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Claudius ( ; Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October AD 54) was the fourth
Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. Often when a given Roman is described as becom ...
, ruling from AD 41 to 54. A member of the
Julio-Claudian dynasty , native_name_lang=Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Rom ...
, Claudius was born to Drusus and
Antonia Minor Antonia Minor (31 January 36 BC - 1 May AD 37) was the younger of two surviving daughters of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers t ...

Antonia Minor
at
Lugdunum Colonia Copia Claudia Augusta Lugdunum (; modern Lyon Lyon or Lyons (, , ; frp, Liyon, ; it, Lione, ) is the List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located ...
in
Roman Gaul Roman Gaul refers to Gaul Gaul ( la, Gallia) was a region of Western Europe Western Europe is the region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (n ...

Roman Gaul
, where his father was stationed as a military legate. He was the first Roman emperor to be born outside
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Alps and List of islands of Italy, several islands surrounding it, whose ...
. Nonetheless, Claudius was an Italic of
Sabine The Sabines (; lat, Sabini; it, Sabini, all s) were an that lived in the central of the ancient , also inhabiting north of the before the . The Sabines divided into two populations just after the founding of Rome, which is described by Ro ...

Sabine
origins. Because he was afflicted with a limp and slight deafness due to sickness at a young age, he was ostracized by his family and was excluded from public office until his
consulship A consul held the highest elected political office The incumbent is the current holder of an office An office is a space where an Organization, organization's employees perform Business administration, administrative Work (human acti ...
(which was shared with his nephew,
Caligula Caligula (; 31 August 12 – 24 January 41 AD), formally known as Gaius ( Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus), was the third , ruling from 37 to 41. The son of the popular Roman general and 's granddaughter , Caligula was born into the first ru ...

Caligula
, in 37). Claudius's infirmity probably saved him from the fate of many other nobles during the purges during the reigns of
Tiberius Tiberius Caesar Augustus (; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March AD 37) was the second Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titl ...

Tiberius
and Caligula as potential enemies did not see him as a serious threat. His survival led to him being declared emperor by the
Praetorian Guard The Praetorian Guard (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of th ...
after Caligula's assassination, at which point he was the last adult male of his family. Despite his lack of experience, Claudius proved to be an able and efficient administrator. He expanded the imperial bureaucracy to include freedmen, and helped to restore the empire's finances after the excess of Caligula's reign. He was also an ambitious builder, constructing many new roads, aqueducts, and canals across the Empire. During his reign the Empire started its successful conquest of Britain. Having a personal interest in law, he presided at public trials, and issued up to twenty edicts a day. He was seen as vulnerable throughout his reign, particularly by elements of the nobility. Claudius was constantly forced to shore up his position, which resulted in the deaths of many senators. Those events damaged his reputation among the ancient writers, though more recent historians have revised that opinion. Many authors contend that he was murdered by his own wife, Agrippina the Younger. After his death at the age of 63,
Nero Nero ( ; full name: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December AD 37 – 9 June AD 68) was the fifth . He was by the Roman emperor at the age of 13 and succeeded him to the throne. Nero seems to have been popu ...

Nero
, his grand-nephew and legally adopted step-son, succeeded him as emperor.


Family and early life

Claudius was born on 1 August 10 BC at
Lugdunum Colonia Copia Claudia Augusta Lugdunum (; modern Lyon Lyon or Lyons (, , ; frp, Liyon, ; it, Lione, ) is the List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located ...
(modern
Lyon Lyon or Lyons (, , ; frp, Liyon, ) is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located at the confluence of the rivers Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, Rodano ; frp, Rôno ; oc, ...
, France). He had two older siblings,
Germanicus Germanicus Julius Caesar (24 May 15 BC – 10 October AD 19) was a popular and prominent Roman general, known for his campaigns in Germania Germania ( , ), also called Magna Germania (English: ''Great Germania''), Germania Libera (English: '' ...

Germanicus
and
Livilla Claudia Livia Julia (Classical Latin Classical Latin is the form of Latin, Latin language recognized as a Literary language, literary standard language, standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and early Roman Empire. It was used from 7 ...
. His mother,
Antonia Minor Antonia Minor (31 January 36 BC - 1 May AD 37) was the younger of two surviving daughters of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers t ...

Antonia Minor
, may have had two other children who died young. Claudius's maternal grandparents were
Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony, was a Ancient Rome, Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the Crisis of the Roman Republic, transformation of the Roman Republic f ...
and
Octavia Minor Octavia the Younger ( la, Octavia Minor; 69/66–11 BC) was the elder sister of the first Roman Emperor The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emper ...
,
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles through ...

Augustus
's sister, and he was therefore the great-great grandnephew of
Gaius Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman people, Roman general and statesman who played a critical role in Crisis of the Roman Republic, the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Rom ...

Gaius Julius Caesar
. His paternal grandparents were
Livia Livia Drusilla (30 January 59 BC – 28 September 29 AD) was Roman empress from 27 BC to AD 14 as the wife of Roman emperor, Emperor Augustus. She was known as Julia Augusta after her formal Adoption in ancient Rome, adoption into the Julian fam ...

Livia
, Augustus' third wife, and Tiberius Claudius Nero. During his reign, Claudius revived the rumor that his father
Nero Claudius Drusus Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus (14 January 38 BC – summer of 9 BC), also called Drusus the Elder, was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th ce ...
was actually the illegitimate son of Augustus, to give the appearance that Augustus was Claudius' paternal grandfather. In 9 BC, Claudius's father Drusus unexpectedly died on campaign in Germania after a fall from a horse. He was then left to be raised by his mother, who never remarried. When his disability became evident, the relationship with his family turned sour. Antonia referred to him as a monster, and used him as a standard for stupidity. She seems to have passed her son off to his grandmother Livia for a number of years. Livia was a little kinder, but nevertheless often sent Claudius short, angry letters of reproof. He was put under the care of a "former mule-driver" to keep him disciplined, under the logic that his condition was due to laziness and a lack of willpower. However, by the time he reached his teenage years, his symptoms apparently waned and his family began to take some notice of his scholarly interests.Suet. ''Claud''. 4. In AD 7,
Livy Titus Livius (; 59 BC – AD 17), known in English as Livy ( ), was a historian. He wrote a monumental history of and the Roman people, titled , covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome before the traditional founding in 753 BC th ...
was hired to tutor Claudius in history, with the assistance of Sulpicius Flavus. He spent a lot of his time with the latter, as well as the philosopher Athenodorus. Augustus, according to a letter, was surprised at the clarity of Claudius's oratory. Expectations about his future began to increase.


Public life

Claudius's work as a budding historian damaged his prospects for advancement in public life. According to Vincent Scramuzza and others, he began work on a history of the
Civil Wars A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publish ...
that was either too truthful or too critical of
Octavian Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor, reigning from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. His status as the founder of the Roman Principate (the first phase of the Roman Empire) has consolidated ...
, then reigning as
Augustus Caesar Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variet ...

Augustus Caesar
. In either case, it was far too early for such an account, and may have only served to remind Augustus that Claudius was Antony's descendant. His mother and grandmother quickly put a stop to it, and this may have convinced them that Claudius was not fit for public office, since he could not be trusted to toe the existing party line.Stuart (1936). When Claudius returned to the narrative later in life, he skipped over the wars of the
Second Triumvirate The Second Triumvirate (43–32 BC) was a political alliance formed after the Roman dictator Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city o ...
altogether. But the damage was done, and his family pushed him into the background. When the
Arch An arch is a vertical curved structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to ...

Arch
of
Pavia Pavia (, , , ; la, Ticinum; Medieval Latin: ) is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy in northern Italy, south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its confluence with the Po River, Po. It has a population of c. 73,086. The city was ...

Pavia
was erected to honor the Imperial clan in 8 AD, Claudius's name (now Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus after his elevation to
paterfamilias The ''pater familias'', also written as ''paterfamilias'' (plural ''patres familias''), was the head of a Ancient Rome, Roman family. The ''pater familias'' was the oldest living male in a household, and could legally exercise autocratic authority ...
of the Claudii Nerones on the adoption of his brother) was inscribed on the edge—past the deceased princes,
Gaius Gaius, sometimes spelled ''Gajus'', Cajus, Caius, was a common Latin praenomen The praenomen (; plural: praenomina) was a given name, personal name chosen by the parents of a Ancient Rome, Roman child. It was first bestowed on the ''dies lustri ...
and
Lucius Lucius ( el, Λούκιος ''Loukios''; ett, Luvcie) is a male given name A given name (also known as a first name or forename) is the part of a quoted in that identifies a person, potentially with a as well, and differentiates that pe ...
, and Germanicus's children. There is some speculation that the inscription was added by Claudius himself decades later, and that he originally did not appear at all. When Augustus died in AD 14, Claudius—then aged 23—appealed to his uncle
Tiberius Tiberius Caesar Augustus (; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March AD 37) was the second Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titl ...

Tiberius
to allow him to begin the ''
cursus honorum The ''cursus honorum'' (; , or more colloquially 'ladder of offices') was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in the Roman Republic and the early Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; ...
''. Tiberius, the new Emperor, responded by granting Claudius consular ornaments. Claudius requested office once more and was snubbed. Since the new Emperor was no more generous than the old, Claudius gave up hope of public office and retired to a scholarly, private life. Despite the disdain of the Imperial family, it seems that from very early on the general public respected Claudius. At Augustus's death, the ''
equites The ''equites'' (; la, eques nom. singular; literally "horse-" or "cavalrymen", though sometimes referred to as "knight A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a head of state (including the pope) or representati ...
'', or knights, chose Claudius to head their delegation. When his house burned down, the Senate demanded it be rebuilt at public expense. They also requested that Claudius be allowed to debate in the Senate. Tiberius turned down both motions, but the sentiment remained. During the period immediately after the death of Tiberius's son, Drusus, Claudius was pushed by some quarters as a potential heir. This again suggests the political nature of his exclusion from public life. However, as this was also the period during which the power and terror of the commander of the
Praetorian Guard The Praetorian Guard (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of th ...
,
Sejanus Lucius Aelius Seianus (3 June 20 BC – 18 October AD 31), commonly known as Sejanus (), was a Roman soldier, friend and confidant of the Roman Emperor Tiberius. An Equites, equestrian by birth, Sejanus rose to power as Praetorian Prefect, prefec ...
, was at its peak, Claudius chose to downplay this possibility. After the death of Tiberius, the new emperor
Caligula Caligula (; 31 August 12 – 24 January 41 AD), formally known as Gaius ( Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus), was the third , ruling from 37 to 41. The son of the popular Roman general and 's granddaughter , Caligula was born into the first ru ...

Caligula
(the son of Claudius' brother
Germanicus Germanicus Julius Caesar (24 May 15 BC – 10 October AD 19) was a popular and prominent Roman general, known for his campaigns in Germania Germania ( , ), also called Magna Germania (English: ''Great Germania''), Germania Libera (English: '' ...

Germanicus
) recognized Claudius to be of some use. He appointed Claudius his co-consul in 37 to emphasize the memory of Caligula's deceased father Germanicus. Despite this, Caligula relentlessly tormented his uncle: playing practical jokes, charging him enormous sums of money, humiliating him before the Senate, and the like. According to
Cassius Dio Lucius Cassius Dio (; ) or Dio Cassius ( ''Dion Kassios'')), Cassius Lucius Dio or Cassius Claudius Dio; alleged to have the ' (nickname) Cocceianus was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek and Roman origin. He published 80 volumes of the ...
Claudius became very sickly and thin by the end of Caligula's reign, most likely due to stress. A possible surviving portrait of Claudius from this period may support this.


Assassination of Caligula (AD 41)

On 24 January 41, Caligula was assassinated in a broad-based
conspiracy A conspiracy, also known as a plot, is a secret plan or agreement between persons (called conspirers or conspirators) for an unlawful or harmful purpose, such as murder or treason Treason is the crime of attacking a Sovereign state, state a ...
involving Cassius Chaerea – a
military tribune A military tribune (Latin ''tribunus militum'', "tribune of the soldiers") was an officer of the Roman army The Roman army (: ) was the armed forces deployed by the Romans throughout the duration of , from the (to c. 500 BC) to the (500– ...
in the
Praetorian Guard The Praetorian Guard (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of th ...
– and several senators. There is no evidence that Claudius had a direct hand in the assassination, although it has been argued that he knew about the plot – particularly since he left the scene of the crime shortly before his nephew was murdered. However, after the deaths of and
daughter A daughter is a female Female (symbol: ♀) is the sex Sex is either of two divisions, typically male Male (♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete known as sperm. A male gamete can fuse with a larger female gamete ...
, it became apparent that Cassius intended to go beyond the terms of the conspiracy and wipe out the Imperial family.Josephus ''Antiquitates Iudiacae'' XIX. Dio ''Rom. Hist.'
LX 1.3
/ref> In the chaos following the murder, Claudius witnessed the
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
guard cut down several uninvolved noblemen, including many of his friends. He fled to the palace to hide. According to tradition, a Praetorian named Gratus found him hiding behind a curtain and suddenly declared him ''
princeps Princeps (plural: principes) is a Latin word meaning "first in time or order; the first, foremost, chief, the most eminent, distinguished, or noble; the first man, first person". As a title, "princeps" originated in the Roman Republic wherein the ...
''. A section of the guard may have planned in advance to seek out Claudius, perhaps with his approval. They reassured him that they were not one of the battalions looking for revenge. He was spirited away to the Praetorian camp and put under their protection. The Senate quickly met and began debating a change of government, but this eventually devolved into an argument over which of them would be the new ''princeps''. When they heard of the Praetorians' claim, they demanded that Claudius be delivered to them for approval, but he refused, sensing the danger that would come with complying. Some historians, particularly
Josephus Flavius Josephus (; grc-gre, Ἰώσηπος, ; 37 – 100) was a first-century Roman Jews, Romano-Jewish historian and military leader, best known for ''The Jewish War'', who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Judea (Roman province), Roman ...

Josephus
, claim that Claudius was directed in his actions by the Judaean King
Herod Agrippa Herod Agrippa, also known as Herod II or Agrippa I (; 11 BC – AD 44), was a King of Judea from AD 41 to 44 and of Philip's tetrarchy from 39. He was the last ruler with the royal title reigning over Judea Judea or Judaea, and the modern ...
. However, an earlier version of events by the same ancient author downplays Agrippa's role so it remains uncertain. Eventually the Senate was forced to give in; in return Claudius granted a general amnesty, although he executed a few junior officers involved in the conspiracy.Suetonius, ''Claud''. 11 The actual assassins, including Cassius Chaerea and
Julius Lupus The gens Julia was one of the most ancient patrician Patrician may refer to: * Patrician (ancient Rome), the original aristocratic families of ancient Rome, and a synonym for "aristocratic" in modern English usage * Patrician (post-Roman Europe) ...
, the murderer of Caligula's wife and daughter, were put to death to ensure Claudius's own safety and as a future deterrent.


As Emperor

Claudius took several steps to legitimize his rule against potential usurpers, most of them emphasizing his place within the Julio-Claudian family. He adopted the name "Caesar" as a
cognomen A ''cognomen'' (; plural ''cognomina''; from ''con-'' "together with" and ''(g)nomen'' "name") was the third name of a citizen of ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC ...
, as the name still carried great weight with the populace. To do so, he dropped the cognomen "Nero" which he had adopted as ''paterfamilias'' of the Claudii Nerones when his brother Germanicus was adopted out. As Pharaoh of Egypt, Claudius adopted the royal titulary ''Tiberios Klaudios, Autokrator Heqaheqau Meryasetptah, Kanakht Djediakhshuemakhet'' ("Tiberius Claudius, Emperor and ruler of rulers, beloved of Isis and Ptah, the strong bull of the stable moon on the horizon"). While Claudius had never been formally adopted either by Augustus or his successors, he was nevertheless the grandson of Augustus' sister Octavia, and so he felt that he had the right of family. He also adopted the name "Augustus" as the two previous emperors had done at their accessions. He kept the honorific "Germanicus" to display the connection with his heroic brother. He deified his paternal grandmother Livia to highlight her position as wife of the divine Augustus. Claudius frequently used the term "filius Drusi" (son of Drusus) in his titles, to remind the people of his legendary father and lay claim to his reputation. Since Claudius was the first Emperor proclaimed on the initiative of the Praetorian Guard instead of the Senate, his repute suffered at the hands of commentators (such as
Seneca Seneca may refer to: People and language *Seneca (name), a list of people with either the given name or surname *Seneca the Elder, a Roman rhetorician, writer and father of the stoic philosopher Seneca the Younger *Seneca the Younger, a Roman Stoi ...
). Moreover, he was the first Emperor who resorted to bribery as a means to secure army loyalty and rewarded the soldiers of the Praetorian Guard that had elevated him with 15,000 sesterces. Tiberius and Augustus had both left gifts to the army and guard in their
wills Wills is a surname. Notable people with the surname include: * Alec Wills (1911-1941), English cricketer and Royal Air Force officer * Alfred Wills (1828–1912), English High Court judge and mountaineer * Andrew Wills (b. 1972), Australian rules fo ...
, and upon Caligula's death the same would have been expected, even if no will existed. Claudius remained grateful to the guard, however, issuing coins with tributes to the Praetorians in the early part of his reign.
Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder#REDIRECT Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, includi ...

Pliny the Elder
noted, according to the 1938
Loeb Classical Library The Loeb Classical Library (LCL; named after James Loeb; , ) is a series of books, originally published by Heinemann_(publisher), Heinemann in London, UK, today by Harvard University Press, US, which presents important works of ancient Greek l ...

Loeb Classical Library
translation by Harris Rackham, "... many people do not allow any gems in a signet-ring, and seal with the gold itself; this was a fashion invented when Claudius Cæsar was emperor." Claudius restored the status of the peaceful Imperial Roman provinces of
Macedonia Macedonia most commonly refers to: * North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia until February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in Southeast Europe. It gained independence in ...
and
Achaea Achaea () or Achaia (), sometimes transliterated from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southe ...
as senatorial provinces.


Expansion of the Empire

Under Claudius, the Empire underwent its first major expansion since the reign of Augustus. The provinces of
Thrace Thrace (; el, Θράκη, Thráki; bg, Тракия, Trakiya; tr, Trakya) or Thrake is a geographical and historical region in Southeast Europe, now split among Bulgaria, Greece, and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to th ...
,
Noricum Noricum () is the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of t ...
,
Lycia Lycia ( Lycian: 𐊗𐊕𐊐𐊎𐊆𐊖 ''Trm̃mis''; el, Λυκία, ; tr, Likya) was a geopolitical region in Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula ...
, and
Judea Judea or Judaea ( or ; from he, יהודה, Standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrolog ...

Judea
were
annexed upCivilians and coalition military forces wave Kuwaiti and Saudi Arabian flags as they celebrate the reversal of the annexation of Kuwait by Iraq (28 February 1991). Annexation (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging t ...
(or put under direct rule) under various circumstances during his term. The annexation of
Mauretania Mauretania (; ) is the Latin language, Latin name for a region in the ancient Maghreb. It stretched from central present-day Algeria westwards to the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic, covering northern Morocco, and southward to the Atlas Mountains. Its ...

Mauretania
, begun under Caligula, was completed after the defeat of rebel forces, and the official division of the former client kingdom into two Imperial provinces. The most far-reaching conquest was that of Britannia. In 43, Claudius sent
Aulus Plautius Aulus Plautius was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''Epistle to the Romans'', shorten ...
with four to Britain (''Britannia'') after an appeal from an ousted tribal ally. Britain was an attractive target for Rome because of its material wealth – mines and slaves – as well as being a haven for rebels. Claudius himself traveled to the island after the completion of initial offensives, bringing with him reinforcements and elephants. The Roman ''
colonia Colonia may refer to: Arts and entertainment *Colonia (music group), a Croatian dance music group *Colonia (Autopsia album), 2002 *Colonia (A Camp album), 2009 *Colonia (film), ''Colonia'' (film), a 2015 historical romantic thriller Places *Col ...
'' of ''Colonia Claudia Victricensis'' was established as the provincial capital of the newly established at Camulodunum,Crummy, Philip (1997) City of Victory; the story of Colchester – Britain's first Roman town. Published by Colchester Archaeological Trust () where a large . He left after 16 days, but remained in the provinces for some time. The Senate granted him a triumph for his efforts. Only members of the Imperial family were allowed such honours, but Claudius subsequently lifted this restriction for some of his conquering generals. He was granted the honorific "Britannicus" but only accepted it on behalf of his son, never using the title himself. When the British general
Caractacus Caratacus ( Brythonic ''*Caratācos'', Middle Welsh Middle Welsh ( cy, Cymraeg Canol) is the label attached to the Welsh language of the 12th to 15th centuries, of which much more remains than for any earlier period. This form of Welsh develop ...

Caractacus
was captured in 50, Claudius granted him clemency. Caractacus lived out his days on land provided by the Roman state, an unusual end for an enemy commander. Claudius conducted a census in 48 that found 5,984,072 Roman citizens (adult males with
Roman citizenship Citizenship Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines the conditions under which it will recognize persons as its ci ...
; women, children, slaves, and free adult males without Roman citizenship were not counted), an increase of around a million since the census conducted at Augustus' death. He had helped increase this number through the foundation of Roman colonies that were granted blanket
citizenship Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines the conditions under which it will recognize persons as its citizens, and t ...
. These colonies were often made out of existing communities, especially those with elites who could rally the populace to the Roman cause. Several colonies were placed in new provinces or on the border of the Empire to secure Roman holdings as quickly as possible.


Judicial and legislative affairs

Claudius personally judged many of the legal cases tried during his reign. Ancient historians have many complaints about this, stating that his judgments were variable and sometimes did not follow the law. He was also easily swayed. Nevertheless, Claudius paid detailed attention to the operation of the judicial system. He extended the summer court session, as well as the winter term, by shortening the traditional breaks. Claudius also made a law requiring plaintiffs to remain in the city while their cases were pending, as defendants had previously been required to do. These measures had the effect of clearing out the docket. The minimum age for jurors was also raised to 25 to ensure a more experienced jury pool.Scramuzza (1940), Chap. 6 Claudius also settled disputes in the provinces. He freed the island of
Rhodes Rhodes (; el, Ρόδος, translit=Ródos ) is the largest of the Dodecanese The Dodecanese (, ; el, Δωδεκάνησα, ''Dodekánisa'' , literally "twelve islands") are a group of 15 larger plus 150 smaller Greek#REDIRECT Greek Gre ...

Rhodes
from Roman rule for their good faith and exempted Ilium (
Troy Troy (Greek language, Greek: Τροία) or Ilium (Greek language, Greek: Ίλιον) was an ancient city located at Hisarlik in present-day Turkey, south-west of Çanakkale. It is known as the setting for the Greek mythology, Greek myth of the ...
) from taxes. Early in his reign, the
Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has cer ...

Greeks
and
Jews of Alexandria The history of the Jews in Alexandria, Egypt, dates back to the founding of the city by Alexander the Great in 332 BCE. Jews in Alexandria played a crucial role in the political, economic, and religious life of Hellenistic period, Hellenistic and Ro ...
sent him two embassies at once after riots broke out between the two communities. This resulted in the famous "Letter to the Alexandrians", which reaffirmed Jewish rights in the city but also forbade them to move in more families en masse. According to
Josephus Flavius Josephus (; grc-gre, Ἰώσηπος, ; 37 – 100) was a first-century Roman Jews, Romano-Jewish historian and military leader, best known for ''The Jewish War'', who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Judea (Roman province), Roman ...

Josephus
, he then reaffirmed the rights and freedoms of all the Jews in the Empire. One of Claudius's investigators discovered that many old Roman citizens based in the city of Tridentum (modern
Trento Trento ( or ; Ladin and lmo, Trent; german: Trient ; cim, Tria; ), also anglicized as Trent, is a city on the Adige River The Adige (; german: Etsch ; vec, Àdexe ; rm, ; lld, Adesc; la, Athesis; grc, Ἄθεσις, Áthesis, or , '' ...

Trento
) were not in fact citizens. The Emperor issued a declaration, contained in the ''
Tabula clesiana The ''Tabula clesiana'' is a bronze plate size cm. 49.9 x 37.8 x 0.61, discovered in 1869 at Campi Neri near Cles in Trentino, northern Italy. It contains the edict of the Caesar (title), Caesar Claudius of 46 AD which granted the Roman citizenship ...
'', that they would be considered to hold citizenship from then on, since to strip them of their status would cause major problems. However, in individual cases, Claudius punished false assumption of citizenship harshly, making it a capital offense. Similarly, any freedmen found to be laying false claim to membership of the
Roman equestrian order The ''equites'' (; la, eques nom. singular; literally "horse-" or "cavalrymen", though sometimes referred to as "knight A knight is a person granted an honorary title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in ...
were sold back into slavery. Numerous edicts were issued throughout Claudius' reign. These were on a number of topics, everything from medical advice to moral judgments. A famous medical example is one promoting
yew Yew is a common name given to various species of trees. The name is most prominently given to any of various coniferous Conifers are a group of cone-bearing seed plants The spermatophytes (; ), also known as phanerogams (taxon Phanerogamae ...

yew
juice as a cure for
snakebite A snakebite is an injury caused by the bite of a snake, especially a venomous snake. A common sign of a bite from a venomous snake is the presence of two puncture wounds from the animal's fangs. Sometimes venom injection from the bite may oc ...
. Suetonius wrote that he is even said to have thought of an edict allowing public flatulence for good health. One of the more famous edicts concerned the status of sick slaves. Masters had been abandoning ailing slaves at the temple of Aesculapius on
Tiber Island The Tiber Island ( it, Isola Tiberina, Latin: ''Insula Tiberina'') is the only river island in the part of the Tiber which runs through Rome. Tiber Island is located in the southern bend of the Tiber. The island is boat-shaped, approximately lo ...

Tiber Island
to die instead of providing them with medical assistance and care, and then reclaiming them if they lived. Claudius ruled that slaves who were thus abandoned and recovered after such treatment would be free. Furthermore, masters who chose to kill slaves rather than take care of them were liable to be charged with murder.


Public works

Claudius embarked on many public works throughout his reign, both in the capital and in the provinces. He built two
aqueducts Aqueduct may refer to: Bridges *Aqueduct (bridge) Aqueduct of Vanvitelli, Italy, built by Luigi Vanvitelli. It is a World Heritage Site and one of the finest examples of an aqueduct in Europe. Aqueducts or water bridges are bridges constructe ...
, the
Aqua Claudia Aqua Claudia, ("the Claudian Claudius Claudianus, known in English as Claudian (; c. 370 – c. 404 AD), was a Latin poet associated with the court of the Roman emperor Honorius at Mediolanum (Milan), and particularly with the general Sti ...

Aqua Claudia
, begun by Caligula, and the
Anio Novus 250px, Porta Maggiore in Rome: remains of aqueducts Aqua Claudia and Aqua Anio Novus, integrated into the Aurelian Wall as a gate in 271 AD. Aqua Anio Novus (Latin for "New Anio aqueduct") was an ancient Roman aqueduct. Like the Aqua Claudia, it ...
. These entered the city in 52 and met at the
Porta Maggiore The Porta Maggiore ("Larger Gate"), or Porta Prenestina, is one of the eastern gates in the ancient but well-preserved 3rd-century Aurelian Walls of Rome. Through the gate ran two ancient roads: the Via Praenestina and the Via Labicana. The V ...

Porta Maggiore
. He also restored a third, the
Aqua Virgo The Aqua Virgo was one of the eleven Roman aqueduct Aerial footage of a Roman provincial aqueduct at Mória ( Lesbos) The Romans constructed aqueducts throughout their Republic A republic ( la, res publica, links=yes, meaning "public affa ...
. He paid special attention to transportation. Throughout Italy and the provinces he built roads and canals. Among these was a large canal leading from the
Rhine ), Surselva Surselva Region is one of the eleven administrative districts Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many s ...

Rhine
to the sea, as well as a road from Italy to Germany – both begun by his father, Drusus. Closer to Rome, he built a navigable canal on the
Tiber The Tiber (; la, Tiberis; it, Tevere ) is the third-longest and the longest in Central Italy, rising in the in and flowing through , , and , where it is joined by the River , to the , between and . It estimated at . The river has achi ...

Tiber
, leading to
Portus Portus was a large artificial harbour of Ancient Rome. Sited on the north bank of the north mouth of the Tiber, on the Tyrrhenian Sea, Tyrrhenian coast, it was established by Claudius and enlarged by Trajan to supplement the nearby port of Ostia A ...

Portus
, his new port just north of Ostia. This port was constructed in a semicircle with two moles and a lighthouse at its mouth. The construction also had the effect of reducing flooding in Rome. The port at Ostia was part of Claudius's solution to the constant grain shortages that occurred in winter, after the Roman shipping season. The other part of his solution was to insure the ships of grain merchants who were willing to risk travelling to Egypt in the off-season. He also granted their sailors special privileges, including citizenship and exemption from the
Lex Papia PoppaeaThe ''Lex Papia et Poppaea'' was a Roman law introduced in 9 AD to encourage and strengthen marriage in Stockholm Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock, is a culturally recognised union between people, called spouses, that establishe ...
, a law that regulated marriage. In addition, he repealed the taxes that Caligula had instituted on food, and further reduced taxes on communities suffering drought or
famine A famine is a widespread scarcity of food Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual con ...

famine
. The last part of Claudius' plan was to increase the amount of arable land in Italy. This was to be achieved by draining the
Fucine lake The Fucine Lake ( it, Lago Fucino or ) was a large endorheic An endorheic basin (; also spelled endoreic basin or endorreic basin) is a drainage basin A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation In meteorology M ...
, which would have the added benefit of making the nearby river navigable year-round. A tunnel was dug through the lake bed, but the plan was a failure. The tunnel was crooked and not large enough to carry the water, which caused it to back up when opened. The resultant flood washed out a large gladiatorial exhibition held to commemorate the opening, causing Claudius to run for his life along with the other spectators. The draining of the lake continued to present a problem well into the Middle Ages. It was finally achieved by the Prince
Torloniaimage:Coat of arms of the House of Torlonia.svg, 200px, Coat of arms of the House of Torlonia. The Princes Torlonia are an Italian noble family from Rome, who acquired a huge fortune in the 18th and 19th centuries through administering the finances o ...
in the 19th century, producing over of new arable land. He expanded the Claudian tunnel to three times its original size.


Senate

Because of the circumstances of his accession, Claudius took great pains to please the Senate. During regular sessions, the Emperor sat among the Senate body, speaking in turn. When introducing a law, he sat on a bench between the consuls in his position as holder of the power of
Tribune Tribune () was the title of various elected officials in ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the ...

Tribune
(the Emperor could not officially serve as a Tribune of the Plebes as he was a
Patrician Patrician may refer to: * Patrician (ancient Rome), the original aristocratic families of ancient Rome, and a synonym for "aristocratic" in modern English usage * Patrician (post-Roman Europe), the governing elites of cities in parts of medieval a ...
, but it was a power taken by previous rulers). He refused to accept all his predecessors' titles (including
Imperator The Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with" ...

Imperator
) at the beginning of his reign, preferring to earn them in due course. He allowed the Senate to issue its own bronze coinage for the first time since Augustus. He also put the Imperial provinces of
Macedonia Macedonia most commonly refers to: * North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia until February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in Southeast Europe. It gained independence in ...
and
Achaea Achaea () or Achaia (), sometimes transliterated from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southe ...
back under Senate control. Claudius set about remodeling the Senate into a more efficient, representative body. He chided the senators about their reluctance to debate bills introduced by himself, as noted in the fragments of a surviving speech: In 47 he assumed the office of ''
censor Censor may refer to: People with the name *Cato the Elder Marcus Porcius Cato (; 234–149 BC), also known as Cato the Censor ( la, Censorius), the Elder and the Wise, was a Roman soldier, senator The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">R ...
'' with Lucius Vitellius, which had been allowed to lapse for some time. He struck the names of many senators and ''equites'' who no longer met qualifications, but showed respect by allowing them to resign in advance. At the same time, he sought to admit eligible men from the provinces. The
Lyon Tablet The Lyon Tablet is an ancient bronze tablet that bears the transcript of a speech given by the Roman emperor Claudius. The surviving bottom portion of the tablet was discovered in 1528 by a draper in his vineyard on La Croix-Rousse, Croix-Rousse Hil ...
preserves his speech on the admittance of Gallic senators, in which he addresses the Senate with reverence but also with criticism for their disdain of these men. He even jokes about how the Senate had admitted members from beyond
Gallia Narbonensis Gallia Narbonensis (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be ...
(
Lyons Lyon or Lyons (, , ; frp, Liyon, ) is the List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, third-largest city and Urban area (France), second-largest urban area of France. It is located at the confluence of the rivers Rhône and Saône ...

Lyons
, France), i.e. himself. He also increased the number of
Patricians The patricians (from la, patriciusPatricius may refer to: People * Patricius (consul 500), prominent East Roman general and consul *Patricius (jurist), 5th-century Roman jurist * Patricius (usurper) (died 352), leader of the Jewish revolt aga ...
by adding new families to the dwindling number of noble lines. Here he followed the precedent of
Lucius Junius Brutus Lucius Junius Brutus ( 6th century BC) is the semi-legendary founder Founder or Founders may refer to: Places *Founders Park, a stadium in South Carolina, formerly known as Carolina Stadium * Founders Park, a waterside park in Islamorada, Florid ...
and
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened ...

Julius Caesar
. Nevertheless, many in the Senate remained hostile to Claudius, and many plots were made on his life. This hostility carried over into the historical accounts. As a result, Claudius reduced the Senate's power for the sake of efficiency. The administration of Ostia was turned over to an Imperial
Procurator Procurator (with procuracy or procuratorate referring to the office itself) may refer to: * Procurator, one engaged in procuration, the action of taking care of, hence management, stewardship, agency * ''Procurator'' (Ancient Rome), the title of ...
after construction of the port. Administration of many of the empire's financial concerns was turned over to Imperial appointees and freedmen. This led to further resentment and suggestions that these same freedmen were ruling the Emperor.


Plots and coup attempts

Several coup attempts were made during Claudius's reign, resulting in the deaths of many senators. Appius Silanus was executed early in Claudius's reign under questionable circumstances. Shortly after, a large rebellion was undertaken by the Senator Lucius Annius Vinicianus, Vinicianus and Lucius Arruntius Camillus Scribonianus, Scribonianus, the governor of Dalmatia (Roman province), Dalmatia, and gained quite a few senatorial supporters. It ultimately failed because of the reluctance of Scribonianus's troops, which led to the suicide of the main conspirators. Many other senators tried different conspiracies and were condemned. Claudius's son-in-law Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Claudia Antonia's first husband), Pompeius Magnus was executed for his part in a conspiracy with his father Crassus Frugi. Another plot involved the consulars Lusiius Saturninus, Cornelius Lupus, and Pompeius Pedo. In 46, Gaius Asinius Gallus Saloninus#Family, Asinius Gallus, the grandson of Gaius Asinius Pollio (consul 40 BC), Asinius Pollio, and Titus Statilius Taurus Corvinus were exiled for a plot hatched with several of Claudius's own freedmen. Valerius Asiaticus was executed without public trial for unknown reasons. The ancient sources say the charge was adultery, and that Claudius was tricked into issuing the punishment. However, Claudius singles out Asiaticus for special damnation in his speech on the Gauls, which dates over a year later, suggesting that the charge must have been much more serious. Asiaticus had been a claimant to the throne in the chaos following Caligula's death and a co-consul with the Titus Statilius Taurus Corvinus mentioned above. Most of these conspiracies took place before Claudius's term as Roman censor, Censor, and may have induced him to review the Senatorial rolls. The conspiracy of Gaius Silius in the year after his Censorship, 48, is detailed in book 11 of Tacitus Annal. This section of Tacitus history narrates the alleged conspiracy of Claudius's third wife, Messalina. Suetonius states that a total of 35 senators and 300 knights were executed for offenses during Claudius's reign.Suet. ''Claud''. 29. Needless to say, the responses to these conspiracies could not have helped Senate–emperor relations.


Secretariat and centralization of powers

Claudius was hardly the first emperor to use Freedman, freedmen to help with the day-to-day running of the Empire. He was, however, forced to increase their role as the powers of the ''princeps'' became more centralized and the burden larger. This was partly due to the ongoing hostility of the Senate, as mentioned above, but also due to his respect for the senators. Claudius did not want free-born magistrates to have to serve under him, as if they were not peers. The secretariat was divided into bureaus, with each being placed under the leadership of one freedman. Tiberius Claudius Narcissus, Narcissus was the secretary of correspondence. Pallas (freedman), Pallas became the secretary of the treasury. Gaius Julius Callistus, Callistus became secretary of justice. There was a fourth bureau for miscellaneous issues, which was put under Polybius (freedman), Polybius until his execution for treason. The freedmen could also officially speak for the Emperor, as when Narcissus addressed the troops in Claudius' stead before the conquest of Britain.Tac. ''Ann''. XII 65. Seneca ''Ad Polybium.'' Since these were important positions, the senators were aghast at their being placed in the hands of former slaves and "well-known Eunuch, eunuchs." If freedmen had total control of money, letters, and law, it seemed it would not be hard for them to manipulate the Emperor. This is exactly the accusation put forth by the ancient sources. However, these same sources admit that the freedmen were loyal to Claudius. He was similarly appreciative of them and gave them due credit for policies where he had used their advice. However, if they showed treasonous inclinations, the Emperor did punish them with just force, as in the case of Polybius and Pallas' brother, Antonius Felix, Felix. There is no evidence that the character of Claudius' policies and edicts changed with the rise and fall of the various freedmen, suggesting that he was firmly in control throughout. Regardless of the extent of their political power, the freedmen did manage to amass wealth through their positions. Pliny the Elder notes that several of them were richer than Crassus, the richest man of the Roman Republic, Republican era.


Religious reforms

Claudius, as the author of a treatise on Augustus' religious reforms, felt himself in a good position to institute some of his own. He had strong opinions about the proper form for state religion. He refused the request of Alexandrian Greeks to dedicate a temple to his divinity, saying that only gods may choose new gods. He restored lost days to festivals and got rid of many extraneous celebrations added by Caligula. He re-instituted old observances and archaic language. Claudius was concerned with the spread of eastern mysteries within the city and searched for more Roman replacements. He emphasized the Eleusinian Mysteries which had been practiced by so many during the Republic. He expelled foreign astrologers, and at the same time rehabilitated the old Roman soothsayers (known as haruspices) as a replacement. He was especially hard on Druidism, because of its incompatibility with the Roman state religion and its Proselytism, proselytizing activities. Claudius forbade proselytizing in any religion, even in those regions where he allowed natives to worship freely. It is also reported that at one time he Claudius' expulsion of Jews from Rome, expelled the Jews from Rome.


Public games and entertainments

According to Suetonius, Claudius was extraordinarily fond of games. He is said to have risen with the crowd after gladiatorial matches and given unrestrained praise to the fighters. Claudius also presided over many new and original events. Soon after coming into power, Claudius instituted games to be held in honor of his father on the latter's birthday. Annual games were also held in honour of his accession, and took place at the Praetorian camp where Claudius had first been proclaimed Emperor.Suet. ''Claud''. 21 Claudius organised a performance of the Secular Games, marking the 800th anniversary of the founding of Rome. Augustus had performed the same games less than a century prior. Augustus' excuse was that the interval for the games was 110 years, not 100, but his date actually did not qualify under either reasoning. Claudius also presented naval battles to mark the attempted draining of the Fucine Lake, as well as many other public games and shows. At Ostia, in front of a crowd of spectators, Claudius fought a killer whale which was trapped in the harbour. The event was witnessed by Pliny the Elder: Claudius also restored and adorned many public venues in Rome. At the Circus Maximus, the turning posts and starting stalls were replaced in marble and embellished, and an embankment was probably added to prevent flooding of the track. Claudius also reinforced or extended the seating rules that reserved front seating at the Circus for senators. Claudius rebuilt Pompey's Theatre after it had been destroyed by fire, organising special fights at the re-dedication which he observed from a special platform in the orchestra box.


Marriages and personal life

Suetonius and the other ancient authors accused Claudius of being dominated by women and wives, and of being a Womanizing, womanizer. Claudius married four times, after two failed betrothals. The first betrothal was to his distant cousin Aemilia Lepida (fiancee of Claudius), Aemilia Lepida, but was broken for political reasons. The second was to Livia Medullina Camilla, which ended with Medullina's sudden death on their wedding day.


Plautia Urgulanilla

Plautia Urgulanilla was the granddaughter of Livia's confidant Urgulania. During their marriage she gave birth to a son, Claudius Drusus. Drusus died of asphyxiation in his early teens, shortly after becoming engaged to Junilla, the daughter of
Sejanus Lucius Aelius Seianus (3 June 20 BC – 18 October AD 31), commonly known as Sejanus (), was a Roman soldier, friend and confidant of the Roman Emperor Tiberius. An Equites, equestrian by birth, Sejanus rose to power as Praetorian Prefect, prefec ...
. Claudius later divorced Urgulanilla for adultery and on suspicion of murdering her sister-in-law Apronia. When Urgulanilla gave birth after the divorce, Claudius repudiated the baby girl, Claudia, as the father was allegedly one of his own freedmen. This action made him later the target of criticism by his enemies.


Aelia Paetina

Soon after (possibly in 28), Claudius married Aelia Paetina, a relative of Sejanus, if not Sejanus's adoptive sister. During their marriage, Claudius and Paetina had a daughter, Claudia Antonia. He later divorced her after the marriage became a political liability, although Leon (1948) suggests it may have been due to emotional and mental abuse by Paetina.


Valeria Messalina

Some years after divorcing Aelia Paetina, in 38 or early 39, Claudius married Valeria Messalina, who was his first cousin once removed (Claudius' grandmother, Octavia the Younger, was Valeria's great-grandmother on both her mother and father's side) and closely allied with Caligula's circle. Shortly thereafter, she gave birth to a daughter, Claudia Octavia. A son, first named Tiberius Claudius Germanicus, and later known as Britannicus, was born just after Claudius' accession. This marriage ended in tragedy. The ancient historians allege that Messalina was a Hypersexuality, nymphomaniac who was regularly unfaithful to Claudius—Tacitus states she went so far as to compete with a prostitute to see who could have more sexual partners in a night—and manipulated his policies to amass wealth. In 48, Messalina married her lover Gaius Silius (consul designatus 49 AD), Gaius Silius in a public ceremony while Claudius was at Ostia. Sources disagree as to whether or not she divorced the Emperor first, and whether the intention was to usurp the throne. Under Roman law, the spouse needed to be informed that he or she had been divorced before a new marriage could take place; the sources state that Claudius was in total ignorance until after the marriage. Scramuzza, in his biography, suggests that Silius may have convinced Messalina that Claudius was doomed, and the union was her only hope of retaining rank and protecting her children. The historian Tacitus suggests that Claudius's ongoing term as Censor may have prevented him from noticing the affair before it reached such a critical point. Whatever the case, the result was the execution of Silius, Messalina, and most of her circle.


Agrippina the Younger

Claudius did marry once more. The ancient sources tell that his freedmen put forward three candidates, Caligula's third wife Lollia Paulina, Claudius's divorced second wife Aelia Paetina and Claudius's niece Agrippina the Younger. According to Suetonius, Agrippina won out through her feminine wiles. She gradually seized power from Emperor Claudius and successfully conspired to eliminate his son's rivals and she was able to successfully open the way for her son to become emperor. The truth is probably more political. The attempted coup d'état by Silius and Messalina had probably made Claudius realize the weakness of his position as a member of the Claudian but not the Julian family. This weakness was compounded by the fact that he did not yet have an obvious adult heir, Britannicus being just a boy.Scramuzza (1940) pp. 91–92. See also Tac. ''Ann''. XII 6, 7; Suet. ''Claud.'' 26. Agrippina was one of the few remaining descendants of Augustus, and her son Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus (the future Emperor
Nero Nero ( ; full name: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December AD 37 – 9 June AD 68) was the fifth . He was by the Roman emperor at the age of 13 and succeeded him to the throne. Nero seems to have been popu ...

Nero
) was one of the last males of the Imperial family. Coup attempts could rally around the pair and Agrippina was already showing such ambition. It has been suggested that the Senate may have pushed for the marriage, to end the feud between the Julian and Claudian branches. This feud dated back to Agrippina's Agrippina the Elder, mother's actions against Tiberius after the death of her husband
Germanicus Germanicus Julius Caesar (24 May 15 BC – 10 October AD 19) was a popular and prominent Roman general, known for his campaigns in Germania Germania ( , ), also called Magna Germania (English: ''Great Germania''), Germania Libera (English: '' ...

Germanicus
(Claudius's brother), actions which Tiberius had gladly punished. In any case, Claudius accepted Agrippina and later adopted the newly mature Nero as his son. Nero was married to Claudius' daughter Octavia, made joint heir with the underage Britannicus, and promoted; Augustus had similarly named his grandson Postumus Agrippa and his stepson
Tiberius Tiberius Caesar Augustus (; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March AD 37) was the second Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titl ...

Tiberius
as joint heirs, and Tiberius had named Caligula joint heir with his grandson Tiberius Gemellus. Adoption of adults or near adults was an old tradition in Rome, when a suitable natural adult heir was unavailable as was the case during Britannicus' minority. Claudius may have previously looked to adopt one of his sons-in-law to protect his own reign. Faustus Cornelius Sulla Felix, who was married to Claudius's daughter Claudia Antonia, was only descended from Octavia and Antony on one side – not close enough to the Imperial family to prevent doubts (although that did not stop others from making him the object of a coup attempt against Nero a few years later). Besides which, he was the half-brother of Valeria Messalina and at this time those wounds were still fresh. Nero was more popular with the general public as the grandson of Germanicus and the direct descendant of Augustus.


Affliction and personality

The historian Suetonius describes the physical manifestations of Claudius's affliction in relatively good detail.Suet. ''Claud''. 30. His knees were weak and gave way under him and his head shook. He stammered and his speech was confused. He slobbered and his nose ran when he was excited. The Stoicism, Stoic
Seneca Seneca may refer to: People and language *Seneca (name), a list of people with either the given name or surname *Seneca the Elder, a Roman rhetorician, writer and father of the stoic philosopher Seneca the Younger *Seneca the Younger, a Roman Stoi ...
states in his ''Apocolocyntosis'' that Claudius's voice belonged to no land animal, and that his hands were weak as well. However, he showed no physical deformity, as Suetonius notes that when calm and seated he was a tall, well-built figure of ''Dignitas (Roman concept), dignitas''. When angered or stressed, his symptoms became worse. Historians agree that this condition improved upon his accession to the throne. Claudius himself claimed that he had exaggerated his ailments to save his life. Modern assessments of his health have changed several times in the past century. Prior to World War II, infantile paralysis (or polio) was widely accepted as the cause. This is the diagnosis used in Robert Graves's Claudius (novel), Claudius novels, first published in the 1930s. Polio does not explain many of the described symptoms, however, and a more recent theory implicates cerebral palsy as the cause, as outlined by Ernestine Leon. Tourette syndrome has also been considered a possibility. As a person, ancient historians described Claudius as generous and lowbrow, a man who sometimes lunched with the plebeians. They also paint him as bloodthirsty and cruel, over-fond of gladiatorial combat and executions, and very quick to anger; Claudius himself acknowledged the latter trait, and apologized publicly for his temper. According to the ancient historians he was also excessively trusting, and easily manipulated by his wives and freedmen. But at the same time they portray him as paranoid and apathetic, dull and easily confused. Claudius's extant works present a different view, painting a picture of an intelligent, scholarly, well-read, and conscientious administrator with an eye to detail and justice. Thus, Claudius becomes an enigma. Since the discovery of his "Letter to the Alexandrians" in the last century, much work has been done to rehabilitate Claudius and determine where the truth lies.


Scholarly works and their impact

Claudius wrote copiously throughout his life. Arnaldo Momigliano states that during the reign of Tiberius – which covers the peak of Claudius' literary career – it became impolitic to speak of republican Rome. The trend among the young historians was to either write about the new empire or obscure antiquarian subjects. Claudius was the rare scholar who covered both. Besides the history of Augustus' reign that caused him so much grief, his major works included ''Tyrrhenica'', a twenty-book Etruscan civilization, Etruscan history, and ''Carchedonica'', an eight-volume history of Carthage, as well as an Etruscan language, Etruscan dictionary. He also wrote a De arte aleae, book on dice-playing. Despite the general avoidance of the Republican era, he penned a defense of Cicero against the charges of Gaius Asinius Gallus Saloninus, Asinius Gallus. Modern historians have used this to determine the nature of his politics and of the aborted chapters of his civil war history. He proposed a reform of the Latin alphabet by the addition of Claudian letters, three new letters. He officially instituted the change during his censorship but they did not survive his reign. Claudius also tried to revive Interpunct, the old custom of putting dots between successive words (Classical Latin was written with no spacing). Finally, he wrote an eight-volume autobiography that Suetonius describes as lacking in taste. Claudius (like most of the members of his dynasty) harshly criticized his predecessors and relatives in surviving speeches. None of the works survive but live on as sources for the surviving histories of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Suetonius quotes Claudius' autobiography once and must have used it as a source numerous times. Tacitus uses Claudius' arguments for the orthographical innovations mentioned above and may have used him for some of the more antiquarian passages in his annals. Claudius is the source for numerous passages of Pliny's ''Natural History (Pliny), Natural History''. The influence of historical study on Claudius is obvious. In his speech on Gallic senators, he uses a version of the founding of Rome identical to that of Livy, his tutor in adolescence. The speech is meticulous in details, a common mark of all his extant works, and he goes into long digressions on related matters. This indicates a deep knowledge of a variety of historical subjects that he could not but share. Many of the public works instituted in his reign were based on plans first suggested by
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened ...

Julius Caesar
. Levick believes this emulation of Caesar may have spread to all aspects of his policies. His censorship seems to have been based on those of his ancestors, particularly Appius Claudius Caecus, and he used the office to put into place many policies based on those of Republican times. This is when many of his religious reforms took effect, and his building efforts greatly increased during his tenure. In fact, his assumption of the office of Censor may have been motivated by a desire to see his academic labors bear fruit. For example, he believed (as most Romans did) that Caecus had used the censorship to introduce R, the letter "R" and so used his own term to introduce his new letters.


Death

The consensus of ancient historians was that Claudius was murdered by poison—possibly contained in mushrooms or on a feather—and died in the early hours of 13 October 54. Nearly all implicate his final and powerful wife, Agrippina the Younger, Agrippina, as the instigator. Agrippina and Claudius had become more combative in the months leading up to his death. This carried on to the point where Claudius openly lamented his bad wives, and began to comment on Britannicus' approaching manhood with an eye towards restoring his status within the imperial family. Agrippina had motive in ensuring the succession of Nero before Britannicus could gain power. Some implicate either his taster Halotus, his doctor Gaius Stertinius Xenophon, Xenophon, or the infamous poisoner Locusta as the administrator of the fatal substance. Some say he died after prolonged suffering following a single dose at dinner, and some have him recovering only to be poisoned again.Suet. ''Claud''. 44 Among contemporary sources, Seneca the Younger ascribed the emperor's death to natural causes, while Josephus only spoke of rumors on his poisoning. Some historians have cast doubt on whether Claudius was murdered or merely succumbed to illness or old age. Evidence against his murder include his old age, his serious illnesses in his last years, his unhealthy lifestyle and the fact that his taster Halotus continued to serve in the same position under Nero. On the other hand, some modern scholars claim the near universality of the accusations in ancient texts lends credence to the crime. Claudius' ashes were interred in the Mausoleum of Augustus on 24 October 54, after a funeral similar to that of his great-uncle Augustus 40 years earlier.


Legacy


Divine honours

Already, while alive, he received the widespread private worship of a living ''
princeps Princeps (plural: principes) is a Latin word meaning "first in time or order; the first, foremost, chief, the most eminent, distinguished, or noble; the first man, first person". As a title, "princeps" originated in the Roman Republic wherein the ...
'' and was worshipped in Britannia in his own Temple of Claudius, Colchester, temple in Camulodunum. Claudius was deified by Nero and the Senate almost immediately.


Views of the new regime

Agrippina had sent away Tiberius Claudius Narcissus, Narcissus shortly before Claudius' death, and now murdered the freedman. The last act of this secretary of letters was to burn all of Claudius' correspondence—most likely so it could not be used against him and others in an already hostile new regime. Thus Claudius' private words about his own policies and motives were lost to history. Just as Claudius had criticized his predecessors in official edicts (see below), Nero often criticized the deceased Emperor and many of Claudius' laws and edicts were disregarded under the reasoning that he was too stupid and senile to have meant them.
Seneca Seneca may refer to: People and language *Seneca (name), a list of people with either the given name or surname *Seneca the Elder, a Roman rhetorician, writer and father of the stoic philosopher Seneca the Younger *Seneca the Younger, a Roman Stoi ...
's Apocolocyntosis mocks the deification of Claudius and reinforces the view of Claudius as an unpleasant fool; this remained the official view for the duration of Nero's reign. Eventually Nero stopped referring to his deified adoptive father at all, and realigned with his birth family. Claudius' temple was left unfinished after only some of the foundation had been laid down. Eventually the site was overtaken by Nero's Domus Aurea, Golden House.Levick (1990)


Flavian and later perspectives

The Flavians, who had risen to prominence under Claudius, took a different tack. They were in a position where they needed to shore up their legitimacy, but also justify the fall of the Julio-Claudians. They reached back to Claudius in contrast with Nero, to show that they were good associated with good. Commemorative coins were issued of Claudius and his son Britannicus, who had been a friend of the Emperor Titus (Titus was born in 39, Britannicus was born in 41). When Nero's Domus Aurea, Golden House was burned, the Temple of Claudius was finally completed on the Caelian Hill. However, as the Flavians became established, they needed to emphasize their own credentials more, and their references to Claudius ceased. Instead, he was lumped with the other emperors of the fallen dynasty. His state cult in Rome probably continued until the abolition of all such cults of dead Emperors by Maximinus Thrax in 237–238. The ''Feriale Duranum'', probably identical to the festival calendars of every regular army unit, assigns him a sacrifice of a Cattle#Terminology, steer on his birthday, the Kalends of August. And such commemoration (and consequent feasting) probably continued until the Christianization and disintegration of the army in the late 4th century.


Views of ancient historians

The ancient historians Tacitus, Suetonius (in ''The Twelve Caesars''), and
Cassius Dio Lucius Cassius Dio (; ) or Dio Cassius ( ''Dion Kassios'')), Cassius Lucius Dio or Cassius Claudius Dio; alleged to have the ' (nickname) Cocceianus was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek and Roman origin. He published 80 volumes of the ...
all wrote after the last of the Flavians had gone. All three were senators or ''equites''. They took the side of the Senate in most conflicts with the Princeps, invariably viewing him as being in the wrong. This resulted in biases, both conscious and unconscious. Suetonius lost access to the official archives shortly after beginning his work. He was forced to rely on second-hand accounts when it came to Claudius (with the exception of Augustus' letters, which had been gathered earlier). Suetonius painted Claudius as a ridiculous figure, belittling many of his acts and attributing the objectively good works to his retinue. Tacitus wrote a narrative for his fellow senators and fitted each of the emperors into a simple mold of his choosing. He wrote of Claudius as a passive pawn and an idiot in affairs relating to the palace and often in public life. During his censorship of 47–48 Tacitus allows the reader a glimpse of a Claudius who is more statesmanlike (XI.23–25), but it is a mere glimpse. Tacitus is usually held to have 'hidden' his use of Claudius' writings and to have omitted Claudius' character from his works. Even his version of Claudius' Lyons tablet speech is edited to be devoid of the Emperor's personality. Dio was less biased, but seems to have used Suetonius and Tacitus as sources. Thus the conception of Claudius as the weak fool, controlled by those he supposedly ruled, was preserved for the ages. As time passed, Claudius was mostly forgotten outside of the historians' accounts. His books were lost first, as their antiquarian subjects became unfashionable. In the 2nd century, Pertinax, who shared his birthday, became emperor, overshadowing commemoration of Claudius.


In modern media

* The best known fictional representation of the Emperor Claudius was contained in the books ''I, Claudius'' and ''Claudius the God'' (published in 1934 and 1935, respectively) by Robert Graves, both written in the Grammatical person, first-person to give the reader the impression that they are Claudius's autobiography. Graves employed a fictive artifice to suggest that they were recently discovered, genuine translations of Claudius' writings. Claudius's extant letters, speeches, and sayings were incorporated into the text (mostly in the second book, ''Claudius the God''), to add authenticity. ** In 1937, director Josef von Sternberg attempted a film version of ''I, Claudius (film), I, Claudius'', with Charles Laughton as Claudius. However, the lead actress, Merle Oberon, suffered a near-fatal car accident and the movie was never finished. The surviving reels were featured in the BBC documentary ''The Epic That Never Was'' (1965). The motion picture rights for a new film eventually passed to producer Scott Rudin. ** Graves's two books were the basis for a British television adaptation ''I, Claudius (TV series), I, Claudius'', produced by the British Broadcasting Corporation, BBC. The series starred Derek Jacobi as Claudius and was broadcast in 1976 on BBC Two, BBC2. It was a substantial critical success, and won several British Academy of Film and Television Arts, BAFTA awards. The series was later broadcast in the United States on ''Masterpiece Theatre'' in 1977. The 1996 7-VHS release and the later DVD release of the television series, include ''The Epic That Never Was'' documentary. ** A radio adaptation of the Graves novels by Robin Brooks and directed by Jonquil Panting, was broadcast in six one-hour episodes on BBC Radio 4 beginning 4 December 2010. The cast featured Tom Goodman-Hill as Claudius, Derek Jacobi as Augustus, Harriet Walter as Livia, Tim McInnerny as Tiberius and Samuel Barnett (actor), Samuel Barnett as Caligula. ** In 2011, it was announced rights for a miniseries adaptation passed to HBO and BBC Two. Anne Thomopoulos and Jane Tranter, producers of the popular HBO–BBC2 ''Rome (TV series), Rome'' miniseries, were attached to the ''I, Claudius'' project. However, as of 2018, it has yet to be produced, and no release date is pending. * The 1954 film ''Demetrius and the Gladiators'' also portrayed him sympathetically, played by Barry Jones (actor), Barry Jones. * In the 1960 film ''Messalina (1960 film), Messalina'', Claudius is portrayed by Mino Doro. * On television, Freddie Jones portrayed Claudius in the 1968 British television series ''The Caesars (TV series), The Caesars''. * The 1975 TV Special ''Further Up Pompeii!'' (based on the Frankie Howerd sit-com ''Up Pompeii!'') featured Cyril Appleton as Claudius. * In the 1979 motion picture ''Caligula (film), Caligula'', where the role was performed by Giancarlo Badessi, Claudius is depicted as an idiot, in contrast to Robert Graves' portrait of Claudius as a cunning and deeply intelligent man, who is perceived by others to be an idiot. * In the 1981 Franco-Italian film ''Caligula and Messalina'', he was portrayed by Gino Turini (as John Turner). * The 1985 made-for-television miniseries ''A.D.'' features actor Richard Kiley as Claudius. Kiley portrays him as thoughtful, but willing to cater to public opinion as well as being under the influence of Agrippina. * In the 2004 TV film ''Nero (2004 film), Imperium: Nero'', Claudius is portrayed by Massimo Dapporto. * He is portrayed in Season 3 of the Netflix documentary series ''Roman Empire (TV series), Roman Empire'', which focused on the reign of Caligula, by Kelson Henderson. The series concludes with Claudius's accession. * There is also a reference to Claudius' suppression of a coup in the movie ''Gladiator (2000 film), Gladiator'', though the incident is entirely fictional. * In the series Britannia (2018), Claudius visits Britannia, played by Steve Pemberton as a fool who is drugged by
Aulus Plautius Aulus Plautius was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''Epistle to the Romans'', shorten ...
. In literature, Claudius and his contemporaries appear in the historical novel ''The Roman'' by Mika Waltari. Canadian-born science fiction writer A. E. van Vogt reimagined Robert Graves' Claudius story, in his two novels, ''Empire of the Atom'' and ''The Wizard of Linn''. The historical novel ''Chariot of the Soul'' by Linda Proud features Claudius as host and mentor of the young Togidubnus, son of King Verica of the Atrebates, during his ten-year stay in Rome. When Togidubnus returns to Britain in advance of the Roman army, it is with a mission given to him by Claudius.


See also

* Julio-Claudian family tree * List of biblical figures identified in extra-biblical sources * Temple of Claudius, Colchester * Temple of Claudius, Rome


Notes


References


Bibliography

* Baldwin, B. (1964). "Executions under Claudius: Seneca's Ludus de Morte Claudii". ''Phoenix'' 18 (1): 39–48. * Griffin, M. (1990). "Claudius in Tacitus". ''Classical Quarterly'' 40 (2): 482–501. * * Levick, B.M. (1978). "Claudius: Antiquarian or Revolutionary?" ''American Journal of Philology'', 99 (1): 79–105. * * Leon, E.F. (1948). "The Imbecillitas of the Emperor Claudius", ''Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association'', 79 79–86. * McAlindon, D. (1957). "Claudius and the Senators", ''American Journal of Philology'', 78 (3): 279–286. * Major, A. (1992). "Was He Pushed or Did He Leap? Claudius' Ascent to Power", ''Ancient History'', 22 25–31. * Malloch, S. J. V. (2013). ''The Annals of Tacitus, book 11''. Cambridge University Press. * Minaud, Gérard, ''Les vies de 12 femmes d'empereur romain – Devoirs, Intrigues & Voluptés'', Paris, L'Harmattan, 2012, ch. 2, '' La vie de Messaline, femme de Claude'', p. 39–64; ch. 3, '' La vie d'Agrippine, femme de Claude'', p. 65–96. . * Momigliano, Arnaldo (1934). ''Claudius: the Emperor and His Achievement'' Trans. W.D. Hogarth. Cambridge: W. Heffer and Sons. * Oost, S.V. (1958). "The Career of M. Antonius Pallas", ''American Journal of Philology'', 79 (2): 113–139. * * Renucci, Pierre (2012). ''Claude, l'empereur inattendu'', Paris: Perrin. * * Ryan, F.X. (1993). "Some Observations on the Censorship of Claudius and Vitellius, AD 47–48", ''American Journal of Philology'', 114 (4): 611–618. * Scramuzza, Vincent (1940). ''The Emperor Claudius'' Cambridge: Harvard University Press. * * * * * Vessey, D.W.T.C. (1971). "Thoughts on Tacitus' Portrayal of Claudius" ''American Journal of Philology'' 92 (3) 385–409.


External links


Ancient sources

* Suetonius *
Life of Claudius
* Tacitus *

*

* Dio *

*

* Josephus *
The works of Josephus
* Seneca *

* Claudius *

** Lyon Tablet, Lyons tablet *** Lugdunum Tablet, Extract from first half of the Lyons Tablet **
Second half of the Lyons Tablet
**

** Tabula clesiana, Edict confirming the rights of the people of Trent. Full Latin text :it:Tabula clesiana, here.


Modern biographies


Biography from De Imperatoribus Romanis



Claudius I
a
BBC History
{{Authority control Claudius, 10 BC births 54 deaths 1st-century Gallo-Roman people 1st-century historians 1st-century murdered monarchs 1st-century Roman emperors Ancient Romans in Britain Characters in works by Geoffrey of Monmouth Claudii Nerones Creators of writing systems Husbands of Agrippina the Younger Deified Roman emperors Imperial Roman consuls Julio-Claudian dynasty Latin historians People from Lugdunum People with cerebral palsy Poisoned Romans Royalty and nobility with disabilities Roman pharaohs