discharge their responsibilities in the context of the defence of the country. On 15 August 1947, each service was placed under its own commander-in-chief. In 1955, the three service chiefs were re-designated as the Chief of the Army Staff (India), chief of the Army staff (rank of General (India), general), the Chief of the Naval Staff (India), chief of the naval staff (rank of Vice Admiral, vice admiral) and the Chief of Air Staff (India), chief of the air staff (rank of Air Marshal, Air marshal) with the president as the supreme commander. The chief of the air staff was raised to the rank of Air Chief Marshal (India), air chief marshal in 1965 and the chief of the naval staff raised to the rank of Admiral (India), admiral in 1968. Starting from 1 January 2020, all the three chiefs of staff report to the newly formed Chief of Defence Staff (India), chief of defence staff.


Indonesia

According to article 10 of the Constitution of Indonesia, the president of Indonesia holds the supreme command of the Indonesian National Armed Forces. Day-to-day operations of the Armed Forces is handled by the Commander of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, Commander of the Armed Forces ( id, Panglima TNI), a 4-star officer whom can be a general (Indonesian Army, Army/Indonesian Marine Corps, Marine), an admiral (Indonesian Navy, Navy), or an air chief marshal (Indonesian Air Forces, Air Force). The commander of the Armed Forces is appointed by the president from active chiefs of staff (Chief of Staff of the Indonesian Army, Army, Chief of Staff of the Indonesian Navy, Navy, or Chief of Staff of the Indonesian Air Force, Air Force) and must get approval from the People's Representative Council, House of Representatives. The chief of staff is also appointed by the president from senior military officers. The president as commander-in-chief also has authority in senior military officer mutation and promotion in tour of duty. The Ministry of Defence (Indonesia), minister of defense has responsibility to assist the president in defense issues and create policies about authorization use of military force, manage defense budget, etc. According to article 11 of the Constitution, For authorization use of military forces or declaration of war, the president must get approval from House of Representatives. The commander of Armed Forces gives recommendations to the minister of defense in creating national defense policies.


Iran

Before 1979, the Shah was the commander-in-chief in Iran. After the inception of the Islamic Republic, the president of Iran was initially appointed that task, with Abolhassan Bani Sadr being the first commander-in-chief. However, Abolhassan Bani Sadr was impeached on 22 June 1981. It was after this event that the role of commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran was given to the Supreme Leader of Iran.


Ireland

The supreme commander of the Defence Forces (Ireland), Defence Forces is the president of Ireland, but in practice the Minister for Defence (Ireland), minister for defence acts on the president's behalf and reports to the Government of Ireland. The minister for defence is advised by the Council of Defence on the business of the Department of Defence (Ireland), Department of Defence. The Defence Forces are organised under the chief of staff, a Three-star rank, three star officer, and are organised into three service branches, the Irish Army, Army, Irish Naval Service, Naval Service, and Air Corps (Ireland), Air Corps.


Italy

The Constitution of Italy, in article 87, states that the President of the Italian Republic, president of the Republic: "is the commander of the Italian Armed Forces, armed forces and chairman of the supreme defense council constituted by law; he declares war according to the decision of the Parliament of Italy, parliament".


Kenya

Chapter 131 of the Constitution of Kenya identifies the President of Kenya, president as the commander-in-chief of the Kenya Defence Forces and the chairperson of the National Security Council. The president appoints a Chief of the General Staff (Kenya), chief of general staff, known as the ''Chief of the Kenya Defence Forces'', who acts as the principal military adviser to the president and the National Security Council. The Chief of the Kenya Defence Forces is drawn from one of the branches of the Armed Forces, the Kenya Army, the Kenya Navy or the Kenya Air Force.


Latvia

In accordance with Article 42 of the Constitution of Latvia, the president of Latvia is Commander-in-Chief of the Latvian National Armed Forces. Being a civilian, in times of war, he or she may appoint a chief military commander.


Malaysia

In accordance with Article 41 of the Constitution of Malaysia, Federal Constitution of Malaysia, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is Supreme Commander of the Malaysian Armed Forces. As such, he is the highest-ranking officer in the military establishment, with the power to appoint the Chief of Staff (on the advice of the Malaysian Armed Forces Council, Armed Forces Council). He also appoints the service heads of each of the three branches of the military. The Federal Constitution establishes that the office of Supreme Commander is attached to the person of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong as the Federation's head of state: * Federal Constitution, Article 41 - The Yang di-Pertuan Agong shall be the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of the Federation. The Federal Parliament passed the Federal Armed Forces Act to consolidate in one law all regulations that govern the three services ( Army, Navy, and Air Force ). It establishes the function and duties of the Federal Head of State in the capacity as Supreme Commander.


Mauritius

In the Mauritius, Republic of Mauritius, the President of The Republic of Mauritius, president of the Republic is the commander-in-chief, according to Article 28 of the Constitution of Mauritius, Constitution. After independence in 1968, Mauritius continued to recognise the queen of Mauritius, as represented by the Governor-General of Mauritius, governor-general of Mauritius, as commander-in-chief. After the country was proclaimed a republic within the Commonwealth, Commonwealth Republic in 1992, the new constitution stipulated that a president would assume the position of the
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional ch ...
and commander-in-chief.


Mexico

Section VI of Article 89 of the Constitution of Mexico, Constitution states that the President of Mexico, President of the United Mexican States shall "Preserve national security, in accordance with the respective law, and dispose of the full Mexican Armed Forces, permanent Armed Force, that is to say the Mexican Army, Army, the Mexican Navy, Navy and the Mexican Air Force, Air Force, for the interior security and exterior defense of the Federation". Both the Organic Law of the Mexican Army and Air Force and the Organic Law of the Mexican Navy clearly state the President of the Republic is "Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces". The President is ''ex officio'' the only five-star general of Mexico. The Constitution also grants the President freedom to appoint and remove the Secretariat of the Navy, Secretary of the Navy and the Secretariat of National Defense (Mexico), Secretary of National Defense.


New Zealand

The governor-general of New Zealand serves as the commander-in-chief of New Zealand, and is constitutionally the supreme authority in defence matters in New Zealand. In practice however, the position of commander-in-chief is ceremonial, with the governor-general primarily serving as a "patron of the New Zealand Defence Force". The governor-general exercises his authority as commander-in-chief on the advice of the minister of defence or other mininsters of the New Zealand Government. Clause I of the Letters Patent Constituting the Office of Governor-General of New Zealand, Letter Patents 1983 formally named the office as ''Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief'', although the document does not further enumerate on their role as "commander-in-chief". The governor-general's is also the statutory commander in chief of the New Zealand Defence Force through the ''Defence Act 1990''. Sections five and six of the ''Defence Act 1990'' outlines the governor-general's authority to raise and maintain armed forces.


Nigeria

In accordance with the Constitution of Nigeria, Nigerian Constitution, the president of Nigeria is the commander-in-chief of the Nigerian Armed Forces.


Norway

Harald V, King of Norway, officially retains executive power. Article 25 of the constitution states: "The King is commander-in-chief of the armed forces of the realm" However, following the introduction of a parliamentary system of government, the duties of the Norwegian royal family, Monarch have since become strictly representative and ceremonial, such as the formal appointment and dismissal of the prime minister and other ministers in the executive government. Accordingly, the Monarch is commander-in-chief of the Norwegian Armed Forces, and serves as chief diplomatic official abroad and as a symbol of unity.


Pakistan

In Pakistan, before the Constitution of Pakistan#The Constitution of 1973 -- the existing Constitution, 1973 Constitution, the head of the army, i.e., the Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army, was referred as "Commander-in-Chief". The head of army term was replaced to "Chief of Staff" on 20 March 1972 durning military reforms The chief of staff is a four-star officer whose term is 3 years, but can be extended or renewed once. After 1973 constitution The chief of Army/Air/Naval staff is chosen by the Prime Minister of Pakistan and appointed by the President of Pakistan as commander in chief of Pakistan Armed Forces.


Philippines

The president of the Philippines is both
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional ch ...
and
head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred ...
, and is mandated by Article VII, Section 18 of the 1987 Constitution to be commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, Armed Forces.


Poland

In Poland, the President of Poland, President is Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Armed Forces. However, the art. 134 ust. 4 of the constitution states: During the Interbellum Poland, interbellum period, the General Inspector of the Armed Forces was appointed the commander-in-chief for the time of war (Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces). However, after the war this function ceased to exist—thus it is likely that if Poland formally participates in a war, General Staff of the Polish Army, Chief of the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces will be appointed Supreme Commander.


Portugal

The president of the Portuguese Republic is the constitutional Supreme Commander of the Portuguese Armed Forces, Armed Forces (in Portuguese language, Portuguese: ''Comandante Supremo das Forças Armadas''). However, the operational command is delegated in the General Staff of the Armed Forces (Portugal), Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces. In the Portuguese military parlance, the term "Commander-in-Chief" (in Portuguese: ''comandante-em-chefe'' or simply ''comandante-chefe'') refers to the unified military commander of all the land, naval and air forces in a theater of operations.


Taiwan

As stipulated in the Constitution of the Republic of China, the President of the Republic of China, president is also the commander-in-chief of the Republic of China Armed Forces, ROC Armed Forces (including the Republic of China Military Police, Military Police), the Special Forces, and the National Space Organization.


Russia

According to the Constitution of Russia, Constitution of the Russian Federation, (Chapter 4, Article 87, Section 1) the President of Russia, president is the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Armed Forces. The president approves the military doctrine of Russia, military doctrine and appoints the Ministry of Defence (Russia), defense minister and the Chief of the General Staff (Russia), chief and other members of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, general staff. The Russian Armed Forces is divided into three services: the Russian Ground Forces, the Russian Navy, and the Russian Air Force. In addition there are three independent ''arms of service'': RVSN, Strategic Missile Troops, Russian Aerospace Defense Forces, and the Russian Airborne Troops. The Air Defence Troops, the former Soviet Air Defence Forces, have been subordinated into the Air Force since 1998.


Rwanda

According to the Constitution of Rwanda, The president of Rwanda is the commander-in-chief of Rwandan Defence Forces, Rwanda Defence Forces.


Saudi Arabia

Article 60 of the Basic Law of Saudi Arabia states: "The King is the commander-in-chief of all the Military Forces. He appoints officers and puts an end to their duties in accordance with the law." Article 61 further states: "The King declares a state of emergency, general mobilization and war, and the law defines the rules for this." Lastly, Article 62 states: "If there is a danger threatening the safety of the Kingdom or its territorial integrity, or the security of its people and its interests, or which impedes the functioning of the state institutions, the King may take urgent measures in order to deal with this danger And if the King considers that these measures should continue, he may then implement the necessary regulations to this end."


Serbia

In accordance with the law, the president of Serbia is the commander-in-chief of Armed Forces and in command of the military. He appoints, promotes and recalls officers of the Military of Serbia, Army of Serbia.


Slovenia

In Slovenia, the commander-in-chief is formally the president of Slovenia, although he or she does not exercise this position in peacetime. Instead, this role is usually assumed by the minister of defence.


South Africa

Chapter 11, section 202(1) of the Constitution of South Africa states that the president of South Africa is the commander-in-chief of the South African National Defence Force. The constitution places conditions on when and how that power may be employed and requires regular reports to the Parliament of South Africa.


South Korea

In accordance with the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, the Commander-in-Chief and the Supreme Authority on all military matters is the President of South Korea.


Spain

As with most remaining European monarchies, the position of the Spanish monarch as the nominal head of the armed forces is deeply rooted in traditions going centuries back. The Spanish Constitution of 1978 authorizes the Monarchy of Spain, King in article 62 (h): The king regularly chairs sessions of the National Security Council, the Joint Chiefs of staff and the individual general staffs of each branch of the Armed Forces in his capacity as supreme commander. All promotions to military rank and positions in the high command of the armed forces are made by Royal decree signed by the king and the minister of defense However, article 64 require that all official acts of the King must be countersignature, countersigned, by the President of the Government (Spain), President of the Government or other Ministry of Defence (Spain), competent minister, for them to become valid. This counter/signature is used to limit a possible abuse of power by any single individual. This constitutional provision can and has been made the subject of an exception in crisis situations. In 1981 the king as supreme commander of the armed forces assumed direct command in order to put down a military coup attempt. All members of the government were at that time trapped/held hostage in Parliament and were unable to counter sign the kings orders. This did not however result in those orders being ruled unenforceable or unconstitutional. The coup collapsed after the king ordered all army units to leave the streets and return to their barracks. Furthermore, article 97 stipulates that; No provision in the constitution requires the king/government to seek approval from the Cortes Generales before sending the armed forces abroad.Constitution of Spain 1978
Government of Spain. Retrieved on 9 January 2014.
Since 1984, the Chief of the Defence Staff (Spain), chief of the defence staff is the professional head of the armed forces and, under the authority of the Minister of Defence (Spain), minister of defence, is responsible for military operations and military organisation.


Sri Lanka

As head of state, the president of Sri Lanka, is nominally the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The National Security Council of Sri Lanka, National Security Council, chaired by the president is the authority charged with formulating and executing defence policy for the nation. The highest level of military headquarters is the Ministry of Defence (Sri Lanka), Ministry of Defence, since 1978 except for a few rare occasions the president retained the portfolio defence, thus being the minister of defence. The ministry and the armed forces have been controlled by the during these periods by either a Minister of State, minister of state, Deputy Minister, deputy minister for defence, and of recently the Permanent Secretary, permanent secretary to the Ministry of Defence. Prior to 1978 the Prime Minister of Sri Lanka, prime minister held the portfolio of minister of defence and external affairs, and was supported by a Parliamentary Secretary, parliamentary secretary for defence and external affairs. Responsibility for the management of the forces is Ministry of Defence, while the planning and execution of combined operations is the responsibility of the Joint Operations Command (JOC). The JOC is headed by the Chief of the Defence Staff (Sri Lanka), chief of the defence staff who is the most senior officer in the Armed Forces and is an appointment that can be held by an Air Chief Marshal, air chief marshal, admiral, or general. The three services have their own respective professional chiefs: the Commander of the Army (Sri Lanka), commander of the Army, the Commander of the Navy (Sri Lanka), commander of the Navy and the Commander of the Air Force (Sri Lanka), commander of the Air Force, who have much autonomy.


Suriname

In Suriname, the constitution gives the President of Suriname, president "supreme authority over the armed forces and all of its members".


Thailand

The "Head of the Thai Armed Forces" ( th, จอมทัพไทย; ) is a position vested in the Monarchy of Thailand, Thai monarch, who as sovereign and head of state is the commander-in-chief of the Royal Thai Armed Forces.


Turkey

President of the Republic of Turkey has the constitutional right to represent the Supreme Military Command of the Turkish Armed Forces, on behalf of the Turkish Grand National Assembly, and to decide on the mobilization of the Turkish Armed Forces, to appoint the chief of the general staff, to call the National Security Council (Turkey), National Security Council to meet, to preside over the National Security Council, to proclaim martial law or state of emergency, and to issue decrees having the force of law, upon a decision of the Council of Ministers meeting under his/her chairmanship. With all these issues above written in the Constitution of Turkey, the executive rights are given to the president of the Republic of Turkey to be represented as the commander-in-chief of the nation.


United Kingdom

The Monarchy of the United Kingdom, British monarch is the "Head of the British Armed Forces" and has also been described as "Commander-in-Chief of the British Armed Forces". The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, prime minister (acting with the support of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom, Cabinet) makes the key decisions on the ''use'' of the armed forces. The queen, however, remains the "ultimate authority" of the military, with officers and personnel swearing allegiance only to the monarch. The term is also used for the military commander-in-chief of a ''command'' (a region of military authority, sometimes combined with the civil office of Governor#British Empire and Commonwealth Realm, Governor of a colony (now called a British Overseas Territory)), and for the naval commander-in-chief of a ''station'' of the Royal Navy, such as the North America and West Indies Station.


United States

According to Article Two of the United States Constitution#Clause_1:_Command_of_military;_Opinions_of_cabinet_secretaries;_Pardons, Article II, Section 2, Clause I of the Constitution, the president of the United States is “Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States.” Since the National Security Act of 1947, this has been understood to mean all United States Armed Forces. U.S. ranks have their roots in British military traditions, with the president possessing ultimate authority, but no rank, maintaining a civilian status. The exact degree of authority that the Constitution grants to the president as commander-in-chief has been the subject of much debate throughout history, with Congress at various times granting the president wide authority and at others attempting to restrict that authority.


U.S. states

In U.S. states, the Governor (United States), governor also serves as the commander-in-chief of the National Guard of the United States, National Guard, State Militia, and State Defense Forces. In the Commonwealth of Kentucky, for example, Kentucky Revised Statutes, KRS 37.180 states: Similarly, Section 140 of Article 2 of the California Military and Veterans Code states:


Uzbekistan

The President of Uzbekistan, Uzbek president holds the constitutional position of Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of Uzbekistan, according to the Constitution of Uzbekistan. In this capacity, the president give decisions on declaring war or martial law, the appointment of senior officials, and the development of the armed forces. In the event of an attack on the republic, the president announce a state of war and will submit within 72 hours a resolution for a plan of action to the Oliy Majlis. When the country is in a wartime situation, the Ministry of Defense (Uzbekistan), minister of defense will serve in an official capacity as the deputy supreme commander-in-chief of the armed forces, essentially assisting the president in his day-to-day activities and decisions regarding national security.


Venezuela

According to the Venezuelan constitution, the president is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces. The office of the Venezuelan military supreme commander in chief has always been held by the president of Venezuela as per constitutional requirements. However, with a new law sanctioned in 2008, the "comandante en jefe" rank is not only a function attributed to the executive branch but a full military rank given to the president upon taking office. Upon assumption he receives a saber, epaulette, shoulder knot, shoulder board and sleeve insignia and full military uniform to be used in military events while performing the duties as president. The shoulder insignia mirrors Cuban practice but is derived from the German-styled officer rank insignia.


Vietnam

The commander-in-chief of the armed forces is the president of Vietnam, through his post as chairman of National Defense and Security Council. Though this position is nominal and real power is assumed by the Central Military Commission (Vietnam), Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of Vietnam. The secretary of Central Military Commission (usually the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam, general secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam) is the ''de facto'' commander. The Ministry of Defence (Vietnam), minister of Defence oversees operations of the Ministry of Defence, and the Vietnam People's Army. He also oversees such agencies as the General Staff (Vietnam People's Army), General Staff and the General Logistics Department. However, military policy is ultimately directed by the Central Military Commission of the ruling Communist Party of Vietnam.


Other officeholders as commanders-in-chief or other situations


Ethiopia

The 1995 Constitution of Ethiopia, 1995 Constitution designates the Prime Minister of Ethiopia, prime minister of Ethiopia as "Commander-in-Chief of the Ethiopian National Defense Force, national armed forces" in Article 74(1).


Germany


Present, Federal Republic (1956-)

Upon the re-militarization of West Germany in 1955, when it joined NATO, the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany was amended in 1956 to include constitutional provisions for the command of the armed forces. * In peacetime, under Article 65a, the Federal Minister of Defence (Germany), federal minister of defence () holds the supreme command authority () over the Bundeswehr.Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany
Bundestag (Print version. As at: October 2010). Retrieved on 21 August 2013.
* If the Bundestag declares the State of Defence (Germany), state of defence (), the Chancellor of Germany (Federal Republic), Federal Chancellor, under Article 115b, assumes the command authority over the armed forces. , this has never happened. * The president of Germany has thus no role in the command of the forces, although he continues to receive the ceremonial honors due to his position as a
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional ch ...
. The rationale for placing the command authority over the armed forces directly with the responsible minister in charge of the military establishment, and thus breaking with the longstanding German constitutional tradition in both earlier monarchical and republican systems of placing it with the
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional ch ...
, was that in a Democracy, democratic
parliamentary system A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' an ...
the command authority should directly reside where it would be exercised and where it is subject to the parliamentary control of the Bundestag at all times. By assigning it directly to the responsible minister, instead of with the Federal Chancellor, this also meant that military affairs is but one of the many integrated responsibilities of the Cabinet of Germany, government; in stark contrast of earlier times when the separate division of the military establishment from the civil administration allowed the former to act as a state within a state (in contrast to the Federal Republic, the Weimar Republic began with the Ebert–Groener pact, which kept the military establishment as an autonomous force outside the control of politics; the 1925 German presidential election, 1925 election of Paul von Hindenburg as ''President of Germany (1919–1945), Reichpräsident'', surrounded by his camarilla and the machinations of Kurt von Schleicher, did little to reverse the trend).


East Germany (1960-1990)

The
legislature A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure i ...
of the German Democratic Republic (GDR), the ''Volkskammer'', enacted on 13 February 1960 the ''Law on the Formation of the National Defense Council of the GDR'', which established a council consisting of a chairman and at least 12 members. This was later incorporated into the Constitution of the German Democratic Republic, GDR Constitution in April 1968. The National Defense Council of the GDR, National Defense Council held the supreme command of the National People's Army (including the internal security forces), and the council's chairman (usually the Socialist Unity Party of Germany#General Secretaries of the Central Committee of the SED, General Secretary of the ruling Socialist Unity Party of Germany, Socialist Unity Party) was considered the GDR's commander-in-chief. The GDR joined with the Federal Republic of Germany on German Unity Day, 3 October 1990, upon which the GDR's constitution and armed forces were abolished.


Before 1945

During the Kingdom of Prussia, German Empire, Weimar Republic and the Nazi Germany, Nazi era, whoever was the
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional ch ...
—the king of Prussia/German Emperor, German emperor (under the Constitution of Prussia (1850), Constitution of the Kingdom of Prussia/Constitution of the German Empire) to 1918, the President of Germany (1919–1945), Reichspräsident (under the Weimar Constitution) to 1934, and the führer from 1934 to 1945—was the head of the Armed Forces (german: Oberbefehlshaber: literally "Possessor of highest command"). Below the level of the head of state, each
military branch Military branch (also service branch or armed service) is according to common standard a subdivision of the national armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily int ...
(german: Teilstreitkraft) had its own head who reported directly to the head of state and held the highest rank in his service; in the Reichsheer - Generalfeldmarschall, and in the Reichsmarine - Großadmiral, Grossadmiral. After Chancellor Adolf Hitler assumed power as ''Führer''Gesetz über das Staatsoberhaupt des Deutschen Reichs
1 August 1934:
"§ 1 The office of the Reichspräsident is merged with that of the Reichskanzler. Therefore, the previous rights of the Reichspräsident pass over to the Führer and Reichskanzler Adolf Hitler. He names his deputy."
(after the death of President Paul von Hindenburg), he would later grant his war minister, Generalfeldmarschall Werner von Blomberg, the title of Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces in 1935, when conscription was reintroduced. However, in 1938 due to the Blomberg–Fritsch Affair, Hitler withdrew the commander-in-chief title, abolished the war ministerial post and assumed personal command of the Armed Forces. The war ministerial post was de facto overtaken by the ''Oberkommando der Wehrmacht'', which was headed by Generalfeldmarschall Wilhelm Keitel until the German Instrument of Surrender, German surrender.


Greece

According to Article 45 of the Constitution of Greece, Greek Constitution, the president is the head of the Greek Armed Forces, but their administration is exercised by the Government of Greece, government. The Prime Minister of Greece, prime minister, the Minister for National Defence (Greece), minister for national defence and the Hellenic National Defence General Staff, chief of the general staff are the ones who command the Greek Armed Forces, Armed Forces.


Israel

In Israel, the Basic Laws of Israel, applicable basic law states that the ultimate authority over the Israel Defense Forces rests with the Cabinet of Israel, Government of Israel (chaired by the Prime Minister of Israel, prime minister) as a collective body. The authority of the government is exercised by the Ministry of Defense (Israel), minister of defense on behalf of the Government. However, the commander-in-chief of the IDF is the Chief of General Staff (Israel), chief of general staff who, despite being subordinate to the minister of defense, holds the highest level of command within the military.Basic Law of Israel: The Military
Knesset. Retrieved on 11 November 2011.


Japan

In Japan, prior to the Meiji Restoration the role of the commander-in-chief was vested in the ''shōgun'' (the most militarily powerful samurai ''daimyō''). After the dissolution of the Tokugawa shogunate the role of the commander-in-chief, resided with the emperor of Japan. The present-day Constitution of Japan, constitutional role of the emperor is that of a ceremonial figurehead (Japanese Constitution calls it symbol) without any military role. After Japan's move towards democracy, the position of commander-in-chief of the Japan Self-Defense Forces is held by the Prime Minister of Japan, prime minister of Japan. Military authority runs from the prime minister to the cabinet-level Minister of Defense (Japan), minister of defense of the Ministry of Defense (Japan), Japanese Ministry of Defense.


Malta

The Malta Armed Forces Act does not directly establish the president of Malta as the supreme commander of the Armed Forces. However, Maltese law allows the president to raise by voluntary enlistment and maintain an armed force. Likewise, the law allows the president to issue orders in order to the administrate the armed forces. It is important to note that the Armed Forces do not swear allegiance to the president of Malta but rather to the Malta, Republic of Malta. On this basis, there is no direct link between the head of state and the armed forces. For this reason, this link is mediated by the minister responsible for defence. Nonetheless, the Presidential Palaces are guarded by the Armed Forces as a symbolic gesture of social cohesion.


Myanmar

In Myanmar, the Commander-in-Chief of Defence Services (Tatmadaw) is the commanding officer national military, a position vested in a military officer, not the President of Myanmar, president. The commander-in-chief is, however, a member of the National Defence and Security Council and reports to the president. The commander-in-chief is assisted in his/her role by the Deputy Commander-in-Chief of Defence Services.


Netherlands

The Constitution of the Netherlands states, in article 97, that "''the Government shall have supreme authority over the Armed forces of the Netherlands, armed forces''". Article 42 defines the Cabinet of the Netherlands, Government as the Monarchy of the Netherlands, Monarch and the ministers, and that only ministers are responsible for acts of government. Article 45 further defines the ministers as constituting the Council of Ministers of the Netherlands, Cabinet, chaired by the Prime Minister of the Netherlands, prime minister, with "authority to decide upon overall government policy". Before a constitution change took place in 1983, even though the equivalent section stated that: "''The King shall have supreme authority over the armed forces''"; that did not give the monarch any autonomous command authority. The Minister of Defence (Netherlands), minister of defence has the primary ministerial responsibility for the armed forces, which are formally a part of the Ministry of Defence (Netherlands), Ministry of Defence. The Chief of Defence (Netherlands), chief of defence is the highest ranked professional military officer, and serves as an intermediary between the minister of defence and the Armed Forces, and is responsible to the minister for military-strategic planning, operations and deployment of the Armed Forces.


North Korea

* Is it the Eternal President of the Republic, eternal president of the republic, the late Kim Il-sung, designated as such in the preamble; * is it the president of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly, who under article 117 of the constitution directs the work of the presidium, represents the state, and accredits North Korean diplomats and receives credentials from foreign diplomats; * or is it the chairman of the National Defence Commission who in article 100 is described as the "highest military leading organ of State power and an organ for general control over national defense of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea"? In any case, the North Korean constitution, in article 102, is quite explicit regarding which official commands the armed forces: The chairman is formally elected by the Supreme People's Assembly (article 91:5) and serves for terms of office of five years (articles 101 & 90:1); but in practice, the office is hereditary within the Kim dynasty (North Korea), Kim Dynasty, as the late Kim Jong-il was posthumously designated as the "eternal chairman of the National Defence Commission", while his son, Kim Jong-un, was appointed as the "first chairman of the National Defence Commission".


Sweden

In Sweden, with the Ordinance of Alsnö in 1280, Swedish nobility, nobles were exempted from land taxation if they provided cavalrymen to the king's service. Following the Swedish War of Liberation (1521–53) from the Kalmar Union, a Svea Life Guards, Guards Regiment was formed under the King and from there the modern Swedish Army has its roots. During the age of the Swedish Empire, several kings—Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, Gustavus Adolphus, Charles X of Sweden, Charles X, Charles XI of Sweden, Charles XI & Charles XII of Sweden, Charles XII—personally led their forces into battle. Under the Instrument of Government (1809), Instrument of Government of 1809, which was in force until the current Constitution of Sweden, Instrument of Government of 1974 went into force on 1 January 1975; the Monarch of Sweden, monarch was in §§ 14-15 explicitly designated as the commander-in-chief of the Swedish Armed Forces ( sv, Högste befälhavare). At present, the Government of Sweden, Government ( sv, Regeringen) as a collective body, chaired and formed by the Prime Minister of Sweden, prime minister of Sweden, holds the highest Executive (government), Executive Authority, subject to the will of the Riksdag of Sweden, Riksdag; and is thus the present day closest equivalent of a command-in-chief, although not explicitly designated as such. The reason for this change was, apart from the fact that the king was since 1917 no longer expected to make political decisions without ministerial advice, that the new Instrument of Government was intended to be made as descriptive on the workings of the State as possible, and reflective on how decisions are actually made. Minister of Justice (Sweden), Minister of Justice Lennart Geijer further remarked in the government bill that any continued pretensions of royal involvement in government decisions would be of a "fictitious nature" and "highly unsatisfactory". Certain government decisions regarding the Armed Forces ( sv, Särskilda regeringsbeslut) may be delegated to the Minister for Defence (Sweden), minister for defence, under the supervision of the prime minister and to the extent laid down in ordinances. To add to some confusion to the above, the title of the agency head of the Swedish Armed Forces and highest ranked commissioned officer on active duty, is actually the Supreme Commander of the Swedish Armed Forces, supreme commander of the Swedish Armed Forces ( sv, Överbefälhavaren). However, the Monarch (as of present Carl XVI Gustaf, King Carl XVI Gustaf), is still a four-star general and admiral ''à la suite'' in the Swedish Army, Swedish Navy, Navy and Swedish Air Force, Air Force and is by unwritten convention regarded as the foremost representative of the Swedish Armed Forces. The king has, as part of his Royal Household, court, a Staff (military), military staff. The military staff is headed by a senior officer (usually a general or admiral, retired from active service) and is composed of active duty military officers serving as Aide-de-camp, aides to the king and his family.


Switzerland

Supreme authority over the military belongs to the Swiss Federal Council, Federal Council, which is the Swiss collegial
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional ch ...
. Notwithstanding the previous sentence, under the Constitution of Switzerland, Constitution, the Federal Council can only, in the operational sense, command a maximum of 4,000 soldiers, with a time limit of three weeks of mobilisation. For it to field more service personnel, the Federal Assembly of Switzerland, Federal Assembly must elect a General (Switzerland), General who is given four stars. Thus, the General is elected by the Federal Assembly to give him the same democratic legitimacy as the Federal Council. In peacetime, the Swiss Armed Forces, Armed Forces are led by the Chief of the Armed Forces (Switzerland), Chief of the Armed Forces (''Chef der Armee''), who reports to the head of the Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sports and to the Federal Council as a whole. The Chief of the Armed Forces has the rank of ''Korpskommandant'' or ''Commandant de corps'' (Ranks and insignia of NATO armies officers, OF-8 in NATO equivalence). In a time of declared war or national emergency, however, the Federal Assembly of Switzerland, Federal Assembly, assembled as the United Federal Assembly, specifically for the purpose of taking on the Theater (warfare), war-time responsibilities elect a General (Switzerland), General as commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces under Article 168 of the Constitution. Whilst the General acts as the highest military authority with a high degree of autonomy, he is still subordinate to the Federal Council (See Articles 58, 60, 174, 177, 180 & 185). The Federal Assembly retains the sole power to dismiss the General, but the General remains subordinate to the Federal Council by the council's ability to demobilise, thereby making the position of General redundant. Four generals were appointed in Swiss history, General Henri Dufour during the Sonderbund, Swiss Civil War, General Hans Herzog during the Franco-Prussian War, General Ulrich Wille during the First World War, and General Henri Guisan during the Second World War ("''la Mob''", "the Mobilisation"). Although Switzerland remained neutral during the latter three conflicts, the threat of having its territory used as a battlefield by the much bigger war parties of Germany and France required mobilization of the army.


See also

Within NATO and the European Union, the term Chief of Defence (CHOD) is usually used as a generic term for the highest-ranked office held by a professional military officer on active duty, irrespective of their actual title or powers.NATO Chiefs of Defence
Retrieved on 12 May 2013.
Other Articles of Interest * Caesarism * Civilian control of the military * Command and control * Commanding officer *
Generalissimo ''Generalissimo'' ( ) is a Highest military ranks, military rank of the highest degree, superior to field marshal and other five-star ranks in the states where they are used. Usage The word (), an Italian language, Italian term, is the superla ...
* Militarism * Military junta * Minister of Defence * Praetorianism * State within a state * Strongman (politics) * Supreme Commander (disambiguation), Supreme Commander * Warlord * Magister militum


Notes


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Commander-In-Chief Commanders in chief, Military organization Military sociology Military ranks