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Her Majesty's Home Civil Service, also known as Her Majesty's Civil Service or the Home Civil Service, is the permanent
bureaucracy The term bureaucracy () may refer both to a body of non-elected governing officials and to an administrative policy-making group. Historically, a bureaucracy was a government administration managed by departments staffed with non-elected off ...

bureaucracy
or
secretariat Secretariat may refer to: * Secretariat (administrative office) The secretariat of an organization is the department that fulfils its Central administration, central administrative or General Secretary, general secretary duties. The term is especi ...
of Crown employees that supports
Her Majesty's Government ga, Rialtas na Ríochta Aontaithe sco, Govrenment o the Unitit Kinrick , image = HM Government logo.svg , image_size=220px, date_established = , state = United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, comm ...
, which is composed of a
cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent glass sheets or transparent polycarbonate sheets * Filing ...
of ministers chosen by the
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government in the United Kingdom. The prime minister chairs the Cabinet of the United Kingdom, Cabinet and selects its Minister of the Crown, ministers, and advises the Monarchy of the U ...
, as well as two of the three devolved administrations: the
Scottish Government The Scottish Government ( gd, Riaghaltas na h-Alba, ) is the Devolution in the United Kingdom, devolved government of Scotland. It was formed in 1999 as the Scottish Executive following the 1997 Scottish devolution referendum, 1997 referendum on S ...
and the
Welsh Government The Welsh Government ( cy, Llywodraeth Cymru) is the Devolution in the United Kingdom, devolved government of Wales. The government consists of ministers, who attend cabinet meetings, and Minister (government), deputy ministers who do not, and als ...
, but not the
Northern Ireland Executive The Northern Ireland Executive is the devolved Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government A central government is the government A government is the system or group of people governing a ...
. As in other states that employ the Westminster political system, Her Majesty's Home Civil Service forms an inseparable part of the
British government ga, Rialtas na Ríochta Aontaithe sco, Govrenment o the Unitit Kinrick , image = HM Government logo.svg , image_size=220px, date_established = , state = United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, comm ...
. The executive decisions of government ministers are implemented by HM Civil Service. Civil servants are employees of the Crown and not of the
British parliament The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kin ...
. Civil servants also have some traditional and
statutory A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) ...

statutory
responsibilities which to some extent protect them from being used for the political advantage of the party in power. Senior civil servants may be called to account to Parliament. In general use, the term ''civil servant'' in the United Kingdom does not include all
public sector The public sector (also called the state sector) is the part of the economy composed of both public service A public service is a service Service may refer to: Activities :''(See the Religion section for religious activities)'' * Administ ...
employees; although there is no fixed legal definition, the term is usually defined as a "servant of the Crown working in a civil capacity who is not the holder of a political (or judicial) office; the holder of certain other offices in respect of whose tenure of office special provision has been made;
r
r
a servant of the Crown in a personal capacity paid from the
Civil List A civil list is a list of individuals to whom money In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the left corner">174x174px Money ...
".Bradley and Ewing, p.272 As such, the civil service does not include government ministers (who are politically appointed), members of the
British Armed Forces The British Armed Forces, also known as Her Majesty's Armed Forces, are the military, military services responsible for the defence of the United Kingdom, its British Overseas Territories, overseas territories and the Crown dependencies. They a ...
, the
police The police are a Law enforcement organization, constituted body of Law enforcement officer, persons empowered by a State (polity), state, with the aim to law enforcement, enforce the law, to ensure the safety, health and possessions of citize ...

police
, officers of local government authorities or quangos of the
Houses of Parliament The Palace of Westminster serves as the meeting place for both the House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Towns ...

Houses of Parliament
, employees of the
National Health Service The National Health Service (NHS) is the umbrella term for the publicly funded healthcare systems of the United Kingdom (UK). Since 1948, they have been funded out of general taxation. There are three systems which are referred to using the " ...
(NHS), or staff of the Royal Household. As at the end of March 2018 there were 430,075 civil servants in the Home Civil Service, an increase of 2.5 per cent on the previous year. There are two other administratively separate civil services in the United Kingdom. One is for
Northern Ireland Northern Ireland ( ga, Tuaisceart Éireann ; sco, label=Ulster-ScotsUlster Scots, also known as Scotch-Irish, may refer to: * Ulster Scots people The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots The Ulster Scots (Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster- ...

Northern Ireland
(the
Northern Ireland Civil Service The Northern Ireland Civil Service (NICS; ga, Státseirbhís Thuaisceart Éireann; Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster-Scots: ''Norlin Airlann Cïvil Sarvice'') is the permanent bureaucracy of employees that supports the Northern Ireland Executive, ...
); the other is the
foreign service Diplomatic service is the body of diplomat A diplomat (from grc, δίπλωμα; romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of comm ...
(
Her Majesty's Diplomatic Service Her Majesty's Diplomatic Service (HMDS) is the diplomatic service of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, dealing with Foreign policy, foreign affairs and representing British interests overseas, as opposed to the Civil Servi ...
). The heads of these services are members of the Permanent Secretaries Management Group.


History


Establishment

The Offices of State grew in England, and later the United Kingdom. Initially, they were little more than
secretariat Secretariat may refer to: * Secretariat (administrative office) The secretariat of an organization is the department that fulfils its Central administration, central administrative or General Secretary, general secretary duties. The term is especi ...
s for their leaders, who held positions at
court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''Sta ...
. They were chosen by the king on the advice of a patron, and typically replaced when their patron lost influence. In the 18th century, in response to the growth of the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
and economic changes, institutions such as the
Office of Works The Office of Works was established in the English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which h ...
and the
Navy Board The Navy Board (formerly known as the Council of the Marine or Council of the Marine Causes) was the commission Commission or commissioning may refer to: Business and contracting * Commission (remuneration), a form of payment to an agent for ser ...
grew large. Each had its own system and staff were appointed by purchase or patronage. By the 19th century, it became increasingly clear that these arrangements were not working. Under Charles Grant, the
East India Company The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC), East India Trading Company (EITC), the English East India Company or (after 1707) the British East India Company, and informally known as John Company, Com ...
established the
East India Company College The East India Company College, or East India College, was an educational establishment situated at Hailey, Hertfordshire Hertfordshire (; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England England is a that i ...
at Haileybury near London, to train administrators, in 1806. The College was established on recommendation of officials in China who had seen the
imperial examination The Chinese imperial examinations, or ''keju'' (lit. "subject recommendation"), was a civil service examination system in History of China#Imperial era, Imperial China for selecting candidates for the state Civil service#China, bureaucracy. T ...
system. In government, a civil service, replacing patronage with examination, similar to the Chinese system, was advocated a number of times over the next several decades.
William Ewart Gladstone William Ewart Gladstone (; 29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British statesman and Liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an ...

William Ewart Gladstone
, in 1850, an opposition member, sought a more efficient system based on expertise rather than favouritism. The East India Company provided a model for
Stafford Northcote:''For the 4th Earl of Iddesleigh, see Stafford Northcote, 4th Earl of Iddesleigh'' Stafford Henry Northcote, 1st Earl of Iddesleigh (27 October 1818 – 12 January 1887), known as Sir Stafford Northcote, Bt from 1851 to 1885, was a British Con ...
, private Secretary to Gladstone who, with Charles Trevelyan, drafted the key report in 1854. The
Northcote–Trevelyan Report The Northcote-Trevelyan Report was a document prepared by Stafford H. Northcote (later to be Chancellor of the Exchequer The chancellor of the Exchequer, often abbreviated to the chancellor, is a senior minister of the Crown within the Gover ...
, recommended a permanent, unified, politically neutral civil service, with appointments made on merit, and a clear division between staff responsible for routine ("mechanical") and those engaged in policy formulation and implementation ("administrative") work. The report was not implemented, but it came as the bureaucratic chaos in the
Crimean War The Crimean War, , was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which Russian Empire, Russia lost to an alliance of Second French Empire, France, the Ottoman Empire, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, ...
demonstrated that the military was as backward as the civil service. A
Civil Service Commission A civil service commission is a government agency that is constituted by legislature to regulate the employment and working conditions of civil servants, oversee hiring and promotions, and promote the values of the public service. Its role is roughl ...
was set up in 1855 to oversee open recruitment and end patronage as Parliament passed an Act "to relieve the East India Company from the obligation to maintain the College at Haileybury". Prime Minister Gladstone took the decisive step in 1870 with his
Order in Council An Order in Council is a type of legislation in many countries, especially the Commonwealth realm A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state A sovereign state is a polity, political entity represented by one centralized government that ...
to implement the Northcote-Trevelyan proposals. This system was broadly endorsed by Commissions chaired by Playfair (1874), Ridley (1886), MacDonnell (1914), Tomlin (1931) and Priestley (1955). The Northcote–Trevelyan model remained essentially stable for a hundred years. This was attributed to its success in removing corruption, delivering public services, even under stress of war, and responding effectively to political change. Patrick Diamond argues: :The Northcote-Trevelyan model was characterised by a hierarchical mode of Weberian bureaucracy; neutral, permanent and anonymous officials motivated by the public interest; and a willingness to administer policies ultimately determined by ministers. This bequeathed a set of theories, institutions and practices to subsequent generations of administrators in the central state. The
Irish Civil Service The Civil Service ( ga, An Státseirbhís) of Ireland is the collective term for the permanent staff of the Department of state (Ireland), departments of state and certain public service bodies of the Republic of Ireland, state agencies who advise ...
was separated from the British civil service. The
Acts of Union 1800 The Acts of Union 1800 (sometimes referred to as a single Act of Union 1801) were parallel acts of the Parliament of Great Britain The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in May 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of Union 17 ...
abolished the
Parliament of Ireland The Parliament of Ireland ( ga, Parlaimint na hÉireann) was the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city ...
, the
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (), or more formally Lieutenant General and General Governor of Ireland, was the title of the chief governor of Ireland The chief governor was the senior official in the Dublin Castle administration, which maintained ...
was retained in formal charge of the Irish executive based at Dublin Castle. The Irish Office in Whitehall liaised with Dublin Castle. Some British departments' area of operation extended to Ireland, while in other fields the Dublin department was separate from the Whitehall equivalent.


Lord Fulton's committee report

Following the Second World War demands for change grew again. There was a concern (illustrated in
C. P. Snow Charles Percy Snow, Baron Snow, CBE The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, and public service outside ...
's ''
Strangers and Brothers ''Strangers and Brothers'' is a series of novels by C. P. Snow Charles Percy Snow, Baron Snow, CBE The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work ...
'' series of novels) that technical and scientific expertise was mushrooming, to a point at which the "good all-rounder" culture of the administrative civil servant with a classics or other arts degree could no longer properly engage with it: as late as 1963, for example, the Treasury had just 19 trained economists. The times were, moreover, ones of keen respect for technocracy, with the mass mobilisation of war having worked effectively, and the French National Plan apparently delivering economic success. And there was also a feeling which would not go away, following the war and the radical social reforms of the 1945 Labour government, that the so-called "
mandarins Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat Language * Mandarin Chinese, branch of Chinese spoken in northern and southwester ...
" of the higher civil service were too remote from the people. Indeed, between 1948 and 1963 only three per cent of the recruits to the administrative class came from the working classes, and in 1966 more than half of the administrators at
undersecretary Undersecretary (or under secretary) is a title for a person who works for and has a lower rank than a secretary A secretary, administrative professional, or personal assistant A personal assistant, also referred to as personal aide (PA) or ...
level and above had been privately educated. Lord Fulton's committee reported in 1968. He found that administrators were not professional enough, and in particular lacked management skills; that the position of technical and scientific experts needed to be rationalised and enhanced; and that the service was indeed too remote. His 158 recommendations included the introduction of a unified grading system for all categories of staff, a Civil Service College and a central policy planning unit. He also said that control of the service should be taken from the Treasury, and given to a new Department, and that the "fast stream" recruitment process for accessing the upper echelons should be made more flexible, to encourage candidates from less privileged backgrounds. The new Department was set up by Prime Minister Harold Wilson's Labour Government in 1968 and named the
Civil Service Department In the Government of the United Kingdom, the minister for the civil service is responsible for regulations regarding Her Majesty's Civil Service, the role of which is to assist the governments of the United Kingdom in formulating and implementing ...
, known as CSD. Wilson himself took on the role of Minister for the Civil Service (which has continued to be a portfolio of the Prime Minister), while the first Minister in Charge of the Civil Service Department was Cabinet Minister Lord Shackleton, also Leader of the House of Lords and Lord Privy Seal. The first Permanent Secretary was Sir William Armstrong, who moved over from his post as Permanent Secretary at the Treasury. After the 1970 General Election, new Conservative Prime Minister Ted Heath appointed Lord Jellicoe in Lord Shackleton's place. Into
Heath A heath () is a shrubland Shrubland, scrubland, scrub, brush, or bush is a plant community A plant community is a collection or Association (ecology), association of plant species within a designated geographical unit, which forms a relative ...
's
Downing Street Downing Street is a long street in the City of Westminster The City of Westminster is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and London boroughs, borough in Inner London which forms a core part of Central London. It is the site of the ...

Downing Street
came the
Central Policy Review Staff The Central Policy Review Staff (CPRS), nicknamed the "Think-Tank", was an independent unit within the Cabinet Office of the United Kingdom tasked with developing long term strategy and co-ordinating policy across government departments. It was es ...
(CPRS), and they were in particular given charge of a series of Programme Analysis and Review (PAR) studies of policy efficiency and effectiveness. But, whether through lack of political will, or through passive resistance by a mandarinate which the report had suggested were "amateurs", Fulton failed. The Civil Service College equipped generalists with additional skills, but did not turn them into qualified professionals as ENA did in France. Recruits to the fast stream self-selected, with the universities of
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...
and
Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a university city and the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' ...
still producing a large majority of successful English candidates, since the system continued to favour the tutorial system at
Oxbridge Oxbridge is a portmanteau A portmanteau (, ) or portmanteau word (from "portmanteau (luggage) A portmanteau is a piece of luggage Baggage or luggage consists of bags, cases, and containers which hold a travel Travel is the move ...
while to an extent the Scottish
Ancient universities The ancient universities are British and Irish medieval universities A medieval university was a Corporation#History, corporation organized during the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period last ...
educated a good proportion of recruits from north of the border. The younger mandarins found excuses to avoid managerial jobs in favour of the more prestigious postings. The generalists remained on top, and the specialists on tap.


Margaret Thatcher's government

Margaret Thatcher Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher (; 13 October 19258 April 2013), was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is either ...

Margaret Thatcher
came to office in 1979 believing in
free market In economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of pl ...
s as a better social system in many areas than the state: government should be small but active. Many of her ministers were suspicious of the civil service, in light of
public choice Public choice, or public choice theory, is "the use of economic tools to deal with traditional problems of political science".Gordon Tullock, The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics,
987 Year 987 ( CMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday A common year starting on Saturday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an ad ...
2008, "public choice," ''The New Palgrave Dictionary ...
research that suggested public servants tend to increase their own power and budgets. She immediately set about reducing the size of the civil service, cutting numbers from 732,000 to 594,000 over her first seven years in office.
Derek Rayner Derek George Rayner, Baron Rayner (30 March 1926 – 26 June 1998) was an English businessman, who was chairman and chief executive of Marks & Spencer, and revived and rapidly expanded the company in the 1980s. He began working for M&S in 1953 as ...
, the former chief executive of
Marks & Spencer Marks and Spencer Group plc (commonly abbreviated to M&S and colloquially known as Marks's or Marks & Sparks) is a major British multinational retailer with headquarters in London, England, that specialises in selling clothing, home products a ...
, was appointed as an efficiency expert with the Prime Minister's personal backing; he identified numerous problems with the Civil Service, arguing that only three billion of the eight billion
pound Pound or Pounds may refer to: Units * Pound (currency) A pound is any of various units of currency A currency, "in circulation", from la, currens, -entis, literally meaning "running" or "traversing" in the most specific sense is money Im ...
s a year spent at that time by the Civil Service consisted of essential services, and that the "mandarins" (senior civil servants) needed to focus on efficiency and management rather than on policy advice. In late 1981 the Prime Minister announced the abolition of the Civil Service Department, transferring power over the Civil Service to the Prime Minister's Office and
Cabinet Office The Cabinet Office is a department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and admin ...

Cabinet Office
. The Priestley Commission principle of pay comparability with the private sector was abandoned in February 1982. Meanwhile,
Michael Heseltine Michael Ray Dibdin Heseltine, Baron Heseltine, (; born 21 March 1933) is a British politician and businessman. Having begun his career as a property developer, he became one of the founders of the publishing house Haymarket. Heseltine served ...
was introducing a comprehensive system of corporate and business planning (known as MINIS) first in the
Department of the Environment An environmental ministry is a national or subnational government agency politically responsible for the environment and/or natural resources. Various other names are commonly used to identify such agencies, such as Ministry of the Environment, ...
and then in the
Ministry of Defence Ministry of Defence or Ministry of Defense may refer to: * Ministry of defenceMinistry of Defence or Ministry of Defense may refer to: * Ministry of defence, a type of government department responsible for matters of defence Current ministries ...
. This led to the '' Financial Management Initiative'', launched in September 1982 (''Efficiency and Effectiveness in the Civil Service'' (Cmnd 8616)) as an umbrella for the efficiency scrutiny programme and with a wider focus on corporate planning, efficiency and objective-setting. Progress initially was sluggish, but in due course MINIS-style business planning became standard, and delegated budgets were introduced, so that individual managers were held much more accountable for meeting objectives, and for the first time for the resources they used to do so.
Performance-related pay Performance-related pay or pay for performance, not to be confused with performance-related pay rise, is a salary or wages paid system based on positioning the individual, or team, on their pay band according to how well they perform. Car salesmen o ...
began in December 1984, was built on thereafter, and continues to this day, though the sums involved have always been small compared to the private sector, and the effectiveness of PRP as a genuine motivator has often been questioned. In February 1988
Robin Ibbs Sir John Robin Ibbs, (21 April 1926 – 27 July 2014) was an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medie ...
, who had been recruited from ICI in July 1983 to run the
Efficiency Unit Efficiency is the (often measurable) ability to avoid wasting materials, energy, efforts, money, and time in doing something or in producing a desired result. In a more general sense, it is the ability to do things well, successfully, and without ...
(now in No. 10), published his report ''Improving Management in Government: The Next Steps''. This envisaged a new approach to delivery featuring clear targets and personal responsibility. Without any statutory change, the managerial functions of Ministries would be hived off into
Executive Agencies An executive agency is a part of a government department that is treated as managerially and budgetarily separate, to carry out some part of the executive functions of the United Kingdom government, Scottish Government, Welsh Government or Nort ...
, with clear Framework Documents setting out their objectives, and whose
chief executive A chief executive officer (CEO), chief administrator officer, or just chief executive (CE), is one of a number of corporate executives A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as c ...
s would be made accountable directly (in some cases to Parliament) for performance. Agencies were to, as far as possible, take a commercial approach to their tasks. However, the Government conceded that agency staff would remain civil servants, which diluted the radicalism of the reform. The approach seems somewhat similar to the Swedish model, though no influence from Sweden has ever been acknowledged. The Next Steps Initiative took some years to get off the ground, and progress was patchy. Significant change was achieved, although agencies never really achieved the level of autonomy envisaged at the start. By 5 April 1993, 89 agencies had been established, and contained over 260,000 civil servants, some 49 per cent of the total. The focus on smaller, more accountable, units revived the keenness of Ministerial interest in the perceived efficiencies of the private sector. Already in the late 1980s, some common services once set up to capture economies of scale, such as the
Property Services Agency The Property Services Agency (PSA) was an agency of the United Kingdom government, in existence from 1972 to 1993. Its role was to “provide, manage, maintain, and furnish the property used by the government, including defence establishments, offic ...
and the Crown Suppliers, were being dismantled or sold off. Next, shortly after Thatcher left office, in July 1991, a new programme of market-testing of central government services began, with the White Paper ''Competing for Quality'' (Cm 1730). Five-yearly or three-yearly policy and finance reviews of all agencies and other public bodies were instituted, where the first question to be answered (the "prior options exercise") was why the function should not be abolished or privatised. In November 1991 the
private finance initiative The private finance initiative (PFI) was a United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym ...
was launched, and by November 1994 the
Chancellor of the Exchequer The chancellor of the Exchequer, often abbreviated to the chancellor, is a senior minister of the Crown within the Government of the United Kingdom, and the chief executive officer of HM Treasury, Her Majesty's Treasury. As one of the four Grea ...
had referred to it as ‘the funding mechanism of choice for most public sector projects’. In 1995 the decision was taken to privatise the
Chessington Computer Centre Chessington Computer Centre was an organisation based in Chessington that provided administration services to the UK Government. Originally part of central government, it became an executive agency and trading fund of the Cabinet Office (United King ...
,
HMSO The Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the body responsible for the operation of His/Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO) and of other public information services of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and N ...
, the Occupational Health & Safety Agency and Recruitment & Assessment Services.


The Citizen's Charter

It was believed with the Thatcher reforms that efficiency was improving. But there was still a perception of carelessness and lack of responsiveness in the quality of public services. The government of
John Major Sir John Major (born 29 March 1943) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party (UK), Leader of the Conservative Party from 1990 to 1997. He served in the Third Thatcher mi ...

John Major
sought to tackle this with a
Citizen's Charter The Citizen's Charter was a British political initiative launched by the then prime minister, John Major, on 22 July 1991, less than a year into his premiership. Aims It aimed to improve public services in the UK by: *Making administration account ...
programme. This sought to empower the service user, by setting out rights to standards in each service area, and arrangements for compensation when these were not met. An Office of Public Service and Science was set up in 1992, to see that the Charter policy was implemented across government. By 1998, 42 Charters had been published, and they included services provided by public service industries such as the health service and the railways, as well as by the civil service. The programme was also expanded to apply to other organisations such as local government or housing associations, through a scheme of "Chartermark" awards. The programme was greeted with some derision, and it is true that the compensation sometimes hardly seemed worth the effort of claiming, and that the service standards were rarely set with much consumer input. But the initiative did have a significant effect in changing cultures, and paradoxically the spin-off Chartermark initiative may have had more impact on local organisations uncertain about what standards to aim for, than the parent Citizen's Charter programme itself.


Governance


Minister for the Civil Service

The position of Minister for the Civil Service is not part of the Civil Service as it is a political position which has always been held by the
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the Executive (government), executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a ...
.


Head of the Home Civil Service

The highest ranking civil servant in the country is the Cabinet Secretary. A subsidiary title that was also held by the incumbent was ''Head of the Home Civil Service'' or more recently sometimes styled ''Head of the Civil Service'', who until recently was also the incumbent
Cabinet Secretary#REDIRECT Cabinet secretary#REDIRECT Cabinet secretary {{Redirect category shell, {{R from move {{R from miscapitalization ...
{{Redirect category shell, {{R from move {{R from miscapitalization ...
and Permanent Secretary of the
Cabinet Office The Cabinet Office is a department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and admin ...

Cabinet Office
. However, following the Coalition Government of David Cameron the three posts were split from the single holder. The last person to hold all three positions together was
Gus O'Donnell Augustine Thomas O'Donnell, Baron O'Donnell, (born 1 October 1952) is a former British senior civil servant The civil service is a collective term for a sector of government composed mainly of career civil servants hired on professional merit ...
, Cabinet Secretary, Head of the Home Civil Service and Cabinet Office Permanent Secretary, September 2005 – January 2012. The postholder is responsible for ensuring that the Civil Service is equipped with the skills and capability to meet the everyday challenges it faces and that civil servants work in a fair and decent environment. They also chair the Permanent Secretary Management Group and the Civil Service Steering Board which are the main governing bodies of the Civil Service. It was announced on 11 October 2011 that, following O'Donnell's retirement at the end of 2011, the role of Head of the Home Civil Service would be split from the post of
Cabinet Secretary#REDIRECT Cabinet secretary#REDIRECT Cabinet secretary {{Redirect category shell, {{R from move {{R from miscapitalization ...
{{Redirect category shell, {{R from move {{R from miscapitalization ...
. There will additionally be a new, separate, Permanent Secretary to lead the Cabinet Office. After O'Donnell's retirement,
Jeremy Heywood Jeremy John Heywood, Baron Heywood of Whitehall, (31 December 1961 – 4 November 2018) was a British Her Majesty's Civil Service, civil servant who served as Cabinet Secretary (United Kingdom), Cabinet Secretary to David Cameron and Theresa Ma ...
replaced him as Cabinet Secretary – serving until 24 October 2018 when he retired on health grounds;
Ian Watmore Ian Charles Watmore (born 5 July 1958) is a British management consultant and former senior Civil Service (United Kingdom), civil servant under three prime ministers, serving from October 2016 as the First Civil Service Commissioner. Early life ...

Ian Watmore
as Cabinet Office Permanent Secretary; and lastly,
Bob Kerslake Robert Walter Kerslake, Baron Kerslake, (born 28 February 1955) is a British retired senior Civil Service (United Kingdom), civil servant. He was the Head of the Home Civil Service, after the retirement of the former holder, the Cabinet Secretary ...
as Head of the Home Civil Service. In July 2014 it was announced that Kerslake would step down and Heywood would take the title of Head of the HCS while
John Manzoni Sir John Alexander Manzoni (born 1960) is a British senior civil servant and business executive, who served as Chief Executive, chief executive of the Civil Service (United Kingdom), civil service and the Cabinet Office Permanent Secretary fro ...

John Manzoni
would be Chief Executive of the Civil Service. From 24 October 2018 to 4 November 2018, the office of Head of the Home Civil Service was vacant, as Heywood resigned on health grounds. Following Heywood's death,
Mark Sedwill Mark Philip Sedwill, Baron Sedwill, (born 21 October 1964) is a British diplomat and senior civil servant who served as Cabinet Secretary (United Kingdom), Cabinet Secretary and Head of the Home Civil Service to Prime Ministers Theresa May and ...

Mark Sedwill
was given the additional Civil Service portfolio.


Permanent Secretaries Management Group (PSMG)

The PSMG consider issues of strategic importance to the Civil Service as a whole, as well as providing corporate leadership where a single position is required across all government departments. It is chaired by the Head of the Home Civil Service and consists of all first permanent secretaries and other selected permanent secretaries and directors general. This includes the Head of the Northern Ireland Civil Service, and the Head of the Diplomatic Service.


Civil Service Steering Board (CSSB)

The CSSB was established in 2007 and meets monthly. Its role is to enhance the performance and reputation of the Civil Service by focusing on specific areas delegated to it by PSMG. The CSSB is chaired by the Head of the Home Civil Service.


Civil Service Commissioners

The Civil Service Commissioners are not civil servants and are independent of Ministers, they are appointed directly by the Crown under Royal Prerogative and they report annually to the Queen. Their main role is regarding the recruitment of civil servants. They have the responsibility to ensure that all civil servants are recruited on the "principle of selection on merit on the basis of fair and open competition." They maintain a recruitment code on the interpretation and application of that principle, and approve any exceptions to it. They audit recruitment policies and practices within the Civil Service and approve all appointments to the most senior levels of the Civil Service. The Commissioners also hear and determine appeals in cases of concern about propriety and conscience raised by civil servants under the Civil Service Code which cannot be resolved through internal procedures. Northern Ireland has a separate Commission called the ''Civil Service Commissioners for Northern Ireland'' which has the same role.


Political neutrality

The Home Civil Service is a politically neutral body, with the function of impartially implementing the policy programme of the elected government.Ministers plot end to Civil Service neutrality - UK Politics - UK
The Independent (1 August 2012). Retrieved on 2013-08-24.
Like all servants of the
Crown '' A crown is a traditional form of head adornment, or hat, worn by monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the cont ...

Crown
, civil servants are legally barred from standing for election as
Members of Parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, constituency, riding, ward, division, (election) ...
as they must uphold the duty of being politically neutral. Bradley and Ewing, p.279-80 Under regulations first adopted in 1954 and revised in 1984, members of the Senior Civil Service (the top management grades) are barred from holding office in a
political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, and parties may promote specific political ideology ...
or publicly expressing controversial political viewpoints, while less senior civil servants at an intermediate (managerial) level must generally seek permission to participate in political activities. The most junior civil servants are permitted to participate in political activities, but must be politically neutral in the exercise of their duties. In periods prior to General Elections, the Civil Service undergoes
purdah '' (1848 lithograph, by James Rattray) showing the lifting of purdah in ''zenana Zenana ( fa, زنانه, bn, জেনানা, ur, , hi, ज़नाना) literally meaning "of the women" or "pertaining to women," in Persian language ...
which further restricts their activities. All civil servants are subject to the
Official Secrets Acts 1911 to 1989 An Official Secrets Act (OSA) is legislation that provides for the protection of state secrets report on the USS Liberty incident, USS ''Liberty'' incident, partially declassified and released to the public in July 2004. The original overall ...
, meaning that they may not disclose sensitive government information. Since 1998, there have also been restrictions on contact between civil servants and
lobbyist In politics, lobbying, persuasion, or interest representation is the act of lawfully attempting to influence the actions, policies, or decisions of government officials, most often legislators or members of regulatory agency, regulatory agenc ...
s; this followed an incident known as Lobbygate, where an undercover reporter for ''
The Observer ''The Observer'' is a British newspaper published on Sundays. In the same place on the political spectrum A political spectrum is a system to characterize and classify different in relation to one another. These positions sit upon one ...

The Observer
'', posing as a
business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit." Having a business name A trad ...

business
leader, was introduced by a lobbyist to a senior
Downing Street Downing Street is a long street in the City of Westminster The City of Westminster is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and London boroughs, borough in Inner London which forms a core part of Central London. It is the site of the ...

Downing Street
official who promised privileged access to government ministers. The
Committee on Standards in Public Life The Committee on Standards in Public Life (CSPL) is an advisory non-departmental public body In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mix ...
, also created in 1998, is responsible for regulation of contacts between public officials and lobbyists. The increasing influence of politically appointed special advisers in government departments can reduce the political neutrality of public administration. In Thatcher's government,
Alan Walters Sir Alan Arthur Walters (17 June 1926 – 3 January 2009) was a British economist who was best known as the Chief Economic Adviser to Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher (; 13 October 1 ...
was an official adviser from 1981 to 1984, and again in 1989. Walters' criticisms "of many aspects of Treasury policy, particularly in relation to exchange rate policy" and Thatcher's refusal to dismiss him led to Nigel Lawson's resignation as chancellor in 1989. Thatcher also claimed that the 1981 budget, which increased taxes during the recession and was criticised by 364 economists, had been devised by Walters. In 2000, then-Prime Minister
Tony Blair Sir Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party (UK), Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007. On his resig ...

Tony Blair
was criticised for appointing 20 special advisers (compared to eight under his predecessor
John Major Sir John Major (born 29 March 1943) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party (UK), Leader of the Conservative Party from 1990 to 1997. He served in the Third Thatcher mi ...

John Major
) and for the fact that the total
salary A salary is a form of periodic payment from an employer to an employee, which may be specified in an employment contract An employment contract or contract of employment is a kind of contract A contract is a legally binding agreement that def ...
cost of special advisers across all government departments had reached £4 million. In 2001,
Stephen Byers Stephen John Byers (born 13 April 1953) is a British Labour Party (UK), Labour Party politician who was the Member of Parliament (MP) for Wallsend (UK Parliament constituency), Wallsend between 1992 and 1997, and North Tyneside (UK Parliament ...
, then
Secretary of State for Transport The secretary of state for transport, also referred to as the transport secretary, is a secretary of state in the Government of the United Kingdom ga, Rialtas na Ríochta Aontaithe sco, Govrenment o the Unitit Kinrick , image = HM Gov ...
, was forced to resign because of the actions of his special adviser
Jo Moore This is a list of political scandals in the United Kingdom in chronological order. Scandals A scandal can be broadly defined as the strong social reactions of outrage, anger, or surprise, when accusations or rumours circulate or appear for s ...
, who instructed a departmental civil servant,
Martin Sixsmith Martin Sixsmith (born 24 September 1954) is a British author and radio/television presenter, primarily working for the BBC The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public service broadcaster, headquartered at Broadcasting House in ...
, that
September 11, 2001 The September 11 attacks, often referred to as 9/11, were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Wahhabi Wahhabism ( ar, الوهابية, ') is a religious reform movement and doctrine associated with the teachings of ...
, would be "a good day to bury bad news"; this was seen as inappropriate political manipulation of the Civil Service. In particular, under the administration of
Tony Blair Sir Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party (UK), Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007. On his resig ...

Tony Blair
, the influence of two
Downing Street Downing Street is a long street in the City of Westminster The City of Westminster is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and London boroughs, borough in Inner London which forms a core part of Central London. It is the site of the ...

Downing Street
special advisers, Jonathan Powell and
Alastair Campbell Alastair John Campbell (born 25 May 1957) is a British journalist, author and broadcaster. He worked as Tony Blair's spokesman and campaign director (1994–1997), then as Downing Street Press Secretary and as the Prime Minister's Official Spok ...

Alastair Campbell
, both of whom were given formal power over Downing Street civil servants, provoked widespread criticism. The Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition government of 2010–2015 had proposed introducing a more American style system where senior civil servants, such as permanent secretaries, became political appointees. However, this was dropped after it was considered that the existing permanent civil service style was better-suited to the government of the United Kingdom. The political neutrality of the civil service was called into question during the 2016 - 2019
Brexit negotiations During 2017, 2018, and 2019, representatives of the United Kingdom and the European Union negotiated the terms for Brexit, the planned withdrawal of the UK from the EU. These negotiations arose following the decision of the Parliament of the ...
, with political figures such as
Brexit Party Reform UK is a right-wing populist Right-wing populism, also called national populism and right-wing nationalism, is a political ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something ...

Brexit Party
Leader
Nigel Farage Nigel Paul Farage (; born 3 April 1964) is a British broadcaster and former politician who was Leader of the UK Independence Party The UK Independence Party (UKIP ) is a Eurosceptic, right-wing populist political party in the United Ki ...

Nigel Farage
accusing the civil service of having a "pro-Remain bias". In response ,
Cabinet Secretary#REDIRECT Cabinet secretary#REDIRECT Cabinet secretary {{Redirect category shell, {{R from move {{R from miscapitalization ...
{{Redirect category shell, {{R from move {{R from miscapitalization ...
and Head of the Civil Service, issued a letter to all
Department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization Departmentalization (or departmentalisation) refers to the process of grouping activities into departments. Division of labour The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any economic syst ...
Chiefs warning that Brexit was having an "unsettling" effect on civil servants.


Codes


Civil Service Code

A version of the civil service code was introduced in 2006 to outline the core values and standards expected of civil servants. The core values are defined as ''integrity'', ''honesty'', ''objectivity'', and ''impartiality''. A key change from previous values is the removal of ''anonymity'' within the core values. The Code includes an independent line of appeal to the Civil Service Commissioners on alleged breaches of the Code. a version updated in March 2015, with the same core values, was current. In addition to civil servants, special advisers are also covered by the code, except, due to the nature of the role, for the requirements for objectivity and impartiality.


Civil Service Management Code

The Civil Service Management Code (CSMC) sets out the regulations and instructions to departments and agencies regarding the terms and conditions of service of civil servants. It is the guiding document which gives delegation to civil service organisations, from the Minister for the Civil Service, in order for them to make internal personnel policies.


Civil Service Commissioners' Recruitment Code

The Civil Service Commissioners' Recruitment Code is maintained by the Civil Service Commissioners and is based on the ''principle of selection on merit on the basis of fair and open competition.''


Osmotherly Rules

The
Osmotherly Rules The Osmotherly Rules, named for their author, a British Civil Service, civil servant in the Departments of the United Kingdom government, Machinery of Government Division of the British Cabinet Office (UK), Cabinet Office named E. B. C. O ...
set out guidance on how civil servants should respond to Parliamentary select committees.


Directory of Civil Service Guidance

A two-volume 125-page ''Directory of Civil Service Guidance'' was published in 2000 to replace the previous ''Guidance on Guidance'', providing short summaries of guidance on a wide range of issues and pointing to more detailed sources.


Structure

The structure of the home civil service is divided into organisations, grades and professions. Each Secretary of State has a
Department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization Departmentalization (or departmentalisation) refers to the process of grouping activities into departments. Division of labour The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any economic syst ...
which has
executive agencies An executive agency is a part of a government department that is treated as managerially and budgetarily separate, to carry out some part of the executive functions of the United Kingdom government, Scottish Government, Welsh Government or Nort ...
and
non-departmental public bodies In the United Kingdom, non-departmental public body (NDPB) is a classification applied by the Cabinet Office, HM Treasury, Treasury, the Scottish Government and the Northern Ireland Executive to public sector organisations that have a role in the p ...
subordinate to it.


Grading schemes

The grading system used in the civil service has changed many times, and the current structure is made up of two schemes. All senior grades (Deputy Director / Grade 5 level and above) are part of the senior civil service, which is overseen by the
Cabinet Office The Cabinet Office is a department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and admin ...

Cabinet Office
on behalf of the civil service as a whole. Below the senior civil service, each individual department/executive agency can put in place its own grading and pay arrangements, provided they still comply with the central civil service pay and review guidance. For other grades many departments overlay their own grading structure, however all these structures must map across to the central government structure as shown below. All current grades are marked in and historical grade names are shown ''italics''. NB – XXX is standing in for


Professions

The ''lingua franca'' is to describe civil servants, and in particular their grades, predominantly through a lens of administrative activity (as in the current structure of the table above), but in practice the civil service has, and always had, a number of subdivisions, with the Historic Grades having an additional designator (usually omitted for senior managers, but included from middle and junior managers) as shown as "xxx", with the major groupings being: * Executive ( O) * Scientific ( O) * Professional and Technology ( TO) The Current Structure identifies a number of distinct professional groupings: * Communications and Marketing * Economics * Engineering * Finance * Human Resources * Digital, Data and Technology (formerly Information Technology) * Inspector of Education and Training * Internal Audit * Knowledge and Information Management * Law * Medicine * Operational Delivery * Operational Research * Policy Delivery * Procurement and Contract Management * Programme and Project Management * Property Asset Management * Psychology * Science * Social Research * Statistics * Tax Professionals * Veterinarian * Other (for minority groups, such as Investigating Officers)


Staff

Recruitment data from the 2018 Civil Service Fast Stream process showed that white applicants were 15 times more likely to be recruited than black candidates.


In popular culture

The
BBC The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public service broadcaster, headquartered at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London. It is the world's oldest national broadcaster, and the largest broadcasting, broadcaster in the world by ...

BBC
television series ''
Yes Minister ''Yes Minister'' is a British political satire Political satire is satire Satire is a of the , , and s, usually in the form of and less frequently , in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, often ...
'' and ''
Yes Prime Minister ''Yes Minister'' is a British political satire sitcom written by Antony Jay and Jonathan Lynn. Comprising three seven-episode series, it was first transmitted on BBC2 from 1980 to 1984. A sequel, ''Yes, Prime Minister'', ran for 16 episodes fro ...
'' are a
satire Satire is a of the , , and s, usually in the form of and less frequently , in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, often with the intent of shaming or exposing the perceived flaws of individuals, corpora ...
on the British
civil service The civil service is a collective term for a sector of government composed mainly of career civil servants hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leader ...
and its relationship with government ministers. The portrayal is a caricature of the civil service predominantly characterised through 's
Sir Humphrey Appleby Sir Humphrey Appleby is a fictional character from the British television series ''Yes Minister'' and ''Yes Prime Minister''. He was played originally by Nigel Hawthorne, Sir Nigel Hawthorne, both on stage and in a television adaptation of the s ...
. ''
The Thick of It ''The Thick of It'' is a British comedy television series that satire, satirises the inner workings of Her Majesty's Government, British government. Written and directed by Armando Iannucci, it was first broadcast for two short series on BBC Fo ...
'', first broadcast in 2005, is a similar BBC television series that has been called "the 21st century's answer to Yes Minister". The series portrays a modernised version of the interactions between the Civil Service and the Government (chiefly in the form of special advisors), as well as the media's involvement in the process. There is a long history of civil servants who are also literary authors, who often comment on their own institutions, including such writers as
John Milton John Milton (9 December 16088 November 1674) was an English poet and intellectual who served as a civil servant for the under its Council of State and later under . He wrote at a time of religious flux and political upheaval, and is best kno ...

John Milton
,
John Dryden '' John Dryden (; – ) was an English poet, literary critic Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. Modern literary criticism is often influenced by literary theory, which i ...

John Dryden
,
Andrew Marvell Andrew Marvell (; 31 March 1621 – 16 August 1678) was an English metaphysical poet, satirist and politician who sat in the House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house of the bicameral parliaments of the U ...

Andrew Marvell
,
Robert Burns Robert Burns (25 January 175921 July 1796), also known familiarly as Rabbie Burns, the National Bard, Bard of Ayrshire, the Ploughman Poet and various other names and epithet An epithet (, ) is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phr ...

Robert Burns
,
William Wordsworth William Wordsworth (7 April 177023 April 1850) was an English Romantic Romantic may refer to: Genres and eras * The Romantic era, an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement of the 18th and 19th centuries ** Romantic music, of ...

William Wordsworth
and
Anthony Trollope Anthony Trollope (; 24 April 1815 – 6 December 1882) was an English novelist and civil servant of the Victorian era. Among his best-known works is a series of novels collectively known as the Chronicles of Barsetshire, which revolves around t ...

Anthony Trollope
, and diarist Samuel Pepys.


See also

*Colonial Service *Departments of the United Kingdom Government *FDA (trade union), FDA *
Her Majesty's Diplomatic Service Her Majesty's Diplomatic Service (HMDS) is the diplomatic service of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, dealing with Foreign policy, foreign affairs and representing British interests overseas, as opposed to the Civil Servi ...
*
Northern Ireland Civil Service The Northern Ireland Civil Service (NICS; ga, Státseirbhís Thuaisceart Éireann; Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster-Scots: ''Norlin Airlann Cïvil Sarvice'') is the permanent bureaucracy of employees that supports the Northern Ireland Executive, ...
*Public administration *Public and Commercial Services Union (PCS)


References


Citations


Cited sources

* Bodde, D., ''Chinese Ideas in the West'

* Bradley, A.W. and Ewing, K.D., ''Constitutional and Administrative Law'' (Pearson, 2003) * Foster, C., ''British Government in Crisis'' (Hart 2005) * House of Commons Public Administration Committee, ''"These Unfortunate Events": Lessons of Recent Events at the Former DTLR'', HMSO 200

* Sampson, Anthony, ''The Changing Anatomy of Britain'' (Hodder and Stoughton, 1982) * Sullivan, Ceri, ''Literature in the Civil Service: Sublime Bureaucracy'' (Palgrave, 2012) * Jonathan Tonge, ''The New Civil Service'' (Baseline, Tisbury 1999) * Zifcak, S., ''New Managerialism: Administrative Reform in Whitehall and Canberra'' (Open University Press, 1994)


External links


Site explaining what being a civil servant is all about, maintained by a senior public official, Martin Stanley

Official Civil Service website

Civil Service Club website


* [http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/documents/osp24.pdf The National Archives – Operational Selection Policy 24 – (which lists by date issues and events from March 1974 to 2000 relating to the machinery of Government and Civil Service management the key records of which should be preserved)]
Cabinet Office – official site

GOV.UK – How Government Works

Collection of civil service conduct and guidance

BBC brief on the British Civil Service
– h2g2
Guardian Special Report – Civil Service
{{Use dmy dates, date=May 2018 Public administration Civil Service (United Kingdom), Cabinet Office (United Kingdom)