Civil law is a major branch of the law
Glanville Llewelyn Williams (15 February 1911 – 10 April 1997) was a Welsh legal scholar who was the Rouse Ball Professor of English Law at the University of Cambridge from 1968 to 1978 and the Quain Professor of Jurisprudence at Universi .... '' Learning the Law''. Eleventh Edition. Stevens. 1982. p. 2.
In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent, judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtue of being stated in written opinions."The common law is not a brooding omnipres ... legal systems
England and Wales
England and Wales () is one of the three legal jurisdiction
Jurisdiction (from Latin 'law' + 'declaration') is the legal term for the legal authority granted to a legal entity to enact justice. In federations like the United States, a ...
The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major unincorporated territor ...
, the term refers to non- criminal law
[ The law relating to ] civil wrong
Civil may refer to:
* Civic virtue, or civility
*Civil action, or lawsuit
* Civil affairs
* Civil and political rights
* Civil disobedience
* Civil engineering
* Civil (journalism), a platform for independent journalism
* Civilian, someone not ...s and quasi-contracts is part of the civil law, as is law of property (other than property-related crimes, such as theft
Theft is the act of taking another person's property
Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on the nature of the property, an owner ... or vandalism). Civil law may, like criminal law, be divided into substantive law and procedural law. The rights and duties of persons
A person ( : people) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousness, and being a part of a culturally established form of social relations such as kinship, ownership of pr ... ( natural persons and legal persons) amongst themselves is the primary concern of civil law.
It is often suggested that civil proceedings are taken for the purpose of obtaining compensation for injury, and may thus be distinguished from criminal proceedings, whose purpose is to inflict punishment. However, exemplary damages or punitive damages may be awarded in civil proceedings. It was also formerly possible for common informers to sue for a penalty in civil proceedings.
Because some courts have both civil and criminal jurisdiction, civil proceedings cannot be defined as those taken in civil courts. In the United States, the expression "civil courts" is used as a shorthand for "trial courts in civil cases".
In England and other common-law countries, the burden of proof in civil proceedings is, in general—with a number of exceptions such as committal proceedings for civil contempt—proof on a balance of probabilities. In civil cases in the law of the Maldives, the burden of proof requires the plaintiff
A plaintiff ( Π in legal shorthand) is the party who initiates a lawsuit (also known as an ''action'') before a court. By doing so, the plaintiff seeks a legal remedy. If this search is successful, the court will issue judgment in favor of ... to convince the court of the plaintiff's entitlement to the relief sought. This means that the plaintiff must prove each element of the claim, or cause of action in order to recover. [ Husnu Al Suood. ''The Maldivian Legal System''. Maldives Law Institute. 2014]
* Outline of civil law (common law)
* Civil code
* Administrative law
* Federal law
* Federal Rules of Civil Procedure
* Natural law
* Legal treatise
Law by type