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A commander-in-chief or supreme commander is the person who exercises supreme
command and control Image:CIC-USS-CarlVinson-2001.jpg, A watchstander at her station in the combat information center of USS Carl Vinson, USS ''Carl Vinson'' in the year 2001. Command and control is a "set of organizational and technical attributes and processes ... ...
over
armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, with its members identifiable by their distinct m ...
or a
military branch Military branch (also service branch or armed service) is according to common standard the subdivision of the national armed forces of a sovereign nation or state. Types of branches Unified forces The Canadian Armed Forces is the unified a ...
. As a technical term, it refers to military competencies that reside in a country's executive leadership, a
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 "
he head of state He or HE may refer to: Language * He (pronoun) In Modern English, ''he'' is a Grammatical number, singular, Grammatical gender, masculine, Grammatical person, third-person personal pronoun, pronoun. Morphology In Standard English, Standard M ...
being an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of its international perso ...
or a
head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region, or other government who often presides over a cabinet (gover ...
.


Definition

The formal role and title of a ruler commanding the armed forces derives from ''
Imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as a title roughly equivalent to ''commander'' under the Roman Republic. Later it became a part of t ...

Imperator
'' of the
Roman Kingdom The Roman Kingdom, also referred to as the Roman monarchy, or the regal period of ancient Rome, was the earliest period of Ancient Rome, Roman history, when the city and its territory were ruled by kings. Little is certain about the kingdom's ...
,
Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the ancient Rome, classical Roman civilization, run through res publica, public Representation (politics), representation of the Roman people. Beginning with the Overthrow of the ...
and
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Roman Republic, Republican period of ancient Rome. As a polity it included large territorial holdings aro ...

Roman Empire
, who possessed ''imperium'' (command and other regal) powers. In English use, the term first applied to
King Charles I of England Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. ...

King Charles I of England
in 1639. It continued to be used during the
English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country A country is a distinct territory, ...
. A nation's
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 "
he head of state He or HE may refer to: Language * He (pronoun) In Modern English, ''he'' is a Grammatical number, singular, Grammatical gender, masculine, Grammatical person, third-person personal pronoun, pronoun. Morphology In Standard English, Standard M ...
being an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of its international perso ...
(monarchical or republican) usually holds the nominal position of commander-in-chief, even if effective executive power is held by a separate
head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region, or other government who often presides over a cabinet (gover ...
. In a
parliamentary system A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ...
, the
executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (polity), state. The executive executes and enforces law. In political systems based on the princi ...
is ultimately dependent upon the will of the
legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. They are often contrasted with the Executive (government), executive and Judiciary, ...
; although the legislature does not issue orders directly to the armed forces and therefore does not control the military in any operational sense. Governors-general and colonial governors are also often appointed commander-in-chief of the military forces within their territory. A commander-in-chief is sometimes referred to as ''supreme commander'', which is sometimes used as a specific term. The term is also used for military officers who hold such power and authority, not always through dictatorship, and as a subordinate (usually) to a head of state (see
Generalissimo ''Generalissimo'' ( ) is a military rank of the highest degree, superior to field marshal Field marshal (or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is the most senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer ranks. Usually it is the ...
). The term is also used for officers who hold authority over an individual
military branch Military branch (also service branch or armed service) is according to common standard the subdivision of the national armed forces of a sovereign nation or state. Types of branches Unified forces The Canadian Armed Forces is the unified a ...
,
special branch Special Branch is a label customarily used to identify units responsible for matters of national security and intelligence in British, Commonwealth, Irish, and other police forces. A Special Branch unit acquires and develops intelligence, us ...
or within a
theatre of operations In war War is an intense armed conflict between states, government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative def ...
.


Heads of state as commanders-in-chief

This includes heads of states who: * Are chief executives with the political mandate to undertake discretionary decision-making, including command of the armed forces. * Mostly ceremonial heads of state (constitutional monarchs, viceroys and presidents in parliamentary republics) with residual substantive reserve powers over the armed forces, acting under normal circumstances on the constitutional advice of chief executives with the political mandate to undertake discretionary decision-making.


Albania

According to the
Constitution of Albania The present Constitution of Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It is located on the Adriatic Sea, Adriat ...
, the president of the Republic of Albania is the commander-in-chief of
Albanian Armed Forces The Albanian Armed Forces ( sq, Forcat e Armatosura të Republikës së Shqipërisë (FARSH)) are the military of Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a cou ...
.


Argentina

Under part II, chapter III, article 99, subsections 12, 13, 14 and 15, the
Constitution of Argentina The Constitution of the Argentine Nation ( es, Constitución de la Nación Argentina) is the basic governing document of Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located most ...
states that the president of the Argentine Nation is the "Commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of the Nation". It also states that the president is entitled to provide military posts in the granting of the jobs or grades of senior officers of the armed forces, and by itself on the battlefield; runs with its organization and distribution according to needs of the Nation and declares war and orders reprisals with the consent and approval of the
Argentine National Congress The Congress of the Argentine Nation ( es, Congreso de la Nación Argentina) is the legislative branch of the government of Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located ...

Argentine National Congress
. The
Ministry of Defense {{unsourced, date=February 2021 A ministry of defence or defense (see spelling differences), also known as a department of defence or defense, is an often-used name for the part of a government A government is the system or group of pe ...
is the government department that assists and serves the president in the management of the armed forces (
Army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land-based military branch, service branch ...
,
Navy A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a Nation's armed forces principally designated for naval warfare, naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riverine, littoral zone, littoral, or ocean-borne combat operations and ...
and Air Force).


Armenia

The
prime minister of Armenia The prime minister of Armenia is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region, or ...
holds the title of Supreme Commander in Chief of the
Armenian Armed Forces The Armed Forces of Armenia ( hy, Հայաստանի զինված ուժեր), sometimes referred to as the Armenian Army ( hy, Հայկական բանակ, Haykakan Banak), is the national military of the Republic of Armenia. It is comprised per ...
(). The hereditary title and rank of ''
Sparapet ''Sparapet'' ( hy, սպարապետ) was a hereditary title of supreme commander of the armed forces in ancient and medieval Armenia Armenia (; hy, Հայաստան, translit=Hayastan, ), officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocke ...
( hy, սպարապետ) was a used to describe the supreme commander of the military forces of ancient and medieval
Armenia Armenia,, officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocked country located in the Armenian Highlands of Western Asia.The UN]classification of world regions places Armenia in Western Asia; the Central Intelligence Agency, CIA The World ...
. Since its introduction in the 2nd century BC, it is often used today to describe famous and high-ranking military officials. Notable Armenians to have held the title include
Garegin Nzhdeh Garegin Ter-Harutyunyan ( hy, Գարեգին Տէր Յարութիւնեան) better known by his '' nom de guerre'' Garegin Nzhdeh ( hy, Գարեգին Նժդեհ, ; 1 January 1886 – 21 December 1955), was an Armenian statesman and military ...

Garegin Nzhdeh
, the supreme commander of the
Republic of Mountainous Armenia A republic ( la, res publica ''Res publica'' (also spelt as ''rēs pūblica'' to indicate vowel length In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived length of a vowel sound: the corresponding physical measurement is length (phonetics), du ...
. and
Vazgen Sargsyan Vazgen Zaveni Sargsyan ( hy, Վազգեն Զավենի Սարգսյան, ; 5 March 1959 – 27 October 1999) was an Armenian military commander and politician. He was the first Defence Minister of Armenia from 1991 to 1992 and then from 19 ...

Vazgen Sargsyan
, the two-time
defense minister of Armenia The Defence Minister of the Republic of Armenia () is the head of the Ministry of Defence {{unsourced, date=February 2021 A ministry of defence or defense (see spelling differences), also known as a department of defence or defense, is an often-u ...
and prime minister in the 1990s.


Australia

Under chapter II of section 68 titled ''Command of the naval and military forces'', the
Constitution of Australia The Constitution of Australia (or Australian Constitution) is a written constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it i ...

Constitution of Australia
states that: In practice, however, the Governor-General does not play an active part in the
Australian Defence Force Australians, colloquially referred to as "Aussies", are the citizens Citizenship is the Status (law), status of a person recognized under the law of a country (and/or local jurisdiction) of belonging to thereof. In international law it i ...
's command structure, and the democratically accountable Australian Cabinet (chaired by the Prime Minister) ''de facto'' controls the ADF. The Minister for Defence and several subordinate ministers exercise this control through the
Australian Defence Organisation The Australian Defence Organisation (ADO), also known as simply Defence, is an Australian Government organisation that consists of both the Australian Defence Force (ADF) and the Department of Defence (DoD). The ADO's collective aims are to " ...
. Section 8 of the Defence Act 1903 states:


Austria


Bangladesh

The commander-in-chief of
Bangladesh Armed Forces The Bangladesh Armed Forces ( bn, বাংলাদেশ সশস্ত্র বাহিনী, Bangladesh Shoshostro Bahinī) consists of the three uniformed military services of Bangladesh: the Bangladesh Army, the Bangladesh Navy and th ...
is the
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
, although executive power and responsibility for national defense resides with the prime minister. This is discharged through the
Ministry of DefenceMinistry of Defence or Ministry of Defense may refer to: * Ministry of defence, a type of government department responsible for matters of defence Current ministries * Ministry of Defense (Afghanistan) * Ministry of Defence (Albania) * Ministry ...
, headed by the minister of defence, which provides the policy framework and resources to the Armed Forces to discharge their responsibilities in the context of the defence of the country. The only exception was the first commander-in-chief, General M. A. G. Osmani, during
Bangladesh Liberation War The Bangladesh Liberation War ( bn, মুক্তিযুদ্ধ, ), also known as the Bangladesh War of Independence, or simply the Liberation War in Bangladesh, was a revolution and War, armed conflict sparked by the rise of the Benga ...
in 1971, who was commander of all
Bangladesh Forces The Mukti Bahini ( bn, মুক্তিবাহিনী, translates as 'freedom fighters', or liberation army), also known as the Bangladesh Forces, was the guerrilla resistance movement A resistance movement is an organized effort by some p ...
, reinstated to active duty by official BD government order, which after independence was gazetted in 1972. He retired on 7 April 1972 and relinquished all authority and duties to the president of Bangladesh.


Belarus

The
president of Belarus The president of the Republic of Belarus ( be, Прэзідэнт Рэспублікі Беларусь, russian: Президент Республики Беларусь) is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the pub ...
is the Commander-in-Chief of the
Belarusian Armed Forces The Armed Forces of the Republic of Belarus (, ''Uzbrojenyja siły Respubliki Biełaruś S RB', , ''Vooruzhennye sily Respubliki Belarus'') consist of the Ground Forces and the Belarusian Air Force, Air and Air Defence Forces, all under the co ...
(). The Belarusian commander in chief has an official uniform befitting of the rank, which the president wears on official occasion and ceremonies in relation to the military. The role of commander in chief is laid out in Article 28 of the
Constitution of Belarus The Constitution of the Republic of Belarus ( be, Канстытуцыя Рэспублікі Беларусь, russian: Конституция Республики Беларусь) is the ultimate law of Belarus. Adopted in 1994, three years aft ...

Constitution of Belarus
, which states that he/she has the authority to "appoint and dismiss the high command of the Armed Forces".


Belgium

Article 167 of the
Constitution of Belgium The Constitution of Belgium ( nl, Belgische Grondwet, french: Constitution belge, german: Verfassung Belgiens) dates back to 1831. Since then Belgium Belgium ( nl, België ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien ), officially the Kingdom of Be ...
designates the
king of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg">Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen ...
as the commander-in-chief. In practice, the Chief of Defence is the head and commander of the
Belgian Armed Forces french: La Défense belgegerman: Belgische Streitkräfte , image = Coats of arms of Belgium Military Forces.svg , alt = , caption = Emblem of the Belgian Armed Forces , image2 = , alt2 ...
. He reports directly to the
Minister of Defence A defence minister or minister of defence is a cabinet official position in charge of a ministry of defense, which regulates the armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force ...
and is responsible for advising the Minister, for the implementation of defence policy and for the administration of the department.


Bosnia and Herzegovina

According to the
Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina The Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian: ''Ustav Bosne i Hercegovine'' / Устав Босне и Херцеговине) is the highest legal document of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abb ...
, the collective
Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina The Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Serbo-Croatian Serbo-Croatian () – also called Serbo-Croat (), Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), and Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS) – is a South Slavic langu ...
is the commander-in-chief of the
Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina The Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina (OSBiH; ''Oružane snage Bosne i Hercegovine'' / Оружане снаге Босне и Херцеговине, ОСБИХ) is the official military A military, also known collectively as armed ...
. In peace, the commander-in-chief exercises his command through the
minister of defence A defence minister or minister of defence is a cabinet official position in charge of a ministry of defense, which regulates the armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force ...
. In war and in cases where the minister of defence is not fulfilling orders, the commander-in-chief exercises his command directly through the Chief of Joint Staff.


Brazil

Article 142 of the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 states that the
Brazilian Armed Forces The Brazilian Armed Forces ( pt, Forças Armadas Brasileiras, ) is the unified military organization comprising the Brazilian Army (including the Brazilian Army Aviation Command, Brazilian Army Aviation), the Brazilian Navy (including the Brazil ...
is under the supreme command of the
president of the Republic The President of the Republic is a title used for heads of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of statebeing an embodiment of the State itself or r ...
.


Brunei

The
Sultan of Brunei The Sultan of Brunei is the monarchial head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of statebeing an embodiment of the Stat ...
is the commander-in-chief of the
Royal Brunei Armed Forces The Royal Brunei Armed Forces (RBAF; ms, Angkatan Bersenjata Diraja Brunei, ''ABDB'') are the military forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare ...
.


Canada

The powers of command-in-chief over the
Canadian Armed Forces The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF; french: Forces armées canadiennes; ''FAC'') is the unified military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typ ...
are vested in the
Canadian monarch The monarchy of Canada is at the core of Canada's constitutional Canadian federalism, federal structure and Westminster system, Westminster-style Parliamentary system, parliamentary democracy. The monarchy is the foundation of the Executive (gover ...
, and are delegated to the
governor general of Canada The governor general of Canada (french: le gouverneur général du Canada) is the federal viceregal representative of the . The , as a political sovereign, is shared equally with the 15 other Commonwealth realms and the Provinces and territorie ...
, who also uses the title ''Commander-in-Chief''. In this capacity, the Governor General is entitled to the uniform of a general/flag officer, with the crest of the office and special cuff braid serving as rank insignia. By constitutional convention, the Crown’s prerogative powers over the armed forces and constitutional powers as commander-in-chief are exercised on the advice of the prime minister and the rest of
Cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent glass sheets or transparent polycarbonate sheets * Filing ...
, the governing ministry that commands the confidence of the
House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house of the bicameral parliaments of the United Kingdom and Canada. In the UK and Canada, the Commons holds much more legislative power than the nominally upper house of parliament. The lead ...
. According to the
National Defence Act The ''National Defence Act'' (NDA; French: ''Loi sur la défense nationale''; ''LDN'') is the primary enabling legislation for organizing and funding Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territ ...
, the Minister of National Defence is responsible and accountable to the
Parliament of Canada The Parliament of Canada (french: Parlement du Canada) is the Canadian federalism, federal legislature of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, and is composed of three parts: the Monarch, the Senate of Canada, Senate, and the House of Co ...

Parliament of Canada
for all matters related to national defence and the Canadian Armed Forces. In theory, the governor general could use his or her powers as commander-in-chief to stop any attempts to use the Canadian Forces unconstitutionally, though this has never occurred and would likely be highly controversial.


China

Article 93 of the
Constitution of the People's Republic of China The Constitution of the People's Republic of China is nominally the supreme law of the People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and depen ...
states the authority to direct the
Central Military Commission A Central Military Commission or National Defense Commission is an organization typical of socialist Socialism is a Political philosophy, political, Social philosophy, social, and economic philosophy encompassing a range of Economic systems, ...
(CMC) of the
Chinese Communist Party ) , anthem = "The Internationale" , seats1_title = National People's Congress (13th National People's Congress, 13th) , seats1 = , seats2_title = Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, NPC Standing ...
(CCP) and the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China is vested with the Central Military Commission; composed of a Chairman, and numerous Vice-Chairmen and members. The same article also states that the Chairman of the Central Military Commission assumes overall responsibility for the work of the Central Military Commission, as Supreme Military Commander, and that it is responsible to the
National People's Congress The National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China (), often referred to as the National People's Congress (NPC) (), is the highest organ of state power and the national legislature of the People's Republic of China ...
and the
Standing Committee A committee or commission is a body of one or more persons that is subordinate to a deliberative assembly. Usually, the assembly sends matters into a committee as a way to explore them more fully than would be possible if the assembly itself were ...
. Furthermore, Article 80 gives the
president of the People's Republic of China The President of the People's Republic of China, is the ceremonial A ceremony (, ) is a unified ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, performed in a sequestered place and according to ...
(in addition to ceremonial
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 "
he head of state He or HE may refer to: Language * He (pronoun) In Modern English, ''he'' is a Grammatical number, singular, Grammatical gender, masculine, Grammatical person, third-person personal pronoun, pronoun. Morphology In Standard English, Standard M ...
being an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of its international perso ...
duties) the power to proclaim martial law, proclaim a state of war, and to issue mobilisation orders upon the decision of National People's Congress and its Standing Committee. The CMC Chairman and the president are distinctly separate state offices and they have not always been held by the same persons. However, beginning in 1993, during the tenure of
Jiang Zemin Jiang Zemin (; ; born 17 August 1926) is a Chinese politician who served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, General Secretary of the Communist Party from 1989 to 2002, as Chairman of the Central Military Commission (China) ...

Jiang Zemin
as CMC Chairman and
General Secretary of the Communist Party General Secretary or First Secretary is the official title of leaders of most Communist political parties. When a Communist party is the ruling party in a Communist-led one-party state A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or ...
, it has been standard practice to have the president, the CMC chairman, and the CCP general secretary to be normally held by the same person; although the slight differences in the start and end of terms for those respective offices means that there is some overlap between an occupant and his predecessor.


Hong Kong

When
Hong Kong Hong Kong (, ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR) (), is a metropolitan area and Special administrative regions of China, special administrative region of the China, People's Repu ...

Hong Kong
was under British authority, the civilian governor was the ''ex officio'' commander-in-chief of the
British Forces Overseas Hong Kong British Forces Overseas Hong Kong comprised the elements of the British Army The British Army is the principal Army, land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of the British Armed Forces. , the British Army comprises 80,040 regular ...
. After the territory's
handover In cellular telecommunications, handover, or handoff, is the process of transferring an ongoing call or data session from one channel connected to the core network to another channel. In satellite communications it is the process of transf ...
to the People's Republic of China in 1997, the commanders of the
People's Liberation Army The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the regular army, regular armed forces of the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) and the armed wing of the PRC's founding and ruling political party, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Besides the Ce ...
Hong Kong Garrison The People's Liberation Army Hong Kong Garrison is a garrison of the Chinese People's Liberation Army The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the regular army, regular armed forces of the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) and the ...
are PLA personnel from
mainland China Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, China mainland, or the Mainland Area of the Republic of China is the geopolitics, geopolitical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC) since Proclamation of ...

mainland China
and commanded by the CMC.


Croatia

According to the
Croatian constitution The Constitution of the Republic of Croatia ( hr, Ustav Republike Hrvatske) is promulgated by the Croatian Parliament. History While it was part of the socialist Yugoslavia, the Socialist Republic of Croatia had its own Constitution under th ...
, the
president of Croatia The president of Croatia, officially denoted as the President of the Republic of Croatia ( hr, Predsjednik / Predsjednica Republike Hrvatske), is the head of state, commander-in-chief of the Military of Croatia, military and chief representative ...
is the commander-in-chief of the
Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia The Republic of Croatia Armed Forces ( hr, Oružane snage Republike Hrvatske – OSRH) is the military service of Croatia. The President of Croatia, President is the Armed Forces Commander-in-Chief, and exercises administrative powers in times of ...
. In peace, the commander-in-chief exercises his command through the minister of defence. In war and in cases where the
minister of defence A defence minister or minister of defence is a cabinet official position in charge of a ministry of defense, which regulates the armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force ...

minister of defence
is not fulfilling orders, the commander-in-chief exercises his command directly through the chief of
General Staff A military staff (often referred to as general staff, army staff, navy staff, or air staff within the individual services) is a group of officers, enlisted and civilian personnel that are responsible for the administrative, operational and ...
.


Czech Republic

According to the 1992 constitution, the
president of the Czech Republic The President of the Czech Republic is the elected formal head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of statebeing an embod ...
is the commander-in-chief of the
Armed Forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, with its members identifiable by their distinct m ...
according to Article 63(1)(c), and appoints and promotes generals under Article 63(1)(f). The president needs the
countersignatureIn law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its bound ...
of the prime minister for decisions concerning the above-mentioned provisions as per Articles 63(3-4), or otherwise, they are not valid. The prime minister may delegate to other ministers the right to countersign these decisions of the president. The political responsibility for the Armed Forces is borne by the
Government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, Executive (government), ex ...
, which in Article 67 is defined as the "supreme body of executive power". According to Articles 39 & 43, the
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: Representation (politics), representing the Election#Suffrage, electorate, making laws and overseeing the g ...
must give consent to the dispatch of Czech military forces outside the territory of the Czech Republic. The
Ministry of DefenceMinistry of Defence or Ministry of Defense may refer to: * Ministry of defence, a type of government department responsible for matters of defence Current ministries * Ministry of Defense (Afghanistan) * Ministry of Defence (Albania) * Ministry ...
is the central authority of the state administration for the control of the Armed Forces. The actual day-to-day management is vested in the chief of the general staff, the Czech chief of defence equivalent.


Denmark

The position of the Danish monarch as the head of the military is deeply rooted in tradition. While the 1953 constitution does not explicitly designate the monarch as commander-in-chief; it is implicit, given the general provision in article 12 and the more specific wording of article 19 (2): "Except for purposes of defence against an armed attack upon the Realm or Danish forces, the King shall not use military force against any foreign state without the consent of the
Folketing The Folketing ( da, Folketinget, ; lit. ''the people's Thing (assembly), thing'', ''people's assembly''), also known as the Parliament of Denmark or the Danish Parliament in English, is the unicameral List of legislatures by country, national leg ...
. Any measure which the King may take in pursuance of this provision shall forthwith be submitted to the Folketing". However, when reading the Danish Constitution, it is important to bear in mind that the k''ing'' in this context is understood by Danish jurists to be read as the ''
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, Executive (government), ex ...
'' (consisting of the prime minister and other ministers). This is a logical consequence of articles 12, 13 and 14, all of which in essence stipulates that the powers vested in the monarch can only be exercised through ministers, who are responsible for all acts. Thus, the Government, in effect, holds the supreme command authority implied in articles 12 and 19(2). The Danish Defence Law ( da, Forsvarsloven) designates in article 9 the
minister of defence A defence minister or minister of defence is a cabinet official position in charge of a ministry of defense, which regulates the armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force ...
as the supreme authority in
Defence Defense or defence may refer to: Tactical, martial, and political acts or groups * Defense (military) A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is t ...
( da, højeste ansvarlige myndighed for forsvaret). Under the minister is the chief of defence, the senior-ranking professional military officer heading the Defence Command, who commands the
Army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land-based military branch, service branch ...
, the
Navy A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a Nation's armed forces principally designated for naval warfare, naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riverine, littoral zone, littoral, or ocean-borne combat operations and ...
, the Air Force and other units not reporting directly to the
Ministry of DefenceMinistry of Defence or Ministry of Defense may refer to: * Ministry of defence, a type of government department responsible for matters of defence Current ministries * Ministry of Defense (Afghanistan) * Ministry of Defence (Albania) * Ministry ...
.


Dominican Republic

According to the
Constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
, Article 128, Section II, Title IV, the
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
is the head of foreign policy, the civil administration and the Commander-in-Chief of the
Armed Forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, with its members identifiable by their distinct m ...
, the National Police and all other state's security agencies.


Egypt

In
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identif ...
, the
president of the Republic The President of the Republic is a title used for heads of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of statebeing an embodiment of the State itself or r ...
holds the ceremonial title of Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces. A member of the government, usually defence minister, is commander-in-chief of the
Egyptian Armed Forces The Egyptian Armed Forces are the state military organisation responsible for the defense of Egypt. They consist of the Egyptian Army, Egyptian Navy, Egyptian Air Force and Egyptian Air Defense Forces. The President of Egypt, President of the R ...
, the incumbent being
Mohamed Ahmed Zaki Mohamed Ahmed Zaki Mohamed ( ar, محمد أحمد زكي محمد) (born 29 January 1956) is an Egypt, Egyptian Egyptian Army ranks, Colonel General who has been List of Ministers of Defence of Egypt, Minister of Defense of Egypt since 14 June 20 ...

Mohamed Ahmed Zaki
. The president is the only individual capable of declaring war. With the exception of
Mohamed Morsi Mohamed Mohamed Morsi Eissa Al-AyyatThe spellings of his first and last names vary. survey of 14 news organizations plus Wikipedia in July 2012
, who briefly served as president from 2012 to 2013, all Egyptian presidents have been former military officers, including the incumbent
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi Abdel Fattah Saeed Hussein Khalil el-Sisi; (born 19 November 1954) is an Egyptian politician who is the List of presidents of Egypt, sixth and current President of Egypt, former Director of Military Intelligence and Reconnaissance (Egypt), Mi ...

Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
. During the Yom Kippur War, the president played a major role at all levels of the planning of the war, and was, in a literal sense, Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, giving direct orders to the commanders from the headquarters during the war as
field marshal Field marshal (or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is the most senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer ranks. Usually it is the highest rank in an army and as such few persons are appointed to it. It is considered as a ...

field marshal
of the
army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land-based military branch, service branch ...
,
marshal of the air force Marshal of the air force, marshal of the air, or a similar name is a five-star rank (or NATO equivalent OF-10) and an English-language term for the most senior rank in some air forces. It is usually the direct equivalent of a general of the air ...
and air defence forces and admiral of the
navy A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a Nation's armed forces principally designated for naval warfare, naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riverine, littoral zone, littoral, or ocean-borne combat operations and ...
.
Anwar Sadat Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat, (25 December 1918 – 6 October 1981) was an Egyptian politician who served as the third President of Egypt, from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981. Sadat ...
often wore his military uniform, while president
Hosni Mubarak Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak, (4 May 1928 – 25 February 2020) was an Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth president of Egypt from 1981 to 2011. Before he entered politics, Mubarak was a career officer in the ...
had abandoned this tradition.


Eswatini

The
king of Eswatini Ngwenyama (also ''Ingwenyama'') is the title of the male ruler (King of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg">Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the title given to a ...

king of Eswatini
is the commander in chief of the Umbutfo Eswatini Defence Force.


Finland

According to the Finnish constitution, the
president of Finland The president of the Republic of Finland ( fi, Suomen tasavallan presidentti, sv, Republiken Finlands president) is the head of state of Finland. Under the Constitution of Finland, executive power is vested in the Finnish Government and the pr ...
is the commander-in-chief of all Finnish military forces. In practice, the everyday command and control is in the hands of Chief of Defence and the commander of the
Finnish Border Guard The Finnish Border Guard (; ) is the national security agency responsible for enforcing the security of Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland , ), officially the Republic of Finland (, ), is a Nordic country located in Northern ...
. The economic administration of the
Finnish Defence Force The Finnish Defence Forces ( fi, Puolustusvoimat, sv, Försvarsmakten) are responsible for the defence of Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland , ), officially the Republic of Finland (, ), is a Nordic country located in Northern Eur ...
is the responsibility of
Ministry of DefenceMinistry of Defence or Ministry of Defense may refer to: * Ministry of defence, a type of government department responsible for matters of defence Current ministries * Ministry of Defense (Afghanistan) * Ministry of Defence (Albania) * Ministry ...
. The duty of the president is to decide uponLaki puolustusvoimista (551/2007)
(Act on the Defence Forces) Retrieved on 30 August 2015.
* main principles of the military defence of the realm * principles of the execution of the military defence * other military command matters with wide-ranging importance to the military activity or the military establishment * any other military command issue that he wishes to decide upon Since the constitutional reform of 2000, the
minister of defence A defence minister or minister of defence is a cabinet official position in charge of a ministry of defense, which regulates the armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force ...
has the right to be present when the president uses his command powers, unless the matter is of immediate concern. In questions of strategic importance, the prime minister has the same right. The president commissions and promotes officers and decides on activating reservists for extraordinary service and on the mobilisation of the Defence Forces. If
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: Representation (politics), representing the Election#Suffrage, electorate, making laws and overseeing the g ...

Parliament
is not in session when a decision to mobilise is taken, it must be immediately convened. Declarations of a state of emergency ( fi, valmiustila, literally, "state of preparedness") and state of war ( fi, puolustustila, lit. "state of defence") are declared by a presidential decree, given after a motion by the government, which is then submitted to the Parliament for ratification. The president has, in a state of emergency, the right to transfer the position of the commander-in-chief to another Finnish citizen.Suomen perustuslaki. (731/1999, as amended by later amendments)
(Finnish Constitution). Retrieved 30 August 2015.


France

In
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and Overseas France, several overseas regions and territories. The metro ...

France
, the
President of the Republic The President of the Republic is a title used for heads of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of statebeing an embodiment of the State itself or r ...
is designated as "''Chef des Armées''" (literally "Chief of the Armies") under article 15 of the
Constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
; the officeholder is as such the supreme executive authority in military affairs. Article 16 provides the President with extensive
emergency powers A state of emergency or emergency powers is a situation in which a government is empowered to be able to put through policies that it would normally not be permitted to do, for the safety and protection of their citizens. A government can decla ...
.Constitution of 4 October 1958
National Assembly of France The National Assembly (french: link=no, italics=set, Assemblée nationale; ) is the lower house A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. Despite its official position "below ...
. Retrieved on 13 May 2013.
However, owing to the nature of the
semi-presidential system A semi-presidential system, or dual executive system, is a system of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, g ...
, the Prime Minister also has key constitutional powers under article 21: "He shall be responsible for national defence" and has "power to make regulations and shall make appointments to civil and military posts".


Pre-1958

Since the reign of
Louis XIV , house = House of Bourbon, Bourbon , father = Louis XIII, Louis XIII of France , mother = Anne of Austria , birth_date = , birth_place = Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Kingdom of France, F ...

Louis XIV
, France has been strongly centralised. After crushing local nobles engaged in warlord-ism, the kings of France retained all authority with the help of able yet discreet Prime ministers ( Mazarin, Richelieu). The
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General of 1789 and ended in coup of 18 Brumaire, November 1799 with the formation of the French Consulate. Many of its ideas are considered fundamental principles ...

French Revolution
transferred the supreme authority to the King (in the context of the short-lived constitutional monarchy), then to the multi-member ''
Comité de Salut Public The Committee of Public Safety (french: link=no, Comité de salut public) formed the provisional government in France, led mainly by Maximilien Robespierre, during the Reign of Terror (1793–1794), a phase of the French Revolution. Supplementin ...
'' during the ''
Convention Convention may refer to: * Convention (norm), a custom or tradition, a standard of presentation or conduct ** Treaty, an agreement in international law * Convention (meeting), meeting of a (usually large) group of individuals and/or companies in a ...
'', as well as later to the ''
Directoire The Directory (also called Directorate, ) was the governing five-member committee A committee or commission is a body of one or more persons that is subordinate to a deliberative assembly. Usually, the assembly sends matters into a committee ...
'', before being regained in the hands of
Consul Consul (abbrev. ''cos.''; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of ...
Napoléon Bonaparte Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led Napoleon Bonaparte's battle record, several successful campaigns during the French Rev ...

Napoléon Bonaparte
, later Emperor Napoléon I, alone. The ''
Restoration Restoration is the act of restoring something to its original state and may refer to: * Conservation and restoration of cultural heritage * Restoration style Film and television * ''The Restoration'' (1909 film), a film by D.W. Griffith starr ...
'' restored the authority of the King, first in an absolute monarchy, then the constitutional
July Monarchy The July Monarchy (french: Monarchie de juillet, officially the Kingdom of France, french: Royaume de France) was a liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberali ...
of
Louis Philippe Louis Philippe I (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848, the last King and penultimate monarch of France. As Duke of Chartres he distinguished himself commanding troops during the French Revolutionary Wa ...

Louis Philippe
, before it was overthrown in turn by the Second Republic and later the of
Napoleon III Napoleon III (Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 18089 January 1873) was the first President of France The president of France, officially the President of the French Republic (french: Président de la République française), is th ...

Napoleon III
. The following Third Republic was a parliamentary system, where the military authority was held by the
President of the Council of Ministers The President of the Council of Ministers or sometimes Chairman (in English, sometimes called informally Prime Minister) is the most senior member of the cabinet in the executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (gover ...
, head of government, although the President, head of state, retained ceremonial powers. During
World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War or "The war to end war, the war ...

World War I
, the many visits to the trenches by the elder statesman
Georges Clemenceau Georges Eugène Benjamin Clemenceau (, also , ; 28 September 1841 – 24 November 1929) was a French statesman who served as Prime Minister of France from 1906 to 1909 and again from 1917 until 1920. A popular figure of the Independent Radicals ...

Georges Clemenceau
impressed the soldiers and earned him the nickname ''Father of Victory'' (french: Le Père de la Victoire). During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved World War II by country, the vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great ...
, ''''
Philippe Pétain Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain (, ), Marshal Pétain (''Maréchal Pétain'') and sometimes, The Old Marshal (), was a French general officer who attained the position of M ...

Philippe Pétain
assumed power and held the supreme authority in
Vichy France Vichy France (french: Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State () headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II. It was an independent ally of Nazi Germany until late 1942 when Berlin took full control. Evacuated fro ...
, while Général
Charles de Gaulle Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (; ; 22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French army officer and statesman who led Free France against Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") fo ...
, acting on behalf of the previous regime, founded the
Free French Forces Free France and its Free French Forces (french: France Libre et les ) was the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was ...
, upon which he held supreme authority all through the war. The following and short-lived Fourth Republic was a parliamentary system, which was replaced by the present Fifth Republic, a
semi-presidential system A semi-presidential system, or dual executive system, is a system of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, g ...
.


Ghana

According to the
Constitution of Ghana The Constitution of Ghana is the supreme law of the Republic of Ghana. It was approved on 28 April 1992 through a national referendum A referendum (plural: referendums or less commonly referenda) is a Direct democracy, direct and Universal suffr ...
, the
president of Ghana The president of the Republic of Ghana is the elected head of state and head of government of Ghana, as well as Commander-in-Chief, commander-in-chief of the Ghana Armed Forces. The current president of Ghana is Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo, who ...
is the commander-in-chief of the
Ghana Armed Forces The Ghana Armed Forces (GAF) is the unified armed force of Ghana, consisting of the Ghana Army, Army (GA), Ghana Navy, Navy (GN), and Ghana Air Force. The Commander-in-Chief of the Ghana Armed Forces is the President of Ghana, who is also the sup ...
.


Guyana

According to the Guyanese constitution, the president is commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces. There is a rank insignia for the position.


India

Supreme command of the
Indian Armed Forces The Indian Armed Forces are the armed forces, military forces of the India, Republic of India. It consists of three professional uniformed services: the Indian Army, Indian Navy, and Indian Air Force.—— Additionally, the Indian Armed Forces ...
is vested in the
president of India The President of India ( IAST: ), officially the President of the Republic of India, is the ceremonial head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foak ...
, although effective executive power and responsibility for national defence resides with the
Cabinet of India The Union Council of Ministers exercises executive authority in the Republic of India. Wikisource:Constitution of India/Part V#Article 74 .7BCouncil of Ministers to aid and advise President.7D It consists of senior ministers, called 'cabinet ...
headed by the . This is discharged through the
Ministry of DefenceMinistry of Defence or Ministry of Defense may refer to: * Ministry of defence, a type of government department responsible for matters of defence Current ministries * Ministry of Defense (Afghanistan) * Ministry of Defence (Albania) * Ministry ...
, headed by the
minister of defence A defence minister or minister of defence is a cabinet official position in charge of a ministry of defense, which regulates the armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force ...
, which provides the policy framework and resources to the Armed Forces to discharge their responsibilities in the context of the defence of the country. On 15 August 1947, each service was placed under its own commander-in-chief. In 1955, the three service chiefs were re-designated as the
chief of the Army staff Chief of Army Staff (COAS) or Chief of Staff of the Army is a title commonly used for the appointment held by the most senior officer in several nations' armies. * Chief of Army (Australia) * Chief of Army Staff of the Bangladesh Army * Chief of S ...
(rank of
general A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines Marines or naval infantry, are typically a military force trained to operate on Littoral Zone, littoral zone in suppo ...
), the chief of the naval staff (rank of
vice admiral Vice admiral is a senior naval flag officer A flag officer is a commissioned officer in a nation's armed forces senior enough to be entitled to fly a flag A flag is a piece of textile, fabric (most often rectangular or quadrilateral) with ...
) and the
chief of the air staffChief of the Air Staff (CAS), Air Force Chief of Staff or Chief of Air Force, is the appointment held by the most senior officer in several nations' air forces. This appointment may refer to: * Chief of Air Force (Australia) * Chief of Air Staff (Ba ...
(rank of Air marshal) with the president as the supreme commander. The chief of the air staff was raised to the rank of air chief marshal in 1965 and the chief of the naval staff raised to the rank of
admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. In the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth nations and the United States, a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general officer, general in ...
in 1968. Starting from 1 January 2020, all the three chiefs of staff report to the newly formed chief of defence staff.


Indonesia

According to article 10 of the
Constitution of Indonesia The 1945 State Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 1945, ''UUD '45'') is the basis for all laws of Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republ ...
, the
president of Indonesia The president of the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Presiden Republik Indonesia) is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110– ...
holds the supreme command of the
Indonesian National Armed Forces , march = " March of the Indonesian National Armed Forces" , branches = , headquarters = Cilangkap, Jakarta Jakarta (; ), officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta ( id, Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta), is the Capital of I ...
. Day-to-day operations of the Armed Forces is handled by the Commander of the Armed Forces ( id, Panglima TNI), a 4-star officer whom can be a general (
Army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land-based military branch, service branch ...

Army
/
Marine Marine is an adjective meaning of or pertaining to the sea or ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
), an admiral (
Navy A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a Nation's armed forces principally designated for naval warfare, naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riverine, littoral zone, littoral, or ocean-borne combat operations and ...

Navy
), or an air chief marshal ( Air Force). The commander of the Armed Forces is appointed by the president from active chiefs of staff (
Army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land-based military branch, service branch ...
,
Navy A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a Nation's armed forces principally designated for naval warfare, naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riverine, littoral zone, littoral, or ocean-borne combat operations and ...
, or Air Force) and must get approval from the
House of Representatives House of Representatives is the name of legislative bodies A legislature is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is ...
. The chief of staff is also appointed by the president from senior military officers. The president as commander-in-chief also has authority in senior military officer mutation and promotion in tour of duty. The
minister of defense A defence minister or minister of defence is a Cabinet (government), cabinet official position in charge of a ministry of defense, which regulates the armed forces in sovereign states. The role of a defence minister varies considerably from countr ...
has responsibility to assist the president in defense issues and create policies about authorization use of military force, manage defense budget, etc. According to article 11 of the Constitution, For authorization use of military forces or declaration of war, the president must get approval from House of Representatives. The commander of Armed Forces gives recommendations to the minister of defense in creating national defense policies.


Iran

Before 1979, the
Shah Shah (; fa, شاه, Šâh or Šāh, , ) was a title given to the emperors and kings of Iran (historically known as "Name of Iran, Persia" in the Western world).Yarshater, EhsaPersia or Iran, Persian or Farsi, ''Iranian Studies'', vol. XXII no ...

Shah
was the commander-in-chief in Iran. After the inception of the Islamic Republic, the
president of Iran President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) *President (education), a leader of a college or university *President (government title) President may also refer to: Automobiles * Nissan President, a 1966–2010 Japanese full- ...
was initially appointed that task, with Abolhassan Bani Sadr being the first commander-in-chief. However, Abolhassan Bani Sadr was impeached on 22 June 1981. It was after this event that the role of commander-in-chief of the
Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran The Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, نيروهای مسلح جمهوری اسلامی ايران, Nīrūhā-ye Mosallah-e Jomhūri-ye Eslāmi-ye Īrān) are the combined military forces of Iran, comprising the Islamic Republic ...
was given to the
Supreme Leader of Iran The Supreme Leader of Iran ( fa, رهبر معظم ایران, rahbar-e mo'azzam-e irān), also referred to as Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution (, '), but officially called the Supreme Leadership Authority, (, ') is the head of state ...
.


Ireland

The supreme commander of the Defence Forces is the
president of Ireland The President of Ireland ( ga, Uachtarán na hÉireann) is the head of state of Republic of Ireland, Ireland and the supreme commander of the Defence Forces (Ireland), Irish Defence Forces. The President holds office for seven years, and can be ...
, but in practice the minister for defence acts on the president's behalf and reports to the
Government of Ireland , image = , date = , state = Republic of Ireland, Ireland , address = , leader_title = , appointed = , budget = , main_organ = Cabinet , ministries = 15 , ...
. The minister for defence is advised by the Council of Defence on the business of the Department of Defence. The Defence Forces are organised under the chief of staff, a three star officer, and are organised into three service branches, the
Army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land-based military branch, service branch ...
, Naval Service, and Air Corps.


Italy

The
Constitution of Italy The Constitution of the Italian Republic ( it, Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana) was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 December 1947, with 453 votes in favour and 62 against. The text, which has since been amended sixteen times, ...
, in article 87, states that the
president of the Republic The President of the Republic is a title used for heads of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of statebeing an embodiment of the State itself or r ...
: "is the commander of the
armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, with its members identifiable by their distinct m ...
and chairman of the supreme defense council constituted by law; he declares war according to the decision of the
parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: Representation (politics), representing the Election#Suffrage, electorate, making laws and overseeing the g ...
".


Kenya

Chapter 131 of the
Constitution of Kenya The Constitution of Kenya is the supreme law of the Republic of Kenya. There have been three significant versions of the constitution, with the most recent redraft being enabled in 2010. The 2010 edition replaced the 1963 independence constit ...
identifies the
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
as the commander-in-chief of the
Kenya Defence Forces The Kenya Defence Forces (KDF) are the armed forces of the Republic of Kenya. They are made up of the Kenya Army, Kenya Navy, and Kenya Air Force. The current KDF was established, and its composition stipulated, in Article 241 of the 2010 C ...
and the chairperson of the National Security Council. The president appoints a chief of general staff, known as the ''Chief of the Kenya Defence Forces'', who acts as the principal military adviser to the president and the National Security Council. The Chief of the Kenya Defence Forces is drawn from one of the branches of the Armed Forces, the
Kenya Army The Kenya Army is the land arm of the Kenya Defence Forces. History The origin of the present day Kenya Army lie with the British Army The British Army is the principal Army, land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of the British ...
, the
Kenya Navy The Kenya Navy is the naval branch of the Kenya Defence Forces. It is headquartered in Mombasa. Kenya Navy has Mtongwe base in Mombasa, Shimoni, Msambweni, Malindi, Kilifi and since 1995 and placed in reserve status. Formerly armed with 4 Ga ...
or the
Kenya Air Force "We are strong in the sky" , colours = , colours_label = , march = , mascot = , anniversaries = , equipment = , equipment_label = , battles = * Operation Linda Nchi * AU Mission in Somalia , decorations = , battle_honours = , ...
.


Latvia

In accordance with Article 42 of the
Constitution of Latvia 300px, Inauguration of the Constitutional Assembly of Latvia, 1 May 1920 The Constitution of Latvia ( lv, Satversme) is the fundamental law of the Republic of Latvia. Satversme is the oldest Eastern or Central European constitution still in force ...
, the
president of Latvia The president of Latvia ( lv, Latvijas Valsts prezidents, literally "State President") is head of state and commander-in-chief of the Latvian National Armed Forces, National Armed Forces of the Latvia, Republic of Latvia. The term of office is fou ...
is Commander-in-Chief of the
Latvian National Armed Forces The Latvian National Armed Forces ( lv, Latvijas Nacionālie bruņotie spēki) are the armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typi ...
. Being a civilian, in times of war, he or she may appoint a chief military commander.


Malaysia

In accordance with Article 41 of the
Federal Constitution of Malaysia The Federal Constitution of Malaysia, which came into force in 1957, is the supreme law of Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federation, federal constitutional monarchy consists of States and federal territories ...
, the
Yang di-Pertuan Agong The ''Yang di-Pertuan Agong'' (, Jawi alphabet, Jawi: ), also known as the Paramount Ruler, the Supreme Head or the King, is the constitutional monarch and head of state of Malaysia. The office was established in 1957, when the Federation of ...
is Supreme Commander of the Malaysian Armed Forces. As such, he is the highest-ranking officer in the military establishment, with the power to appoint the Chief of Staff (on the advice of the
Armed Forces Council The Armed Forces Council is the senior military body of the Canadian Armed Forces. It meets to advise and assist the Chief of the Defence Staff (Canada), Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) on all matters concerning the command, control, and administr ...
). He also appoints the service heads of each of the three branches of the military. The Federal Constitution establishes that the office of Supreme Commander is attached to the person of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong as the Federation's head of state: * Federal Constitution, Article 41 - The Yang di-Pertuan Agong shall be the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of the Federation. The Federal Parliament passed the Federal Armed Forces Act to consolidate in one law all regulations that govern the three services ( Army, Navy, and Air Force ). It establishes the function and duties of the Federal Head of State in the capacity as Supreme Commander.


Mauritius

In the
Republic of Mauritius Mauritius ( ; french: Maurice ; mfe, Moris oʁis, officially the Republic of Mauritius, is an island nation in the Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering or 19.8% of the water ...

Republic of Mauritius
, the
president of the Republic The President of the Republic is a title used for heads of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of statebeing an embodiment of the State itself or r ...
is the commander-in-chief, according to Article 28 of the
Constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
. After independence in 1968, Mauritius continued to recognise the
queen of Mauritius Queen may refer to: Monarchy * Queen regnant, a female monarch of a Kingdom ** List of queens regnant * Queen consort, the wife of a reigning king * Queen dowager, the widow of a king * Queen mother, a queen dowager who is the mother of a reigni ...
, as represented by the
governor-general of Mauritius The Governor-General of Mauritius (french: Gouverneur Général de Maurice) was the acting head of state of Mauritius Mauritius ( ; french: Maurice ; mfe, Moris oʁis, officially the Republic of Mauritius, is an island nation in the Indian ...
, as commander-in-chief. After the country was proclaimed a
Commonwealth Republic The republics in the Commonwealth of Nations are the sovereign states in the organization with a republican form of government. As of 1 February 2021, 33 out of the 54 member states were republics. Elizabeth II, who is the monarch in the Commonw ...
in 1992, the new constitution stipulated that a president would assume the position of the
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 "
he head of state He or HE may refer to: Language * He (pronoun) In Modern English, ''he'' is a Grammatical number, singular, Grammatical gender, masculine, Grammatical person, third-person personal pronoun, pronoun. Morphology In Standard English, Standard M ...
being an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of its international perso ...
and commander-in-chief.


Mexico

Section VI of Article 89 of the
Constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
states that the
President of the United Mexican States The president of Mexico ( es, link=no, Presidente de México), officially known as the president of the United Mexican States ( es, link=no, Presidente de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is the head of state and head of government of Mexico. Under ...
shall "Preserve national security, in accordance with the respective law, and dispose of the full permanent Armed Force, that is to say the
Army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land-based military branch, service branch ...

Army
, the
Navy A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a Nation's armed forces principally designated for naval warfare, naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riverine, littoral zone, littoral, or ocean-borne combat operations and ...
and the Air Force, for the interior security and exterior defense of the Federation". Both the Organic Law of the Mexican Army and Air Force and the Organic Law of the Mexican Navy clearly state the President of the Republic is "Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces". The President is ''ex officio'' the only five-star general of Mexico. The Constitution also grants the President freedom to appoint and remove the
Secretary of the Navy The secretary of the Navy (or SECNAV) is a statutory officer () and the head (chief executive officer A chief executive officer (CEO), chief administrator, or just chief executive (CE), is one of a number of corporate executives in charge of ...
and the Secretary of National Defense.


New Zealand

The
governor-general of New Zealand The governor-general of New Zealand ( mi, Te kāwana tianara o Aotearoa) is the viceregal representative of the monarch of New Zealand, currently Queen Elizabeth II. As the Queen is concurrently the monarch of 15 other Commonwealth realms, a ...
serves as the commander-in-chief of New Zealand, and is constitutionally the supreme authority in defence matters in New Zealand. In practice however, the position of commander-in-chief is ceremonial, with the governor-general primarily serving as a "patron of the New Zealand Defence Force". The governor-general exercises his authority as commander-in-chief on the advice of the minister of defence or other mininsters of the
New Zealand Government The New Zealand Government ( mi, Te Kāwanatanga o Aotearoa) is the central government A central government is the government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity ...

New Zealand Government
. Clause I of the Letter Patents 1983 formally named the office as ''Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief'', although the document does not further enumerate on their role as "commander-in-chief". The governor-general's is also the statutory commander in chief of the
New Zealand Defence Force New is an adjective referring to something recently made, discovered, or created. New or NEW may refer to: Music * New, singer of K-pop group The Boyz Boyz or The Boyz may refer to: Music Bands *The Boyz (German band), a German boy band of th ...
through the ''
Defence Act 1990 The Defence Act 1990 is an Act of Parliament Acts of parliament, sometimes referred to as primary legislation, are texts of law passed by the Legislature, legislative body of a jurisdiction (often a parliament or council). In most countries, acts ...
''. Sections five and six of the ''Defence Act 1990'' outlines the governor-general's authority to raise and maintain armed forces.


Nigeria

In accordance with the Nigerian Constitution, the president of
Nigeria Nigeria (), officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa. It is the List of African countries by population, most populous country in Africa; geographically situated between the Sahel to the north, and the Gulf of ...

Nigeria
is the commander-in-chief of the
Nigerian Armed Forces The Nigerian Armed Forces are the armed forces of the Federal Republic of Nigeria Nigeria (), officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa. It borders Niger in Niger–Nigeria border, the north, Chad in Chad–Nig ...
.


Norway

Harald V Harald V (; born 21 February 1937) is the Monarchy of Norway, King of Norway. He acceded to the throne on 17 January 1991. Harald was the third child and only son of Olav V of Norway, King Olav V and Princess Märtha of Sweden. He was second i ...

Harald V
, King of
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language, alongside Nynorsk. Bokmål is the preferred ...

Norway
, officially retains executive power. Article 25 of the constitution states: "The King is commander-in-chief of the armed forces of the realm" However, following the introduction of a parliamentary system of government, the duties of the
Monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and therefore the head of state of a monarchy. A monarch may exercise the highest authority a ...

Monarch
have since become strictly representative and ceremonial, such as the formal appointment and dismissal of the prime minister and other ministers in the executive government. Accordingly, the Monarch is commander-in-chief of the
Norwegian Armed Forces The Norwegian Armed Forces ( no, Forsvaret, "The Defence") is the military organisation Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer such military capability as a national d ...
, and serves as chief diplomatic official abroad and as a symbol of unity.


Pakistan

In
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, e ...

Pakistan
, before the 1973 Constitution, the head of the army, i.e., the
Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army A commander-in-chief or supreme commander is the person who exercises supreme command and control Image:CIC-USS-CarlVinson-2001.jpg, A watchstander at her station in the combat information center of USS Carl Vinson, USS ''Carl Vinson'' in the ...
, was referred as "Commander-in-Chief". The head of army term was replaced to "Chief of Staff" on 20 March 1972 durning military reforms The chief of staff is a four-star officer whose term is 3 years, but can be extended or renewed once. After 1973 constitution The chief of Army/Air/Naval staff is chosen by the
Prime Minister of Pakistan A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that is not a Product (mathematics), product of two smaller natural numbers. A natural number greater than 1 that is not prime is called a composite number. For example, 5 is prime ...
and appointed by the
President of Pakistan The President of Pakistan ( ur, , translit=s̤adr-i Pākiṣṭān), officially the President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is the ceremonial head of state of Pakistan and the commander in chief of the Pakistan Armed Forces.Pakistan Armed Forces The Pakistan Armed Forces (; ) are the Military, combined military forces of Pakistan. They are the List of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel, sixth-largest in the world in terms of Active duty, active military personnel ...
.


Philippines

The
president of the Philippines The president of the Philippines ( fil, Pangulo ng Pilipinas, informally referred to as ''Presidente ng Pilipinas'') is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity ...
is both
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 "
he head of state He or HE may refer to: Language * He (pronoun) In Modern English, ''he'' is a Grammatical number, singular, Grammatical gender, masculine, Grammatical person, third-person personal pronoun, pronoun. Morphology In Standard English, Standard M ...
being an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of its international perso ...
and
head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region, or other government who often presides over a cabinet (gover ...
, and is mandated by Article VII, Section 18 of the
1987 Constitution The Constitution of the Philippines ( Filipino: ''Saligang Batas ng Pilipinas'' or ''Konstitusyon ng Pilipinas'', Spanish: ''Constitución de la República de Filipinas'') is the constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental ...
to be commander-in-chief of the
Armed Forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, with its members identifiable by their distinct m ...
.


Poland

In Poland, the
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
is Commander-in-Chief of the
Polish Armed Forces The Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland ( pl, Siły Zbrojne Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, abbreviated ''SZ RP''; popularly called ''Wojsko Polskie'' in Poland, abbreviated ''WP''—roughly, the "Polish Military") are the national Military, armed f ...
. However, the art. 134 ust. 4 of the constitution states: During the interbellum period, the General Inspector of the Armed Forces was appointed the commander-in-chief for the time of war (Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces). However, after the war this function ceased to exist—thus it is likely that if Poland formally participates in a war, Chief of the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces will be appointed Supreme Commander.


Portugal

The
president of the Portuguese Republic The president of the Portuguese Republic ( pt, Presidente da República Portuguesa, ) is the Executive (government), executive head of state of Portugal. The powers, functions and duties of prior presidential offices, and their relation with the ...
is the constitutional Supreme Commander of the
Armed Forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, with its members identifiable by their distinct m ...
(in
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal Portugal (), officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=no ), is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula, in Souther ...

Portuguese
: ''Comandante Supremo das Forças Armadas''). However, the operational command is delegated in the Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces. In the Portuguese military parlance, the term "Commander-in-Chief" (in Portuguese: ''comandante-em-chefe'' or simply ''comandante-chefe'') refers to the unified military commander of all the land, naval and air forces in a theater of operations.


Taiwan

As stipulated in the
Constitution of the Republic of China The Constitution of the Republic of China () is the fifth and current constitution of the Taiwan, Republic of China, ratified by the Kuomintang during the session on December 25, 1946, in Nanjing, and adopted on December 25, 1947. The constitut ...
, the
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
is also the commander-in-chief of the ROC Armed Forces (including the Military Police), the
Special Forces Special forces and special operations forces (SOF) are military units trained to conduct special operations. NATO has defined special operations as "military activities conducted by specially designated, organized, trained, and equipped forces, ...

Special Forces
, and the
National Space Organization The National Space Organization (NSPO, ; formerly known as the National Space Program Office) is the national civilian space agency of Taiwan (Republic of China), part of the National Applied Research Laboratories under the auspices of the Mini ...
.


Russia

According to the
Constitution of the Russian Federation The Constitution of the Russian Federation () was adopted by national referendum on . Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List ...
, (Chapter 4, Article 87, Section 1) the
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
is the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the
Armed Forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, with its members identifiable by their distinct m ...
. The president approves the
military doctrine Military doctrine is the expression of how military forces contribute to campaigns, major operations, battle A battle is an occurrence of combat in warfare between opposing military units of any number or size. A war usually consists of mu ...
and appoints the
defense minister A defence minister or minister of defence is a cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent ...
and the
chief Chief may refer to: Title or rank Military and law enforcement * Chief master sergeant Chief Master Sergeant (CMSgt) is the ninth, and highest, United States Air Force enlisted rank insignia, enlisted rank in the United States Air Force, ...
and other members of the
general staff A military staff (often referred to as general staff, army staff, navy staff, or air staff within the individual services) is a group of officers, enlisted and civilian personnel that are responsible for the administrative, operational and ...
. The
Russian Armed Forces The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, commonly known as the Russian Armed Forces, are the military forces of the Russian Federation Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning E ...
is divided into three services: the
Russian Ground Forces The Ground Forces of the Russian Federation ( rus, Сухопутные войска Российской Федерации, r=Sukhoputnye Voyska Rossiyskoy Federatsii, SVR) are the Army, land forces of the Russian Armed Forces. It is also simply ...

Russian Ground Forces
, the
Russian Navy )Slow – "''Гвардейский встречный марш Военно-морского флота''" () , mascot = , equipment = 1 aircraft carrier An aircraft carrier is a warship that serve ...
, and the
Russian Air Force "Air March" , mascot = , anniversaries = 12 August , equipment = , equipment_label = , battles = , decorations = , battl ...

Russian Air Force
. In addition there are three independent ''arms of service'':
Strategic Missile Troops The Strategic Rocket Forces of the Russian Federation or the Strategic Missile Forces of the Russian Federation (RVSN RF; russian: Ракетные войска стратегического назначения Российской Феде ...
,
Russian Aerospace Defense Forces The Aerospace Defence Forces Branch (ASDFB) ( rus, Войска воздушно-космической обороны (ВВКО), Voyska vozdushno-kosmicheskoy oborony (VVKO)) was a branch of the Russian Armed Forces, Armed Forces of the Russia ...
, and the
Russian Airborne Troops The Russian Airborne Forces or VDV (from ''Vozdushno-Parachuting, desantnye voyska Rossii'', Russian: Воздушно-десантные войска России, ВДВ; Air-landing Forces) is a military branch, separate troops branch of the Rus ...
. The Air Defence Troops, the former
Soviet Air Defence Forces The Soviet Air Defence Forces (russian: войска ПВО, ''voyska protivovozdushnoy oborony'', ''voyska PVO'', ''V-PVO'', lit. ''Anti-Air Defence Troops''; and formerly ''protivovozdushnaya oborona strany'', ''PVO strany'', lit. ''Anti-Air Def ...
, have been subordinated into the Air Force since 1998.


Rwanda

According to the
Constitution of Rwanda The Constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation An organization, or organisation ( Commonwealth English; see spelling di ...
, The
president of Rwanda This article lists the presidents of Rwanda since the creation of the office in 1961 (during the Rwandan Revolution), to the present day. As specified in the constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or establi ...
is the commander-in-chief of Rwanda Defence Forces.


Saudi Arabia

Article 60 of the
Basic Law of Saudi Arabia The Basic Law of Saudi Arabia (alternative name: Basic System of Governance; ar, النظام الأساسي للحكم, ') is a constitution-like charter divided into nine chapters, consisting of 83 articles. The Basic Law (in Article One) state ...
states: "The King is the commander-in-chief of all the Military Forces. He appoints officers and puts an end to their duties in accordance with the law." Article 61 further states: "The King declares a state of emergency, general mobilization and war, and the law defines the rules for this." Lastly, Article 62 states: "If there is a danger threatening the safety of the Kingdom or its territorial integrity, or the security of its people and its interests, or which impedes the functioning of the state institutions, the King may take urgent measures in order to deal with this danger And if the King considers that these measures should continue, he may then implement the necessary regulations to this end."


Serbia

In accordance with the law, the
president of Serbia The President of Serbia ( sr, Председник Србије, Predsednik Srbije), officially styled as the President of the Republic ( sr, Председник Републике, Predsednik Republike) is the head of state of Serbia. The curren ...
is the commander-in-chief of Armed Forces and in command of the military. He appoints, promotes and recalls officers of the Army of Serbia.


Slovenia

In Slovenia, the commander-in-chief is formally the
president of Slovenia The office of President of Slovenia, officially President of the Republic of Slovenia ( sl, Predsednik Republike Slovenije), was established on 23 December 1991 when the National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicamer ...
, although he or she does not exercise this position in peacetime. Instead, this role is usually assumed by the minister of defence.


South Africa

Chapter 11, section 202(1) of the
Constitution of South Africa The Constitution of South Africa is the supreme law of the Republic of South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 59 millio ...
states that the
president of South Africa The President of the Republic of South Africa is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of statebeing an embodi ...
is the commander-in-chief of the
South African National Defence Force The South African National Defence Force (SANDF) comprises the armed forces of South Africa. The commander of the SANDF is appointed by the President of South Africa from one of the armed services. They are in turn accountable to the Minister of ...
. The constitution places conditions on when and how that power may be employed and requires regular reports to the
Parliament of South Africa The Parliament of the Republic of South Africa is South Africa's legislature; under the present Constitution of South Africa, the bicameral Parliament comprises a National Assembly (South Africa), National Assembly and a National Council of Prov ...
.


South Korea

In accordance with the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, the Commander-in-Chief and the Supreme Authority on all military matters is the
President of South Korea The President of the Republic of Korea (), also known as the President of South Korea, (often abbreviated to POTROK or POSK ), is the leader of the State Council of South Korea, State Council of the Republic of Korea. The president is the head ...
.


Spain

As with most remaining European monarchies, the position of the Spanish monarch as the nominal head of the armed forces is deeply rooted in traditions going centuries back. The
Spanish Constitution of 1978 The Spanish Constitution (Spanish language, Spanish, Asturleonese language, Asturleonese, and gl, Constitución Española; eu, Espainiako Konstituzioa; ca, Constitució Espanyola; oc, Constitucion espanhòla) is the Democracy, democratic law ...
authorizes the
King of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg">Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen ...
in article 62 (h): The king regularly chairs sessions of the National Security Council, the Joint Chiefs of staff and the individual general staffs of each branch of the Armed Forces in his capacity as supreme commander. All promotions to military rank and positions in the high command of the armed forces are made by Royal decree signed by the king and the minister of defense However, article 64 require that all official acts of the King must be countersigned, by the President of the Government or other competent minister, for them to become valid. This counter/signature is used to limit a possible abuse of power by any single individual. This constitutional provision can and has been made the subject of an exception in crisis situations. In 1981 the king as supreme commander of the armed forces assumed direct command in order to put down a military coup attempt. All members of the government were at that time trapped/held hostage in Parliament and were unable to counter sign the kings orders. This did not however result in those orders being ruled unenforceable or unconstitutional. The coup collapsed after the king ordered all army units to leave the streets and return to their barracks. Furthermore, article 97 stipulates that; No provision in the constitution requires the king/government to seek approval from the
Cortes Generales The Cortes Generales (; en, Spanish Parliament, lit=General Courts) are the bicameral legislative chambers of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Esc ...
before sending the armed forces abroad.Constitution of Spain 1978
Government of Spain gl, Goberno de España eu, Espainiako Gobernua , image = , caption = Logo of the Government of Spain , label1 = Role , data1 = Executive power , label2 = Established , data2 = , label3 = Country , dat ...
. Retrieved on 9 January 2014.
Since 1984, the chief of the defence staff is the professional head of the armed forces and, under the authority of the
minister of defence A defence minister or minister of defence is a cabinet official position in charge of a ministry of defense, which regulates the armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force ...
, is responsible for military operations and military organisation.


Sri Lanka

As head of state, the
president of Sri Lanka The president of Sri Lanka ( si, ශ්‍රී ලංකා ජනාධිපති ''Śrī Laṃkā Janādhipathi''; ta, இலங்கை சனாதிபதி ''Ilankai janātipati'') is the head of state and head of government of Sri L ...
, is nominally the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The
National Security Council#REDIRECT National security council A National Security Council (NSC) is usually an executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State ...
, chaired by the president is the authority charged with formulating and executing defence policy for the nation. The highest level of military headquarters is the
Ministry of DefenceMinistry of Defence or Ministry of Defense may refer to: * Ministry of defence, a type of government department responsible for matters of defence Current ministries * Ministry of Defense (Afghanistan) * Ministry of Defence (Albania) * Ministry ...
, since 1978 except for a few rare occasions the president retained the portfolio defence, thus being the minister of defence. The ministry and the armed forces have been controlled by the during these periods by either a
minister of state Minister of State is a title borne by politician A politician is a person active in party politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations be ...
, deputy minister for defence, and of recently the to the Ministry of Defence. Prior to 1978 the
prime minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpar ...
held the portfolio of minister of defence and external affairs, and was supported by a
parliamentary secretary A parliamentary secretary is a member of Parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency. In many countries with Bicameralism, bicameral parliaments, this category includes specifically ...
for defence and external affairs. Responsibility for the management of the forces is Ministry of Defence, while the planning and execution of combined operations is the responsibility of the Joint Operations Command (JOC). The JOC is headed by the chief of the defence staff who is the most senior officer in the Armed Forces and is an appointment that can be held by an air chief marshal,
admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. In the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth nations and the United States, a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general officer, general in ...

admiral
, or
general A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines Marines or naval infantry, are typically a military force trained to operate on Littoral Zone, littoral zone in suppo ...

general
. The three services have their own respective professional chiefs: the commander of the Army, the commander of the Navy and the commander of the Air Force, who have much autonomy.


Suriname

In
Suriname Suriname (, sometimes spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname ( nl, Republiek Suriname ), is a country on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America. Borders of Suriname, It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the ...

Suriname
, the constitution gives the
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
"supreme authority over the armed forces and all of its members".


Thailand

The "Head of the Thai Armed Forces" ( th, จอมทัพไทย; ) is a position vested in the Thai monarch, who as sovereign and head of state is the commander-in-chief of the
Royal Thai Armed Forces The Royal Thai Armed Forces (RTARF) ( th, กองทัพไทย; ) are the armed forces of the Kingdom of Thailand. The nominal Head of the Royal Thai Armed Forces, head of the Thai Armed Forces (จอมทัพไทย; ) is the King ...
.


Turkey

President of the Republic of Turkey has the constitutional right to represent the Supreme Military Command of the
Turkish Armed Forces The Turkish Armed Forces (TAF; tr, Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri, TSK) are the military forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an ...
, on behalf of the
Turkish Grand National Assembly The Grand National Assembly of Turkey ( tr, ), usually referred to simply as the TBMM or Parliament ( tr, or ''Parlamento''), is the unicameral Turkish legislature. It is the sole body given the legislative prerogatives by the Turkish Const ...
, and to decide on the mobilization of the Turkish Armed Forces, to appoint the chief of the general staff, to call the
National Security Council#REDIRECT National security council A National Security Council (NSC) is usually an executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State ...
to meet, to preside over the National Security Council, to proclaim martial law or state of emergency, and to issue decrees having the force of law, upon a decision of the Council of Ministers meeting under his/her chairmanship. With all these issues above written in the
Constitution of Turkey The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey ( tr, Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Anayasası), also known as the Constitution of 1982, is Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europ ...
, the executive rights are given to the president of the Republic of Turkey to be represented as the commander-in-chief of the nation.


United Kingdom

The
British monarch The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) o ...
is the "
Head of the British Armed Forces The Head of the British Armed Forces, also known as Commander-in-Chief of the British Armed Forces, refers to the supreme command authority of the British Armed Forces The British Armed Forces, also known as Her Majesty's Armed Forces, are t ...
" and has also been described as "Commander-in-Chief of the British Armed Forces". The
prime minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpar ...
(acting with the support of the
Cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent glass sheets or transparent polycarbonate sheets * Filing ...
) makes the key decisions on the ''use'' of the armed forces. The queen, however, remains the "ultimate authority" of the military, with officers and personnel swearing
allegiance An allegiance is a duty of fidelity said to be owed, or freely committed, by the people, subjects or citizen Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to it ...
only to the monarch. The term is also used for the military commander-in-chief of a ''command'' (a region of military authority, sometimes combined with the civil office of
Governor A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (p ...
of a colony (now called a
British Overseas Territory The British Overseas Territories (BOTs), also known as United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs), are fourteen territories all with a constitutional and historical link with the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and N ...
)), and for the naval commander-in-chief of a ''station'' of the Royal Navy, such as the
North America and West Indies Station The North America and West Indies Station was a formation or command of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and ...
.


United States

According to Article II, Section 2, Clause I of the Constitution, the
president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the Federal government of the United States#Executive branch, executive branch of the Federal govern ...

president of the United States
is “Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the
militia A militia () is generally an army or some other Military organization, fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a country, or subjects of a state, who may perform military service during a time of need, as opposed to a pro ...
of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States.” Since the National Security Act of 1947, this has been understood to mean all
United States Armed Forces The United States Armed Forces are the military forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between s ...

United States Armed Forces
. U.S. ranks have their roots in British military traditions, with the president possessing ultimate authority, but no rank, maintaining a civilian status. The exact degree of authority that the Constitution grants to the president as commander-in-chief has been the subject of much debate throughout history, with Congress at various times granting the president wide authority and at others attempting to restrict that authority.


U.S. states

In U.S. states, the
governor A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (p ...
also serves as the commander-in-chief of the
National Guard National Guard is the name used by a wide variety of current and historical uniformed organizations in different countries. The original National Guard National Guard is the name used by a wide variety of current and historical uniformed organizatio ...
,
State Militia In the United States, state defense forces are military units that operate under the sole authority of a State governments of the United States, state government. State defense forces are authorized by state and federal law and are under the co ...
, and
State Defense Forces In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Wa ...
. In the
Commonwealth of Kentucky Kentucky ( , ), officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state in the Upland South region of the United States, bordered by Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio to the north; West Virginia and Virginia to the east; Tennessee to the south; and ...
, for example, KRS 37.180 states: Similarly, Section 140 of Article 2 of the California Military and Veterans Code states:


Uzbekistan

The
Uzbek president The President of the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Oʻzbekiston Respublikasining Prezidenti, Ўзбекистон Республикасининг Президенти) is the head of state and executive authority in Uzbekistan. The office of Pres ...
holds the constitutional position of Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of Uzbekistan, according to the Constitution of Uzbekistan. In this capacity, the president give decisions on declaring war or martial law, the appointment of senior officials, and the development of the armed forces. In the event of an attack on the republic, the president announce a state of war and will submit within 72 hours a resolution for a plan of action to the Oliy Majlis. When the country is in a wartime situation, the Ministry of Defense (Uzbekistan), minister of defense will serve in an official capacity as the deputy supreme commander-in-chief of the armed forces, essentially assisting the president in his day-to-day activities and decisions regarding national security.


Venezuela

According to the Venezuelan constitution, the president is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces. The office of the Venezuelan military supreme commander in chief has always been held by the president of Venezuela as per constitutional requirements. However, with a new law sanctioned in 2008, the "comandante en jefe" rank is not only a function attributed to the executive branch but a full military rank given to the president upon taking office. Upon assumption he receives a saber, epaulette, shoulder knot, shoulder board and sleeve insignia and full military uniform to be used in military events while performing the duties as president. The shoulder insignia mirrors Cuban practice but is derived from the German-styled officer rank insignia.


Vietnam

The commander-in-chief of the armed forces is the president of Vietnam, through his post as chairman of National Defense and Security Council. Though this position is nominal and real power is assumed by the Central Military Commission (Vietnam), Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of Vietnam. The secretary of Central Military Commission (usually the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam, general secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam) is the ''de facto'' commander. The Ministry of Defence (Vietnam), minister of Defence oversees operations of the Ministry of Defence, and the Vietnam People's Army. He also oversees such agencies as the General Staff (Vietnam People's Army), General Staff and the General Logistics Department. However, military policy is ultimately directed by the Central Military Commission of the ruling Communist Party of Vietnam.


Other officeholders as commanders-in-chief or other situations


Ethiopia

The 1995 Constitution of Ethiopia, 1995 Constitution designates the Prime Minister of Ethiopia, prime minister of Ethiopia as "Commander-in-Chief of the Ethiopian National Defense Force, national armed forces" in Article 74(1).


Germany


Present, Federal Republic (1956-)

Upon the re-militarization of West Germany in 1955, when it joined NATO, the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany was amended in 1956 to include constitutional provisions for the command of the armed forces. * In peacetime, under Article 65a, the Federal Minister of Defence (Germany), federal minister of defence () holds the supreme command authority () over the Bundeswehr.Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany
Bundestag (Print version. As at: October 2010). Retrieved on 21 August 2013.
* If the Bundestag declares the State of Defence (Germany), state of defence (), the Chancellor of Germany (Federal Republic), Federal Chancellor, under Article 115b, assumes the command authority over the armed forces. , this has never happened. * The president of Germany has thus no role in the command of the forces, although he continues to receive the ceremonial honors due to his position as a
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 "
he head of state He or HE may refer to: Language * He (pronoun) In Modern English, ''he'' is a Grammatical number, singular, Grammatical gender, masculine, Grammatical person, third-person personal pronoun, pronoun. Morphology In Standard English, Standard M ...
being an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of its international perso ...
. The rationale for placing the command authority over the armed forces directly with the responsible minister in charge of the military establishment, and thus breaking with the longstanding German constitutional tradition in both earlier monarchical and republican systems of placing it with the
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 "
he head of state He or HE may refer to: Language * He (pronoun) In Modern English, ''he'' is a Grammatical number, singular, Grammatical gender, masculine, Grammatical person, third-person personal pronoun, pronoun. Morphology In Standard English, Standard M ...
being an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of its international perso ...
, was that in a Democracy, democratic
parliamentary system A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ...
the command authority should directly reside where it would be exercised and where it is subject to the parliamentary control of the Bundestag at all times. By assigning it directly to the responsible minister, instead of with the Federal Chancellor, this also meant that military affairs is but one of the many integrated responsibilities of the Cabinet of Germany, government; in stark contrast of earlier times when the separate division of the military establishment from the civil administration allowed the former to act as a state within a state (in contrast to the Federal Republic, the Weimar Republic began with the Ebert–Groener pact, which kept the military establishment as an autonomous force outside the control of politics; the 1925 German presidential election, 1925 election of Paul von Hindenburg as ''President of Germany (1919–1945), Reichpräsident'', surrounded by his camarilla and the machinations of Kurt von Schleicher, did little to reverse the trend).


East Germany (1960-1990)

The
legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. They are often contrasted with the Executive (government), executive and Judiciary, ...
of the German Democratic Republic (GDR), the ''Volkskammer'', enacted on 13 February 1960 the ''Law on the Formation of the National Defense Council of the GDR'', which established a council consisting of a chairman and at least 12 members. This was later incorporated into the Constitution of the German Democratic Republic, GDR Constitution in April 1968. The National Defense Council of the GDR, National Defense Council held the supreme command of the National People's Army (including the internal security forces), and the council's chairman (usually the Socialist Unity Party of Germany#General Secretaries of the Central Committee of the SED, General Secretary of the ruling Socialist Unity Party of Germany, Socialist Unity Party) was considered the GDR's commander-in-chief. The GDR joined with the Federal Republic of Germany on German Unity Day, 3 October 1990, upon which the GDR's constitution and armed forces were abolished.


Before 1945

During the Kingdom of Prussia, German Empire, Weimar Republic and the Nazi Germany, Nazi era, whoever was the
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 "
he head of state He or HE may refer to: Language * He (pronoun) In Modern English, ''he'' is a Grammatical number, singular, Grammatical gender, masculine, Grammatical person, third-person personal pronoun, pronoun. Morphology In Standard English, Standard M ...
being an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of its international perso ...
—the king of Prussia/German Emperor, German emperor (under the Constitution of Prussia (1850), Constitution of the Kingdom of Prussia/Constitution of the German Empire) to 1918, the President of Germany (1919–1945), Reichspräsident (under the Weimar Constitution) to 1934, and the führer from 1934 to 1945—was the head of the Armed Forces (german: Oberbefehlshaber: literally "Possessor of highest command"). Below the level of the head of state, each
military branch Military branch (also service branch or armed service) is according to common standard the subdivision of the national armed forces of a sovereign nation or state. Types of branches Unified forces The Canadian Armed Forces is the unified a ...
(german: Teilstreitkraft) had its own head who reported directly to the head of state and held the highest rank in his service; in the Reichsheer - Generalfeldmarschall, and in the Reichsmarine - Großadmiral, Grossadmiral. After Chancellor Adolf Hitler assumed power as ''Führer''Gesetz über das Staatsoberhaupt des Deutschen Reichs
1 August 1934:
"§ 1 The office of the Reichspräsident is merged with that of the Reichskanzler. Therefore, the previous rights of the Reichspräsident pass over to the Führer and Reichskanzler Adolf Hitler. He names his deputy."
(after the death of President Paul von Hindenburg), he would later grant his war minister, Generalfeldmarschall Werner von Blomberg, the title of Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces in 1935, when conscription was reintroduced. However, in 1938 due to the Blomberg–Fritsch Affair, Hitler withdrew the commander-in-chief title, abolished the war ministerial post and assumed personal command of the Armed Forces. The war ministerial post was de facto overtaken by the ''Oberkommando der Wehrmacht'', which was headed by Generalfeldmarschall Wilhelm Keitel until the German Instrument of Surrender, German surrender.


Greece

According to Article 45 of the Constitution of Greece, Greek Constitution, the president is the head of the Greek Armed Forces, but their administration is exercised by the Government of Greece, government. The Prime Minister of Greece, prime minister, the Minister for National Defence (Greece), minister for national defence and the Hellenic National Defence General Staff, chief of the general staff are the ones who command the Greek Armed Forces, Armed Forces.


Israel

In Israel, the Basic Laws of Israel, applicable basic law states that the ultimate authority over the Israel Defense Forces rests with the Cabinet of Israel, Government of Israel (chaired by the Prime Minister of Israel, prime minister) as a collective body. The authority of the government is exercised by the Ministry of Defense (Israel), minister of defense on behalf of the Government. However, the commander-in-chief of the IDF is the Chief of General Staff (Israel), chief of general staff who, despite being subordinate to the minister of defense, holds the highest level of command within the military.Basic Law of Israel: The Military
Knesset. Retrieved on 11 November 2011.


Japan

In Japan, prior to the Meiji Restoration the role of the commander-in-chief was vested in the ''shōgun'' (the most militarily powerful samurai ''daimyō''). After the dissolution of the Tokugawa shogunate the role of the commander-in-chief, resided with the emperor of Japan. The present-day Constitution of Japan, constitutional role of the emperor is that of a ceremonial figurehead (Japanese Constitution calls it symbol) without any military role. After Japan's move towards democracy, the position of commander-in-chief of the Japan Self-Defense Forces is held by the Prime Minister of Japan, prime minister of Japan. Military authority runs from the prime minister to the cabinet-level Minister of Defense (Japan), minister of defense of the Ministry of Defense (Japan), Japanese Ministry of Defense.


Malta

The Malta Armed Forces Act does not directly establish the president of Malta as the supreme commander of the Armed Forces. However, Maltese law allows the president to raise by voluntary enlistment and maintain an armed force. Likewise, the law allows the president to issue orders in order to the administrate the armed forces. It is important to note that the Armed Forces do not swear allegiance to the president of Malta but rather to the Malta, Republic of Malta. On this basis, there is no direct link between the head of state and the armed forces. For this reason, this link is mediated by the minister responsible for defence. Nonetheless, the Presidential Palaces are guarded by the Armed Forces as a symbolic gesture of social cohesion.


Myanmar

In Myanmar, the Commander-in-Chief of Defence Services (Tatmadaw) is the commanding officer national military, a position vested in a military officer, not the President of Myanmar, president. The commander-in-chief is, however, a member of the National Defence and Security Council and reports to the president. The commander-in-chief is assisted in his/her role by the Deputy Commander-in-Chief of Defence Services.


Netherlands

The Constitution of the Netherlands states, in article 97, that "''the Government shall have supreme authority over the Armed forces of the Netherlands, armed forces''". Article 42 defines the Cabinet of the Netherlands, Government as the Monarchy of the Netherlands, Monarch and the ministers, and that only ministers are responsible for acts of government. Article 45 further defines the ministers as constituting the Council of Ministers of the Netherlands, Cabinet, chaired by the Prime Minister of the Netherlands, prime minister, with "authority to decide upon overall government policy". Before a constitution change took place in 1983, even though the equivalent section stated that: "''The King shall have supreme authority over the armed forces''"; that did not give the monarch any autonomous command authority. The Minister of Defence (Netherlands), minister of defence has the primary ministerial responsibility for the armed forces, which are formally a part of the Ministry of Defence (Netherlands), Ministry of Defence. The Chief of Defence (Netherlands), chief of defence is the highest ranked professional military officer, and serves as an intermediary between the minister of defence and the Armed Forces, and is responsible to the minister for military-strategic planning, operations and deployment of the Armed Forces.


North Korea

* Is it the Eternal President of the Republic, eternal president of the republic, the late Kim Il-sung, designated as such in the preamble; * is it the president of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly, who under article 117 of the constitution directs the work of the presidium, represents the state, and accredits North Korean diplomats and receives credentials from foreign diplomats; * or is it the chairman of the National Defence Commission who in article 100 is described as the "highest military leading organ of State power and an organ for general control over national defense of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea"? In any case, the North Korean constitution, in article 102, is quite explicit regarding which official commands the armed forces: The chairman is formally elected by the Supreme People's Assembly (article 91:5) and serves for terms of office of five years (articles 101 & 90:1); but in practice, the office is hereditary within the Kim dynasty (North Korea), Kim Dynasty, as the late Kim Jong-il was posthumously designated as the "eternal chairman of the National Defence Commission", while his son, Kim Jong-un, was appointed as the "first chairman of the National Defence Commission".


Sweden

In Sweden, with the Ordinance of Alsnö in 1280, Swedish nobility, nobles were exempted from land taxation if they provided cavalrymen to the king's service. Following the Swedish War of Liberation (1521–53) from the Kalmar Union, a Svea Life Guards, Guards Regiment was formed under the King and from there the modern Swedish Army has its roots. During the age of the Swedish Empire, several kings—Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, Gustavus Adolphus, Charles X of Sweden, Charles X, Charles XI of Sweden, Charles XI & Charles XII of Sweden, Charles XII—personally led their forces into battle. Under the Instrument of Government (1809), Instrument of Government of 1809, which was in force until the current Constitution of Sweden, Instrument of Government of 1974 went into force on 1 January 1975; the Monarch of Sweden, monarch was in §§ 14-15 explicitly designated as the commander-in-chief of the Swedish Armed Forces ( sv, Högste befälhavare). At present, the Government of Sweden, Government ( sv, Regeringen) as a collective body, chaired and formed by the Prime Minister of Sweden, prime minister of Sweden, holds the highest Executive (government), Executive Authority, subject to the will of the Riksdag of Sweden, Riksdag; and is thus the present day closest equivalent of a command-in-chief, although not explicitly designated as such. The reason for this change was, apart from the fact that the king was since 1917 no longer expected to make political decisions without ministerial advice, that the new Instrument of Government was intended to be made as descriptive on the workings of the State as possible, and reflective on how decisions are actually made. Minister of Justice (Sweden), Minister of Justice Lennart Geijer further remarked in the government bill that any continued pretensions of royal involvement in government decisions would be of a "fictitious nature" and "highly unsatisfactory". Certain government decisions regarding the Armed Forces ( sv, Särskilda regeringsbeslut) may be delegated to the Minister for Defence (Sweden), minister for defence, under the supervision of the prime minister and to the extent laid down in ordinances. To add to some confusion to the above, the title of the agency head of the Swedish Armed Forces and highest ranked commissioned officer on active duty, is actually the Supreme Commander of the Swedish Armed Forces, supreme commander of the Swedish Armed Forces ( sv, Överbefälhavaren). However, the Monarch (as of present Carl XVI Gustaf, King Carl XVI Gustaf), is still a four-star general and admiral ''à la suite'' in the Swedish Army, Swedish Navy, Navy and Swedish Air Force, Air Force and is by unwritten convention regarded as the foremost representative of the Swedish Armed Forces. The king has, as part of his Royal Household, court, a Staff (military), military staff. The military staff is headed by a senior officer (usually a general or admiral, retired from active service) and is composed of active duty military officers serving as Aide-de-camp, aides to the king and his family.


Switzerland

Supreme authority over the military belongs to the Swiss Federal Council, Federal Council, which is the Swiss collegial
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 "
he head of state He or HE may refer to: Language * He (pronoun) In Modern English, ''he'' is a Grammatical number, singular, Grammatical gender, masculine, Grammatical person, third-person personal pronoun, pronoun. Morphology In Standard English, Standard M ...
being an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of its international perso ...
. Notwithstanding the previous sentence, under the Constitution of Switzerland, Constitution, the Federal Council can only, in the operational sense, command a maximum of 4,000 soldiers, with a time limit of three weeks of mobilisation. For it to field more service personnel, the Federal Assembly of Switzerland, Federal Assembly must elect a General (Switzerland), General who is given four stars. Thus, the General is elected by the Federal Assembly to give him the same democratic legitimacy as the Federal Council. In peacetime, the Swiss Armed Forces, Armed Forces are led by the Chief of the Armed Forces (Switzerland), Chief of the Armed Forces (''Chef der Armee''), who reports to the head of the Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sports and to the Federal Council as a whole. The Chief of the Armed Forces has the rank of ''Korpskommandant'' or ''Commandant de corps'' (Ranks and insignia of NATO armies officers, OF-8 in NATO equivalence). In a time of declared war or national emergency, however, the Federal Assembly of Switzerland, Federal Assembly, assembled as the United Federal Assembly, specifically for the purpose of taking on the Theater (warfare), war-time responsibilities elect a General (Switzerland), General as commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces under Article 168 of the Constitution. Whilst the General acts as the highest military authority with a high degree of autonomy, he is still subordinate to the Federal Council (See Articles 58, 60, 174, 177, 180 & 185). The Federal Assembly retains the sole power to dismiss the General, but the General remains subordinate to the Federal Council by the council's ability to demobilise, thereby making the position of General redundant. Four generals were appointed in Swiss history, General Henri Dufour during the Sonderbund, Swiss Civil War, General Hans Herzog during the Franco-Prussian War, General Ulrich Wille during the First World War, and General Henri Guisan during the Second World War ("''la Mob''", "the Mobilisation"). Although Switzerland remained neutral during the latter three conflicts, the threat of having its territory used as a battlefield by the much bigger war parties of Germany and France required mobilization of the army.


See also

Within NATO and the European Union, the term Chief of Defence (CHOD) is usually used as a generic term for the highest-ranked office held by a professional military officer on active duty, irrespective of their actual title or powers.NATO Chiefs of Defence
Retrieved on 12 May 2013.
Other Articles of Interest * Caesarism * Civilian control of the military * Command and control * Commanding officer *
Generalissimo ''Generalissimo'' ( ) is a military rank of the highest degree, superior to field marshal Field marshal (or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is the most senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer ranks. Usually it is the ...
* Militarism * Military junta * Minister of Defence * Praetorianism * State within a state * Strongman (politics) * Supreme Commander (disambiguation), Supreme Commander * Warlord * Magister militum


Notes


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Commander-In-Chief Commanders in chief, Military organization Military sociology Military ranks