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Civil law is a major branch of the
law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its boundari ...
.
Glanville Williams Glanville Llewelyn Williams (15 February 1911 – 10 April 1997) was a Welsh legal scholar who was the Rouse Ball Professor of English Law at the University of Cambridge , mottoeng = Literal: From here, light and sacred drau ...
. ''
Learning the Law Learning the Law is a book written by Glanville Williams and editor, edited by him and A. T. H. Smith. It professes to be a "Guide, Philosopher and Friend". The tome is a "standard" work which has been called a "classic", and said to be "useful" a ...
''. Eleventh Edition. Stevens. 1982. p. 2.
In
common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtue of being stated in written opinions. ''Black's Law Dictionary'' is the most-us ...
legal systems The contemporary national legal systems are generally based on one of four basic systems: civil law, common law, statutory law, religious law Religious law includes ethical and moral codes taught by religious traditions. Different religio ...
such as
England and Wales England and Wales () is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom, parts of the United Kingdom. England and Wales forms the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England and follows ...

England and Wales
and the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...
, the term refers to non-
criminal law Criminal law is the body of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its env ...
. The law relating to
civil wrong A civil wrong or wrong is a cause of action A cause of action or right of action, in law, is a set of facts sufficient to justify suing to obtain money, property, or the enforcement of a legal right against another party. The term also refers to ...
s and
quasi-contract A quasi-contract (or implied-in-law contract or constructive contract) is a fictional Fiction generally is a narrative A narrative, story or tale is any account of a series of related events or experiences, whether nonfictional ( memoir, biogr ...
s is part of the civil law, as is law of property (other than property-related crimes, such as
theft Theft is the taking of another person's property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on the nature of the property, an owner of pr ...

theft
or
vandalism Vandalism is the action involving deliberate destruction of or damage to public or private property. The term includes property damage, such as graffiti and #Defacement, defacement directed towards any property without permission of the own ...

vandalism
). Civil law may, like
criminal law Criminal law is the body of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its env ...
, be divided into
substantive law Substantive law is the set of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its envir ...
and
procedural law Procedural law, adjective law, in some jurisdictions referred to as remedial law, or rules of court comprises the rules by which a court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or g ...
. The
rights Rights are legal Law is a system of rules created and law enforcement, enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,Robertson, ''Crimes against humanity'', 90. with its precise definition a matter of longstandi ...
and
duties A duty (from "due" meaning "that which is owing"; fro, deu, did, past participle of ''devoir''; la, debere, debitum, whence "debt Debt is an obligation that requires one party, the debtor, to pay money or other agreed-upon value to anot ...
of
persons A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as , , or , and being a part of a culturally established form of social relations such as , of , or . The defining features of and, consequently, wh ...

persons
(
natural persons In jurisprudence Jurisprudence, or legal theory, is the theoretical study of the propriety of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a ...
and
legal persons In law, a legal person is any person or 'thing' (less ambiguously, any legal entity) that can do the things a human person is usually able to do in law – such as enter into contracts, Lawsuit, sue and be sued, Ownership, own property, and so on ...
) amongst themselves is the primary concern of civil law. It is often suggested that civil proceedings are taken for the purpose of obtaining compensation for injury, and may thus be distinguished from criminal proceedings, whose purpose is to inflict punishment. However,
exemplary damages Punitive damages, or exemplary damages, are damages At common law, damages are a remedy in the form of a monetary In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose ...
or
punitive damages Punitive damages, or exemplary damages, are damages At common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtue of being s ...
may be awarded in civil proceedings. It was also formerly possible for
common informer Common may refer to: Places * Common, a townland in County Tyrone County Tyrone (; ) is one of the thirty-two counties of Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean, ...
s to sue for a penalty in civil proceedings. Because some courts have both civil and criminal jurisdiction, civil proceedings cannot be defined as those taken in civil courts. In the United States, the expression "civil courts" is used as a shorthand for "trial courts in civil cases". In England and other common-law countries, the burden of proof in civil proceedings is, in general—with a number of exceptions such as committal proceedings for
civil contempt Civil may refer to: *Civic virtue Civic virtue is the harvesting of habits A habit (or wont as a humorous and formal term) is a routine of behavior that is repeated regularly and tends to occur Subconscious, subconsciously.balance of probabilities Burden of proof is a legal duty that encompasses two connected but separate ideas that apply for establishing the truth of facts in a trial before tribunals in the United States: the "burden of production" and the "burden of persuasion." In a lega ...
. In civil cases in the law of the
Maldives Maldives (, ; dv, ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ, translit=Dhivehi Raajje IPA: ), officially the Republic of Maldives, is an archipelagic country in the Indian subcontinent of Asia, situated in the Indian Ocean. It lies southwest of Sri Lanka and ...

Maldives
, the burden of proof requires the
plaintiff A plaintiff ( Π in legal shorthand) is the party who initiates a lawsuit A lawsuit is a proceeding by a party or parties against another in the civil Civil may refer to: *Civic virtue, or civility *Civil action, or lawsuit *Civil aff ...
to convince the court of the plaintiff's entitlement to the relief sought. This means that the plaintiff must prove each element of the claim, or cause of action in order to recover.
Husnu Al Suood Husnu Al Suood (Dhivehi: ޙުސްނުއްސުޢޫދު ) is a Justice of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Maldives since 8 December 2019. He was the Attorney General of the Maldives, Attorney General of the Maldives from June 2009 to August 201 ...
. ''The Maldivian Legal System''. Maldives Law Institute. 2014
p 214


See also

* Outline of civil law (common law) *
Civil code A civil code is a codification of private law Private law is that part of a civil law Civil law may refer to: * Civil law (common law) Civil law is a major branch of the law.Glanville Williams. ''Learning the Law''. Eleventh Edition. Stevens. ...
*
Administrative law Administrative law is the body of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by ...
*
Federal law Federal law is the body of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its envir ...
*
Federal Rules of Civil Procedure The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (officially abbreviated Fed. R. Civ. P.; colloquially FRCP) govern civil procedure Civil procedure is the body of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrela ...
*
Law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its bounda ...
*
Natural law Natural law ( la, ius naturale, ''lex naturalis'') is a system of law based on a close observation of human nature Human nature is a concept that denotes the fundamental disposition A disposition is a quality of character, a habit A habit (or ...
*
Legal treatiseA legal treatise is a scholarly legal publication containing all the law relating to a particular area, such as criminal law Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime. It proscribes conduct perceived as threatening, harmful, or ot ...


References

{{Authority control Law