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Cleveland ( ), officially the City of Cleveland, is a city in the
U.S. The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all ...

U.S.
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
of
Ohio Ohio () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Col ...

Ohio
, and the
county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state. Th ...
of
Cuyahoga County Cuyahoga County ( or ) is located in the northeastern part of the U.S. state of Ohio Ohio is a U.S. state, state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern region of the United States. Of the List of states and territories of the United ...
. It is located along the southern shore of
Lake Erie Lake Erie (; french: Lac Érié) is the fourth largest lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land, apart from any river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowin ...

Lake Erie
, across the U.S.
maritime border A maritime boundary is a conceptual division of the Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. About 29% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continent A continent is ...
with
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of . Its extend from the to the and northward into the , covering , making it the world's . Its southern and western , stretching , is the world's longest bi-national land border. Canada's capital ...

Canada
and approximately west of the Ohio-
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( , elsewhere ; pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basi ...

Pennsylvania
state border. The largest city on Lake Erie and one of the most populous urban areas in the country, Cleveland anchors the Greater Cleveland Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) and the
Cleveland–Akron–Canton Combined Statistical Area The region Northeast Ohio, in the US state of Ohio, in its most expansive usage contains six metropolitan areas (Greater Cleveland, Cleveland–Elyria, Akron metropolitan area, Akron, Canton–Massillon, Ohio, metropolitan area, Canton–Massill ...

Cleveland–Akron–Canton Combined Statistical Area
(CSA). The CSA is the most populous
combined statistical area Combined statistical area (CSA) is a United States Office of Management and Budget The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP). OMB's most prominent ...
in Ohio and the 18th largest in the United States, with a population of 3,633,962 in 2020. The city proper, with a 2020 population of 372,624, ranks as the 54th-largest city in the U.S., as a larger portion of the metropolitan population lives outside the central city. The seven-county metropolitan Cleveland economy, which includes
Akron Akron () is the fifth-largest city in the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in ...
, is the largest in the state. Cleveland was founded in 1796 near the mouth of the
Cuyahoga River The Cuyahoga River ( , or ) is a river in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North Am ...

Cuyahoga River
by General
Moses Cleaveland Gen. Moses Cleaveland (January 29, 1754 – November 16, 1806) was an American lawyer, politician, soldier, and surveyor from Connecticut Connecticut () is the southernmost state in the New England New England is a region comprising ...

Moses Cleaveland
, after whom the city was named. It grew into a major manufacturing center due to its location on both the river and the lake shore, as well as numerous canals and
railroad Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, which are located on tracks. In contrast to road transport, where the vehicles run on a prepared flat surface ...
lines. A
port city The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Trieste.html"_;"title="Barcola_near_Trieste">Barcola_near_Trieste,_a_small_local_port A_port_is_a_ Barcola_near_Trieste,_a_small_local_port">Trieste.html"_;"title="Barcola_near_Trieste">Barcola_near ...
, Cleveland is connected to the
Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
via the
Saint Lawrence Seaway The Saint Lawrence Seaway (french: la Voie Maritime du Saint-Laurent) is a system of locks, canal Canals are waterways Channel (geography), channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicle ...
. The city's
economy An economy (; ) is an area of the production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products ( ...
relies on diversified sectors such as manufacturing, financial services,
healthcare Healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health Health, according to the , is "a state of complete physical, and social and not merely the absence of and ".. (2006)''Constitution of the World Health Organization''– ''Basic Docume ...
, biomedicals, and higher education. The gross domestic product (GDP) for the Greater Cleveland MSA was $135 billion in 2019. Combined with the Akron MSA, the seven-county Cleveland–Akron metropolitan economy was $175 billion in 2019, the largest in Ohio, accounting for 25% of the state's GDP. Designated as a "Gamma -"
global city A global city, also called a power city, world city, alpha city or world center, is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996 ...
by the
Globalization and World Cities Research Network The Globalization and World Cities Research Network, commonly abbreviated to GaWC, is a think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for ...
, the city's major cultural institutions include the
Cleveland Museum of Art Cleveland ( ), officially the City of Cleveland, is a city in the United States, U.S. U.S. state, state of Ohio, and the county seat of Cuyahoga County, Ohio, Cuyahoga County. It is located along the southern shore of Lake Erie, across the U.S ...

Cleveland Museum of Art
, the
Cleveland Museum of Natural History The Cleveland Museum of Natural History is a natural history museum located approximately five miles (8 km) east of downtown Cleveland, Ohio Cleveland ( ), officially the City of Cleveland, is a major city in the U.S. state of Ohio, ...
, the
Cleveland Orchestra The Cleveland Orchestra, based in Cleveland Cleveland ( ), officially the City of Cleveland, is a city in the United States, U.S. U.S. state, state of Ohio, and the county seat of Cuyahoga County, Ohio, Cuyahoga County. It is located along t ...
,
Playhouse Square Playhouse Square is a theater district in downtown Cleveland, Ohio, United States. It is the largest performing arts center in the US outside of New York City (only Lincoln Center is larger). Constructed in a span of 19 months in the early 1920s, ...

Playhouse Square
, and the
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (RRHOF), sometimes simply referred to as the Rock Hall, is a museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is an institution that Preservation (library and archival science), cares for (conserves) a ...

Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
. Known as "
The Forest City The Forest City is a List of city nicknames in the United States, nickname or alternate toponym for Cleveland, Ohio. The inspiration for the name is a reference to Cleveland, describing a highly sophisticated society amid a heavily forested enviro ...
" among many other
nicknames A nickname is a substitute for the proper name of a familiar person, place or thing. Commonly used to express affection, it is a form of endearment and amusement. It can also be used to express defamation of character, particularly by school bull ...
, Cleveland serves as the center of the
Cleveland Metroparks Cleveland Metroparks is an extensive system of nature preserves in Greater Cleveland, Ohio Ohio is a U.S. state, state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern region of the United States. Of the List of states and territories of the U ...
nature reserve system. The city's major league professional sports teams include the
Cleveland Browns The Cleveland Browns are a professional American football American football, referred to simply as football in the United States and Canada and also known as gridiron, is a team sport A team sport includes any sport Spor ...
, the
Cleveland Cavaliers The Cleveland Cavaliers (often referred to as the Cavs) are an American professional basketball team based in Cleveland Cleveland ( ), officially the City of Cleveland, is a city in the United States, U.S. U.S. state, state of Ohio, and the ...
, and the Cleveland Guardians.


History


Establishment

Cleveland was established on July 22, 1796, by surveyors of the
Connecticut Land Company The Connecticut Company or Connecticut Land Company (e.-1795) was a post-colonial land speculation company formed in the late eighteenth century to survey and encourage settlement in the eastern parts of the newly chartered Connecticut Western Res ...
when they laid out
Connecticut Connecticut () is the southernmost state in the New England region of the United States. As of the 2010 United States census, 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, second-highest level of List of U.S. states and territories by H ...
's
Western Reserve Image:Ctwestclaims.png, 300px, Connecticut's land claims in the West The Connecticut Western Reserve was a portion of land claimed by the Connecticut Colony, Colony of Connecticut and later by the state of Connecticut in what is now mostly the North ...
into townships and a capital city. They named the new settlement "Cleaveland" after their leader, General
Moses Cleaveland Gen. Moses Cleaveland (January 29, 1754 – November 16, 1806) was an American lawyer, politician, soldier, and surveyor from Connecticut Connecticut () is the southernmost state in the New England New England is a region comprising ...

Moses Cleaveland
. Cleaveland oversaw the
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography G ...

New England
-style design of the plan for what would become the modern downtown area, centered on
Public Square A town square (or square, plaza, public square, city square, urban square, or piazza) is an open public space commonly found in the heart of a traditional town used for community gatherings. Related concepts are the civic center, the market squ ...

Public Square
, before returning home, never again to visit Ohio. The first permanent European settler in Cleaveland was
Lorenzo Carter Major Lorenzo Carter was the first permanent settler in Cleveland Cleveland ( ), officially the City of Cleveland, is a major city in the U.S. state of Ohio, and the county seat A county seat is an administrative center, seat of govern ...

Lorenzo Carter
, who built a cabin on the banks of the Cuyahoga River. The settlement served as an important supply post for the U.S. during the
Battle of Lake Erie The Battle of Lake Erie, sometimes called the Battle of Put-in-Bay, was fought on 10 September 1813, on Lake Erie Lake Erie (; french: Lac Érié) is the fourth largest lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin ...
in the
War of 1812 The War of 1812 (18 June 1812 – 17 February 1815) was a conflict fought by the United States of America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It ...
. Locals adopted Commodore
Oliver Hazard Perry Oliver Hazard Perry (August 23, 1785 – August 23, 1819) was an American naval commander, born in South Kingstown, Rhode Island. As the best-known and most prominent member of the Perry family naval dynasty, he was the son of Sarah Wallace Alex ...

Oliver Hazard Perry
as a civic hero and erected a monument in his honor decades later. The Village of Cleaveland was incorporated on December 23, 1814. In spite of the nearby swampy lowlands and harsh winters, the town's waterfront location proved to be an advantage, giving it access to Great Lakes trade. It grew rapidly after the 1832 completion of the
Ohio and Erie Canal The Ohio and Erie Canal was a canal Canals are waterways Channel (geography), channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles. They may also help with irrigation. It can be thought of as an ...
. This key link between the
Ohio River The Ohio River is a long river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course wi ...

Ohio River
and the
Great Lakes The Great Lakes also called the Great Lakes of North America or the Laurentian Great Lakes, is a series of large interconnected freshwater lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land Land ...

Great Lakes
connected it to the Atlantic Ocean via the
Erie Canal The Erie Canal is a canal that traverses east–west through upstate New York, upstate New York (state), New York, eastern United States, as part of the cross-state route of the New York State Canal System (formerly known as the New York State ...

Erie Canal
and Hudson River, and later via the
Saint Lawrence Seaway The Saint Lawrence Seaway (french: la Voie Maritime du Saint-Laurent) is a system of locks, canal Canals are waterways Channel (geography), channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicle ...
. Its products could reach markets on the
Gulf of Mexico The Gulf of Mexico ( es, Golfo de México) is an ocean basin 400px, Diagrammatic cross-section of an ocean basin, showing the various geographic features In hydrology Hydrology (from Greek: wikt:ὕδωρ, ὕδωρ, "hýdōr" meaning ...

Gulf of Mexico
via the
Mississippi River The Mississippi River is the second-longest river and chief river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and b ...

Mississippi River
. The town's growth continued with added railroad links. In 1831, the spelling of the town's name was altered by ''The Cleveland Advertiser'' newspaper. In order to fit the name on the newspaper's masthead, the editors dropped the first "a", reducing the city's name to ''Cleveland'', which eventually became the official spelling. In 1836, Cleveland, then only on the eastern banks of the Cuyahoga River, was officially incorporated as a city. That same year, it nearly erupted into open warfare with neighboring Ohio City over a bridge connecting the two communities. Ohio City remained an independent municipality until its
annexation Annexation (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, ...
by Cleveland in 1854. Home to a vocal group of
abolitionists Abolitionism, or the abolitionist movement, was the movement to end slavery Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for another person (a slaver), w ...
, Cleveland (code-named "Station Hope") was a major stop on the
Underground Railroad#REDIRECT Underground Railroad The Underground Railroad was a network of secret routes and safe houses established in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is ...
for escaped
African American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that ...
slaves Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their property. Slavery typically involves the enslaved per ...
en route to
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of . Its extend from the to the and northward into the , covering , making it the world's . Its southern and western , stretching , is the world's longest bi-national land border. Canada's capital ...

Canada
. The city also served as an important center for the Union during the
American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon nove ...
. Decades later, in July 1894, the wartime contributions of those serving the Union from Cleveland and Cuyahoga County would be honored with the opening of the city's on Public Square.


Growth and expansion

After the war, the city witnessed rapid growth. Its prime geographic location as a transportation hub between the East Coast and the Midwest played an important role in its development as a commercial center. In 1874, the
First Woman's National Temperance ConventionThe First Woman's National Temperance Convention was a founding event in the establishment of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU). In November, 1874, a Woman's National Temperance Convention was held in Cleveland Cleveland ( ), offic ...
was held in Cleveland, and adopted the formation of the
Woman's Christian Temperance Union The Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) is an active international Temperance movement, temperance organization that was among the first organizations of women devoted to social reform with a program that "linked the religious and the secul ...
. Cleveland served as a destination for iron ore shipped from
Minnesota Minnesota () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Minnesota
, along with coal transported by rail. In 1870,
John D. Rockefeller John Davison Rockefeller Sr. (July 8, 1839May 23, 1937) was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of Am ...

John D. Rockefeller
founded
Standard Oil Standard Oil Co. was an American oil An oil is any nonpolar In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements th ...

Standard Oil
in Cleveland. In 1885, he moved its headquarters to
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
, which had become a center of finance and business. By the early 20th century, Cleveland had emerged as a major American manufacturing center. Its businesses included automotive companies such as
Peerless The Peerless Motor Car Company was an American automobile manufacturer that produced the Peerless brand of motorcars in Cleveland Cleveland ( ), officially the City of Cleveland, is a city in the U.S. The United States of America ...

Peerless
, People's,
Jordan Jordan ( ar, الأردن; tr. ' ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan,; tr. ') is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In ge ...
,
Chandler Chandler or The Chandler may refer to: * Chandler (occupation), originally head of the medieval household office responsible for candles, now a person who makes or sells candles * Ship chandler, a dealer in supplies or equipment for ships Arts and ...
, and Winton, maker of the first car driven across the U.S. Other manufacturers in Cleveland produced
steam-powered from Stott Park Bobbin Mill, Cumbria, England A steam engine is a heat engine In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy ...
cars, which included those by
White White is the lightest color Color (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the Unite ...
and , and
electric car An electric car or battery electric car is an automobile A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle Electric bicycles parked in Yangzhou's main street, Wenchang Lu. They are a very common way of transport in this city, in some a ...

electric car
s produced by
Baker A baker is a tradesperson who baking, bakes and sometimes Sales, sells breads and other products made of flour by using an oven or other concentrated heat source. The place where a baker works is called a bakery. History Ancient history Si ...
. The city's industrial growth was accompanied by significant strikes and labor unrest, as workers demanded better working conditions. In 1881–86, 70-80% of strikes were successful in improving labor conditions in Cleveland. Known as the "Sixth City" due to its position as the sixth largest U.S. city at the time, Cleveland counted major
Progressive Era The Progressive Era (1896–1916) was a period of widespread social activism Activism consists of efforts to promote, impede, direct, or intervene in Social change, social, Political campaign, political, Economics, economic, or Natural ...
politicians among its leaders, most prominently the
populist Populism refers to a range of political stances that emphasise the idea of "the people" and often juxtapose this group against "the elite". The term developed in the 19th century and has been applied to various politicians, parties, and moveme ...

populist
Mayor
Tom L. Johnson Tom Loftin Johnson (July 18, 1854 – April 10, 1911) was an American industrialist, Georgist Georgism, also called in modern times geoism and known historically as the single tax movement, is an economic ideology holding that, although peop ...
, who was responsible for the development of the Cleveland Mall Plan. The era of the City Beautiful movement in Cleveland architecture, this period also saw wealthy patrons support the establishment of the city's major cultural institutions. The most prominent among them were the
Cleveland Museum of Art Cleveland ( ), officially the City of Cleveland, is a city in the United States, U.S. U.S. state, state of Ohio, and the county seat of Cuyahoga County, Ohio, Cuyahoga County. It is located along the southern shore of Lake Erie, across the U.S ...

Cleveland Museum of Art
, which opened in 1916, and the
Cleveland Orchestra The Cleveland Orchestra, based in Cleveland Cleveland ( ), officially the City of Cleveland, is a city in the United States, U.S. U.S. state, state of Ohio, and the county seat of Cuyahoga County, Ohio, Cuyahoga County. It is located along t ...
, established in 1918. Cleveland's economic growth and industrial jobs attracted large waves of
immigrants Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective ident ...
from
Southern The name Southern may refer to: * South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ''sūþ'', from earl ...

Southern
and
Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical reg ...

Eastern Europe
as well as
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...
. African American migrants from the rural
South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ''sūþ'', from earlier Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Germa ...
also arrived in Cleveland (among other Northeastern and Midwestern cities) as part of the Great Migration for jobs, constitutional rights, and relief from
racial discrimination Racial discrimination is any discrimination Discrimination is the act of making unjustified distinctions between people based on the groups, classes, or other categories to which they belong or are perceived to belong. People may be discrim ...
. Between 1910 and 1930, the African American population of Cleveland grew by more than 400%. By 1920, the year in which the
Cleveland Indians The Cleveland Guardians are an American professional baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting (baseball), batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a pl ...
won their first World Series championship, Cleveland had grown into a densely-populated metropolis of 796,841 with a foreign-born population of 30%, making it the fifth largest city in the nation. At this time, Cleveland saw the rise of radical labor movements in response to the conditions of the largely immigrant and migrant workers. In 1919, the city attracted national attention amid the
First Red Scare The First Red Scare was a period during the early 20th-century history of the United States marked by a widespread fear of far-left Far-left politics are politics further to the left of the left–right political spectrum than the standar ...
for the Cleveland May Day Riots, in which
socialist Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the Cognition, cognitive pr ...
demonstrators clashed with anti-socialists. Despite the immigration restrictions of
1921 Events January * January – E. W. Scripps and William Emerson Ritter found ''Science Service'', later renamed Society for Science & the Public, in the United States, with the goal of keeping the public informed of scientific devel ...
and
1924 Events January * January 10 – British submarine ''HMS L24, L-24'' sinks in the English Channel after a collision; 43 lives are lost. * January 12 – Gopinath Saha shoots Ernest Day, whom he has mistaken for Sir Charles Tegart, ...
, the city's population continued to grow throughout the 1920s.
Prohibition Prohibition is the act or practice of forbidding something by law; more particularly the term refers to the banning of the manufacture Manufacturing is the production of goods In economics Economics () is the social science that st ...
first took effect in Ohio in May 1919 (although it was not well-enforced in Cleveland), became law with the
Volstead Act The National Prohibition Act, known informally as the Volstead Act, was enacted to carry out the intent of the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, 18th Amendment (ratified January 1919), which established prohibition in the Uni ...
in 1920, and was eventually
repealed A repeal (O.F. ''rapel'', modern ''rappel'', from ''rapeler'', ''rappeler'', revoke, ''re'' and ''appeler'', appeal) is the removal or reversal of a law. There are two basic types of repeal, a repeal with a re-enactment (or replacement) of the repea ...
nationally by
Congress Congresses are formal meetings of the representatives of different countries A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, ...

Congress
in 1933. The ban on alcohol led to the rise of
speakeasies A speakeasy, also called a blind pig or blind tiger, is an illicit establishment that sells alcoholic beverages. Such establishments came into prominence in the United States during the Prohibition in the United States, Prohibition era (1920&nda ...
throughout the city and organized crime gangs, such as the Mayfield Road Mob, who smuggled bootleg liquor across
Lake Erie Lake Erie (; french: Lac Érié) is the fourth largest lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land, apart from any river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowin ...

Lake Erie
from Canada into Cleveland. The
Roaring Twenties The Roaring Twenties, sometimes stylized as the Roarin' 20s, refers to the decade of the 1920s in Western world, Western society and Western culture. It was a period of economic prosperity with a distinctive cultural edge in the United States ...
also saw the establishment of Cleveland's
Playhouse Square Playhouse Square is a theater district in downtown Cleveland, Ohio, United States. It is the largest performing arts center in the US outside of New York City (only Lincoln Center is larger). Constructed in a span of 19 months in the early 1920s, ...

Playhouse Square
and the rise of the risqué Short Vincent entertainment district. The Bal-Masque balls of the
avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or 'vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, Wikt:radical#Adjective, radical, or unorthodox with respect to The arts, art, culture, or society.John Picchione, The New A ...
Kokoon Arts Club scandalized the city.
Jazz Jazz is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human s ...
came to prominence in Cleveland during this period. In 1929, the city hosted the first of many
National Air RacesImage:1931 NationalAirRace.jpg, 163px, 1931 National Air Race The National Air Races (also known as Pulitzer Trophy Races) are a series of pylon turn, pylon and cross-country air racing, races that have taken place in the United States since 1920. Th ...
, and
Amelia Earhart Amelia Mary Earhart (, born July 24, 1897 – disappeared July 2, 1937, declared dead A presumption of death occurs when a person is legal death, legally declared dead despite the absence of direct proof of the person's death, such as th ...

Amelia Earhart
flew to the city from
Santa Monica, California Santa Monica () is a beachfront city in western Los Angeles County, California, United States. Situated on Santa Monica Bay, it is bordered on five sides by different neighborhoods of the city of Los Angeles: Pacific Palisades, Los Angeles, Pac ...

Santa Monica, California
in the Women's Air Derby (nicknamed the "Powder Puff Derby" by
Will Rogers William Penn Adair Rogers (November 4, 1879 – August 15, 1935) was an American stage and film actor, vaudeville Vaudeville (; ) is a of born in France at the end of the 19th century. A vaudeville was originally a comedy without p ...

Will Rogers
). The
Van Sweringen brothers 250px, The Sweringen brothers, Mantis (left) and Oris (right) Oris Paxton Van Sweringen (April 24, 1879 – November 22, 1936) and Mantis James Van Sweringen (July 8, 1881 – December 12, 1935) were brothers who became railroad barons in order to ...
commenced construction of the
Terminal Tower Terminal Tower is a 52-story, , landmark skyscraper located on Public Square, Cleveland, Public Square in Downtown Cleveland, Downtown Cleveland, Ohio, United States. Built during the skyscraper boom of the 1920s and 1930s, it was the List of ta ...

Terminal Tower
skyscraper A skyscraper is a tall continuously habitable building having multiple floors. Modern sources currently define skyscrapers as being at least 100 metres or 150 metres in height, though there is no universally accepted definition. Skyscrapers ar ...

skyscraper
in 1926 and, by the time it was dedicated in 1930, Cleveland had a population of over 900,000. The era of the
flapper Flappers were a subculture A subculture is a group of people within a culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, b ...

flapper
also marked the beginning of the golden age in Downtown Cleveland retail, centered on major department stores
Higbee's Higbee's was a department store A department store is a retail Retail is the process of selling consumer goods or Service (economics), services to customers through multiple distribution channel, channels of distribution to earn a profit. R ...
, Bailey's, the May Company, Taylor's,
Halle's Halle Brothers Co., commonly referred to as Halle's, was a department store chain based in Cleveland, Ohio. During most of its 91-year history, Halle's focused on higher-end merchandise which it combined with personal service. The company was the ...
, and Sterling Lindner Davis, which collectively represented one of the largest and most
fashion Fashion is a form of self-expression and autonomy at a particular period and place and in a specific context, of clothing Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel, and attire) are items worn on the body. Typically, clothing is made of fab ...

fashion
able shopping districts in the country, often compared to New York's
Fifth Avenue Fifth Avenue is a major thoroughfare A thoroughfare is a primary passage or way as a transit route through regularly trafficked areas whether by road A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two Location (geography), places ...

Fifth Avenue
. Cleveland was hit hard by the
Wall Street Crash of 1929 The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as the Great Crash, was a major American stock market crash A stock market crash is a sudden dramatic decline of stock In finance, stock (also capital stock) consists of all of the shares In ...
and the subsequent
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a economic recession, recess ...
. A center of union activity, the city saw significant labor struggles in this period, including strikes by workers against
Fisher Body Fisher Body was an founded by the Fisher brothers in 1908 in ; it had been a division of General Motors for many years, but in 1984 was dissolved to form other General Motors divisions. Fisher & Company (originally Alloy Metal Products) continue ...
in 1936 and against
Republic Steel Republic Steel is an American steel manufacturer that was once the country's third largest steel Steel is an alloy of iron with typically a few tenths of a percent of carbon to improve its strength of materials, strength and fracture toughn ...
in 1937. The city was also aided by major federal works projects sponsored by President
Franklin D. Roosevelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt (, ; January 30, 1882April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American politician who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A member of the De ...

Franklin D. Roosevelt
's
New Deal The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms, and regulations Regulation is the management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends. In systems theory Systems theory is the interdisciplinar ...
. In commemoration of the centennial of Cleveland's incorporation as a city, the
Great Lakes Exposition The Great Lakes Exposition (also known as the World Fair of 1936) was held in Cleveland Cleveland ( ), officially the City of Cleveland, is a major city in the U.S. state of Ohio, and the county seat A county seat is an administrative cent ...
debuted in June 1936 at the city's
North Coast Harbor North Coast Harbor is a district in Downtown Cleveland, downtown Cleveland, Ohio on the shore of Lake Erie. The district serves as the home of the Great Lakes Science Center, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum, FirstEnergy Stadium (Cleveland) ...

North Coast Harbor
, along the Lake Erie shore north of downtown. Conceived by Cleveland's business leaders as a way to revitalize the city during the Depression, it drew four million visitors in its first season, and seven million by the end of its second and final season in September 1937. On December 7, 1941,
Imperial Japan The was a historical nation-state A nation state is a political unit where the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of Sta ...

Imperial Japan
and declared war on the United States. One of the victims of the attack was a Cleveland native, Rear Admiral Isaac C. Kidd. The attack signaled America's entry into
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. A major hub of the "
Arsenal of Democracy During the Second World War (1939–1945), "Arsenal of Democracy" was the slogan used by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt (, ; January 30, 1882April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an A ...
", Cleveland under Mayor
Frank Lausche Frank John Lausche (; November 14, 1895 – April 21, 1990) was an American Democratic Party (United States), Democratic politician from Ohio. He served as the List of mayors of Cleveland, 47th mayor of Cleveland and the List of Governors of Oh ...
contributed massively to the U.S. war effort as the fifth largest manufacturing center in the nation. During his tenure, Lausche also oversaw the establishment of the Cleveland Transit System, the predecessor to the
Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority The Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority (officially the GCRTA, but historically and locally referred to as the RTA) is the public transit agency for Cleveland, Ohio, United States and the surrounding suburbs of Cuyahoga County. RTA is ...
.


Late 20th and early 21st centuries

After the war, Cleveland initially experienced an economic boom, and businesses declared the city to be the "best location in the nation". In 1949, the city was named an
All-America City The All-America City Award is a community recognition program in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located ...
for the first time and, in 1950, its population reached 914,808. In sports, the Indians won the
1948 World Series The 1948 World Series saw the Cleveland Indians The Cleveland Guardians are an American professional baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting (baseball), ...
, the hockey team, the
Barons Baron is a rank of nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility has often been an Estates of the ...
, became champions of the American Hockey League, and the Browns dominated professional
football Football is a family of s that involve, to varying degrees, a to score a . Unqualified, normally means the form of football that is the most popular where the word is used. Sports commonly called ''football'' include (known as ''soccer'' ...
in the 1950s. As a result, along with track and boxing champions produced, Cleveland was declared the "City of Champions" in sports at this time. The 1950s also saw the rising popularity of a new music genre that local WJW (AM) disc jockey
Alan Freed Albert James "Alan" Freed (December 15, 1921 – January 20, 1965) was an American disc jockey A disc jockey, more commonly abbreviated as DJ, is a person who plays recorded music for an audience. Types of DJs include radio DJs (who h ...
dubbed "
rock and roll Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll, rock 'n' roll, or rock 'n roll) is a genre of popular music Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry. These forms and st ...

rock and roll
". However, by the 1960s, Cleveland's economy began to slow down, and residents increasingly sought new housing in the suburbs, reflecting the national trends of suburban growth following federally subsidized highways. Industrial restructuring, particularly in the railroad and steel industries, resulted in the loss of numerous jobs in Cleveland and the region, and the city suffered economically. The burning of the Cuyahoga River in June 1969 brought national attention to the issue of Pollution#Urban pollution, industrial pollution in Cleveland and served as a catalyst for the Environmental movement in the United States, American environmental movement. Housing discrimination in the United States, Housing discrimination and redlining against African Americans led to racial unrest in Cleveland and numerous other Northern U.S. cities. In Cleveland, the Hough riots erupted from July 18 to 23, 1966, and the Glenville Shootout took place from July 23 to 25, 1968. In November 1967, Cleveland became the first major American city to elect an African American mayor, Carl Stokes, Carl B. Stokes, who served from 1968 to 1971 and played an instrumental role in restoring the Cuyahoga River. In December 1978, during the turbulent tenure of Dennis Kucinich as mayor, Cleveland became the first major American city since the Great Depression to enter into a default (finance), financial default on federal loans. By the beginning of the 1980s, several factors, including changes in international free trade policies, inflation, and the savings and loan crisis, contributed to Early 1980s recession, the recession that severely affected cities like Cleveland. While unemployment during the period peaked in 1983, Cleveland's rate of 13.8% was higher than the national average due to the closure of several steel production centers. The city began a gradual economic recovery under Mayor George Voinovich, George V. Voinovich in the 1980s. The downtown area saw the construction of the Key Tower and 200 Public Square skyscrapers, as well as the development of the Gateway Sports and Entertainment Complex—consisting of Progressive Field and Rocket Mortgage FieldHouse—and the North Coast Harbor, including the
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (RRHOF), sometimes simply referred to as the Rock Hall, is a museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is an institution that Preservation (library and archival science), cares for (conserves) a ...

Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
, FirstEnergy Stadium, and the Great Lakes Science Center. The city emerged from default in 1987. By the turn of the 21st century, Cleveland succeeded in developing a more diversified economy and gained a national reputation as a center for healthcare and the arts. Additionally, it has become a national leader in environmental protection, with its successful cleanup of the Cuyahoga River. The city's downtown has experienced dramatic economic and population growth since 2010, but the overall population has continued to decline. Challenges remain for the city, with economic development of neighborhoods, improvement of Cleveland Metropolitan School District, city schools, and continued encouragement of new immigration to Cleveland being top municipal priorities.


Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of , of which is land and is water. The shore of Lake Erie is above above mean sea level, sea level; however, the city lies on a series of irregular bluffs lying roughly parallel to the lake. In Cleveland these bluffs are cut principally by the
Cuyahoga River The Cuyahoga River ( , or ) is a river in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North Am ...

Cuyahoga River
, Big Creek, and Euclid Creek. The land rises quickly from the lake shore elevation of 569 feet. Public Square, less than inland, sits at an elevation of , and Hopkins Airport, inland from the lake, is at an elevation of . Cleveland borders several Inner suburb, inner-ring and streetcar suburbs, streetcar suburbs. To the west, it borders Lakewood, Ohio, Lakewood, Rocky River, Ohio, Rocky River, and Fairview Park, Ohio, Fairview Park, and to the east, it borders Shaker Heights, Ohio, Shaker Heights, Cleveland Heights, Ohio, Cleveland Heights, South Euclid, Ohio, South Euclid, and East Cleveland, Ohio, East Cleveland. To the southwest, it borders Linndale, Ohio, Linndale, Brooklyn, Ohio, Brooklyn, Parma, Ohio, Parma, and Brook Park, Ohio, Brook Park. To the south, the city also borders Newburgh Heights, Ohio, Newburgh Heights, Cuyahoga Heights, Ohio, Cuyahoga Heights, and Brooklyn Heights, Ohio, Brooklyn Heights and to the southeast, it borders Warrensville Heights, Ohio, Warrensville Heights, Maple Heights, Ohio, Maple Heights, and Garfield Heights, Ohio, Garfield Heights. To the northeast, along the shore of Lake Erie, Cleveland borders Bratenahl, Ohio, Bratenahl and Euclid, Ohio, Euclid.


Cityscapes


Architecture

Cleveland's downtown architecture is diverse. Many of the city's government and civic buildings, including Cleveland City Hall, City Hall, the Cuyahoga County Courthouse, the Cleveland Public Library, and Public Auditorium, are clustered around the open Cleveland Mall and share a common neoclassical architecture. They were built in the early 20th century as the result of the 1903 Group Plan. They constitute one of the most complete examples of City Beautiful design in the United States. Completed in 1927 and dedicated in 1930 as part of the Tower City Center, Cleveland Union Terminal complex, the Terminal Tower was the tallest building in North America outside New York City until 1964 and the tallest in the city until 1991. It is a prototypical Beaux-Arts architecture, Beaux-Arts skyscraper. The two newer skyscrapers on Public Square, Key Tower (currently the tallest building in Ohio) and the 200 Public Square, combine elements of Art Deco architecture with postmodern architecture, postmodern designs. Cleveland's architectural treasures also include the Cleveland Trust Company Building, completed in 1907 and renovated in 2015 as a downtown Heinen's Fine Foods, Heinen's supermarket, and the Cleveland Arcade (sometimes called the Old Arcade), a five-story arcade (architecture), arcade built in 1890 and renovated in 2001 as a Hyatt Regency Hotel. Running east from Public Square through University Circle is Euclid Avenue (Cleveland), Euclid Avenue, which was known for its prestige and elegance as a residential street. In the late 1880s, writer Bayard Taylor described it as "the most beautiful street in the world". Known as "Millionaires' Row", Euclid Avenue was world-renowned as the home of such major figures as John D. Rockefeller, Mark Hanna, and John Hay. Cleveland's landmark ecclesiastical architecture includes the historic Old Stone Church (Cleveland), Old Stone Church in downtown Cleveland and the onion domed St. Theodosius Russian Orthodox Cathedral in Tremont, Cleveland, Tremont, along with myriad ethnically inspired Roman Catholic churches. File:Cleveland OH Arcade (NRHP-60859).jpg, Cleveland Arcade, 1890 File:Cleveland Trust rotunda.jpg, Cleveland Trust Company Building, 1907 File:Palace lobby.jpg, Connor Palace, Connor Palace Theatre, 1922 File:Cleveland Skyline (26381354620).jpg,
Terminal Tower Terminal Tower is a 52-story, , landmark skyscraper located on Public Square, Cleveland, Public Square in Downtown Cleveland, Downtown Cleveland, Ohio, United States. Built during the skyscraper boom of the 1920s and 1930s, it was the List of ta ...

Terminal Tower
from Euclid Avenue File:Severance Hall (23711986045).jpg, Grand foyer of Severance Hall, 1931


Parks and nature

Known locally as the "Emerald Necklace", the Frederick Law Olmsted, Olmsted-inspired Cleveland Metroparks encircle Cleveland and Cuyahoga County. The city proper is home to the Metroparks' Brookside and Lakefront Reservations, as well as significant parts of the Rocky River, Washington, and Euclid Creek Reservations. The Lakefront Reservation, which provides public access to Lake Erie, consists of four parks: Edgewater Park, Whiskey Island (Cleveland), Whiskey Island–Wendy Park, East 55th Street Marina, and Gordon Park, Cleveland, Gordon Park. Three more parks fall under the jurisdiction of the Euclid Creek Reservation: Euclid Beach, Villa Angela, and Wildwood Marina. Bike and hiking trails in the Brecksville Reservation, Brecksville and Bedford Reservations, along with Garfield Park further north, provide access to trails in the Cuyahoga Valley National Park. The extensive system of trails within Cuyahoga Valley National Park extends south into Summit County, Ohio, Summit County, offering access to Summit Metro Parks as well. Also included in the system is the renowned Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, established in 1882. Located in Big Creek Valley, the zoo has one of the largest collections of primates in North America. The Cleveland Metroparks provides ample opportunity for outdoor recreational activities. Hiking and biking trails, including single-track mountain bike trails, wind extensively throughout the parks. Rock climbing is available at Whipp's Ledges at the Hinckley Reservation. During the summer months, kayakers, paddle boarders, and rowing and sailing crews can be seen on the Cuyahoga River and Lake Erie. In the winter months, downhill skiing, snowboarding, and tubing are available not far from downtown at the Boston Mills/Brandywine Ski Resort, Boston Mills/Brandywine and Alpine Valley Ski Area, Alpine Valley ski resorts. In addition to the Metroparks, the Cleveland Public Parks District oversees the city's neighborhood parks, the largest of which is the historic Rockefeller Park. The latter is notable for its late 19th century landmark bridges, the Rockefeller Park Greenhouse, and the Cleveland Cultural Gardens, which celebrate the city's ethnic diversity. Just outside of Rockefeller Park, the Cleveland Botanical Garden in University Circle, established in 1930, is the oldest civic garden center in the nation. In addition, the Greater Cleveland Aquarium, located in the historic FirstEnergy Powerhouse in the The Flats, Flats, is the only independent, free-standing aquarium in the state of Ohio.


Neighborhoods

The Cleveland City Planning Commission has officially designated 34 neighborhoods in Cleveland. Centered on Public Square, Downtown Cleveland is the city's central business district, encompassing a wide range of subdistricts, such as the Nine-Twelve District, the Campus District, the Civic Center (Cleveland), Civic Center, and
Playhouse Square Playhouse Square is a theater district in downtown Cleveland, Ohio, United States. It is the largest performing arts center in the US outside of New York City (only Lincoln Center is larger). Constructed in a span of 19 months in the early 1920s, ...

Playhouse Square
. It also historically included the lively Short Vincent entertainment district, which emerged in the 1920s, reached its height in the 1940s and 1950s, and disappeared with the expansion of National City Bank in the late 1970s. Mixed-use areas, such as the Warehouse District, Cleveland, Warehouse District and the Downtown Cleveland#Superior Arts District, Superior Arts District, are occupied by industrial and office buildings as well as restaurants, cafes, and bars. The number of downtown condominiums, loft apartment, lofts, and apartments has been on the increase since 2000 and especially 2010, reflecting the neighborhood's dramatic population growth. Recent downtown developments also include the HealthLine, Euclid Corridor Project and the revival of East 4th Street District (Cleveland), East 4th Street. Clevelanders geographically define themselves in terms of whether they live on the east or west side of the Cuyahoga River. The East Side includes the neighborhoods of Buckeye–Shaker, Buckeye–Woodhill, Central, Cleveland, Central, Collinwood (including Nottingham, Ohio, Nottingham), Euclid–Green, Fairfax, Cleveland, Fairfax, Glenville, Cleveland, Glenville, Goodrich–Kirtland Park (including Asiatown, Cleveland, Asiatown), Hough, Cleveland, Hough, Kinsman, Cleveland, Kinsman, Lee–Miles (including Lee–Harvard and Lee–Seville), Mount Pleasant, Cleveland, Mount Pleasant, St. Clair–Superior, Union–Miles Park, and University Circle (including Little Italy, Cleveland, Little Italy). The West Side includes the neighborhoods of Brooklyn Centre, Clark–Fulton, Cudell, Cleveland, Cudell, Detroit–Shoreway, Edgewater, Cleveland, Edgewater, Ohio City, Cleveland, Ohio City, Old Brooklyn, Stockyards, Cleveland, Stockyards, Tremont, Cleveland, Tremont (including Tremont, Cleveland#Duck Island, Duck Island), West Boulevard, and the four neighborhoods colloquially known as West Park, Cleveland, West Park: Kamm's Corners, Jefferson, Cleveland, Jefferson, Bellaire–Puritas, Cleveland, Bellaire–Puritas, and Hopkins, Cleveland, Hopkins. The Cuyahoga Valley, Cleveland, Cuyahoga Valley neighborhood (including the Flats) is situated between the East and West Sides, while the Broadway–Slavic Village neighborhood is sometimes referred to as the South Side. Several neighborhoods have begun to attract the return of the middle class that left the city for the suburbs in the 1960s and 1970s. These neighborhoods are on both the West Side (Ohio City, Tremont, Detroit–Shoreway, and Edgewater) and the East Side (Collinwood, Hough, Fairfax, and Little Italy). Much of the growth has been spurred on by attracting creative class members, which in turn is spurring new residential development. A live-work zoning overlay for the city's near East Side has facilitated the transformation of old industrial buildings into loft spaces for artists.


Climate

Typical of the Great Lakes region, Cleveland exhibits a continental climate with four distinct seasons, which lies in the humid continental (Köppen climate classification, Köppen ''Dfa'') zone. Summers are hot and humid while winters are cold and snowy. The Lake Erie shoreline is very close to due east–west from the mouth of the Cuyahoga west to Sandusky, Ohio, Sandusky, but at the mouth of the Cuyahoga it turns sharply northeast. This feature is the principal contributor to the lake-effect snow that is typical in Cleveland (especially on the city's East Side) from mid-November until the surface of Lake Erie freezes, usually in late January or early February. The lake effect also causes a relative differential in geographical snowfall totals across the city: while Hopkins Airport, on the city's far West Side, has only reached of snowfall in a season three times since record-keeping for snow began in 1893, seasonal totals approaching or exceeding are not uncommon as the city ascends into the Heights on the east, where the region known as the 'Snowbelt, Snow Belt' begins. Extending from the city's East Side and its suburbs, the Snow Belt reaches up the Lake Erie shore as far as Buffalo, New York, Buffalo. The all-time record high in Cleveland of was established on June 25, 1988, and the all-time record low of was set on January 19, 1994. On average, July is the warmest month with a mean temperature of , and January, with a mean temperature of , is the coldest. Normal yearly precipitation (meteorology), precipitation based on the 30-year average from 1991 to 2020 is . The least precipitation occurs on the western side and directly along the lake, and the most occurs in the eastern suburbs. Parts of Geauga County, Ohio, Geauga County to the east receive over of liquid precipitation annually.


Demographics

At the 2020 census, there were 372,624 people and 170,549 households in the city. The population density was . The median income for a household in the city was $30,907. The per capita income for the city was $21,223. 32.7% of the population living below the poverty line. Of the city's population over the age of 25, 17.5% held a bachelor's degree or higher, and 80.8% had a high school diploma or equivalent. According to the 2010 census, 29.7% of Cleveland households had children under the age of 18 living with them, 22.4% were married couples living together, 25.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.0% had a male householder with no wife present, and 46.4% were non-families. 39.5% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 3.11. In 2010, the median age in the city was 35.7 years. 24.6% of residents were under the age of 18; 11% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 26.1% were from 25 to 44; 26.3% were from 45 to 64; and 12% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.0% male and 52.0% female.


Ethnicity

According to the 2020 census, the racial composition of the city was 40.0% White (U.S. Census), white, 48.8% African American, 0.5% Native Americans in the United States, Native American, 2.6% Asian Americans, Asian, and 4.4% from Multiracial Americans, two or more races. Hispanic and Latino Americans, Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 11.9% of the population. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Cleveland saw a massive influx of immigrants from Ireland, Kingdom of Italy, Italy, and the Austria-Hungary, Austro-Hungarian, German Empire, German, Russian Empire, Russian, and Ottoman Empire, Ottoman empires, most of whom were attracted by manufacturing jobs. As a result, Cleveland and Cuyahoga County today have substantial communities of Irish Americans, Irish (especially in Kamm's Corners and other areas of West Park), Italian Americans, Italians (especially in Little Italy and around U.S. Route 322, Mayfield Road), German Americans, Germans, Slovenes and several Central Europe, Central-Eastern European ethnicities, including Czech American, Czechs, Hungarian Americans, Hungarians, Lithuanian American, Lithuanians, Polish Americans, Poles, Romanian American, Romanians, Russian Americans, Russians, Rusyn Americans, Rusyns, Slovak American, Slovaks, Ukrainian American, Ukrainians, and ex-Yugoslavia, Yugoslav groups, such as Croatian American, Croats and Serbian American, Serbs. The presence of Hungarian Ohioans#Hungarians in Cleveland, Hungarians within Cleveland proper was, at one time, so great that the city boasted the highest concentration of Hungarians in the world outside of Budapest. Cleveland has a long-established Jews and Judaism in Greater Cleveland, Jewish community, historically centered on the East Side neighborhoods of Glenville and Kinsman, but now mostly concentrated in East Side suburbs such as Cleveland Heights and Beachwood, Ohio, Beachwood, home to the Maltz Museum of Jewish Heritage. The availability of jobs also attracted African Americans from the South. Between 1920 and 1970, the black population of Cleveland, largely concentrated on the city's East Side, increased significantly as a result of the First and Second Great Migration (African American), Second Great Migrations. Cleveland's Latino community consists primarily of Puerto Ricans in the United States, Puerto Ricans, who make up over 80% of the city's Hispanic/Latino population, as well as smaller numbers of immigrants from Mexico, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, South America, South and Central America, and Spain. The city's Asian community, centered on historical Asiatown, consists of Chinese Americans, Chinese, Korean Americans, Koreans, Vietnamese Americans, Vietnamese, and other groups. Additionally, the city and the county have significant communities of Albanian Americans, Albanians, Arab American, Arabs (especially Lebanese Americans, Lebanese, Syrian Americans, Syrians, and Palestinian Americans, Palestinians), Armenian Americans, Armenians, French American, French, Greek American, Greeks, Iranian Americans, Iranians, Scottish Americans, Scots, Turkish Americans, Turks, and West Indian American, West Indians. A 2020 analysis found Cleveland to be the most ethnically and racially diverse city in Ohio. Many ethnic festivals are held in Cleveland throughout the year, such as the annual Cleveland Feast of the Assumption Festival, Feast of the Assumption in Little Italy, Russian Maslenitsa in Rockefeller Park, the Cleveland Puerto Rican Parade and Festival in Clark–Fulton, the Cleveland Asian Festival in Asiatown, the Greek Festival in Tremont, and the Romanian Festival in West Park. Vendors at the West Side Market in Ohio City offer many ethnic foods for sale. Cleveland also hosts annual Polish Śmigus-dyngus, Dyngus Day and Slovene Kurentovanje celebrations. The city's annual Saint Patrick's Day parade brings hundreds of thousands to the streets of Downtown. The Cleveland Thyagaraja Festival held annually each spring at Cleveland State University is the largest Indian people, Indian classical music and dance festival in the world outside of India. Since 1946, the city has annually marked One World Day in the Cleveland Cultural Gardens in Rockefeller Park, celebrating all of its ethnic communities.


Religion

The influx of immigrants in the 19th and early 20th centuries drastically transformed Cleveland's religious landscape. From a homogeneous settlement of New England Protestantism, Protestants, it evolved into a city with a diverse religious composition. The predominant faith among Clevelanders today is Christianity (Catholic Church, Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern and Oriental Orthodox Churches, Oriental Orthodox), with Judaism, Jewish, Islam, Muslim, Hinduism, Hindu, and Buddhism, Buddhist minorities.


Language

, 85.3% of Cleveland residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language. 14.7% spoke a foreign language, including Spanish language in the United States, Spanish, Arabic language in the United States, Arabic, Chinese language in the United States, Chinese, Albanian language, Albanian, and various Slavic languages (Russian language in the United States, Russian, Polish language, Polish, Serbo-Croatian language, Serbo-Croatian, and Slovene language, Slovene).


Immigration

In 1920, Cleveland proper boasted a foreign-born population of 30% and, in 1870, that percentage was 42%. Although the foreign-born population of Cleveland today is not as big as it once was, the sense of identity remains strong among the city's various ethnic communities, as reflected in the Cleveland Cultural Gardens. Within Cleveland, the neighborhoods with the highest foreign-born populations are Asiatown/Goodrich–Kirtland Park (32.7%), Clark–Fulton (26.7%), West Boulevard (18.5%), Brooklyn Centre (17.3%), Downtown (17.2%), University Circle (15.9%, with 20% in Little Italy), and Jefferson (14.3%). Recent waves of immigration have brought new groups to Cleveland, including Ethiopian Americans, Ethiopians and South Asian Americans, South Asians, as well as immigrants from Russia and the Post-Soviet states, former USSR, Southeast Europe (especially Albania), the Middle East, East Asia, and Latin America. In the 2010s, the immigrant population of Cleveland and Cuyahoga County began to see significant growth, becoming one of the fastest growing centers for immigration in the Great Lakes region. A 2019 study found Cleveland to be the city with the shortest average processing time in the nation for immigrants to become Citizenship of the United States, U.S. citizens. The city's annual One World Day in Rockefeller Park includes a naturalization ceremony of new immigrants.


Economy

Cleveland's location on the Cuyahoga River and Lake Erie has been key to its growth. The Ohio and Erie Canal coupled with rail links helped the city become an important business center. Steel and many other manufactured goods emerged as leading industries. The city has since diversified its economy in addition to its manufacturing sector. Established in 1914, the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland is one of 12 U.S. Federal Reserve Federal Reserve Bank, Banks. Its downtown building, located on East 6th Street and Superior Avenue, was completed in 1923 by the Cleveland architectural firm Walker and Weeks. The headquarters of the Federal Reserve System's Fourth District, the bank employs 1,000 people and maintains branch offices in Cincinnati and Pittsburgh. The chief executive officer and president (corporate title), president is Loretta Mester. The city is also home to the corporate headquarters of many large companies such as Aleris, American Greetings, Applied Industrial Technologies, Mettler Toledo, Cliffs Natural Resources, Cleveland-Cliffs, Inc., Parker Hannifin, Eaton Corporation, Eaton, Forest City Enterprises, Heinen's Fine Foods, Hyster-Yale Materials Handling, Key Bank, KeyCorp, Lincoln Electric, Medical Mutual of Ohio, Moen Incorporated, NACCO Industries, Nordson, OM Group, Parker-Hannifin, PolyOne, Progressive Corporation, Progressive, RPM International, Sherwin-Williams Company, Steris, Swagelok, Things Remembered, Third Federal S&L, TransDigm Group, Travel Centers of America and Vitamix. NASA maintains a facility in Cleveland, the Glenn Research Center. Jones Day, one of the largest law firms in the U.S., was founded in Cleveland. The Cleveland Clinic is the largest private employer in the city of Cleveland and the state of Ohio, with a workforce of over 50,000 . It carries the distinction as being among America's best hospitals with top ratings published in ''U.S. News & World Report''. Cleveland's healthcare sector also includes University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, MetroHealth medical center, and the insurance company Medical Mutual of Ohio. Cleveland is also noted in the fields of biotechnology and fuel cell research, led by Case Western Reserve University, the Cleveland Clinic, and University Hospitals of Cleveland. The city is among the top recipients of investment for biotech start-ups and research. Technology is another growing sector in Cleveland. In 2005, the city appointed a "tech czar" to recruit technology companies to the downtown office market, offering connections to the high-speed fiber networks that run underneath downtown streets in several "high-tech offices" focused on Euclid Avenue. Cleveland State University hired a technology transfer officer to cultivate technology transfers from CSU research to marketable ideas and companies in the Cleveland area. Local observers have noted that the city is transitioning from a manufacturing-based economy to a health-tech-based economy.


Education


Primary and secondary education

The Cleveland Metropolitan School District is the second-largest K–12 education, K–12 district in the state of Ohio. It is the only district in Ohio under the direct control of the mayor, who appoints a board of education, school board. Approximately of Cleveland, adjacent the Shaker Square neighborhood, is part of the Shaker Heights City School District. The area, which has been a part of the Shaker school district since the 1920s, permits these Cleveland residents to pay the same school taxes as the Shaker residents, as well as vote in the Shaker school board elections. Private and parochial schools within Cleveland proper include Benedictine High School (Cleveland, Ohio), Benedictine High School, Birchwood School, Cleveland Central Catholic High School, Eleanor Gerson School, Montessori High School at University Circle, Saint Ignatius High School (Cleveland), St. Ignatius High School, Saint Joseph Academy (Cleveland, Ohio), St. Joseph Academy, Villa Angela-St. Joseph High School, Urban Community School, St. Martin de Porres High School (Cleveland), St. Martin de Porres, and The Bridge Avenue School.


Higher education

Cleveland is home to a number of colleges and universities. Most prominent among them is Case Western Reserve University (CWRU), a widely recognized research and teaching institution in University Circle. A private university with several prominent graduate programs, CWRU was ranked 40th in the nation in 2020 by ''U.S. News & World Report''. University Circle also contains the Cleveland Institute of Art and the Cleveland Institute of Music. Cleveland State University (CSU), based in Downtown Cleveland, is the city's public four-year university. In addition to CSU, downtown hosts the metropolitan campus of Cuyahoga Community College, the county's two-year higher education institution. Ohio Technical College is also based in Cleveland. Cleveland's suburban universities and colleges include Baldwin Wallace University in Berea, Ohio, Berea, John Carroll University in University Heights, Ohio, University Heights, Ursuline College in Pepper Pike, Ohio, Pepper Pike, and Notre Dame College in South Euclid.


Public library system

Established in 1869, the Cleveland Public Library is one of the List of the largest libraries in the United States, largest public libraries in the nation with a collection of 10,559,651 materials in 2018. Its John Griswold White, John G. White Special Collection includes the largest chess libraries, chess library in the world as well as a significant collection of folklore and rare books on the Middle East and Eurasia. Under head librarian William Howard Brett, the library adopted an "open shelf" philosophy, which allowed patrons open access to the library's bookstacks. Brett's successor, Linda Eastman, became the first woman ever to lead a major library system in the world. She oversaw the construction of the library's main building on Superior Avenue, designed by Walker and Weeks and opened on May 6, 1925. David Lloyd George, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, British Prime Minister from 1916 to 1922, laid the cornerstone for the building. The Louis Stokes Wing addition was completed in April 1997. Between 1904 and 1920, 15 libraries Carnegie library, built with funds from Andrew Carnegie were opened in the city. Known as the "People's University," the library presently maintains 27 branches. It serves as the headquarters for the CLEVNET library consortium, which includes over 40 public library systems in the Greater Cleveland Metropolitan Area and Northeast Ohio.


Culture


Performing arts

Cleveland is home to Playhouse Square, the second largest performing arts center in the United States behind New York City's Lincoln Center. Playhouse Square includes the State Theater (Cleveland), State, Palace Theater, Cleveland, Palace, Allen Theatre, Allen, Hanna Theater, Hanna, and Ohio Theater (Cleveland), Ohio theaters within what is known as the Cleveland Theater District. The center hosts musical theatre, Broadway musicals, special concerts, speaking engagements, and other events throughout the year. Its resident performing arts companies include Cleveland Ballet (founded 2014), Cleveland Ballet, the Cleveland International Film Festival, the Cleveland Play House, Cleveland State University Department of Theatre and Dance, DANCECleveland, the Great Lakes Theater Festival, and the Tri-C Jazz Fest. A city with strong traditions in theatre, theater and vaudeville, Cleveland has produced many renowned performers, most prominently comedian Bob Hope. Outside Playhouse Square, Cleveland is home to Karamu House, the oldest African American theater in the nation, established in 1915. On the West Side, the Gordon Square Arts District in Detroit–Shoreway is the location of the Capitol Theatre, the Near West Theatre, and an Off-Off-Broadway Playhouse, the Cleveland Public Theatre. Cleveland's streetcar suburbs of Cleveland Heights and Lakewood are home to the Dobama Theatre and the Beck Center for the Arts respectively. Cleveland is home to the Cleveland Orchestra, widely considered one of the world's finest orchestras, and often referred to as the finest in the nation. It is one of the "Big Five (orchestras), Big Five" major orchestras in the United States. The Cleveland Orchestra plays at Severance Hall in University Circle during the winter and at Blossom Music Center in Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio, Cuyahoga Falls during the summer. The city is also home to the Cleveland Pops Orchestra, the Cleveland Orchestra Youth Orchestra, Cleveland Youth Orchestra, the Contemporary Youth Orchestra, the Cleveland Youth Wind Symphony, and the biennial Cleveland International Piano Competition which has, in the past, often featured The Cleveland Orchestra. One Playhouse Square, now the headquarters for Cleveland's public broadcasting, public broadcasters, was initially used as the broadcast studios of WJW (AM), where disc jockey Alan Freed first popularized the term "rock and roll". Cleveland gained a strong reputation in rock music in the 1960s and 1970s as a key breakout market for nationally promoted acts and performers. Its popularity in the city was so great that Billy Bass, the program director at the WMMS radio station, referred to Cleveland as "The Rock and Roll Capital of the World." The Agora Theatre and Ballroom, Cleveland Agora Theatre and Ballroom has served as a major venue for rock concerts in the city since the 1960s. From 1974 through 1980, the city hosted the World Series of Rock at Cleveland Stadium, Cleveland Municipal Stadium. Jazz and R&B have a long history in Cleveland. Many major figures in jazz, including Louis Armstrong, Cab Calloway, Duke Ellington, Ella Fitzgerald, Dizzy Gillespie, Benny Goodman, Billie Holiday, and Don Redman performed in the city, and legendary pianist Art Tatum regularly played in Cleveland clubs during the 1930s. Gypsy jazz guitarist Django Reinhardt gave his U.S. debut performance in Cleveland in 1946. Prominent jazz artist Noble Sissle was a graduate of Central High School (Cleveland, Ohio), Cleveland Central High School, Artie Shaw worked and performed in Cleveland early in his career, and bandleader Phil Spitalny led his first orchestra in Cleveland. The Tri-C Jazz Fest has been held annually in Cleveland at Playhouse Square since 1979, and the Cleveland Jazz Orchestra was established in 1984. Joe Siebert's documentary film ''The Sax Man'' on the life of Cleveland street saxophonist Sax Man, Maurice Reedus Jr. was released in 2014. There is a significant hip hop music scene in Cleveland. In 1997, the Cleveland hip hop group Bone Thugs-n-Harmony won a Grammy Award for Best Rap Performance by a Duo or Group, Grammy for their song "Tha Crossroads". The city also has a history of polka music being popular both past and present, even having a subgenre called Slovenian-style polka, Cleveland-style polka named after the city, and is home to the Polka Hall of Fame. This is due in part to the success of Frankie Yankovic, a Cleveland native who was considered ''America's Polka King.'' The square at the intersection of Waterloo Road and East 152nd Street in Cleveland (), not far from where Yankovic grew up, was named in his honor.


Film and television

Cleveland has served as the setting for many Major film studio, major studio and Independent film, independent films, and, early in Cinema of the United States, American film history, it was even a center for film production. The first film shot in Cleveland was in 1897 by the Edison Manufacturing Company, Edison Company. Before Hollywood became the center for American cinema, filmmaker Samuel R. Brodsky and playwright Robert H. McLaughlin operated a studio at the Samuel Andrews (chemist), Andrews mansion on Euclid Avenue (now the WEWS-TV studio). There they produced major silent film, silent-era features, such as ''Dangerous Toys (film), Dangerous Toys'' (1921), which are now considered lost film, lost. Brodsky also directed the weekly ''Plain Dealer Screen Magazine'' that ran in theaters in Cleveland and Ohio from 1917 to 1924. In the "sound film, talkie" era, Cleveland featured in numerous Classical Hollywood cinema, classic Hollywood movies, such as Howard Hawks's ''Ceiling Zero'' (1936) with James Cagney and Pat O'Brien (actor), Pat O'Brien, and Hobart Henley's romantic comedy ''The Big Pond'' (1930) with Maurice Chevalier and Claudette Colbert, which introduced the hit song "You Brought a New Kind of Love to Me". Michael Curtiz's 1933 Pre-Code Hollywood, pre-Code classic ''Goodbye Again (1933 film), Goodbye Again'' with Warren William and Joan Blondell was set in Cleveland. Players from the 1948 Cleveland Indians season, 1948 Cleveland Indians, winners of the 1948 World Series, World Series, appeared in ''The Kid from Cleveland'' (1949). Cleveland Municipal Stadium features prominently in both that film and ''The Fortune Cookie'' (1966). Written and directed by Billy Wilder, the latter marked Walter Matthau and Jack Lemmon's first on-screen collaboration and features gameday footage of the 1965 Cleveland Browns season, 1965 Browns. Other films set in Cleveland include Jules Dassin's ''Up Tight!'' (1968) and Norman Jewison's ''F.I.S.T. (film), F.I.S.T.'' (1978), the latter featuring Sylvester Stallone as a local union leader. Paul Simon chose Cleveland as the opening for his only venture into filmmaking, ''One-Trick Pony (film), One-Trick Pony'' (1980). Clevelander Jim Jarmusch's ''Stranger Than Paradise'' (1984)—a deadpan comedy about two New Yorkers who travel to Florida by way of Cleveland—was a favorite of the Cannes Film Festival, winning the Caméra d'Or. Both ''Major League (film), Major League'' (1989) and ''Major League II'' (1994) reflected the Cleveland Guardians#1960–1993: The 33-year slump, actual perennial struggles of the Cleveland Indians during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Several key scenes from Cameron Crowe's ''Almost Famous'' (2000) are set in Cleveland, and both ''Antwone Fisher (film), Antwone Fisher'' (2002) and ''The Soloist'' (2009) recount the real-life stories of Cleveland natives. Brothers Joe Russo (director), Joe and Anthony Russo (director), Anthony Russo—native Clevelanders—filmed their comedy ''Welcome to Collinwood'' (2002) entirely Filming location, on location in the city. ''American Splendor (film), American Splendor'' (2003)—the Biographical film, biopic of Harvey Pekar, author of the American Splendor, autobiographical comic of the same name—was also filmed in Cleveland. ''Kill the Irishman'' (2011) depicts the 1970s turf war in Cleveland between Irish mobster Danny Greene and the Cleveland crime family, while ''Draft Day'' (2014) features Kevin Costner as general manager for the Browns. Cleveland has also doubled for other locations in films. The wedding and reception scenes in ''The Deer Hunter'' (1978), while set in the small Pittsburgh suburb of Clairton, Pennsylvania, Clairton, were shot in Cleveland's Tremont; U.S. Steel also permitted the production to film in one of its Cleveland mills. Francis Ford Coppola produced ''The Escape Artist'' (1982), much of which was shot in Downtown Cleveland. ''A Christmas Story'' (1983) was set in Indiana, but drew many of its external shots—including the Parker family home—from Cleveland. The opening shots of ''Air Force One (film), Air Force One'' (1997) were filmed in and above Severance Hall. Downtown Cleveland also doubled for New York in ''Spider-Man 3'' (2007) and the climax of ''The Avengers (2012 film), The Avengers'' (2012). More recently, ''Captain America: The Winter Soldier'' (2014), ''The Fate of the Furious'' (2017), and ''Judas and the Black Messiah'' (2021) were all filmed in the city. Future Cleveland productions are handled by the Greater Cleveland Film Commission. In television, the city is the setting for the popular network sitcom ''The Drew Carey Show'', starring Cleveland native Drew Carey. ''Hot in Cleveland'', a comedy that aired on TV Land, premiered on June 16, 2010, and ran for six seasons until its finale on June 3, 2015. Later episodes of the reality show ''Keeping Up With the Kardashians'' have been partially filmed in Cleveland, after series star Khloe Kardashian began a relationship with Cleveland Cavaliers center (basketball), center Tristan Thompson. ''Cleveland Hustles'', the CNBC reality show co-created by LeBron James, was filmed in the city.


Literature

Langston Hughes, preeminent poet of the Harlem Renaissance and child of an itinerant couple, lived in Cleveland as a teenager and attended Central High School in Cleveland in the 1910s.John Perkovic
"Cleveland home of literary great Langston Hughes on the market for $85,000"
''The Plain Dealer'', October 24, 2013 (accessed November 25, 2014)
At Central High, Hughes was taught by Helen Maria Chesnutt, daughter of renowned Cleveland-born African American novelist Charles W. Chesnutt. He also wrote for the school newspaper and started writing his earlier plays, poems and short stories while living in Cleveland. The African American avant-garde poet Russell Atkins also lived in Cleveland. The American modernist poet Hart Crane was born in nearby Garrettsville, Ohio in 1899. His adolescence was divided between Cleveland and Akron before he moved to New York City in 1916. Aside from factory work during the first world war, he served as a reporter to ''The Plain Dealer'' for a short period, before achieving recognition in the Modernist literary scene. A diminutive memorial park is dedicated to Crane along the left bank of the Cuyahoga in Cleveland. In University Circle, a historical marker sits at the location of his Cleveland childhood house on E. 115 near the Euclid Avenue intersection. On the Case Western Reserve University campus, a statue of him, designed by sculptor William McVey (sculptor), William McVey, stands behind the Kelvin Smith Library. Cleveland was the home of Joe Shuster and Jerry Siegel, who created the comic book character Superman in 1932. Both attended Glenville High School, and their early collaborations resulted in the creation of "The Man of Steel". Harlan Ellison, noted author of speculative fiction, was born in Cleveland in 1934; his family subsequently moved to the nearby town of Painesville, Ohio, Painesville, though Ellison moved back to Cleveland in 1949. As a youngster, he published a series of short stories appearing in the ''Cleveland Press, Cleveland News''; he also performed in a number of productions for the Cleveland Play House. D. A. Levy wrote: "Cleveland: The Rectal Eye Visions". Mystery author Richard Montanari's first three novels, ''Deviant Way'', ''The Violet Hour'', and ''Kiss of Evil'' are set in Cleveland. Mystery writer, Les Roberts (mystery novel writer), Les Roberts's ''Milan Jacovich'' series is also set in Cleveland. Author and Ohio resident, James Renner set his debut novel, ''The Man from Primrose Lane'' in present-day Cleveland. The Cleveland State University Poetry Center serves as an academic center for poetry. Cleveland continues to have a thriving literary and poetry community, with regular poetry readings at bookstores, coffee shops, and various other venues. Cleveland is the site of the Anisfield-Wolf Book Award, established by poet and philanthropist Edith Anisfield Wolf in 1935, which recognizes books that have made important contributions to the understanding of racism and human diversity. Presented by the Cleveland Foundation, it remains the only American book prize focusing on works that address racism and diversity. In an early Gay and lesbian studies anthology titled Lavender Culture, a short piece by John Kelsey "The Cleveland Bar Scene in the Forties" discusses the gay and lesbian culture in Cleveland and the unique experiences of amateur female impersonators that existed alongside the New York and San Francisco LGBT subcultures.


Museums and galleries

Cleveland has two main art museums. The Cleveland Museum of Art is a major American art museum, with a collection that includes more than 40,000 works of art ranging over 6,000 years, from ancient art, ancient masterpieces to contemporary art, contemporary pieces. The Museum of Contemporary Art Cleveland showcases established and emerging artists, particularly from the Cleveland area, through hosting and producing temporary exhibitions. Both museums offer free admission to visitors, with the Cleveland Museum of Art declaring their museum free and open "for the benefit of all the people forever." Both museums are also part of Cleveland's University Circle, a concentration of cultural, educational, and medical institutions located east of downtown. In addition to the art museums, the neighborhood also includes the Cleveland Botanical Garden, Case Western Reserve University, University Hospitals, Severance Hall, the
Cleveland Museum of Natural History The Cleveland Museum of Natural History is a natural history museum located approximately five miles (8 km) east of downtown Cleveland, Ohio Cleveland ( ), officially the City of Cleveland, is a major city in the U.S. state of Ohio, ...
, and the Western Reserve Historical Society. Also located at University Circle is the Cleveland Cinematheque at the Cleveland Institute of Art, hailed by ''The New York Times'' as one of the country's best alternative movie theaters. Cleveland is home to the I. M. Pei-designed Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on the Lake Erie waterfront at North Coast Harbor downtown. Neighboring attractions include FirstEnergy Stadium, the Great Lakes Science Center, the SS William G. Mather (1925), Steamship Mather Museum, and the , a World War II Gato-class submarine, submarine. Designed by architect Levi Scofield, Levi T. Scofield, the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument at Public Square is Cleveland's major Civil War memorial and a major attraction in the city. Other city attractions include the Lorenzo Carter Cabin, the Grays Armory, the Cleveland Police Museum, and the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland's Money Museum. A Cleveland holiday attraction, especially for fans of Jean Shepherd's ''A Christmas Story'', is the A Christmas Story House, Christmas Story House and Museum in Tremont.


Events

The Cleveland International Film Festival has been held annually since 1977, and it drew a record 106,000 people in 2017. Fashion Week Cleveland, the city's annual fashion event, is the third-largest fashion show of its kind in the United States. The Cleveland National Air Show, an indirect successor to the
National Air RacesImage:1931 NationalAirRace.jpg, 163px, 1931 National Air Race The National Air Races (also known as Pulitzer Trophy Races) are a series of pylon turn, pylon and cross-country air racing, races that have taken place in the United States since 1920. Th ...
, has been annually held at the city's Burke Lakefront Airport since 1964. Sponsored by the Great Lakes Brewing Company, the Great Lakes Burning River Fest, a two-night music and beer festival at Whiskey Island, has been held annually since 2001. Proceeds from that festival benefit the Burning River Foundation, a local non-profit dedicated to "improving, maintaining and celebrating the vitality of [Cleveland's] regional freshwater resources." Cleveland also hosts an annual holiday display lighting and celebration, dubbed Winterfest, which is held downtown at the city's historic hub, Public Square.


Cuisine

Cleveland's mosaic of ethnic communities and their various culinary traditions have long played an important role in defining the local cuisine. Examples of these can particularly be found in neighborhoods such as Little Italy, Cleveland, Little Italy, Slavic Village, and Tremont. Local mainstays of Cleveland's cuisine include an abundance of Polish and Central European contributions, such as kielbasa, stuffed cabbage and pierogies. Cleveland also has plenty of corned beef, with nationally renowned Slyman's, on the near East Side, a perennial winner of various accolades from ''Esquire Magazine'', including being named the best corned beef sandwich in America in 2008. Other famed sandwiches include the Cleveland original, Polish Boy, a local favorite found at many BBQ and Soul food restaurants. With its Blue-collar worker, blue-collar roots well intact, and plenty of Lake Erie Yellow perch, perch available, the tradition of Friday night fish fry, fish fries remains alive and thriving in Cleveland, particularly in church-based settings and during the season of Lent. Cleveland is noted in the world of celebrity food culture. Famous local figures include chef Michael Symon and food critic, food writer Michael Ruhlman, both of whom achieved local and national attention for their contributions to the culinary world. On November 11, 2007, Symon helped gain the spotlight when he was named "The Next Iron Chef" on the Food Network. In 2007, Ruhlman collaborated with Anthony Bourdain, to do an episode of his ''Anthony Bourdain: No Reservations'' focusing on Cleveland's restaurant scene. The national food press—including publications ''Gourmet'', ''Food & Wine'', ''Esquire'' and ''Playboy''—has heaped praise on several Cleveland spots for awards including 'best new restaurant', 'best steakhouse', 'best farm-to-table programs' and 'great new neighborhood eateries'. In early 2008, the ''Chicago Tribune'' ran a feature article in its 'Travel' section proclaiming Cleveland, America's "hot new dining city". In 2015, the city was named the 7th best food city in the nation by ''Time (magazine), Time'' magazine.


Breweries

Ohio produces the fifth most amount of beer in the United States, with its largest brewery being Cleveland's Great Lakes Brewing Company. Cleveland has had a long history of brewing, tied to many of its ethnic immigrants, and in recent decades has reemerged as a regional leader in production. In modern times, dozens of breweries exist in the city limits, including other large producers such as Market Garden Brewery and Platform Beer Company. Breweries can be found somewhere in the city, but the highest concentration is in the Ohio City, Cleveland, Ohio City neighborhood. Cleveland is also home to expansions from other countries, including the Scottish BrewDog and German Staatliches_Hofbräuhaus_in_München#Franchises, Hofbrauhaus.


Sports

Cleveland's current major professional sports teams include the Cleveland Guardians (Major League Baseball), the
Cleveland Browns The Cleveland Browns are a professional American football American football, referred to simply as football in the United States and Canada and also known as gridiron, is a team sport A team sport includes any sport Spor ...
(National Football League), the
Cleveland Cavaliers The Cleveland Cavaliers (often referred to as the Cavs) are an American professional basketball team based in Cleveland Cleveland ( ), officially the City of Cleveland, is a city in the United States, U.S. U.S. state, state of Ohio, and the ...
(National Basketball Association), the Cleveland Crunch (Major Arena Soccer League 2) and the Cleveland Monsters (American Hockey League). Local sporting facilities include Progressive Field, FirstEnergy Stadium, Rocket Mortgage FieldHouse, and the Soccer Sportsplex. The Cleveland Monsters of the American Hockey League won the 2016 Calder Cup playoffs, 2016 Calder Cup, the first Cleveland AHL team to do so since the 1963–64 AHL season, 1964 Barons,. Other professional teams in the city include the Cleveland Charge (NBA G League), the Cleveland Fusion (Women's Football Alliance) and the Cleveland SC (National Premier Soccer League). The Cleveland Guardians, known as the Indians from 1915 to 2021, won the World Series in 1920 World Series, 1920 and 1948 World Series, 1948. They also won the American League pennant, making the World Series in the 1954 World Series, 1954, 1995 World Series, 1995, 1997 World Series, 1997, and 2016 World Series, 2016 seasons. Between 1995 MLB season, 1995 and 2001 MLB season, 2001, Progressive Field (then known as Jacobs Field) sold out 455 consecutive games, a Major League Baseball record until it was broken in 2008. Historically, the Browns have been among the most successful franchises in American football history, winning eight titles during a short period of time—1946 Cleveland Browns season, 1946, 1947 Cleveland Browns season, 1947, 1948 Cleveland Browns season, 1948, 1949 Cleveland Browns season, 1949, 1950 NFL Championship Game, 1950, 1954 NFL Championship Game, 1954, 1955 NFL Championship Game, 1955, and 1964 NFL Championship Game, 1964. The Browns have never played in a Super Bowl, getting close five times by making it to the History of the National Football League championship#AFL Championship Game and NFL Championship Game (1966–1969), NFL/AFC Championship Game in 1968 NFL Championship Game, 1968, 1969 NFL Championship Game, 1969, 1986–87 NFL playoffs#Conference championships, 1986, 1987–88 NFL playoffs#AFC Championship: Denver Broncos 38, Cleveland Browns 33, 1987, and 1989–90 NFL playoffs#AFC Championship: Denver Broncos 37, Cleveland Browns 21, 1989. Former owner Art Modell's Cleveland Browns relocation controversy, relocation of the Browns after the 1995 NFL season, 1995 season (to Baltimore creating the Baltimore Ravens, Ravens), caused tremendous heartbreak and resentment among local fans. Cleveland mayor, Michael R. White, worked with the NFL and Commissioner Paul Tagliabue to bring back the Browns beginning in the 1999 NFL season, 1999 season, retaining all team history. In Cleveland's earlier football history, the Cleveland Bulldogs won the NFL Championship in 1924 NFL season, 1924, and the History of the Cleveland Rams, Cleveland Rams won the NFL Championship in 1945 NFL season, 1945 before relocating to Los Angeles. The Cavaliers won the Eastern Conference (NBA), Eastern Conference in 2006–07 NBA season, 2007, 2014–15 NBA season, 2015, 2015–16 NBA season, 2016, 2016–17 NBA season, 2017 and 2017–18 NBA season, 2018 but were defeated in the 2007 NBA Finals, NBA Finals by the San Antonio Spurs and 2015 NBA Finals, then by the Golden State Warriors, respectively. The Cavs won the Conference again in 2016 and won their first NBA Championship coming back from a 3–1 deficit, finally defeating the Golden State Warriors. Afterwards, an estimated 1.3 million people attended a parade held in the Cavs honor on June 22, 2016. This was the first time the city had planned for a championship parade in 50 years. Previously, the Cleveland Rosenblums dominated the original American Basketball League (1925–55), American Basketball League winning three of the first five championships (1926, 1929, 1930), and the Cleveland Pipers, owned by George Steinbrenner, won the American Basketball League (1961–63), American Basketball League championship in 1962. Jesse Owens grew up in Cleveland after moving from Alabama when he was nine. He participated in the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, where he achieved international fame by winning four gold medals. A statue commemorating his achievement can be found in Downtown Cleveland at Fort Washington Park. A statue of another famous Cleveland athlete, Irish American World Featherweight boxing champion Johnny Kilbane, stands in the city's Battery Park on the West Side. Cleveland State University alum and area native Stipe Miocic won the Ultimate Fighting Championship, UFC World Heavyweight Championship at UFC 198 in 2016. Miocic has defended his World Heavyweight Champion title at UFC 203, the first ever UFC World Championship fight held in the city of Cleveland, and again at UFC 211 and UFC 220. After losing it in 2018, Miocic regained the world title at UFC 241. Collegiately, NCAA Division I Cleveland State Vikings have 16 varsity sports, nationally known for their Cleveland State Vikings men's basketball team. NCAA Division III Case Western Reserve Spartans have 19 varsity sports, most known for their Case Western Reserve Spartans football team. The headquarters of the Mid-American Conference (MAC) are in Cleveland. The conference also stages both its Mid-American Conference Men's Basketball Tournament, men's and Mid-American Conference Women's Basketball Tournament, women's basketball tournaments at Rocket Mortgage FieldHouse. Several chess championships have taken place in Cleveland. The second American Chess Congress, a predecessor the current U.S. Championship, was held in 1871, and won by George Henry Mackenzie. The 1921 and 1957 U.S. Open Chess Championship also took place in the city, and were won by Edward Lasker and Bobby Fischer, respectively. The Cleveland Open (chess), Cleveland Open is held annually. The Cleveland Marathon has been hosted annually since 1978.


Environment

With its extensive cleanup of its Lake Erie shore and the Cuyahoga River, Cleveland has been recognized by national media as an environmental success story and a national leader in environmental protection. Since the city's industrialization, the Cuyahoga River had become so affected by industrial pollution that it "caught fire" a total of 13 times beginning in 1868. It was the river fire of June 1969 that spurred the city to action under Mayor Carl B. Stokes, and played a key role in the passage of the Clean Water Act in 1972 and the National Environmental Policy Act later that year. Since that time, the Cuyahoga has been extensively cleaned up through the efforts of the city and the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA). In 2019, the American Rivers conservation association named the river "River of the Year" in honor of "50 years of environmental resurgence." In addition to continued efforts to improve freshwater and air quality, Cleveland is now exploring renewable energy. The city's two main electrical utilities are FirstEnergy and Cleveland Public Power. Its List of climate change initiatives, climate action plan, updated in December 2018, has a 2050 target of 100 percent Renewable energy, renewable power, along with reduction of Greenhouse gas emissions by the United States, greenhouse gases to 80 percent below the 2010 level. In recent years, Cleveland has also been working to address the issue of harmful algal bloom, harmful algal blooms on Lake Erie, fed primarily by agricultural runoff, which have presented new environmental challenges for the city and for northern Ohio.


Government and politics

Cleveland operates on a Strong-mayor, mayor–council (strong mayor) form of government, in which the mayor is the executive (government), chief executive. From 1924 to 1931, the city briefly experimented with a council–manager government under William R. Hopkins and Daniel E. Morgan before returning to the mayor–council system. The office of the mayor has been held by Frank G. Jackson since 2006. Previous mayors of Cleveland include progressive Democrat Tom L. Johnson, World War I-era United States Secretary of War, War Secretary and BakerHostetler founder Newton D. Baker, Supreme Court of the United States, U.S. Supreme Court Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, Justice Harold Hitz Burton, two-term Ohio Governor and United States Senate, Senator Frank J. Lausche, former United States Secretary of Health and Human Services, U.S. Health, Education, and Welfare Secretary Anthony J. Celebrezze, two-term Ohio Governor and Senator George V. Voinovich, former U.S. Congressman Dennis Kucinich, and Carl B. Stokes, the first African American mayor of a major U.S. city. Another nationally prominent Ohio politician, former U.S. President James A. Garfield, was born in Cuyahoga County's Defunct townships of Cuyahoga County, Ohio, Orange Township (today the Cleveland suburb of Moreland Hills, Ohio, Moreland Hills). His resting place is the James A. Garfield Memorial in Cleveland's Lake View Cemetery. From the Civil War era to the 1940s, Cleveland was primarily dominated by the Republican Party (United States), Republican Party, with the notable exceptions of the Johnson and Baker mayoral administrations. Businessman and Senator Mark Hanna was among Cleveland's most influential Republican figures, both locally and nationally. In addition to the established support of organized labor, the Cuyahoga County Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party, led by former mayor Ray T. Miller, was able to secure the support of the city's ethnic European and African American communities in the 1940s. Beginning with the Lausche administration, Cleveland's political orientation shifted to the Democratic Party and, with the exceptions of the Ralph Perk, Perk and Voinovich administrations, it has remained dominated by the Democrats ever since. Today, while other parts of Ohio, particularly Cincinnati and the southern portion of the state, support the Republicans, Cleveland commonly produces the strongest support in the state for the Democrats. At the local level, elections are nonpartisan. However, Democrats still dominate every level of government. During the 2004 United States presidential election, 2004 Presidential election, although George W. Bush carried Ohio by 2.1%, John Kerry carried Cuyahoga County 66.6%–32.9%, his largest margin in any Ohio county. The city of Cleveland supported Kerry over Bush by the even larger margin of 83.3%–15.8%. As a result of the 2010 Census, Ohio lost two Congressional seats, which affected Cleveland's districts in the northeast part of the state. Today, Cleveland is split between two List of United States congressional districts, congressional districts. Most of the western part of the city is in the Ohio's 9th congressional district, 9th District, represented by Marcy Kaptur. Most of the eastern part of the city, as well as most of downtown, is in the Ohio's 11th congressional district, 11th District, represented by Marcia Fudge. Both are Democrats, two of four representing Ohio. Cleveland hosted three Republican United States presidential nominating convention, national conventions in its history, in 1924 Republican National Convention, 1924, 1936 Republican National Convention, 1936, and 2016 Republican National Convention, 2016. The city also hosted the Radical Republicans, Radical Republican Radical Democracy Party (United States)#Cleveland convention, convention of 1864. Cleveland has not hosted a national convention for the Democrats, despite the position of Cuyahoga County as a Democratic stronghold in Ohio. Cleveland has hosted several national election debates, including the 1980 United States presidential debates#Second presidential debate (Music Hall), second 1980 U.S. Presidential debate, the 2004 United States presidential debates#October 5: Vice presidential debate (Case Western Reserve University), 2004 U.S. Vice-Presidential debate, one 2008 Democratic Party presidential debates and forums#February 26, 2008 - MSNBC 9:00pm EST - Cleveland, Ohio, Cleveland State University, 2008 Democratic primary debate, and the 2020 United States presidential debates#September 29 presidential debate (Case Western Reserve University), first 2020 U.S. Presidential debate. Founded in 1912, the City Club of Cleveland provides a platform for national and local debates and discussions. Known as Cleveland's "Citadel of Free Speech," it is one of the oldest continuous independent free speech and debate forums in the country.


Public safety


Police and law enforcement

Like in other major American cities, crime in Cleveland is concentrated in areas with higher rates of poverty and lower access to jobs. In recent years, the rate of crime in the city has seen a significant decline, following a nationwide trend in falling crime rates. Cleveland Police statistics published in 2019 showed that rates for violent crimes and property crimes in Cleveland dropped substantially in 2018. The rate of property crimes specifically fell by 30% since 2016. Cleveland's law enforcement agency is the Cleveland Division of Police, established in 1866. The division has 1,444 sworn officers as of 2016. Cleveland has five police districts. The district system was introduced in the 1930s by Cleveland Public Safety Director Eliot Ness (of the Untouchables (law enforcement), Untouchables), who later 1947 Cleveland mayoral election, ran for mayor of Cleveland in 1947. The division has been recognized for several "firsts," including the "first criminal conviction secured by matching a palm print lifted from a crime scene to a suspect." The current chief of police, Chief of Police is Calvin D. Williams. In December 2014, the United States Department of Justice announced the findings of a two-year investigation, prompted by a request from Mayor Frank Jackson, to determine whether the Cleveland Police engaged in a pattern of excessive force. As a result of the Justice Department report, the city agreed to a consent decree to revise its policies and implement new independent oversight over the police force. The consent decree, released on May 26, 2015, mandated sweeping changes to the Cleveland Police. On June 12, 2015, Chief U.S. District Judge Solomon Oliver Jr. approved and signed the consent decree, beginning the process of police reform.


Fire department

Cleveland is served by the firefighters of the Cleveland Division of Fire, established in 1863. The fire department operates out of 22 active fire stations throughout the city in five battalions. Each Battalion is commanded by a Battalion Chief, who reports to an on-duty Assistant Chief. The Division of Fire operates a fire apparatus fleet of twenty-two engine companies, eight ladder companies, three tower companies, two task force rescue squad companies, hazardous materials ("haz-mat") unit, and numerous other special, support, and reserve units. The current fire chief, Chief of Department is Angelo Calvillo.


Emergency Medical Services

Cleveland EMS is operated by the city as its own municipal third-service EMS division. Cleveland EMS is the primary provider of Advanced Life Support and ambulance transport within the city of Cleveland, while Cleveland Fire assists by providing fire response medical care. Although a merger between the fire and EMS departments was proposed in the past, the idea was subsequently abandoned.


Media


Print

Cleveland's primary daily newspaper is ''The Plain Dealer'' and its associated online publication, ''Cleveland.com''. Defunct major newspapers include the ''Cleveland Press'', an afternoon publication which printed its last edition on June 17, 1982; and the ''Cleveland News'', which ceased publication in 1960. Additional publications include: the ''Cleveland Magazine'', a regional culture magazine published monthly; ''Crain Communications, Crain's Cleveland Business'', a weekly business newspaper; and ''Cleveland Scene'', a free Alternative newspaper, alternative weekly paper which absorbed its competitor, the ''Cleveland Free Times'', in 2008. Nationally distributed rock music, rock Music magazine, magazine ''Alternative Press (magazine), Alternative Press'' was founded in Cleveland in 1985, and the publication's headquarters remain in the city. The digital ''Belt Magazine'' was founded in Cleveland in 2013. ''Time (magazine), Time'' magazine was published in Cleveland for a brief period from 1925 to 1927. Cleveland's ethnic publications include: the ''Call and Post'', a weekly newspaper that primarily serves the city's African American community; the ''Cleveland Jewish News'', a weekly Jewish newspaper; the bi-weekly Russian language ''Cleveland Russian Magazine'' for the Russian and post-Soviet community; the Chinese language, Mandarin ''Erie Chinese Journal'' for the city's Chinese community; ''La Gazzetta Italiana'' in English and Italian language, Italian for the Italian community; the ''Ohio Irish American News'' for the Irish community; and the Spanish language ''Vocero Latino News'' for the Latino community. Historically, the Hungarian language newspaper ''Szabadság'' served the Hungarian community.


Television

Cleveland is the 19th-largest television market by Nielsen Media Research (–14). The market is served by 10 full power stations, including: WEWS-TV (American Broadcasting Company, ABC), WJW (TV), WJW (Fox Broadcasting Company, Fox), WKYC (NBC), WOIO (CBS), WVIZ (PBS), WUAB (The CW), WVPX-TV (Ion Television, Ion), WQHS-DT (Univision), WDLI-TV (Court TV), and the independent WBNX-TV. ''The Mike Douglas Show'', a nationally Broadcast syndication, syndicated Daytime television, daytime talk show, began in Cleveland in 1961 on KYW-TV (now WKYC), while ''The Morning Exchange'' on WEWS-TV served as the model for ''Good Morning America''. Tim Conway and Ernie Anderson first established themselves in Cleveland while working together at KYW-TV and later WJW-TV (now WJW). Anderson both created and performed as the immensely popular Cleveland horror host Ghoulardi on WJW-TV's ''Shock Theater'', and was later succeeded by the long-running Late night television, late night duo Big Chuck and Lil' John.


Radio

Cleveland is directly served by 32 AM broadcasting, AM and FM broadcasting, FM Radio broadcasting, radio stations, 22 of which are licensed to the city. Commercial FM music stations are frequently the highest-rated stations in the market: WAKS (contemporary hit radio), WDOK (Adult contemporary music, adult contemporary), WENZ (mainstream urban), WGAR-FM (Country music, country), WHLK (adult hits), WMJI (classic hits), WMMS (active rock/hot talk), WNCX (classic rock), WNWV (alternative rock), WQAL (hot adult contemporary), and WZAK (urban adult contemporary).Cleveland OH
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WKSU Public broadcasting#Radio, public radio functions as the local NPR Network affiliate, affiliate, and sister station WCLV airs a classical music format. Campus radio, College radio stations include WBWC (Baldwin Wallace University), WCSB (FM), WCSB (Cleveland State University), WJCU (John Carroll University), and WRUW-FM (Case Western Reserve University). All-news radio, News/Talk radio, talk station WTAM serves as the AM Flagship (broadcasting), flagship for both the Cleveland Cavaliers and Cleveland Guardians. Sports oriented stations include sister stations WKNR and WWGK (ESPN Radio), WARF (Fox Sports Radio) and WKRK-FM (CBS Sports Radio). WKNR and WKRK-FM are also co-flagship stations for the Cleveland Browns. As WJW (AM), WKNR was once the home of Alan Freed − the Cleveland disc jockey credited with first using and popularizing the term "rock and roll" to describe the music genre. News/talk station WHK (AM), WHK was one of the first radio stations to broadcast in the United States and the first in Ohio. Its former sister station, rock station WMMS, dominated Cleveland radio in the 1970s and 1980s and was at that time one of the highest-rated radio stations in the country. In 1972, WMMS program director Billy Bass coined the phrase "The Rock and Roll Capital of the World" to describe Cleveland. In 1987, ''Playboy'' named WMMS DJ Kid Leo (Lawrence Travagliante) "The Best Disc Jockey in the Country".


Healthcare

Cleveland is home to a number of leading hospital systems, several of which are in University Circle. Most notable is the world-renowned Cleveland Clinic, currently led by Croatian-born president and CEO Tomislav Mihaljevic. The clinic is affiliated with Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. The other major hospital in Cleveland is University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center with its Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital. Cliff Megerian serves as that system's CEO. On the city's West Side is the main campus of the MetroHealth, MetroHealth System, led by president and CEO Akram Boutros. Formerly known as City Hospital, MetroHealth operates one of two Level I trauma centers in the city, and has various locations throughout Greater Cleveland. Founded in 1865, the St. Vincent Charity Medical Center, led by CEO and president Janet Murphy, is the oldest hospital in the city. In 2013, Cleveland's Global Center for Health Innovation opened with of display space for healthcare companies across the world. To take advantage of the proximity of universities and other medical centers in Cleveland, the Veterans Administration moved the region's VA hospital from suburban Brecksville to a new facility in University Circle. During the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, 2020 COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, Ohio Governor Mike DeWine reported the earliest cases of the COVID-19 pandemic in Ohio, virus in the state to be in the Greater Cleveland Metropolitan Area, specifically Cuyahoga County. In response, the Cleveland Clinic engaged in a historic partnership with University Hospitals to offer free testing for Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, COVID-19, to stop the spread of the virus in the metropolitan area and throughout the state.


Transportation


Walkability

In 2021, Walk Score ranked Cleveland the seventeenth most walkable of the fifty largest cities in the United States., with a Walk Score of 57, a Transit Score of 45, and a Bike Score of 55 (out of a maximum of 100). Cleveland's most walkable areas can be found in the Downtown, Ohio City, Detroit–Shoreway, University Circle, and Buckeye–Shaker, Buckeye–Shaker Square neighborhoods.


Urban transit systems

Cleveland has a bus and urban rail transit, rail public transport, mass transit system operated by the Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority (RTA). The rail portion is officially called the RTA Rapid Transit, but local residents refer to it as ''The Rapid''. It consists of three rapid transit, light rail lines, known as the Blue Line (Cleveland), Blue, Green Line (Cleveland), Green, and Waterfront Lines, and a heavy rail line, the Red Line (Cleveland), Red Line. In 2008, RTA completed the HealthLine, a bus rapid transit line, for which naming rights were purchased by the Cleveland Clinic and University Hospitals. It runs along Euclid Avenue from downtown through University Circle, ending at the Louis Stokes Station at Windermere in East Cleveland. RTA later opened a "BRT Light" line on the West Side along Clifton Blvd and the Shoreway. In 1968, Cleveland became the first city in the nation to have a direct rail transit connection linking the city's downtown to its major airport. In 2007, the American Public Transportation Association named Cleveland's mass transit system the best in North America. Cleveland is the only metropolitan area in the Western Hemisphere with its rail rapid transit system having only one center-city area rapid transit station (Tower City-Public Square).


Private automobiles

The city of Cleveland has a higher than average percentage of households without a car. In 2016, 23.7 percent of Cleveland households lacked a car, while the national average was 8.7 percent. Cleveland averaged 1.19 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8. Like other major cities, the urban density of Cleveland reduces the need for private vehicle ownership, though as jobs sprawl to urban edges across the United States, connectivity is becoming beyond the reach of public transit systems, including RTA.


Roads

Cleveland's road system consists of numbered streets running roughly north–south, and named avenues, which run roughly east–west. The numbered streets are designated "east" or "west", depending on where they lie in relation to Ontario Street, which bisects Public Square. The numbered street system extends beyond the city limits into some suburbs on both the West and East Sides. The named avenues that lie both on the east side of the Cuyahoga River and west of Ontario Street receive a "west" designation on street signage. The two downtown avenues which span the Cuyahoga change names on the west side of the river. Superior Avenue becomes Detroit Avenue on the West Side, and Carnegie Avenue becomes Lorain Avenue. The bridges that make these connections are often called the Detroit–Superior Bridge and the Lorain–Carnegie Bridge.


Freeways

Three two-digit Interstate highways serve Cleveland directly. Interstate 71 begins just southwest of downtown and is the major route from downtown Cleveland to the airport. I-71 runs through the southwestern suburbs and eventually connects Cleveland with Columbus, Ohio, Columbus and Cincinnati. Interstate 77 begins in downtown Cleveland and runs almost due south through the southern suburbs. I-77 sees the least traffic of the three interstates, although it does connect Cleveland to
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. Interstate 90 connects the two sides of Cleveland, and is the northern terminus for both I-71 and I-77. Running due east–west through the West Side suburbs, I-90 turns northeast at the junction with and I-490, and is known as the Innerbelt through downtown. At the junction with the Shoreway, I-90 makes a 90-degree turn known in the area as Dead Man's Curve, then continues northeast, entering Lake County, Ohio, Lake County near the eastern split with Ohio State Route 2. Cleveland is also served by two three-digit interstates, Interstate 480 (Ohio), Interstate 480, which enters Cleveland briefly at a few points and Interstate 490 (Ohio), Interstate 490, which connects I-77 with the junction of I-90 and I-71 just south of downtown. Two other limited-access highways serve Cleveland. The Cleveland Memorial Shoreway carries State Route 2 along its length, and at varying points also carries U.S. Route 6, US 6, U.S. Route 20, US 20 and I-90. The Jennings Freeway (Ohio State Route 176, State Route 176) connects I-71 just south of I-90 to I-480 near the suburbs of Parma and Brooklyn Heights. A third highway, the Berea Freeway (Ohio State Route 237, State Route 237 in part), connects I-71 to the airport and forms part of the boundary between Cleveland and Brook Park.


Airports

Cleveland Hopkins International Airport is the city's major airport and an international airport that once served as a main airline hub, hub for United Airlines and Continental Airlines. It holds the distinction of having the first airport-to-downtown rapid transit connection in North America, established in 1968. In 1930, the airport was the site of the first airfield lighting system and the first air traffic control tower. Originally known as Cleveland Municipal Airport, it was the first municipally owned airport in the country. Cleveland Hopkins is a significant regional air freight hub hosting FedEx Express, UPS Airlines, United States Postal Service, and major commercial freight carriers. In addition to Hopkins, Cleveland is served by Burke Lakefront Airport, on the north shore of downtown between Lake Erie and the Shoreway. Burke is primarily a commuter and business airport.


Seaport

The Port of Cleveland, at the Cuyahoga River's mouth, is a major bulk freight and container terminal on Lake Erie, receiving much of the raw materials used by the region's manufacturing industries. The Port of Cleveland is the only container port on the Great Lakes with bi-weekly container service between Cleveland and the Port of Antwerp, Port of Antwerp in Belgium on a Netherlands, Dutch service called the "Cleveland-Europe Express." In addition to freight, the Port of Cleveland also welcomes regional and international tourists who pass through the city on Great Lakes passenger steamers, Great Lakes cruises. Currently docking at Dock 28, just west of First Energy Stadium. The cruises currently run from mid-May through mid-October.


Railroads

Cleveland has a long rich history as a major railroad hub in the United States. Today, Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Cleveland, via the ''Capitol Limited (Amtrak), Capitol Limited'' and ''Lake Shore Limited'' routes, which stop at Cleveland Lakefront Station. Additionally, Cleveland hosts several inter-modal freight railroad terminals, for Norfolk Southern, CSX and several smaller companies. There have been several proposals for Cleveland commuter rail, commuter rail in Cleveland, including a study into a Sandusky–Cleveland line. Cleveland was also identified as a hub for the now-suspended Ohio Hub project, which would bring high-speed rail to Ohio.


Inter-city bus lines

National intercity bus service is provided at a Greyhound Lines, Greyhound station, just behind the Playhouse Square theater district. Megabus (North America), Megabus provides service to Cleveland and has a stop at the Stephanie Tubbs Jones Transit Center on the east side of downtown. METRO RTA, Akron Metro, Brunswick Transit Alternative, Laketran, Lorain County Transit, and Medina County Transit provide connecting bus service to the Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority. Geauga County Transit and Portage Area Regional Transportation Authority, Portage Area Regional Transportation Authority (PARTA) also offer connecting bus service in their neighboring areas.


Hyperloop proposal

On February 15, 2018, Hyperloop Transportation Technologies announced that it had signed an agreement with the North Ohio Areawide Coordinating Agency and the Illinois Department of Transportation to conduct a feasibility study for a planned Great Lakes Hyperloop system connecting Cleveland to Chicago in a half hour. In June 2019, Congress approved $5 million to the United States Department of Transportation, U.S. Department of Transportation to explore safety standards for this project.


Sister cities and international relations

As of , Cleveland maintains cultural, economic, and educational ties with 23 sister city, sister cities around the world. It concluded its first sister city partnership with Lima, Peru in 1964. The Cleveland Council on World Affairs was established in 1923. In October 1915 at Cleveland's Bohemian National Hall (Cleveland, Ohio), Bohemian National Hall, Czech American and Slovak American representatives signed the Cleveland Agreement, a precursor to the Pittsburgh Agreement, calling for the formation of a Czechoslovakia, joint Czech and Slovak state. During the Cold War, Cleveland industrialist Cyrus S. Eaton, an apprentice of John D. Rockefeller, played a significant role in promoting dialogue between the US and the Soviet Union, USSR. Cleveland is home to the List of diplomatic missions of Slovenia, Consulate General of the Slovenia, Republic of Slovenia, which, until Slovene independence in 1991, served as an official consulate for Josip Broz Tito, Tito's Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Yugoslavia. In addition, the Jews and Judaism in Greater Cleveland, Jewish community of Greater Cleveland maintains an unofficial supportive relationship with the State of Israel. The Cleveland Clinic operates the Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi hospital and a sports medicine clinic in Toronto, and a Cleveland Clinic hospital campus in London is scheduled to open in 2022. Sister cities * Alexandria (Egypt) ''1977'' * Bahir Dar (Ethiopia) ''2004'' * Bangalore (India) ''1975'' * Beit She'an (Israel) ''2019'' * Brașov (Romania) ''1973'' * Bratislava (Slovakia) ''1990'' * Cleveland, England, Cleveland (United Kingdom) ''1977'' * Conakry (Guinea) ''1991'' * Fier (Albania) ''2006'' * Gdańsk (Poland) ''1990'' * Heidenheim an der Brenz (Germany) ''1977'' * Holon (Israel) ''1977'' * Ibadan (Nigeria) ''1974'' * Klaipėda (Lithuania) ''1992'' * Lima (Peru) ''1964'' * Ljubljana (Slovenia) ''1975'' * County Mayo, Mayo (Ireland) ''2003'' * Miskolc (Hungary) ''1995'' * Rouen (France) ''2008'' * Segundo Montes, Morazán, Segundo Montes (El Salvador) ''1991'' * Taipei (Taiwan) ''1975'' * Vicenza (Italy) ''2009'' * Volgograd (Russia) ''1990''


See also

* List of people from Cleveland * List of references to Cleveland in popular culture


Notes


References


Further reading

* * * * * * *


External links

*
Destination Cleveland, official tourism website

Greater Cleveland Partnership
*
The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History
at Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland Historical
at Cleveland State University
Cleveland Memory Project
at Cleveland State University {{Featured article Cleveland, 1796 establishments in the Northwest Territory Cities in Cuyahoga County, Ohio Cities in Ohio County seats in Ohio Inland port cities and towns in Ohio Ohio populated places on Lake Erie Populated places established in 1796 Populated places on the Underground Railroad