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Columbus is the
state capital Below is an index of pages containing lists of capital cities A capital or capital city is the municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-gov ...
and the
most populous city The United Nations uses three definitions for what constitutes a city, as not all cities in all jurisdictions are classified using the same criteria. Cities may be defined as the city proper, cities proper, the extent of their urban area, or the ...
in the
U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory where it shares its with the . Due to this shared sovereignty, are both of t ...
of
Ohio Ohio () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Co ...

Ohio
. With a population of 905,748 for the 2020 census, it is the 14th-most populous city in the U.S., the second-most populous city in the
Midwest The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the Midwest or the American Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a princ ...
after
Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive map of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name ...

Chicago
, and the third-most populous state capital. Columbus is the
county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state. Th ...
of
Franklin CountyFranklin County may refer to: Australia *Franklin County, New South Wales *the former name of Franklin Land District, Tasmania New Zealand *Franklin County, New Zealand United States Franklin County is the name of 24 counties and one parish in ...
; it also extends into
Delaware Delaware ( ) is a state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Maryland to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean to its east. The state takes i ...
and Fairfield counties. It is the core city of the Columbus, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses ten counties. The metropolitan area has a 2020 population of 2,138,926, making it the largest entirely in Ohio. Columbus originated as numerous Native American settlements on the banks of the
Scioto River The Scioto River ( ) is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course wit ...
. Franklinton, now a city neighborhood, was the first European settlement, laid out in 1797. The city was founded in 1812, at the
confluence In geography, a confluence (also: ''conflux'') occurs where two or more flowing bodies of water join together to form a single channel. A confluence can occur in several configurations: at the point where a tributary joins a larger river (main ...

confluence
of the Scioto and rivers, and laid out to become the state capital. The city was named for Italian explorer
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was an Italian ...

Christopher Columbus
. The city assumed the function of state capital in 1816 and county seat in 1824. Amid steady years of growth and industrialization, the city has experienced numerous floods and recessions. Beginning in the 1950s, Columbus began to experience significant growth; it became the largest city in Ohio in land and population by the early 1990s. The 1990s and 2000s saw redevelopment in numerous city neighborhoods, including downtown. The city has a diverse economy based on education, government, insurance, banking, defense, aviation, food, clothes, logistics, steel, energy, medical research, health care, hospitality, retail, and technology. The metropolitan area is home to the
Battelle Memorial Institute Headquarters in Columbus Battelle Memorial Institute (more widely known as simply Battelle) is a private nonprofit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is ...
, the world's largest private research and development foundation;
Chemical Abstracts Service Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) is a division of the American Chemical Society The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a scientific society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) i ...
, the world's largest clearinghouse of chemical information; and
Ohio State University The Ohio State University, commonly Ohio State or OSU, is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of deliberately managing the release and spread of information between an individual or an organization ...
, one of the largest universities in the United States. As of 2021, the Greater Columbus area is home to the headquarters of six corporations in the U.S.
Fortune 500 The ''Fortune'' 500 is an annual list compiled and published by ''Fortune Fortune may refer to: General * Fortuna or Fortune, the Roman goddess of luck * Luck, a chance happening, or that which happens beyond a person's controls * Wealth, an ab ...
:
Cardinal Health Cardinal Health, Inc. is an American multinational health care services company, and the 14th highest revenue generating company in the United States. Its headquarters are based in Dublin, Ohio and Dublin, Ireland (EMEA). The company specializes ...
,
American Electric Power American Electric Power (AEP), (railcar reporting mark A reporting mark is a code used to identify owners or lessees of rolling stock The term rolling stock in the rail transport Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a mea ...
,
L Brands Bath & Body Works, Inc. (formerly known as L Brands, Inc., Limited Brands, Inc. and The Limited, Inc.) is an United States, American specialty retailer based in Columbus, Ohio. It owns Bath & Body Works, posted $12.914 billion in revenue in 2019 ...
, Nationwide,
Alliance Data Alliance Data Systems Corporation is a publicly traded provider of loyalty and marketing services, such as private label credit cards, coalition loyalty programs, and direct marketing, derived from the capture and analysis of transaction-rich dat ...
, and
Huntington Bancshares Huntington Bank location in Springboro, Ohio Huntington Bancshares Incorporated is a bank holding company headquartered in Columbus, Ohio Columbus is the List of U.S. state capitals, state capital and the List of cities in Ohio, most po ...
.


Name

The city of Columbus was named after 15th-century Italian explorer
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was an Italian ...

Christopher Columbus
at the city's founding in 1812. It is the largest city in the world named for the explorer, who sailed to and settled parts of the Americas on behalf of
Isabella I of Castile Isabella I ( es, Isabel I, 22 April 1451 – 26 November 1504) was Queen of Castile This is a list of kings and queens of the Kingdom and Crown of Castile The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the Iberian Peninsula that fo ...
and Spain. Although no reliable history exists as to why Columbus, who had no connection to the city or state of Ohio before the city's founding, was chosen as the name for the city, the book ''Columbus: The Story of a City'' indicates a state lawmaker and local resident admired the explorer enough to persuade other lawmakers to name the settlement Columbus. Since the late 20th century, historians have criticized Columbus for initiating the European conquest of America and for abuse, enslavement, and subjugation of natives.Bigelow, B. (1992). ''Once upon a Genocide: Christopher Columbus in Children's Literature''. Efforts to remove symbols related to the explorer in the city date to the 1990s. Amid the
George Floyd protests The George Floyd protests are an ongoing series of police brutality protests that began in Minneapolis in the United States on May 26, 2020. The Civil disorder, civil unrest and protests began as part of international Reactions to the killing ...
in 2020, several petitions pushed for the city to be renamed. Nicknames for the city have included "the Discovery City", " Arch City", "Cap City", "Indie Art Capital", " Cowtown", "The Biggest Small Town in America", and "Cbus".


History


Ancient and early history

Between 1000 B.C. and 1700 A.D., the Columbus metropolitan area was a center to indigenous cultures known as the
Mound Builders A number of pre-Columbian cultures are collectively termed "Mound Builders". The term does not refer to a specific people or archaeological culture, but refers to the characteristic mound A mound is a heaped pile of earth, gravel, sand, ...
. The cultures included the Adena,
Hopewell Hopewell may refer to: Places Barbados *Hopewell, Christ Church *Hopewell, Saint Thomas Canada * Hopewell Parish, New Brunswick * Hopewell Cape, New Brunswick * Hopewell Rocks, a tourist attraction new Hopewell Cape * Hopewell, Newfoundland and ...
and
Fort Ancient Fort Ancient is a name for a Native American culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, ...

Fort Ancient
people. The only remaining physical evidence of the cultures are their burial mounds and what they contained. Most of Central Ohio's remaining mounds are located outside of Columbus city boundaries, though the Shrum Mound is upkept, now part of a public park and historic site. The city's Mound Street derives its name from a mound that existed by the intersection of Mound and
High Street #REDIRECT High Street High Street is a common street name for the primary business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling Product (business), products (such as goods and services) ...
s. The mound's clay was used in bricks for most of the city's initial brick buildings; many were subsequently used in the
Ohio Statehouse The Ohio Statehouse is the state capitol building and seat of government The seat of government is (as defined by ''Brewer's Politics'') "the building, complex of buildings or the city from which a government A government is the syste ...

Ohio Statehouse
. The city's
Ohio History Center The Ohio History Center is a history museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is an institution that Preservation (library and archival science), cares for (conserves) a collection (artwork), collection of artifacts and other ...

Ohio History Center
maintains a collection of artifacts from these cultures.


18th century: Ohio Country

The area including modern-day Columbus once comprised the
Ohio Country upright=1.75, The Ohio Country with battles and massacres between 1775 and 1794 The Ohio Country (sometimes called the Ohio TerritoryA misnomer since it was never an organized territory of the United States or of any other nation or Ohio Valley b ...
, under the nominal control of the
French colonial empire The French colonial empire () comprised the overseas colonies, protectorates and League of Nations mandate, mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward. A distinction is generally made between the "First French Co ...
through the Viceroyalty of
New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the a ...

New France
from 1663 until 1763. In the 18th century, European traders flocked to the area, attracted by the
fur trade The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur Fur is a thick growth of hair Hair is a protein filament In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organi ...
. The area was often caught between warring factions, including American Indian and European interests. In the 1740s, Pennsylvania traders overran the territory until the French forcibly evicted them. Fighting for control of the territory in the
French and Indian War The French and Indian War (1754–1763) was a theater of the Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Great Britain ...

French and Indian War
(1754-1763) became part of the international
Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain and Kingdom of France, France. In Europe, the conflict ar ...
(1756-1763). During this period, the region routinely suffered turmoil, massacres, and battles. The 1763 Treaty of Paris ceded the Ohio Country to the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
. Until just before the
American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution which occurred in colonial North America between 1765 and 1783. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colo ...
, Central Ohio had continuously been the home of numerous indigenous villages. A
Mingo The Mingo people are an Iroquoian The Iroquoian languages are a language family of indigenous peoples of North America The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the inhabitants of the Americas before the arrival of the European coloniz ...

Mingo
village was located at the forks of the Scioto and Olentangy rivers, with Shawnee villages to the south and Wyandot and Delaware villages to the north. Colonial militiamen burned down the Mingo village in 1774 during a raid.


Virginia Military District

After the American Revolution, the
Virginia Military District The Virginia Military District was an approximately 4.2 million acre (17,000 km²) area of land in what is now the state of Ohio Ohio is a U.S. state, state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern region of the United States. Of t ...
became part of the Ohio Country as a territory of Virginia. Colonists from the East Coast moved in, but rather than finding an empty
frontier A frontier is the political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the Cognition, cognitive ...

frontier
, they encountered people of the
Miami Miami (), officially the City of Miami, is a coast, coastal metropolis located in Miami-Dade County, Florida, Miami-Dade County in southeastern Florida, United States. With a population of 467,963 as of the 2020 United States census, 2020 censu ...
,
Delaware Delaware ( ) is a state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Maryland to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean to its east. The state takes i ...
,
Wyandot Wyandot may refer to: Native American ethnography * Wyandot people The Wyandot people or Wendat, also called the Huron, are Iroquoian-speaking peoples of North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hem ...
,
Shawnee The Shawnee are an Algonquian-speaking indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands Indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands include Native American tribes The term tribe is used in many different contexts to refer to a categor ...

Shawnee
, and
Mingo The Mingo people are an Iroquoian The Iroquoian languages are a language family of indigenous peoples of North America The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the inhabitants of the Americas before the arrival of the European coloniz ...

Mingo
nations, as well as European traders. The tribes resisted expansion by the fledgling United States, leading to years of bitter conflict. The decisive
Battle of Fallen Timbers The Battle of Fallen Timbers (20 August 1794) was the final battle of the Northwest Indian War, a struggle between Indigenous peoples of North America, Native American tribes affiliated with the Western Confederacy and their Kingdom of Great Bri ...
resulted in the
Treaty of Greenville The Treaty of Greenville, formally titled Treaty with the Wyandots, etc., was a 1795 treaty between the United States and indigenous nations of the Northwest Territory The Northwest Territory, also known as the Old Northwest and formall ...

Treaty of Greenville
in 1795, which finally opened the way for new settlements. By 1797, a young surveyor from Virginia named
Lucas Sullivant Lucas Sullivant (September 22, 1765 – August 28, 1823), was the founder of Franklinton, Columbus, Ohio, Franklinton, Ohio, the first American settlement near the Scioto River in central Ohio. Biography Lucas Sullivant was of Irish descent; ...
had founded a permanent settlement on the west bank of the forks of the Scioto and Olentangy rivers. An admirer of
Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin ( April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States The Founding Fathers of the United States, or simply the Founding Fathers or Founders, were a group of American revolutionary Patriots (also ...

Benjamin Franklin
, Sullivant chose to name his frontier village " Franklinton". The location was desirable for its proximity to the navigable rivers—but Sullivant was initially foiled when, in 1798, a large flood wiped out the new settlement. He persevered, and the village was rebuilt, though somewhat more inland. After the Revolution, land comprising parts of Franklin and adjacent counties was set aside by the
United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature of the federal government of the United States. It is Bicameralism, bicameral, comprising a lower body, the United States House of Representatives, House of Representatives, and an upper body, t ...

United States Congress
for settlement by
Canadians Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atl ...
and
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , capital ...

Nova Scotia
ns who were sympathetic to the colonial cause and had their land and possessions seized by the British government. The
Refugee TractThe Refugee Tract is an area of land in Ohio Ohio is a U.S. state, state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern region of the United States. Of the List of states and territories of the United States, fifty states, it is the List of U.S. ...
, consisting of , was long and wide, and was claimed by 67 eligible men. The Ohio Statehouse sits on land once contained in the Refugee Tract.


19th century: state capital, city establishment, and development

After Ohio achieved statehood in 1803, political infighting among prominent Ohio leaders led to the state capital moving from Chillicothe to Zanesville and back again. Desiring to settle on a location, the state legislature considered Franklinton,
Dublin Dublin (; , or ) is the capital and largest city of Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_ ...
, Worthington, and
Delaware Delaware ( ) is a state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Maryland to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean to its east. The state takes i ...
before compromising on a plan to build a new city in the state's center, near major transportation routes, primarily rivers. As well, Franklinton landowners had donated two plots in an effort to convince the state to move its capitol there. The two spaces were set to become
Capitol Square Capitol Square is a public square in Downtown ''Downtown'' is a term primarily used in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be ...

Capitol Square
(for the
Ohio Statehouse The Ohio Statehouse is the state capitol building and seat of government The seat of government is (as defined by ''Brewer's Politics'') "the building, complex of buildings or the city from which a government A government is the syste ...

Ohio Statehouse
) and the
Ohio Penitentiary The Ohio Penitentiary, also known as the Ohio State Penitentiary, was a prison A prison (also known as a jail or gaol (dated, British, Australian, and to a lesser extent Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified ...
. Named in honor of Christopher Columbus, the city was founded on February 14, 1812, on the "High Banks opposite Franklinton at the Forks of the Scioto most known as Wolf's Ridge." At the time, this area was a dense forestland, used only as a hunting ground. The city was incorporated as a borough on February 10, 1816. Nine people were elected to fill the municipality's various positions of mayor, treasurer, and several others. During 1816–1817, Jarvis W. Pike would serve as the first appointed mayor. Although the recent
War of 1812 The War of 1812 (18 June 1812 – 17 February 1815) was a conflict fought by the United States of America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It ...
had brought prosperity to the area, the subsequent recession and conflicting claims to the land threatened the new town's success. Early conditions were abysmal with frequent bouts of fevers, attributed to
malaria Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals. Malaria causes symptoms Signs and symptoms are the observed or detectable signs, and experienced symptoms of an illness, injury, or condition. A sign fo ...

malaria
from the flooding rivers, and an outbreak of
cholera Cholera is an infection An infection is the invasion of an organism's body by , their multiplication, and the reaction of tissues to the infectious agents and the s they produce. An infectious disease, also known as a transmissible disea ...

cholera
in 1833. It led Columbus to appoint the Board of Health, now part of the Columbus Public Health department. The outbreak, which remained in the city from July to September 1833, killed 100 people. Columbus was without direct river or trail connections to other Ohio cities, leading to slow initial growth. The
National Road The National Road (also known as the Cumberland Road) was the first major improved highway in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country ...

National Road
reached Columbus from
Baltimore Baltimore ( , locally: ) is the most populous city The United Nations uses three definitions for what constitutes a city, as not all cities in all jurisdictions are classified using the same criteria. Cities may be defined as the city prop ...

Baltimore
in 1831, which complemented the city's new link to the
Ohio and Erie Canal The Ohio and Erie Canal was a canal Canals are waterways Channel (geography), channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles. They may also help with irrigation. It can be thought of as an ...
, both of which facilitated a population boom. A wave of European
immigrants Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective ident ...

immigrants
led to the creation of two ethnic
enclave An enclave is a territory (or a part of one) that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state. Enclaves may also exist within territorial waters. ''Enclave'' is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory that is only partly ...

enclave
s on the city's outskirts. A large
Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...
population settled in the north along Naghten Street (presently Nationwide Boulevard), while the
Germans Germans (, ) are the natives or inhabitants of Germany Germany (german: Deutschland, ), officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in . It is the in Europe after , and the most populous . Germany is situated between the and seas ...
took advantage of the cheap land to the south, creating a community that came to be known as the '''' (The Old South End). Columbus's German population constructed numerous breweries,
Trinity Lutheran Seminary Trinity Lutheran Seminary at Capital University is an Evangelical Lutheran Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement again ...
, and
Capital University Capital University (Capital, Cap, or CU) is a private university Private universities (and private colleges) are usually not operated by governments, although many receive tax breaks, public student loans, and grant (money), grants. Depending ...
.Lentz, pp. 63–64 With a population of 3,500, Columbus was officially chartered as a city on March 3, 1834. On that day the legislature carried out a special act, which granted legislative authority to the
city council A municipal council is the legislature, legislative body of a municipality or local government area. Depending on the location and classification of the municipality it may be known as a city council, town council, town board, community council, ...
and judicial authority to the mayor. Elections were held in April of that year, with voters choosing one as the first popularly elected mayor. Columbus annexed the then-separate city of Franklinton in 1837. In 1850, the
Columbus and Xenia Railroad The Columbus and Xenia Railroad was a railroad which connected the city of Columbus Columbus is a Latinized version of the Italian surname "''Colombo Colombo ( si, කොළඹ, translit=Kolamba, ; ta, கொழும்பு, translit=Koz ...
became the first railroad into the city, followed by the
Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati Railroad The Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati Railroad (CC&C) was a railroad that ran from Cleveland to Columbus, Ohio, Columbus in the U.S. state of Ohio in the United States. Chartered in 1836, it was moribund for the first 10 years of its existence. I ...
in 1851. The two railroads built a joint
Union Station A union station (also known as a union terminal and, in Europe, a joint station) is a railway station Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, whi ...
on the east side of High Street just north of Naghten (then called North Public Lane). Rail traffic into Columbus increased—by 1875, eight railroads served Columbus, and the rail companies built a new, more elaborate station. Another cholera outbreak hit Columbus in 1849, prompting the opening of the city's Green Lawn Cemetery. On January 7, 1857, the
Ohio Statehouse The Ohio Statehouse is the state capitol building and seat of government The seat of government is (as defined by ''Brewer's Politics'') "the building, complex of buildings or the city from which a government A government is the syste ...

Ohio Statehouse
finally opened after 18 years of construction. Site construction continued until 1861. Before the abolition of slavery in the
Southern United States The Southern United States, also referred to as the Southern States, the American South, Dixie, the Southland, or simply the South, is a geographic and cultural region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally ...
in 1863, the
Underground Railroad#REDIRECT Underground Railroad The Underground Railroad was a network of secret routes and safe houses established in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is ...
was active in Columbus; led, in part, by James Preston Poindexter. Poindexter arrived in Columbus in the 1830s and became a Baptist preacher and leader in the city's African-American community until the turn of the century. During the
Civil War A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publis ...
, Columbus was a major base for the volunteer
Union Army During the American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by Names of the American Civil War, other names) was a civil war in the United States from 1861 to 1865, fought between northern U.S. state, states loyal to the Union (A ...
. It housed 26,000 troops and held up to 9,000
Confederate Confederacy may refer to: A confederation, an association of sovereign states or communities. Examples include: * Battle of the Trench, Confederate tribes * Confederate States of America, a confederation of secessionist American states that existed ...
prisoners of war A prisoner of war (POW) is a non-combatant Non-combatant is a term of art Jargon is the specialized terminology associated with a particular field or area of activity. Jargon is normally employed in a particular Context (language use), co ...
at
Camp Chase Camp Chase was a military staging and training camp established in Columbus, Ohio in May 1861 after the start of the American Civil War. It also included a large Union-operated Prisoner-of-war camp, prison camp for Confederate prisoners during the ...
, at what is now the Hilltop neighborhood of west Columbus. Over 2,000 Confederate soldiers remain buried at the site, making it one of the North's largest Confederate cemeteries. North of Columbus, along the Delaware Road, the Regular Army (United States), Regular Army established Camp Thomas, where the 18th Infantry Regiment (United States), 18th U.S. Infantry organized and trained. By virtue of the Morrill Act of 1862, the Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College (which became
Ohio State University The Ohio State University, commonly Ohio State or OSU, is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of deliberately managing the release and spread of information between an individual or an organization ...
) was founded in 1870 on the former estate of William and Hannah Neil. By the end of the 19th century, Columbus was home to several major manufacturing businesses. The city became known as the "Buggy Capital of the World," thanks to the two dozen Carriage, buggy factories—notably the Columbus Buggy Company, founded in 1875 by C.D. Firestone. The Columbus Consolidated Brewing Company also rose to prominence during this time and might have achieved even greater success were it not for the Anti-Saloon League in neighboring Westerville, Ohio, Westerville. In the steel, steel industry, a forward-thinking man named Samuel P. Bush presided over the Buckeye Steel Castings Company. Columbus was also a popular location for labor organizations. In 1886, Samuel Gompers founded the American Federation of Labor in Druid's Hall on S. Fourth Street, and in 1890 the United Mine Workers of America was founded at Columbus City Hall (1872–1921), the old City Hall. In 1894, James Thurber, who would go on to an illustrious literary career in Paris and New York City, was born in the city. Today Ohio State's theater department has a performance center named in his honor, and his childhood-home, the Thurber House, is located in the Discovery District and is on the National Register of Historic Places.


20th century

Columbus earned one of its nicknames, "The Arch City", because of the Columbus streetcar arches, dozens of wooden arches that spanned High Street at the turn of the 20th century. The arches illuminated the thoroughfare and eventually became the means by which electric power was provided to the new streetcars. The city tore down the arches and replaced them with cluster lights in 1914 but reconstructed them from metal in the Short North district in 2002 for their unique historical interest. On March 25, 1913, the Great Flood of 1913 devastated the neighborhood of Franklinton, leaving over ninety people dead and thousands of West Side residents homeless. To prevent flooding, the United States Army Corps of Engineers, Army Corps of Engineers recommended widening the Scioto River through downtown, constructing new bridges, and building a retaining wall along its banks. With the strength of the post-World War I economy, a construction boom occurred in the 1920s, resulting in a new Civic center, the Ohio Theatre (Columbus, Ohio), Ohio Theatre, the American Insurance Union Citadel, and to the north, a massive new Ohio Stadium. Although the National Football League, American Professional Football Association was founded in Canton, Ohio, Canton in 1920, its head offices moved to Columbus in 1921 to the 16 East Broad Street, New Hayden Building and remained in the city until 1941. In 1922, the association's name was changed to the National Football League. A decade later, in 1931, at a convention in the city, the Jehovah's Witnesses took that name by which they are known today. The effects of the Great Depression were less severe in Columbus, as the city's diversified economy helped it fare better than its Rust Belt neighbors. World War II brought many new jobs and another population surge. This time, most new arrivals were migrants from the "extraordinarily depressed rural areas" of Appalachia, who would soon account for more than a third of Columbus's growing population. In 1948, the Town and Country Shopping Center opened in suburban Whitehall, Ohio, Whitehall, and it is now regarded as one of the first modern shopping centers in the United States. The construction of the Interstate Highway System signaled the arrival of rapid suburb development in central Ohio. To protect the city's tax base from this suburbanization, Columbus adopted a policy of linking sewer and water hookups to annexation to the city. By the early 1990s, Columbus had grown to become Ohio's largest city in land area and in population. Efforts to revitalize Downtown Columbus, Ohio, downtown Columbus have had some success in recent decades, though like most major American cities, some architectural heritage was lost in the process. In the 1970s, landmarks such as
Union Station A union station (also known as a union terminal and, in Europe, a joint station) is a railway station Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, whi ...
and the Neil House hotel were razed to construct high-rise offices and big retail space. The PNC Bank Building (Columbus, Ohio), PNC Bank building was constructed in 1977, as well as the One Nationwide Plaza, Nationwide Plaza buildings and other towers that sprouted during this period. The construction of the Greater Columbus Convention Center has brought major conventions and trade shows to the city.


21st century

The Scioto Mile began development along the riverfront, an area that already had the Miranova Place, Miranova Corporate Center and The Condominiums at North Bank Park. The 2010 United States foreclosure crisis forced the city to purchase numerous foreclosed, vacant properties to renovate or demolish themat a cost of tens of millions of dollars. In February 2011, Columbus had 6,117 vacant properties, according to city officials. Since 2010, Columbus has been growing in population and economy; from 2010 to 2017, the city added 164,000 jobs, second in the United States. The city is focused on downtown revitalization, with recent projects being the Columbus Commons park, parks along the Scioto Mile developed along with a reshaped riverfront, and developments in the Arena District and Franklinton. In February and March 2020, COVID-19 pandemic in Columbus, Ohio, Columbus reported its first official cases of COVID-19 and declared a state of emergency, with all nonessential businesses closed state-wide. There were 69,244 cases of the disease across the city, . Later in 2020, protests over the murder of George Floyd George Floyd protests in Columbus, Ohio, took place in the city from May 28 into August.


Geography

The confluence of the Scioto River, Scioto and rivers is just north-west of Downtown Columbus, Ohio, Downtown Columbus. Several smaller tributaries course through the Columbus metropolitan area, Ohio, Columbus metropolitan area, including Alum Creek (Ohio), Alum Creek, Big Walnut Creek, and Big Darby Creek, Darby Creek. Columbus is considered to have relatively flat topography thanks to a large glacier that covered most of Ohio during the Wisconsin glaciation, Wisconsin Ice Age. However, there are sizable differences in elevation through the area, with the high point of Franklin County being Height above sea level, above sea level near New Albany, Ohio, New Albany, and the low point being where the Scioto River leaves the county near Lockbourne, Ohio, Lockbourne. Numerous ravines near the rivers and creeks also add variety to the landscape. Tributaries to Alum Creek and the Olentangy River cut through shale, while tributaries to the Scioto River cut through limestone. The city has a total area of , of which is land and is water. Columbus currently has the largest land area of any Ohio city. This is due to Jim Rhodes's tactic to annex suburbs while serving as mayor. As surrounding communities grew or were constructed, they came to require access to waterlines, which was under the sole control of the municipal water system. Rhodes told these communities that if they wanted water, they would have to submit to assimilation into Columbus.


Neighborhoods

Columbus has a wide diversity of neighborhoods with different characters, and is thus sometimes known as a "city of neighborhoods". Some of the most prominent neighborhoods include the Arena District, the Brewery District, Clintonville (Columbus, Ohio), Clintonville, Franklinton, German Village, The Short North, and Victorian Village.


Climate

The city's climate is Humid continental climate, humid continental (Köppen climate classification ''Dfa'') transitional with the humid subtropical climate to the south characterized by warm, muggy summers and cold, dry winters. Columbus is within USDA hardiness zone 6a. Winter snowfall is relatively light, since the city is not in the typical path of strong winter lows, such as the Nor'easters that strike cities farther east. It is also too far south and west for lake-effect snow from Lake Erie to have much effect, although the lakes to the North contribute to long stretches of cloudy spells in winter. The highest temperature recorded in Columbus was , which occurred twice during the Dust Bowl of the 1930s—once on July 21, 1934, and again on July 14, 1936.Records for Columbus.
National Weather Service. Retrieved on 2008-11-16.
The lowest recorded temperature was , occurring on 1994 North American cold wave, January 19, 1994. Columbus is subject to severe weather typical to the Midwestern United States. Severe thunderstorms can bring lightning, large hail and on rare occasion tornadoes, especially during the spring and sometimes through fall. A tornado that occurred on October 11, 2006, caused Fujita Scale, F2 damage. Floods, blizzards, and ice storms can also occur from time to time.


Demographics


2010 census

In the 2010 United States census there were 787,033 people, 331,602 households, and 176,037 families residing in the city. The population density was . There were 370,965 housing units at an average density of . The racial makeup of the city included 815,985 races tallied, as some residents recognized multiple races. The racial makeup was 61.9% White Americans, White, 29.1% African Americans, Black or African American, 1.0% Native Americans in the United States, Native American or Alaska Native, 4.6% Asian Americans, Asian, 0.2% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander Americans, Pacific Islander, and 3.2% from other races. Hispanic and Latino Americans, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.9% of the population. Of the 331,602 households, 29.1% had children under the age of 18, 32.0% were married couples living together, 15.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.1% had a male householder with no wife present, and 46.9% were non-families. 35.1% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 3.04. The median age in the city was 31.2 years. 23.2% of residents were under the age of 18; 14% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 32.3% were from 25 to 44; 21.8% were from 45 to 64; and 8.6% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.8% male and 51.2% female.


Population makeup

Columbus historically had a significant population of white people. In 1900, whites made up 93.4% of the population. Though Ethnic groups in Europe, European immigration has declined, the Columbus metropolitan area has recently experienced increases in Demographics of Africa, African, Asian people, Asian, and Latin Americans, Latin American immigration, including groups from Mexico, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Somalia, and China. Although the Asian population is diverse, the city's Hispanic community is mainly made up of Mexican Americans, though there is a notable Stateside Puerto Ricans, Puerto Rican population. Many other countries of origin are represented in lesser numbers, largely due to the international draw of
Ohio State University The Ohio State University, commonly Ohio State or OSU, is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of deliberately managing the release and spread of information between an individual or an organization ...
. 2008 estimates indicate roughly 116,000 of the city's residents are foreign-born, accounting for 82% of the new residents between 2000 and 2006 at a rate of 105 per week. 40% of the immigrants came from Asia, 23% from Africa, 22% from Latin America, and 13% from Europe."Capacity Building Initiative: Immigrant and Refugee Organizations"
, Columbus Foundation. 2006. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
The city had the second largest Somali and Somali American population in the country, as of 2004, as well as the largest expatriate Lhotshampa, Bhutanese-Nepali population in the world, as of 2018. Due to its demographics, which include a mix of races and a wide range of incomes, as well as urban, suburban, and nearby rural areas, Columbus is considered a "typical" American city, leading retail and chain store, restaurant chains to use it as a test market for new products. Columbus has maintained a steady population growth since its establishment. Its slowest growth, from 1850 to 1860, is primarily attributed to the city's cholera epidemic in the 1850s. According to the 2017 Japanese Direct Investment Survey by the Consulate-General of Japan, Detroit, 838 Japanese community of Columbus, Ohio, Japanese nationals lived in Columbus, making it the municipality with the state's second largest Japanese national population, after
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. Columbus is home to a proportional LGBT community, with an estimated 34,952 gay, lesbian, or bisexual residents. The 2018 American Community Survey (ACS) reported an estimated 366,034 households, 32,276 of which were held by unmarried partners. 1,395 of these were female householder and female partner households and 1,456 were male householder and male partner households. Columbus has been rated as one of the best cities in the country for gays and lesbians to live, and also as the most underrated gay city in the country. In July 2012, three years prior to legal same-sex marriage in the United States, the Columbus City Council unanimously passed a domestic partnership registry.


Italian-American community and symbols

Columbus has numerous Italian Americans, with groups including the Columbus Italian Club, Columbus Piave Club, and the Abruzzi Club. Italian Village, a neighborhood near Downtown Columbus, has had a prominent Italian American community since the 1890s. The community has helped promote the influence
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was an Italian ...

Christopher Columbus
had in drawing European attention to the Americas. The Italian explorer, erroneously credited with the lands' discovery, has been posthumously criticized by historians for initiating colonization and for abuse, enslavement, and subjugation of natives. In addition to the city being named for the explorer, its seal and Flag of Columbus, Ohio, flag depict a ship he used for his first voyage to the Americas, the ''Santa María (ship), Santa María''. A similar-size replica of the ship, the Santa Maria Ship & Museum, was displayed downtown from 1991 to 2014. The city's Discovery District (Columbus, Ohio), Discovery District and Discovery Bridge (Columbus, Ohio), Discovery Bridge are named in reference to Columbus's "discovery" of the Americas; the bridge includes artistic bronze medallions featuring symbols of the explorer. Genoa Park, downtown, is named after Genoa, the birthplace of Christopher Columbus and one of Columbus's Sister city, sister cities. The Christopher Columbus Quincentennial Jubilee, celebrating the 500th anniversary of Columbus's first voyage, was held in the city in 1992. Its organizers spent $95 million on it, creating the horticultural exhibition AmeriFlora '92. The organizers also planned to create a replica Native American village, among other attractions. Local and national native leaders protested the event with a day of mourning, followed by protests and fasts at City Hall. The protests prevented the native village from being exhibited. Annual fasts continued until 1997. A protest also took place during the dedication of the ''Santa Maria'' replica, an event held in late 1991 on the day before Columbus Day and in time for the jubilee. The city has three outdoor statues of the explorer; the Statue of Christopher Columbus (Columbus City Hall), statue at City Hall was acquired, delivered, and dedicated with the assistance of the Italian-American community. Protests in 2017 aimed for this statue to be removed, followed by the city ceasing to recognize Columbus Day as a city holiday in 2018. During the 2020
George Floyd protests The George Floyd protests are an ongoing series of police brutality protests that began in Minneapolis in the United States on May 26, 2020. The Civil disorder, civil unrest and protests began as part of international Reactions to the killing ...
, petitions were created to remove all three statues, and to rename the city of Columbus. Two of the statues, at City Hall and Columbus State Community College, were removed, while the city is also looking into changing its flag and seal to remove the reference to Christopher Columbus. The future of the third statue, at the Ohio Statehouse, will be discussed in a meeting on July 16. The city was the first of eight cities offered the ''Birth of the New World'' statue, in 1993. The statue, also of Christopher Columbus, was completed in Puerto Rico in 2016, and is the List of the tallest statues in the United States, tallest in the United States, taller than the Statue of Liberty including its pedestal. At least six U.S. cities rejected it, including Columbus, based on its height and design.


Religion

According to the 2019 Public Religion Research Institute, American Values Atlas, 26 percent of Columbus metropolitan area residents are unaffiliated with a religious tradition. 17 percent of area residents identify as White evangelical Protestants, 14 percent as White mainline Protestants, 11 percent as Black Protestants, 11 percent as White Catholics, 5 percent as Hispanic Catholics, 3 percent as other nonwhite Catholics, 2 percent as other nonwhite Protestants, and 2 percent as Mormons. Hindus, Buddhists, Jews, and Hispanic Protestants each made up 1 percent of the population, while Jehovah's Witnesses, Orthodox Christians, Muslims, Unitarians, and members of new age or other religions each made up under 0.5 percent of the population. Places of worship include Baptist, Evangelical, Greek Orthodox, Latter-day Saints, Lutheran, Presbyterian, Quaker, Roman Catholic, and Unitarian Universalist churches. Columbus also hosts several Islamic centers, Jewish synagogues, Buddhist centers, Hindu temples, and a branch of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness. Religious teaching institutions include the
Trinity Lutheran Seminary Trinity Lutheran Seminary at Capital University is an Evangelical Lutheran Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement again ...
and the Pontifical College Josephinum.


Economy

Columbus has a generally strong and diverse economy based on education, insurance, banking, fashion, defense, aviation, food, logistics, steel, energy, medical research, health care, hospitality, retail, and technology. In 2010, it was one of the 10 best big cities in the country, according to Relocate America, a real estate research firm."Ranking: Columbus among top 10 big cities"
, BizJournals. Retrieved April 22, 2010.
According to the Federal Reserve Bank of St Louis, the GDP of Columbus in 2019 was $134 billion. During the 2007–2009 Great Recession, Columbus's economy was not impacted as much as the rest of the country, due to decades of diversification work by long-time corporate residents, business leaders, and political leaders. The administration of former mayor Michael B. Coleman continued this work, although the city faced financial turmoil and had to increase taxes, allegedly due in part to fiscal mismanagement. Because Columbus is the state capital, there is a large government presence in the city. Including city, county, state, and federal employers, government jobs provide the largest single source of employment within Columbus. In 2019, the city had six corporations named to the U.S. Fortune 500 list:
Alliance Data Alliance Data Systems Corporation is a publicly traded provider of loyalty and marketing services, such as private label credit cards, coalition loyalty programs, and direct marketing, derived from the capture and analysis of transaction-rich dat ...
, Nationwide Mutual Insurance Company,
American Electric Power American Electric Power (AEP), (railcar reporting mark A reporting mark is a code used to identify owners or lessees of rolling stock The term rolling stock in the rail transport Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a mea ...
,
L Brands Bath & Body Works, Inc. (formerly known as L Brands, Inc., Limited Brands, Inc. and The Limited, Inc.) is an United States, American specialty retailer based in Columbus, Ohio. It owns Bath & Body Works, posted $12.914 billion in revenue in 2019 ...
,
Huntington Bancshares Huntington Bank location in Springboro, Ohio Huntington Bancshares Incorporated is a bank holding company headquartered in Columbus, Ohio Columbus is the List of U.S. state capitals, state capital and the List of cities in Ohio, most po ...
, and
Cardinal Health Cardinal Health, Inc. is an American multinational health care services company, and the 14th highest revenue generating company in the United States. Its headquarters are based in Dublin, Ohio and Dublin, Ireland (EMEA). The company specializes ...
in suburban
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."Top 100 U.S. metro economies"
, U.S. Conference of Mayors. Retrieved April 22, 2010.
Other major employers include schools (for example, Ohio State University) and hospitals (among others, Wexner Medical Center and Nationwide Children's Hospital, which are among the teaching hospitals of the Ohio State University College of Medicine), hi-tech research and development including the
Battelle Memorial Institute Headquarters in Columbus Battelle Memorial Institute (more widely known as simply Battelle) is a private nonprofit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is ...
, information/library companies such as OCLC and
Chemical Abstracts Service Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) is a division of the American Chemical Society The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a scientific society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) i ...
, steel processing and pressure cylinder manufacturer Worthington Industries, financial institutions such as JPMorgan Chase and
Huntington Bancshares Huntington Bank location in Springboro, Ohio Huntington Bancshares Incorporated is a bank holding company headquartered in Columbus, Ohio Columbus is the List of U.S. state capitals, state capital and the List of cities in Ohio, most po ...
, as well as Owens Corning. Fast food chains Wendy's and White Castle (restaurant), White Castle are also headquartered in Columbus. Major foreign corporations operating or with divisions in the city include Germany-based Siemens and Boehringer Ingelheim, Roxane Laboratories, Finland-based Vaisala, Tomasco Mulciber Inc., A Y Manufacturing, as well as Switzerland-based ABB and Mettler Toledo. The city has a significant fashion and retail presence, home to companies such as Big Lots,
L Brands Bath & Body Works, Inc. (formerly known as L Brands, Inc., Limited Brands, Inc. and The Limited, Inc.) is an United States, American specialty retailer based in Columbus, Ohio. It owns Bath & Body Works, posted $12.914 billion in revenue in 2019 ...
, Abercrombie & Fitch, Designer Brands, DSW, and Express, Inc., Express.


Food and beverage industry

North Market, a public market and food hall, is located downtown near the Short North. It is the only remaining public market of Columbus's original four marketplaces. Numerous restaurant chains are based in the Columbus area, including Charleys Philly Steaks, Bibibop Asian Grill, Steak Escape, White Castle (restaurant), White Castle, Cameron Mitchell Restaurants, Bob Evans Restaurants, Max & Erma's, Damon's Grill, Donatos Pizza and Wendy's. Wendy's, the world's third largest hamburger fast-food chain, operated its first store downtown as both a museum and a restaurant until March 2007 when the establishment was closed due to low revenue. The company is presently headquartered outside the city in nearby
Dublin Dublin (; , or ) is the capital and largest city of Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_ ...
. Budweiser has a major brewery located on the north side just south of I-270 and Worthington. Columbus is also home to many local-based micro breweries and pubs. Asian frozen food manufacturer Kahiki Foods was located on the East side of Columbus and now operates in its Gahanna suburb. Wasserstrom Company, a major supplier of equipment and supplies for restaurants, is located on the north side.


Arts and culture


Landmarks

Columbus has many notable buildings, including the
Ohio Statehouse The Ohio Statehouse is the state capitol building and seat of government The seat of government is (as defined by ''Brewer's Politics'') "the building, complex of buildings or the city from which a government A government is the syste ...

Ohio Statehouse
, the Ohio Judicial Center, and Greater Columbus Convention Center, Rhodes State Office Tower, LeVeque Tower, and One Nationwide Plaza. Construction of the Ohio Statehouse began in 1839 on a plot of land donated by four prominent Columbus landowners. This plot formed
Capitol Square Capitol Square is a public square in Downtown ''Downtown'' is a term primarily used in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be ...

Capitol Square
, which was not part of the city's original layout. Built of Columbus limestone from the Marble Cliff Quarry Co., the Statehouse stands on foundations deep, laid by prison labor gangs rumored to have been composed largely of masonry, masons jailed for minor infractions. It features a central recessed porch with a colonnade of a forthright and primitive Doric order, Greek Doric mode. A broad and low central pediment supports the windowed astylar drum under an invisibly low dome, saucer dome that lights the interior rotunda (architecture), rotunda. There are several artworks within and outside the building, including the ''William McKinley Monument'' dedicated in 1907. Unlike many U.S. state capitol buildings, the Ohio State Capitol owes little to the architecture of the United States Capitol, national Capitol. During the Statehouse's 22-year construction, seven architects were employed. The Statehouse was opened to the legislature and the public in 1857 and completed in 1861. It is at the intersection of Broad and High Streets in downtown Columbus. Established in 1848, Green Lawn Cemetery is one of the largest cemeteries in the Midwestern United States. Within the Driving Park heritage district lies the Captain Edward V. Rickenbacker House, original home of Eddie Rickenbacker, the World War I fighter aircraft, fighter pilot ace. Built in 1895, the house was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1976.


Museums and public art

Columbus has a wide variety of museums and galleries. Its primary art museum is the Columbus Museum of Art, which operates its main location as well as the Pizzuti Collection, featuring contemporary art. The museum, founded in 1878, focuses on European and Visual art of the United States, American art up to early modernism that includes extraordinary examples of Impressionism, German Expressionism, and Cubism. Another prominent art museum in the city is the Wexner Center for the Arts, a contemporary art gallery and research facility operated by the
Ohio State University The Ohio State University, commonly Ohio State or OSU, is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of deliberately managing the release and spread of information between an individual or an organization ...
. The Ohio History Connection is headquartered in Columbus, with its flagship museum, the
Ohio History Center The Ohio History Center is a history museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is an institution that Preservation (library and archival science), cares for (conserves) a collection (artwork), collection of artifacts and other ...

Ohio History Center
, north of downtown. Adjacent to the museum is Ohio Village, a replica of a village around the time of the American Civil War. The Columbus Historical Society also features historical exhibits, focused more closely on life in Columbus. COSI is a large science and children's museum in downtown Columbus. The present building, the former Central High School (Columbus, Ohio), Central High School, was completed in November 1999, opposite downtown on the west bank of the River. In 2009, ''Parents (magazine), Parents'' magazine named COSI one of the ten best science centers for families in the country. Other science museums include the Orton Geological Museum and the Museum of Biological Diversity, both part of the Ohio State University. The Franklin Park Conservatory is the city's botanical garden, opened in 1895. It features over 400 species of plants in a large Victorian-style glass greenhouse building that includes rain forest, desert, and Himalayan mountain biomes. The conservatory is located just east of Downtown in Franklin Park (Columbus park), Franklin Park Biographical museums include the Thurber House (documenting the life of cartoonist James Thurber), the Jack Nicklaus Museum (documenting the golfer's career, located on the OSU campus), and the Kelton House Museum and Garden. The Kelton House historic house museum memorializes three generations of the Kelton family, the house's use as a documented station on the
Underground Railroad#REDIRECT Underground Railroad The Underground Railroad was a network of secret routes and safe houses established in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is ...
, and overall Victorian life. The National Veterans Memorial and Museum, opened in 2018, focuses on the personal stories of military veterans throughout U.S. history. The museum replaced the Franklin County Veterans Memorial, opened in 1955. Other notable museums in the city include the Central Ohio Fire Museum, Billy Ireland Cartoon Library & Museum, and the Ohio Craft Museum.


Performing arts

Columbus is the home of many performing arts institutions including the Columbus Symphony Orchestra, Opera Columbus, BalletMet, BalletMet Columbus, the ProMusica Chamber Orchestra, Contemporary American Theatre Company, CATCO, Columbus Children's Theatre, Shadowbox Live, and the Columbus Big band, Jazz Orchestra. Throughout the summer, the Actors' Theatre of Columbus offers free performances of William Shakespeare, Shakespearean plays in an open-air amphitheater in Schiller Park (Columbus, Ohio), Schiller Park in historic German Village. The Columbus Youth Ballet Academy was founded in the 1980s by ballerina and artistic director Shir Lee Wu, a discovery of Martha Graham. Wu is now the artistic director of the Columbus City Ballet School. Columbus has several large concert venues, including the Nationwide Arena, Value City Arena, Express Live!, Mershon Auditorium, and the Newport Music Hall. In May 2009, the Lincoln Theatre (Columbus, Ohio), Lincoln Theatre, formerly a center for Black culture in Columbus, reopened after an extensive restoration. Not far from the Lincoln Theatre is the King Arts Complex, which hosts a variety of cultural events. The city also has several theaters downtown, including the historic Palace Theatre (Columbus, Ohio), Palace Theatre, the Ohio Theatre (Columbus, Ohio), Ohio Theatre, and the Great Southern Hotel & Theatre, Southern Theatre. Broadway Across America often presents touring Broadway musicals in these larger venues. The Vern Riffe Center for Government and the Arts houses the Capitol Theatre and three smaller studio theaters, providing a home for resident performing arts companies.


Film

Movies filmed in the Columbus metropolitan area include ''Teachers (film), Teachers'' in 1984, ''Tango & Cash'' in 1989, ''Little Man Tate'' in 1991, ''Air Force One (film), Air Force One'' in 1997, ''Traffic (2000 film), Traffic'' in 2000, ''Speak (film), Speak'' in 2004, ''Bubble (film), Bubble'' in 2005, and ''Parker (2013 film), Parker'' in 2013.


Sports


Professional teams

Columbus hosts two major league professional sports teams: the Columbus Blue Jackets of the National Hockey League (NHL) which play at Nationwide Arena and the Columbus Crew of Major League Soccer (MLS) which play at Lower.com Field. The Crew previously played at Historic Crew Stadium, the first soccer-specific stadium built in the United States for a Major League Soccer team. The Crew were one of the original members of MLS and won their first MLS Cup in MLS Cup 2008, 2008, with a second title in MLS Cup 2020, 2020. The Columbus Crew moved into Lower.com Field in the summer of 2021, which will also feature a mixed-use development site named Confluence Village. The Columbus Clippers, the Triple-A East affiliate of the Cleveland Guardians, play in Huntington Park (Columbus, Ohio), Huntington Park, which opened in 2009. The city was home to the Columbus Panhandles, Panhandles/Tigers football team from 1901 to 1926; they are credited with playing in the first NFL game against another NFL opponent. In the late 1990s, the Columbus Quest won the only two championships during American Basketball League (1996–1998), American Basketball League's two-and-a-half season existence. The Ohio Aviators (rugby union), Ohio Aviators were based in Obetz, Ohio and began play in the only 2016 PRO Rugby season, PRO Rugby season before the league folded.


Ohio State Buckeyes

Columbus is home to one of the nation's most competitive intercollegiate programs, the Ohio State Buckeyes of
Ohio State University The Ohio State University, commonly Ohio State or OSU, is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of deliberately managing the release and spread of information between an individual or an organization ...
. The program has placed in the top 10 final standings of the NACDA Directors' Cup, Director's Cup five times since 2000–2001, including No. 3 for the 2002–2003 season and No. 4 for the 2003–2004 season. The university funds 36 varsity teams, consisting of 17 male, 16 female, and three co-educational teams. In 2007–2008 and 2008–2009, the program generated the second-most revenue for college programs behind the Texas Longhorns of University of Texas at Austin, The University of Texas at Austin. The Ohio State Buckeyes are a member of the NCAA's Big Ten Conference, and their Ohio State Buckeyes football, football team plays home games at Ohio Stadium. The Ohio State-University of Michigan, Michigan football game (known colloquially as "The Game") is the final game of the regular season and is played in November each year, alternating between Columbus and Ann Arbor, Michigan. In 2000, ESPN ranked the Ohio State-Michigan game as the greatest rivalry in North American sports. Moreover, "Buckeye fever" permeates Columbus culture year-round and forms a major part of Columbus's cultural identity. Former New York Yankees owner George Steinbrenner, an Ohio native who studied at Ohio State at one point and who coached in Columbus, was an Ohio State football fan and major donor to the university who contributed to the construction of the band facility at the renovated Ohio Stadium, which bears his family's name. During the winter months, the Buckeyes Ohio State Buckeyes men's basketball, basketball and Ohio State Buckeyes men's ice hockey, hockey teams are also major sporting attractions.


Other sports

Columbus has a long history in motorsports, hosting the world's first 24-hour car race at the Columbus Driving Park in 1905, organized by the Columbus Auto Club. The Columbus Motor Speedway was built in 1945 and held their first motorcycle race in 1946. In 2010 the
Ohio State University The Ohio State University, commonly Ohio State or OSU, is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of deliberately managing the release and spread of information between an individual or an organization ...
student-built Buckeye Bullet 2, a fuel cell vehicle, set an FIA world speed record for electric vehicles in reaching 303.025 mph, eclipsing the previous record of 302.877 mph. The annual All American Quarter Horse Congress, the world's largest single-breed horse show, attracts approximately 500,000 visitors to the Ohio Expo Center each October. Columbus hosts the annual Arnold Sports Festival. Hosted by Arnold Schwarzenegger, the event has grown to eight Olympic sports and 22,000 athletes competing in 80 events. In conjunction with the Arnold Classic, the city hosted three consecutive Ultimate Fighting Championship events between 2007 and 2009, as well as other mixed martial arts events. The Columbus Bullies were two-time champions of the American Football League (1940–1941). The Columbus Thunderbolts were formed in 1991 for the Arena Football League, and then relocated to Cleveland as the Cleveland Thunderbolts; the Columbus Destroyers were the next team of the AFL, playing from 2004 until the league's demise in 2008 and returned for single season in 2019 until the league folded a second time. Ohio Roller Derby (formerly Ohio Roller Girls) was founded in Columbus in 2005 and still competes internationally in Women's Flat Track Derby Association play. The team is regularly ranked in the top 60 internationally.


Parks and attractions

Columbus's Columbus Recreation and Parks Department, Recreation and Parks Department oversees about 370 city parks. Also in the area are 19 regional parks, the Columbus and Franklin County Metro Parks, Metro Parks, part of the Columbus and Franklin County Metropolitan Park District. These parks include Clintonville's Whetstone Park and the Columbus Park of Roses, a rose garden. The Chadwick Arboretum on the OSU campus features a large and varied collection of plants, while its Olentangy River Wetland Research Park is an experimental wetland open to the public. Downtown, the painting ''A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte'' is represented in topiary at Columbus's Topiary Park. Also near downtown, the Scioto Audubon Metro Park on the Whittier Peninsula opened in 2009. The park includes a large Audubon nature center focused on the birdwatching the area is known for. The Columbus Zoo and Aquarium's collections include lowland gorillas, polar bears, manatees, Siberian tigers, cheetahs, and kangaroos. Also in the zoo complex is the Zoombezi Bay water park and amusement park.


Fairs and festivals

Annual festivities in Columbus include the Ohio State Fair—one of the largest state fairs in the country—as well as the Columbus Arts Festival and the Jazz & Rib Fest, both of which occur on the downtown riverfront. In the middle of May, Columbus is home to Rock on the Range, marketed as America's biggest rock festival. The festival, which takes place on a Friday, Saturday, and Sunday, has hosted Metallica, Red Hot Chili Peppers, Slipknot, and other notable bands. During the first weekend in June, the bars of Columbus's North Market District host the Park Street Festival, which attracts thousands of visitors to a massive party in bars and on the street. June's second-to-last weekend sees one of the Midwest's largest Pride parade, gay pride parades, Columbus Pride, reflecting the city's sizable gay population. During the last weekend of June, Goodale Park hosts ComFest (short for "Community Festival"), an immense three-day music festival marketed as the largest non-commercial festival in the U.S., with art vendors, live music on multiple stages, hundreds of local social and political organizations, body painting, and beer. Greek Festival is held in August or September at the Greek Orthodox Church downtown. The Hot Times festival, a celebration of music, arts, food, and diversity, is held annually in the Olde Towne East neighborhood. The city's largest dining events, Restaurant Week Columbus, are held in mid-July and mid-January. In 2010, more than 40,000 diners went to 40 participating restaurants, and $5,000 was donated the Mid-Ohio Foodbank on behalf of sponsors and participating restaurants. The Juneteenth Ohio Festival is held each year at Franklin Park on Father's Day (United States), Father's Day weekend. Started by Mustafaa Shabazz, Juneteenth Ohio is one of the largest African American festivals in the United States, including three full days of music, food, dance, and entertainment by local and national recording artists. The festival holds a Father's Day celebration, honoring local fathers. Around the Independence Day (United States), Fourth of July, Columbus hosts Red, White & Boom! on the Scioto riverfront downtown, attracting crowds of over 500,000 people and featuring the largest fireworks display in Ohio. The Doo Dah Parade#Columbus Doo Dah Parade, Doo Dah Parade is also held at this time. During Memorial Day Weekend, the Asian Festival is held in Franklin Park. Hundreds of restaurants, vendors, and companies open up booths, Folk music, traditional music, and martial arts are performed, and cultural exhibits are set up. The Jazz & Rib Fest is a free downtown event held each July featuring jazz artists like Randy Weston, D. Bohannon Clark, and Wayne Shorter, along with rib vendors from around the country. The Short North is host to the monthly Gallery Hop, which attracts hundreds to the neighborhood's art galleries (which all open their doors to the public until late at night) and Street performance, street musicians. The Hilltop Bean Dinner is an annual event held on Columbus's West Side that celebrates the city's Civil War heritage near the historic Camp Chase Cemetery. At the end of September, German Village throws an annual Oktoberfest celebrations, Oktoberfest celebration that features German food, beer, music, and crafts. The Short North also hosts HighBall Halloween, Masquerade on High, a fashion show and street parade that closes down High Street. In 2011, in its fourth year, HighBall Halloween gained notoriety as it accepted its first Expy award. HighBall Halloween has much to offer for those interested in fashion and the performing and visual arts or for those who want to celebrate Halloween with food and drinks from all around the city. Each year the event is put on with a different theme. Columbus also hosts many conventions in the Greater Columbus Convention Center, a large convention center on the north edge of downtown. Completed in 1993, the convention center was designed by architect Peter Eisenman, who also designed the Wexner Center.


Shopping

Both of the metropolitan area's major shopping centers are located in Columbus: Easton Town Center and Polaris Fashion Place. Developer Richard E. Jacobs built the area's first three major shopping malls in the 1960s: Westland Mall (Columbus, Ohio), Westland, Northland Mall, Northland, and Eastland Mall (Columbus, Ohio), Eastland. Of these, only Eastland remains in operation. Columbus City Center was built downtown in 1988, alongside the first location of Lazarus (department store), Lazarus; this mall closed in 2009 and was demolished in 2011. Easton Town Center was built in 1999, and Polaris Fashion Place in 2001.


Environment

The City of Columbus has focused on reducing its Human impact on the environment, environmental impact and carbon footprint. In 2020, a city-wide ballot measure was approved, giving Columbus an electricity aggregation plan which will supply it with 100% renewable energy by the start of 2023. Its vendor, AEP Energy, plans to construct new wind and solar farms in Ohio to help supply the electricity. The largest sources of pollution in the county, as of 2019, are the Ohio State University's McCracken Power Plant, the landfill operated by the Solid Waste Authority of Central Ohio (SWACO), and the Anheuser-Busch Columbus Brewery. Anheuser-Busch has a company-wide goal of reducing emissions 25 percent by 2025. OSU plans to construct a new heat and power plant, also powered by fossil fuels, but set to reduce emissions by about 30 percent. SWACO manages to capture 75 percent of its methane emissions to use in producing energy, and is looking to reduce emissions further.


Government


Mayor and city council

The city is administered by a mayor and a seven-member unicameral council elected in two classes every two years to four-year terms at large. Columbus is the largest city in the United States that elects its city council at large as opposed to districts. The mayor appoints the director of safety and the director of public service. The people elect the auditor, court clerk, municipal court clerk, judge, municipal court judges, and city attorney. A charter commission, elected in 1913, submitted, in May 1914, a new charter offering a modified Federal form, with a number of progressive features, such as nonpartisan ballot, Ranked voting, preferential voting, recall of official, elected officials, the referendum, and a small council elected at large. The charter was adopted, effective January 1, 1916. Andrew Ginther has been the mayor of Columbus since 2016.


Government offices

As Ohio's capital and the county seat, Columbus hosts numerous federal, state, county, and city government offices and courts. Federal offices include the Joseph P. Kinneary U.S. Courthouse, one of several courts for the District Court for the Southern District of Ohio, after moving from United States Post Office and Courthouse (Columbus, Ohio), 121 E. State St. in 1934. Another federal office, the John W. Bricker Federal Building, has offices for the Internal Revenue Service, United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, Housing & Urban Development, United States Department of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture, Social Security Administration and U.S. Senator Sherrod Brown. The State of Ohio's capitol building, the
Ohio Statehouse The Ohio Statehouse is the state capitol building and seat of government The seat of government is (as defined by ''Brewer's Politics'') "the building, complex of buildings or the city from which a government A government is the syste ...

Ohio Statehouse
, is located in the center of downtown on
Capitol Square Capitol Square is a public square in Downtown ''Downtown'' is a term primarily used in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be ...

Capitol Square
. It houses the Ohio House of Representatives and Ohio Senate. It also contains the ceremonial offices of the List of Governors of Ohio, governor, Lieutenant Governor of Ohio, lieutenant governor, state Ohio State Treasurer, treasurer, and state Ohio State Auditor, auditor. The Supreme Court of Ohio, Supreme Court, Ohio Court of Claims, Court of Claims, and Judicial Conference are located in the Thomas J. Moyer Ohio Judicial Center downtown by the Scioto River. The building, built in 1933 to house ten state agencies along with the State Library of Ohio, became the Supreme Court after extensive renovations from 2001 to 2004. Franklin County operates the Franklin County Government Center, a complex at the southern end of downtown Columbus. The center includes the county's municipal court, common pleas court, correctional center, juvenile detention center, and sheriff's office. Near City Hall, the Michael B. Coleman Government Center holds offices for the departments of building & zoning services, public service, development, and public utilities. Also nearby is 77 North Front Street, which holds Columbus's city attorney office, income-tax division, public safety, human resources, civil service, and purchasing departments. The structure, built in 1929, was the police headquarters until 1991, and was then dormant until it was given a $34 million renovation from 2011 to 2013.


Emergency services and homeland security

Municipal police duties are performed by the Columbus Division of Police, while fire protection is through the Columbus Division of Fire. Ohio Homeland Security operates the Strategic Analysis and Information Center (SAIC) fusion center in Columbus's Hilltop neighborhood. The facility is the state's primary public intelligence hub and one of the few in the country that uses state, local, federal, and private resources.


Social services and homelessness

Columbus has a history of governmental and nonprofit support for low-income residents and the homeless. Nevertheless, the homelessness rate has steadily risen since at least 2007. Poverty and differences in quality of life have grown as well; Columbus was noted as the second most economically segregated large metropolitan area in 2015, in a study by the University of Toronto. It also ranked 45th of the 50 largest metropolitan areas in terms of social mobility, in a 2015 Harvard University study.


Education


Colleges and universities

Columbus is the home of two public College (US), colleges:
Ohio State University The Ohio State University, commonly Ohio State or OSU, is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of deliberately managing the release and spread of information between an individual or an organization ...
, one of the List of United States public university campuses by enrollment, largest college campuses in the United States, and Columbus State Community College. In 2009, Ohio State University was ranked No. 19 in the country by ''U.S. News & World Report'' for best public university, and No. 56 overall, scoring in the first tier of schools nationally.U.S. News and Reports, Best Colleges
Retrieved July 26, 2009.
Some of OSU's graduate school programs placed in the top 5, including No. 5 for best veterinary program, and No. 5 for best pharmacy program. The specialty graduate programs of social psychology was ranked No. 2, dispute resolution was ranked No. 5, vocational education No. 2, and elementary education, secondary teacher education, administration/supervision No. 5.Ohio State University, News Release
Retrieved July 26, 2009.
Private institutions in Columbus include Capital University Law School, the Columbus College of Art and Design, Fortis College, DeVry University, Ohio Business College, Miami-Jacobs Career College, Ohio Institute of Health Careers, Bradford School (Columbus), Bradford School and Franklin University, as well as the religious schools Bexley Hall, Bexley Hall Episcopal Seminary, Mount Carmel College of Nursing, Ohio Dominican University, Pontifical College Josephinum, and
Trinity Lutheran Seminary Trinity Lutheran Seminary at Capital University is an Evangelical Lutheran Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement again ...
. Three major suburban schools also have an influence on Columbus's educational landscape: Bexley's
Capital University Capital University (Capital, Cap, or CU) is a private university Private universities (and private colleges) are usually not operated by governments, although many receive tax breaks, public student loans, and grant (money), grants. Depending ...
, Westerville's Otterbein University, and Delaware's Ohio Wesleyan University.


Primary and secondary schools

Columbus City Schools (CCS) is the largest district in Ohio, with 55,000 pupils. CCS operates 142 elementary, middle school, middle, and high schools, including a number of magnet schools (which are referred to as alternative schools within the school system). The suburbs operate their own districts, typically serving students in one or more townships, with districts sometimes crossing municipal boundaries. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Columbus also operates several parochial school, parochial elementary and high schools. The area's second largest school district is South-Western City School District (Franklin County, Ohio), South-Western City Schools, which encompasses southwestern Franklin County, including a slice of Columbus itself. Other portions of Columbus are zoned to the Dublin City School District (Ohio), Dublin, New Albany-Plain Local School District, New Albany-Plain, Westerville City School District, Westerville, and Worthington City School District, Worthington school districts. There are also several private schools in the area. St. Paul's Lutheran School is a K-8 Christian school of the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod in Columbus. Some sources determine that the first kindergarten in the United States was established here by Louisa Frankenberg, a former student of Friedrich Fröbel. Frankenberg immigrated to the city in 1838, and opened her kindergarten in the German Village neighborhood in that year. The school did not work out, so she returned to Germany in 1840. In 1858, Frankenberg returned to Columbus and established another early kindergarten in the city. Frankenberg is often overlooked, with Margarethe Schurz instead given credit for her "First Kindergarten" she operated for two years. In addition, Indianola Junior High School (now the Graham Elementary and Middle School) became the nation's first junior high school in 1909, helping to bridge the difficult transition from elementary to high school at a time when only 48 percent of students continued their education after the Ninth grade, 9th grade.


Libraries

The Columbus Metropolitan Library (CML) has served central Ohio residents since 1873. The system has 23 locations throughout Central Ohio, with a total collection of 3 million items. This library is one of the country's most-used library systems and is consistently among the top-ranked large city libraries according to Hennen's American Public Library Ratings. CML was rated the number one library system in the nation in 1999, 2005, and 2008. It has been in the top four every year since 1999 when the rankings were first published in the ''American Libraries'' magazine, often challenging up-state neighbor Cuyahoga County Public Library for the top spot.


Media

Several weekly and daily newspapers serve Columbus and Central Ohio. The major daily newspaper in Columbus is ''The Columbus Dispatch''. There are also neighborhood- or suburb-specific papers, such as the Dispatch Printing Company's ''ThisWeek Community News'', the ''Columbus Messenger'', the ''Clintonville Spotlight'', and the ''Short North Gazette''. ''The Lantern'' and ''1870 (magazine), 1870'' serve the
Ohio State University The Ohio State University, commonly Ohio State or OSU, is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of deliberately managing the release and spread of information between an individual or an organization ...
community. Alternative arts, culture, or politics-oriented papers include ''Columbus Alive, ALIVE'' (formerly the independent ''Columbus Alive'' and now owned by the ''Columbus Dispatch''), ''Columbus Free Press'', and ''Columbus Underground'' (digital-only). The ''Columbus Magazine'', ''CityScene'', ''614 Magazine'', and ''Columbus Monthly'' are the city's magazines. Columbus is the base for 12 television stations and is the 32nd largest television market as of September 24, 2016. Columbus is also home to the 36th largest radio market.


Infrastructure


Healthcare

Numerous medical systems operate in Columbus and Central Ohio. These include OhioHealth, which has three hospitals in the city proper; Mount Carmel Health System, which has one hospital among other facilities in the city proper; and the Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, which has a primary hospital complex and Ohio State East Hospital, an east campus in Columbus. Nationwide Children's Hospital independently operates for pediatric healthcare. Hospitals in Central Ohio are ranked favorably by the ''U.S. News & World Report'', where numerous hospitals are ranked as among the best in particular fields in the United States. Nationwide Children's is regarded as among the top 10 children's hospitals in the country, according to the report.


Utilities

Numerous utility companies operate in Central Ohio. Within Columbus, power is sourced from Columbus Southern Power, an
American Electric Power American Electric Power (AEP), (railcar reporting mark A reporting mark is a code used to identify owners or lessees of rolling stock The term rolling stock in the rail transport Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a mea ...
subsidiary. Natural gas is provided by NiSource, Columbia Gas of Ohio, while water is sourced from the City of Columbus Division of Water.


Transportation


Local roads, grid, and address system

The city's two main corridors since its founding are Broad Street (Columbus, Ohio), Broad and
High Street #REDIRECT High Street High Street is a common street name for the primary business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling Product (business), products (such as goods and services) ...
s. They both traverse beyond the extent of the city; High Street is the longest in Columbus, running (23.4 across the county), while Broad Street is longer across the county, at . The city's street plan originates downtown and extends into the old-growth neighborhoods, following a grid plan, grid pattern with the intersection of High Street (running north–south) and Broad Street (running east–west) at its center. North–south streets run 12 degrees west of due north, parallel to High Street; the avenues (vis. Fifth Avenue, Sixth Avenue, Seventh Avenue, and so on) run 12 degrees off from east–west. The address system begins its numbering at the intersection of Broad and High, with numbers increasing in magnitude with distance from Broad or High, as well as cardinal directions used alongside street names. Numbered avenues begin with First Avenue, about north of Broad Street, and increase in number as one progresses northward. Numbered streets begin with Second Street, which is two blocks west of High Street, and Third Street, which is a block east of High Street, then progress eastward from there. Even-numbered addresses are on the north and east sides of streets, putting odd addresses on the south and west sides of streets. A difference of 700 house numbers means a distance of about (along the same street). For example, 351 W 5th Avenue is approximately west of High Street on the south side of Fifth Avenue. Buildings along north–south streets are numbered in a similar manner: the building number indicates the approximate distance from Broad Street, the prefixes 'N' and 'S' indicate whether that distance is to be measured to the north or south of Broad Street and the street number itself indicates how far the street is from the center of the city at the intersection of Broad and High. This street numbering system does not hold true over a large area. The area served by numbered avenues runs from about Marble Cliff to South Linden to the Airport, and the area served by numbered streets covers Downtown and nearby neighborhoods to the east and south, with only a few exceptions. There are quite few intersections between numbered streets and avenues. Furthermore, named streets and avenues can have any orientation. For example, while all of the numbered avenues run east–west, perpendicular to High Street, many named, non-numbered avenues run north–south, parallel to High. The same is true of many named streets: while the numbered streets in the city run north–south, perpendicular to Broad Street, many named, non-numbered streets run east–west, perpendicular to High Street. The addressing system, however, covers nearly all of Franklin County, with only a few older suburbs retaining self-centered address systems. The address scale of 700 per mile results in addresses approaching, but not usually reaching, 10,000 at the county's borders. Other major, local roads in Columbus include Main Street, Morse Road, Dublin-Granville Road (Ohio State Route 161, SR-161), Cleveland Avenue/Westerville Road (Ohio State Highway 3, SR-3), Olentangy River Road, Riverside Drive, Sunbury Road, Fifth Avenue, and Livingston Avenue.


Highways

Columbus is bisected by two major Interstate Highway System, Interstate Highways: Interstate 70 in Ohio, Interstate 70 running east–west, and Interstate 71 running north to roughly southwest. They combine downtown for about in an area locally known as "The Split", which is a major traffic congestion point, especially during rush hour. U.S. Route 40 (Ohio), U.S. Route 40, originally known as the
National Road The National Road (also known as the Cumberland Road) was the first major improved highway in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country ...

National Road
, runs east–west through Columbus, comprising Main Street to the east of downtown and Broad Street to the west. U.S. Route 23 in Ohio, U.S. Route 23 runs roughly north–south, while U.S. Route 33 in Ohio, U.S. Route 33 runs northwest-to-southeast. The Interstate 270 (Ohio), Interstate 270 Ring road, Outerbelt encircles most of the city, while the newly redesigned Innerbelt consists of the Interstate 670 (Ohio), Interstate 670 spur on the north side (which continues to the east past the Airport and to the west where it merges with I-70), Ohio State Route 315, State Route 315 on the west side, the I-70/71 split on the south side, and I-71 on the east. Due to its central location within Ohio and abundance of outbound roadways, nearly all of the state's destinations are within a 2 or 3 hour drive of Columbus.


Bridges

The Columbus riverfront hosts several bridges. The Discovery Bridge (Columbus, Ohio), Discovery Bridge connects downtown to Franklinton across Broad Street. The bridge opened in 1992, replacing a 1921 concrete arch bridge; the first bridge at the site was built in 1816. The Main Street Bridge (Columbus, Ohio), Main Street Bridge opened on July 30, 2010. The bridge has three lanes for vehicular traffic (one westbound and two eastbound) and another separated lane for pedestrians and bikes. The Rich Street Bridge opened in July 2012 adjacent to the Main Street Bridge, connecting Rich Street on the east side of the river with Town Street on the west. The Lane Avenue Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge that opened on November 14, 2003, in the University District. The bridge spans the Olentangy river with three lanes of traffic each way.


Airports

The city's primary airport, John Glenn Columbus International Airport, is on the city's east side. Formerly known as Port Columbus, John Glenn provides service to Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and Cancun, Mexico (on a seasonal basis), as well as to most domestic destinations, including all the major hubs along with San Francisco International Airport, San Francisco, Salt Lake City International Airport, Salt Lake City, and Seattle-Tacoma International Airport, Seattle. The airport was a hub for Low-cost carrier, discount carrier Skybus Airlines and continues to be home to NetJets, the world's largest fractional ownership air carrier. According to a 2005 market survey, John Glenn Columbus International Airport attracts about 50% of its passengers from outside of its radius primary service region. It is the 52nd-busiest airport in the United States by total passenger boardings. Rickenbacker International Airport, in southern Franklin County, is a major cargo facility that is used by the Ohio Air National Guard. Allegiant Air offers nonstop service from Rickenbacker to Florida destinations. Ohio State University Airport, Ohio State University Don Scott Airport and Bolton Field are other large general-aviation facilities in the Columbus area.


=Aviation history

= In 1907, 14-year-old Cromwell Dixon built the ''SkyCycle,'' a pedal-powered blimp, which he flew at Driving Park."75 Years of Flight in Columbus"
Port Columbus International Airport. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
Three years later, one of the Wright brothers' exhibition pilots, Phillip Parmalee, conducted the world's first commercial cargo flight when he flew two packages containing 88 kilograms of silk from Dayton to Columbus in a Wright Model B. Military aviators from Columbus distinguished themselves during World War I. Six Columbus pilots, led by top Flying ace, ace Eddie Rickenbacker, achieved 42 "kills" – a full 10% of all US aerial victories in the war, and more than the aviators of any other American city. After the war, Port Columbus Airport (now known as John Glenn Columbus International Airport) became the axis of a coordinated rail-to-air transcontinental system that moved passengers from the East Coast to the West. TAT, which later became Trans World Airlines, TWA, provided commercial service, following Charles Lindbergh's promotion of Columbus to the nation for such a hub. Following the failure of a bond levy in 1927 to build the airport, Lindbergh campaigned in the city in 1928, and the next bond levy passed that year. On July 8, 1929, the airport opened for business with the inaugural TAT west-bound flight from Columbus to Waynoka, Oklahoma. Among the 19 passengers on that flight was Amelia Earhart, with Henry Ford and Harvey Firestone attending the opening ceremonies. In 1964, Ohio native Jerrie Mock, Geraldine Fredritz Mock became the first woman to fly solo around the world, leaving from Columbus and piloting the ''Spirit of Columbus''. Her flight lasted nearly a month and set a record for speed for planes under .


Public transit

Columbus maintains a widespread municipal bus service called the Central Ohio Transit Authority (COTA). The service operates List of COTA bus routes, 41 routes with a fleet of 440 buses, serving approximately 19 million passengers per year. COTA operates 23 regular fixed-service routes, 14 express services, a bus rapid transit route, a free downtown circulator, night service, an airport connector, and other services. Intercity bus service is provided at the Columbus Bus Station by Greyhound Lines, Greyhound, Barons Bus Lines, Miller Transportation, GoBus (Ohio), GoBus, and other carriers. Columbus does not have passenger rail service. The city's major train station, Union Station (Columbus), Union Station, that was a stop along Amtrak's National Limited train service until 1977 was razed in 1979, and the Greater Columbus Convention Center now stands in its place. Until Amtrak's founding in 1971, the Penn Central ran the ''Cincinnati Limited'' to Cincinnati to the southwest (in prior years the train continued to New York City to the east); the ''Ohio State Limited'' between Cincinnati and Cleveland, with Union Station serving as a major intermediate stop (the train going unnamed between 1967 and 1971) and the ''Spirit of St. Louis (train), Spirit of St. Louis,'' which ran between St. Louis and New York City until 1971. The station was also a stop along the Pennsylvania Railroad, the New York Central Railroad, the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, the Norfolk and Western Railway, the
Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati Railroad The Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati Railroad (CC&C) was a railroad that ran from Cleveland to Columbus, Ohio, Columbus in the U.S. state of Ohio in the United States. Chartered in 1836, it was moribund for the first 10 years of its existence. I ...
and the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad. As the city lacks local, commuter, or intercity trains, Columbus is now the largest city and metropolitan area in the U.S. without any passenger rail service. The Ohio Hub, Ohio Hub project, created in 2009, proposed a high-speed rail service connecting Columbus with Cincinnati and to a proposed hub in Cleveland and onward to the east. As of 2018, the project remained unfunded.


Cycling network

Cycling as transportation is steadily increasing in Columbus with its relatively flat terrain, intact urban neighborhoods, large student population, and off-road bike paths. The city has put forth the 2012 Bicentennial Bikeways Plan as well as a move toward a Complete Streets policy. Grassroots efforts such as Bike To Work Week, Consider Biking, Yay Bikes, Third Hand Bicycle Co-op, Franklinton Cycleworks, and ''Cranksters'', a local radio program focused on urban cycling, have contributed to cycling as transportation. Columbus also hosts Utility cycling, urban cycling "off-shots" with messenger-style "alleycat" races as well as unorganized group rides, a monthly Critical Mass (cycling), Critical Mass ride, Cycle polo, bicycle polo, art showings, movie nights, and a variety of bicycle-friendly businesses and events throughout the year. All this activity occurs despite Columbus's frequently inclement weather. The Main Street Bridge (Columbus, Ohio), Main Street Bridge, opened in 2010, features a dedicated bike and pedestrian lane separated from traffic. The city has its own Bicycle-sharing system, public bicycle system. CoGo Bike Share has a network of about 600 bicycles and 80 docking stations. PBSC Urban Solutions, a company based in Canada, supplies technology and equipment. Bird (transportation company), Bird electric scooters have also been introduced.


Modal share

The city of Columbus has a higher than average percentage of households without a car. In 2015, 9.8 percent of Columbus households lacked a car, a number that fell slightly to 9.4 percent in 2016. The national average was 8.7 percent in 2016. Columbus averaged 1.55 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8.


Notable people


Sister cities

Columbus has ten sister cities as designated by Sister Cities International. Columbus established its first sister city relationship in 1955 with Genoa, Italy. To commemorate this relationship, Columbus received as a gift from the people of Genoa, a bronze sculpture, bronze statue of
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was an Italian ...

Christopher Columbus
. Statue of Christopher Columbus (Columbus City Hall), The statue overlooked Broad Street in front of Columbus City Hall from 1955 to 2020; removed during the George Floyd protests. List of sister cities:


See also

*Columbus Register of Historic Properties *National Register of Historic Places listings in Columbus, Ohio


Notes


References


Bibliography

* *


Further reading

* * *


External links

* * A program that features the history of and literary life in Columbus. {{Authority control Columbus, Ohio, 1812 establishments in Ohio Cities in Delaware County, Ohio Cities in Fairfield County, Ohio Cities in Franklin County, Ohio Cities in Ohio County seats in Ohio National Road Planned cities in the United States Populated places established in 1812 Populated places on the Underground Railroad