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The City of Westminster is a
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a ...
and
borough A borough is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for ...

borough
in
Inner London Inner London is the name for the group of London boroughs The London boroughs are the 32 local authority districts that make up the ceremonial county of Greater London Greater London is a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county ...
which forms a core part of
Central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the ...
. It is the site of the United Kingdom's
Houses of Parliament The Palace of Westminster serves as the meeting place for both the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Informally known as the Houses of Parliame ...

Houses of Parliament
and much of the
British government The Government of the United Kingdom, domestically referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
. The city and borough's southern boundary is the
Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, is an area of England consisting of its southernm ...
. It occupies a large area of central
Greater London Greater London is an Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England, administrative area governed by the Greater London Authority, and a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of England that covers the bulk of the same area ...

Greater London
, including most of the
West End West End most commonly refers to: * West End of London, an area of central London, England * West End theatre, a popular term for mainstream professional theatre staged in the large theatres of London, England West End may also refer to: Place ...
. To the City of Westminster's east is the
City of London The City of London is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It ...

City of London
and to its west is the
Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea (RBKC) is an Inner London borough The London boroughs are the 32 districts of England, local authority districts that make up the Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of Greater Lon ...
. To its north is the
London Borough of Camden The London Borough of Camden () is a London borough The London boroughs are the 32 districts of England, local authority districts that make up the Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of Greater London; each is governed by a ...
. Historically, Westminster was a part of the
ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of England to which lord-lieutenant, lord-lieutenants are appointed. Lega ...
of
Middlesex Middlesex (; abbreviation: Middx) is a Historic counties of England, historic county in South East England, southeast England. Its area is almost entirely within the wider urbanised area of London and mostly within the Ceremonial counties of En ...

Middlesex
. Many London landmarks are within the borough, including
Buckingham Palace Buckingham Palace () is the London London is the and of and the . It stands on the in south-east England at the head of a down to the , and has been a major settlement for two millennia. The , its ancient core and financial ce ...

Buckingham Palace
, the
Palace of Westminster The Palace of Westminster serves as the meeting place for both the House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Towns ...

Palace of Westminster
(Houses of Parliament),
Westminster Abbey Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of Saint Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths or Gothic people, the ethnonym of a group of East Germanic tribes ...

Westminster Abbey
,
Whitehall Whitehall is a road and area in the City of Westminster, Central London. The road forms the first part of the A roads in Zone 3 of the Great Britain numbering scheme, A3212 road from Trafalgar Square to Chelsea, London, Chelsea. It is the main ...

Whitehall
,
10 Downing Street 10 Downing Street in London London is the and of and the . It stands on the in south-east England at the head of a down to the , and has been a major settlement for two millennia. The , its ancient core and financial centre, was f ...

10 Downing Street
, and
Trafalgar Square Trafalgar Square ( ) is a public square in the City of Westminster, Central London, established in the early 19th century around the area formerly known as Charing Cross. The Square's name commemorates the Battle of Trafalgar, the Royal Navy, ...

Trafalgar Square
. The borough is divided into a number of localities including the ancient political district of
Westminster Westminster is a district in Central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city sta ...

Westminster
; the shopping areas around
Oxford Street Oxford Street is a major road in the City of Westminster The City of Westminster is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and London boroughs, borough in Inner London which forms a core part of Central London. It is the site of the Un ...

Oxford Street
,
Regent Street Regent Street is a major shopping street in the West End of London. It is named after George IV of the United Kingdom, George, the Prince Regent (later George IV) and was laid out under the direction of the architect John Nash (architect), Jo ...

Regent Street
,
Piccadilly Piccadilly () is a road in the City of Westminster The City of Westminster is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and London boroughs, borough in Inner London which forms a core part of Central London. It is the site of the United ...

Piccadilly
and
Bond Street Bond Street in the West End of London The West End of London (commonly referred to as the West End) is a district of Central London, west of the City of London and north of the River Thames, in which many of the city's major tourist attract ...
; and the night-time entertainment district of
Soho Soho is an area of the City of Westminster The City of Westminster is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and London boroughs, borough in Inner London which forms a core part of Central London. It is the site of the United Kingdom's ...

Soho
. Much of the borough is residential, and in 2008 it was estimated to have a population of 236,000. Aside from numerous large parks and open spaces, including
Hyde Park Hyde Park may refer to: Places In England * Hyde Park, London, a Royal Park in Central London * Hyde Park, Leeds, an inner-city area of north-west Leeds * Hyde Park, Sheffield, district of Sheffield * Hyde Park, in Hyde, Greater Manchester * Hyde ...

Hyde Park
and most of
Regent's Park Regent's Park (officially The Regent's Park) is one of the Royal Parks of London. It occupies high ground in north-west Inner London, administratively split between the City of Westminster and the London Borough of Camden, Borough of Camden (and ...

Regent's Park
, the
population density Population density (in agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise tr ...

population density
of the district is high. The London Westminster borough was created with the 1965 establishment of Greater London. Upon the creation, it inherited the city status previously held by the then
Metropolitan Borough of Westminster The Metropolitan Borough of Westminster was a Metropolitan boroughs of the County of London, metropolitan borough in the County of London, England, from 1900 to 1965. City status By royal charter dated 29 October 1900, the borough was granted th ...

Metropolitan Borough of Westminster
from 1900, which was first awarded to Westminster in 1540. The local government body is
Westminster City Council Westminster City Council is the local authority for the City of Westminster in Greater London, England. It is a London borough council and is entitled to be City status in the United Kingdom, known as a city council, which is a rare distinction ...
.


Coat of arms

The current Westminster coat of arms was given to the city by an official grant on 2 September 1964. Westminster had other arms before, which had a
chief Chief may refer to: Title or rank Military and law enforcement * Chief master sergeant Chief Master Sergeant (CMSgt) is the ninth, and highest, United States Air Force enlisted rank insignia, enlisted rank in the United States Air Force, ...
identical to the chief in the present arms. The symbols in the lower two thirds of the shield stand for former municipalities now merged with the city, Paddington and St Marylebone. The original arms had a
portcullis A portcullis (from Old French ''porte coleice'', "sliding gate") is a heavy vertically-closing gate Candi bentar, a typical Indonesian gate that is often found on the islands of Java">Indonesia.html" ;"title="Candi bentar, a typical Indones ...

portcullis
as the main charge, which now forms the
crest Crest or CREST may refer to: Buildings *The Crest (Huntington, New York) The Crest is a historic house on Eatons Neck in Suffolk County, New York. Although on the land mass of Eatons Neck, the house today is within the jurisdiction of the Incor ...
.


History

After the depopulation of
Roman London Londinium, also known as Roman London, was the capital of Roman Britain Roman Britain is the period in classical antiquity when large parts of the island of Great Britain were under Roman conquest of Britain, occupation by the Roman Empire. ...
in the 5th century, an
Anglo Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a Cultural identity, cultural group who inhabited England. They traced their origins to the 5th century settlement of incomers to Britain, who migrated to the island from the North Sea coastlands of mainland Europe. Howeve ...
agricultural and trade settlement likely developed to its west, associated with the
Middle Saxons The Middle Saxons or Middel Seaxe were a people whose territory later became, with somewhat contracted boundaries, the county of Middlesex Middlesex (; abbreviation: Middx) is a Historic counties of England, historic county in South East Engla ...
, sometimes called
Lundenwic The history of Anglo-Saxon London relates to the history of the city Towns and cities A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people ...
('London village' or London port'). Over time, Lundenburh ('London fort'), the former Roman city with its still-existing Roman walls, was repopulated and Lundenwic declined, becoming pastoral and partly known as
Aldwych Aldwych (pronounced ) is a one-way street and the name of the area immediately surrounding it in central London, England, within the City of Westminster. The street starts Points of the compass, east-northeast of Charing Cross, the convention ...
(Aldwic - 'old village'), the name of which lives on for a section of Westminster. The origins of the City of Westminster pre-date the
Norman Conquest The Norman Conquest (or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army made up of thousands of Normans, Duchy of Brittany, Bretons, County of Flanders, Flemish, and men from other Kingdom of France, French ...
of England. In the mid-11th century, King
Edward the Confessor Edward the Confessor ( ang, Ēadƿeard Andettere ; la, Eduardus Confessor , ; 1003 – 5 January 1066) was one of the last Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the so ...

Edward the Confessor
began the construction of an abbey at Westminster, only the foundations of which survive today. Between the abbey and the river he built a palace, thereby guaranteeing that the seat of Government would be fixed at Westminster, and inevitably drawing power and wealth west out of the old City of London. For centuries Westminster and the City of London were geographically quite distinct. It was not until the sixteenth century that houses began to be built over the adjoining fields, eventually absorbing nearby villages such as
Marylebone Marylebone (usually , also , , , ) is a district in the West End of London The West End of London (commonly referred to as the West End) is a district of Central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is th ...
and
Kensington Kensington is an affluent district in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in the West End of London, West of Central London. The district's commercial heart is Kensington High Street, running on an east–west axis. The north-east is ...

Kensington
, and gradually creating the vast
Greater London Greater London is an Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England, administrative area governed by the Greater London Authority, and a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of England that covers the bulk of the same area ...

Greater London
that exists today. Henry VIII's
dissolution of the monasteries#REDIRECT Dissolution of the monasteries {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
abolished the abbey at Westminster, although the former
abbey church A church building, church house, or simply church, is a building used for Christian worship services and other Christian religious activities. The term is usually used to refer to the physical buildings where Christians worship and also t ...
is still called
Westminster Abbey Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of Saint Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths or Gothic people, the ethnonym of a group of East Germanic tribes ...

Westminster Abbey
. The church was briefly the
cathedral A cathedral is a church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) A church building, church house, or simply church, is a building used for Christian worship services and other Christian religious activities. The term is used ...

cathedral
of the Diocese of Westminster created from part of the
Diocese of London In church governance, a diocese or bishopric is the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted ...
in 1540, by
letters patent Letters patent ( la, litterae patentes) ( always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument ''Legal instrument'' is a legal Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act acco ...
which also granted
city statusCity status is a symbolic and legal designation given by a national or subnational government. A municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-governmen ...
to Westminster, a status retained after the diocese was abolished in 1550.; The
Westminster Court of Burgesses The Westminster Court of Burgesses was established by Act of Parliament in 1585 and abolished in 1900. It formed part of the local government of the City and Liberty of Westminster in London, England. The court was set up following the dissolutio ...
was formed in 1585 to govern the Westminster area, previously under the Abbey's control. The
City and Liberties of Westminster The City and Liberty of Westminster was a unit of local government in the Historic counties of England, county of Middlesex, England. It was located immediately to the west of the City of London. Originally under the control of Westminster Abbey, ...
were further defined by
Letters Patent Letters patent ( la, litterae patentes) ( always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument ''Legal instrument'' is a legal Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act acco ...
in 1604, and the court of burgesses and
liberty Broadly speaking, liberty is the ability to do as one pleases, or a right or immunity enjoyed by prescription or by grant (i.e. privilege). It is a synonym for the word freedom Freedom, generally, is having the ability to act or change withou ...
continued in existence until 1900, and the creation of the
Metropolitan Borough of Westminster The Metropolitan Borough of Westminster was a Metropolitan boroughs of the County of London, metropolitan borough in the County of London, England, from 1900 to 1965. City status By royal charter dated 29 October 1900, the borough was granted th ...

Metropolitan Borough of Westminster
. The present-day City of Westminster as an administrative entity with its present boundaries dates from 1965, when the City of Westminster was created from the former area of three metropolitan boroughs:
St Marylebone Marylebone ( or , , , ) usually pronounced MAR-lee-bon, is a district in the West End of London, in the City of Westminster. Oxford Street, Europe's busiest shopping street, forms its southern boundary. An Civil parish#Ancient parishes, ancien ...

St Marylebone
,
Paddington Paddington is an List of areas of London, area within the City of Westminster, in central London. First a medieval parish then a Metropolitan Borough of Paddington, metropolitan borough, it was integrated with Westminster and Greater London in 1 ...

Paddington
, and the smaller
Metropolitan Borough of Westminster The Metropolitan Borough of Westminster was a Metropolitan boroughs of the County of London, metropolitan borough in the County of London, England, from 1900 to 1965. City status By royal charter dated 29 October 1900, the borough was granted th ...

Metropolitan Borough of Westminster
, which included
Soho Soho is an area of the City of Westminster The City of Westminster is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and London boroughs, borough in Inner London which forms a core part of Central London. It is the site of the United Kingdom's ...

Soho
,
Mayfair Mayfair is an affluent area in the West End of London towards the eastern edge of Hyde Park, London, Hyde Park, in the City of Westminster, between Oxford Street, Regent Street, Piccadilly and Park Lane. It is one of the most expensive distric ...

Mayfair
,
St James's St James's is a central district in the City of Westminster, London, forming part of the West End. In the 17th century the area developed as a residential location for the British aristocracy, and around the 19th century was the focus of the d ...
,
Strand Strand may refer to: Topography *The flat area of land bordering a body of water, a: ** Beach ** Shoreline *Strand swamp, a type of swamp habitat in Florida Places Africa *Strand, Western Cape, a seaside town in South Africa *Strand Street, ...
,
Westminster Westminster is a district in Central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city sta ...

Westminster
,
Pimlico Pimlico () is an area of Central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on ...
,
Belgravia Belgravia () is an affluent district in Central London, covering parts of the areas of both the City of Westminster and the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. Belgravia was known as the 'Five Fields' Tudor Period, during the Tudor Period ...
, and
Hyde Park Hyde Park may refer to: Places In England * Hyde Park, London, a Royal Park in Central London * Hyde Park, Leeds, an inner-city area of north-west Leeds * Hyde Park, Sheffield, district of Sheffield * Hyde Park, in Hyde, Greater Manchester * Hyde ...

Hyde Park
. This restructuring took place under the
London Government Act 1963 The London Government Act 1963 (c. 33) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meeti ...
, which significantly reduced the number of local government districts in London, resulting in local authorities responsible for larger geographical areas and greater populations. The Westminster Metropolitan Borough was itself the result of an administrative
amalgamation Amalgamation is the process of combining or uniting multiple entities into one form. Amalgamation, amalgam, and other derivatives may refer to: Mathematics and science * Amalgam (chemistry) An amalgam is an alloy of mercury with another meta ...
which took place in 1900. Sir John Hunt O.B.E was the First Town Clerk of the City of Westminster, 1900–1928. In addition to the City and Liberty of Westminster, prior to 1900, the area occupied by what would become the Metropolitan Borough of Westminster had been administered by five separate local bodies: the Vestry of St George Hanover Square, the Vestry of St Martin in the Fields,
Strand District Board of Works Strand was a local government district within the metropolitan area of London, England, from 1855 to 1900. Until 1889, the district was in the county of Middlesex, but included in the area of the Metropolitan Board of Works (MBW). In 1889, the a ...
,
Westminster District Board of Works St Margaret was an ancient parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public administration is the ...
and the Vestry of Westminster St James. The boundaries of the City of Westminster today, as well as those of the other London boroughs, have remained more or less unchanged since the Act of 1963.


Demographics


Ethnicity

The following table shows the ethnic group of respondents in the 2001 and 2011 census in Westminster.


Religion


Housing

The borough ranks highest on one standard criteria in analysing
housing Housing, or more generally living spaces, refers to the construction Construction is a general term meaning the art and science to form Physical object, objects, systems, or organizations,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ''Oxford Eng ...

housing
supply and demand, the proportion of private rented accommodation relative to other types of housing in England.Office_for_National_Statistics
_2011_Census_Key_Statistics:_Tenure.html" ;"title="Office for National Statistics">
Office_for_National_Statistics">Office_for_National_Statistics
_2011_Census_Key_Statistics:_Tenure.


_Income_inequality

A_study_in_2017_by_Trust_for_London_and_The_New_Policy_Institute_found_that_Westminster_has_the_third-highest_pay_inequality_of_the_32_London_boroughs._It_also_has_the_second-least_affordable_private_rent_for_low_earners_in_London,_behind_only_Kensington_ Kensington_is_an_affluent_district_in_the_Royal_Borough_of_Kensington_and_Chelsea_in_the_West_End_of_London,_West_of_Central_London. The_district's_commercial_heart_is_Kensington_High_Street,_running_on_an_east–west_axis._The_north-east_is__...

_and_ Office_for_National_Statistics">Office_for_National_Statistics
_2011_Census_Key_Statistics:_Tenure.


_Income_inequality

A_study_in_2017_by_Trust_for_London_and_The_New_Policy_Institute_found_that_Westminster_has_the_third-highest_pay_inequality_of_the_32_London_boroughs._It_also_has_the_second-least_affordable_private_rent_for_low_earners_in_London,_behind_only_Kensington_ Kensington_is_an_affluent_district_in_the_Royal_Borough_of_Kensington_and_Chelsea_in_the_West_End_of_London,_West_of_Central_London. The_district's_commercial_heart_is_Kensington_High_Street,_running_on_an_east–west_axis._The_north-east_is__...

_and_Chelsea,_London">Chelsea Chelsea_or_Chelsey_may_refer_to: _Places _Australia *_Chelsea,_Victoria _Canada *_Chelsea,_Nova_Scotia *_Chelsea,_Quebec _United_Kingdom *_Chelsea,_London,_an_affluent_area_of_South_West_London,_bounded_to_the_south_by_the_River_Thames **_Chelsea__...
.


_Education

In_education,_82%_of_adults_and_69%_of_19-year-olds_having_Level_3_qualifications.


_Governance


_Local_government

The_city_is_divided_into_20_List_of_electoral_wards_in_Greater_London.html" ;"title="Chelsea,_London.html" "title="Office for National Statistics
2011 Census Key Statistics: Tenure">Office for National Statistics">
Kensington_ Kensington_is_an_affluent_district_in_the_Royal_Borough_of_Kensington_and_Chelsea_in_the_West_End_of_London,_West_of_Central_London. The_district's_commercial_heart_is_Kensington_High_Street,_running_on_an_east–west_axis._The_north-east_is__...

_and_Chelsea,_London">Chelsea Chelsea_or_Chelsey_may_refer_to: _Places _Australia *_Chelsea,_Victoria _Canada *_Chelsea,_Nova_Scotia *_Chelsea,_Quebec _United_Kingdom *_Chelsea,_London,_an_affluent_area_of_South_West_London,_bounded_to_the_south_by_the_River_Thames **_Chelsea__...
.


_Education

In_education,_82%_of_adults_and_69%_of_19-year-olds_having_Level_3_qualifications.


_Governance


_Local_government

The_city_is_divided_into_20_List_of_electoral_wards_in_Greater_London">wards,_each_electing_three_councillors._Westminster_City_Council_ Westminster_City_Council_is_the_local_authority_for_the_City_of_Westminster_in_Greater_London,_England._It_is_a_London_borough_council_and_is_entitled_to_be_City_status_in_the_United_Kingdom,_known_as_a_city_council,_which_is_a_rare_distinction__...
_is_currently_composed_of_41_
Kensington_ Kensington_is_an_affluent_district_in_the_Royal_Borough_of_Kensington_and_Chelsea_in_the_West_End_of_London,_West_of_Central_London. The_district's_commercial_heart_is_Kensington_High_Street,_running_on_an_east–west_axis._The_north-east_is__...

_and_Chelsea,_London">Chelsea Chelsea_or_Chelsey_may_refer_to: _Places _Australia *_Chelsea,_Victoria _Canada *_Chelsea,_Nova_Scotia *_Chelsea,_Quebec _United_Kingdom *_Chelsea,_London,_an_affluent_area_of_South_West_London,_bounded_to_the_south_by_the_River_Thames **_Chelsea__...
.


_Education

In_education,_82%_of_adults_and_69%_of_19-year-olds_having_Level_3_qualifications.


_Governance


_Local_government

The_city_is_divided_into_20_List_of_electoral_wards_in_Greater_London">wards,_each_electing_three_councillors._Westminster_City_Council_ Westminster_City_Council_is_the_local_authority_for_the_City_of_Westminster_in_Greater_London,_England._It_is_a_London_borough_council_and_is_entitled_to_be_City_status_in_the_United_Kingdom,_known_as_a_city_council,_which_is_a_rare_distinction__...
_is_currently_composed_of_41_Conservative_Party_(UK)">Conservative_Party Conservative_Party_may_refer_to: _Europe_Current *Croatian_Conservative_Party, *Conservative_Party_(Czech_Republic) *Conservative_People's_Party_(Denmark) *Conservative_Party_of_Georgia *Conservative_Party_(Norway) *Conservative_Party_(UK) _Histor_...
_members_and_19_Labour_Party_(UK).html" "title="Conservative_Party_(UK).html" "title="Office for National Statistics
2011 Census Key Statistics: Tenure.


Income inequality

A study in 2017 by Trust for London and The New Policy Institute found that Westminster has the third-highest pay inequality of the 32 London boroughs. It also has the second-least affordable private rent for low earners in London, behind only
Kensington Kensington is an affluent district in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in the West End of London, West of Central London. The district's commercial heart is Kensington High Street, running on an east–west axis. The north-east is ...

Kensington
and Chelsea, London">Chelsea Chelsea or Chelsey may refer to: Places Australia * Chelsea, Victoria Canada * Chelsea, Nova Scotia * Chelsea, Quebec United Kingdom * Chelsea, London, an affluent area of South West London, bounded to the south by the River Thames ** Chelsea ...
.


Education

In education, 82% of adults and 69% of 19-year-olds having Level 3 qualifications.


Governance


Local government

The city is divided into 20 List of electoral wards in Greater London">wards, each electing three councillors.
Westminster City Council Westminster City Council is the local authority for the City of Westminster in Greater London, England. It is a London borough council and is entitled to be City status in the United Kingdom, known as a city council, which is a rare distinction ...
is currently composed of 41 Conservative Party (UK)">Conservative Party Conservative Party may refer to: Europe Current *Croatian Conservative Party, *Conservative Party (Czech Republic) *Conservative People's Party (Denmark) *Conservative Party of Georgia *Conservative Party (Norway) *Conservative Party (UK) Histor ...
members and 19 Labour Party (UK)">Labour Party Labour Party or Labor Party may refer to: Angola *MPLA, known for some years as "Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola – Labour Party" Antigua and Barbuda *Antigua and Barbuda Labour Party Argentina *Labour Party (Argentina) Armenia ...
members. A lord mayor is elected annually to serve as the official representative of the city for one year. See List of mayors of Westminster for a list of former mayors (1900–1965) and lord mayors (1965 to date).


UK Parliament


Districts

The City of Westminster covers all or part of the following
areas of London London is the capital city, capital of and largest city in England and the United Kingdom. It is administered by the City of London and 32 London boroughs. These boroughs are modern, having been created in 1965 and have a weaker sense of identity ...
: * "
Albertopolis Albertopolis is the nickname given to the area centred on Exhibition Road in London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the ...
" ''(shared with the
Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea (RBKC) is an Inner London borough The London boroughs are the 32 districts of England, local authority districts that make up the Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of Greater Lon ...
)'' *
Bayswater Bayswater is an area within the City of Westminster in West London (sub-region), West London. It is a built-up district with a population density of 17,500 per square kilometre. It is located west-northwest of Charing Cross, between Kensingto ...

Bayswater
*
Belgravia Belgravia () is an affluent district in Central London, covering parts of the areas of both the City of Westminster and the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. Belgravia was known as the 'Five Fields' Tudor Period, during the Tudor Period ...
''(shared with the
Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea (RBKC) is an Inner London borough The London boroughs are the 32 districts of England, local authority districts that make up the Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of Greater Lon ...
)'' *
Covent Garden Covent Garden is a district in London, on the eastern fringes of the West End West End most commonly refers to: * West End of London, an area of central London, England * West End theatre, a popular term for mainstream professional theatre st ...

Covent Garden
''(shared with the
London Borough of Camden The London Borough of Camden () is a London borough The London boroughs are the 32 districts of England, local authority districts that make up the Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of Greater London; each is governed by a ...
)'' *
Fitzrovia Fitzrovia () is a district of central London, England, near the West End of London, West End. The eastern part of area is in the London Borough of Camden, and the western in the City of Westminster. It has its roots in the Manor of Tottenham Cour ...
''(shared with the
London Borough of Camden The London Borough of Camden () is a London borough The London boroughs are the 32 districts of England, local authority districts that make up the Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of Greater London; each is governed by a ...
)'' *
Hyde Park Hyde Park may refer to: Places In England * Hyde Park, London, a Royal Park in Central London * Hyde Park, Leeds, an inner-city area of north-west Leeds * Hyde Park, Sheffield, district of Sheffield * Hyde Park, in Hyde, Greater Manchester * Hyde ...

Hyde Park
*
Knightsbridge Knightsbridge is a residential and retail district in central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the U ...

Knightsbridge
''(shared with the
Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea (RBKC) is an Inner London borough The London boroughs are the 32 districts of England, local authority districts that make up the Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of Greater Lon ...
)'' *
Lisson Grove Lisson Grove is a street and district in Marylebone Marylebone ( or , , , ) usually pronounced MAR-lee-bon, is a district in the West End of London, in the City of Westminster. Oxford Street Oxford Street is a major road in the Ci ...
*
Maida Vale Maida Vale ( ) is an affluent residential district consisting of the northern part of Paddington Paddington is an within the , in . First a medieval parish then a , it was integrated with Westminster and in 1965. Three important landmarks ...
*
Mayfair Mayfair is an affluent area in the West End of London towards the eastern edge of Hyde Park, London, Hyde Park, in the City of Westminster, between Oxford Street, Regent Street, Piccadilly and Park Lane. It is one of the most expensive distric ...

Mayfair
*
Marylebone Marylebone (usually , also , , , ) is a district in the West End of London The West End of London (commonly referred to as the West End) is a district of Central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is th ...
*
Millbank Millbank is an area of central London in the City of Westminster. Millbank is located by the River Thames, east of Pimlico and south of Westminster. Millbank is known as the location of major government offices, Burberry headquarters, the Millb ...

Millbank
*
Paddington Paddington is an List of areas of London, area within the City of Westminster, in central London. First a medieval parish then a Metropolitan Borough of Paddington, metropolitan borough, it was integrated with Westminster and Greater London in 1 ...

Paddington
*
Pimlico Pimlico () is an area of Central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on ...
*
St James's St James's is a central district in the City of Westminster, London, forming part of the West End. In the 17th century the area developed as a residential location for the British aristocracy, and around the 19th century was the focus of the d ...
*
St John's Wood St John's Wood is a district in the City of Westminster, London, lying 2.5 miles (4 km) northwest of Charing Cross. Traditionally the northern part of the Civil Parish#Ancient Parishes, ancient parish and Metropolitan Borough of St Maryleb ...
*
Soho Soho is an area of the City of Westminster The City of Westminster is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and London boroughs, borough in Inner London which forms a core part of Central London. It is the site of the United Kingdom's ...

Soho
, including
Chinatown A Chinatown () is an ethnic enclave File:India Square JC jeh.JPG, India Square in Jersey City, New Jersey#Demographics, Jersey City, New Jersey, one of 24 Indian American, Indian ethnic enclaves in the New York City Metropolitan Area. In ...

Chinatown
* " Theatreland" *
Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddess of Victory * Victoria, Seychelles ...
*
Westbourne Green Westbourne Green is an area of Westbourne, London, the centre of the former Westbourne (hamlet), hamlet of Westbourne, at the north-western corner of the City of Westminster. It is named for its location west of a bourne (small stream). Tradition ...
''(shared with the
Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea (RBKC) is an Inner London borough The London boroughs are the 32 districts of England, local authority districts that make up the Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of Greater Lon ...
)'' *
West End West End most commonly refers to: * West End of London, an area of central London, England * West End theatre, a popular term for mainstream professional theatre staged in the large theatres of London, England West End may also refer to: Place ...
''(shared with the
London Borough of Camden The London Borough of Camden () is a London borough The London boroughs are the 32 districts of England, local authority districts that make up the Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of Greater London; each is governed by a ...
)'' *


Economy

Many global corporations have their global or European headquarters in the City of Westminster.
Mayfair Mayfair is an affluent area in the West End of London towards the eastern edge of Hyde Park, London, Hyde Park, in the City of Westminster, between Oxford Street, Regent Street, Piccadilly and Park Lane. It is one of the most expensive distric ...

Mayfair
and
St James's St James's is a central district in the City of Westminster, London, forming part of the West End. In the 17th century the area developed as a residential location for the British aristocracy, and around the 19th century was the focus of the d ...
within the City of Westminster also have a large concentration of hedge fund and private equity funds. The
West End West End most commonly refers to: * West End of London, an area of central London, England * West End theatre, a popular term for mainstream professional theatre staged in the large theatres of London, England West End may also refer to: Place ...
is known as the Theatre District and is home to many of the leading performing arts businesses.
Soho Soho is an area of the City of Westminster The City of Westminster is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and London boroughs, borough in Inner London which forms a core part of Central London. It is the site of the United Kingdom's ...

Soho
and its adjoining areas house a concentration of media and creative companies.
Oxford Street Oxford Street is a major road in the City of Westminster The City of Westminster is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and London boroughs, borough in Inner London which forms a core part of Central London. It is the site of the Un ...

Oxford Street
is a busy shopping destination.


Landmarks

The City of Westminster contains the some of the most famous sites in London, including
Buckingham Palace Buckingham Palace () is the London London is the and of and the . It stands on the in south-east England at the head of a down to the , and has been a major settlement for two millennia. The , its ancient core and financial ce ...

Buckingham Palace
,
Westminster Abbey Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of Saint Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths or Gothic people, the ethnonym of a group of East Germanic tribes ...

Westminster Abbey
, the
Palace of Westminster The Palace of Westminster serves as the meeting place for both the House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Towns ...

Palace of Westminster
(Houses of Parliament) and
Big Ben Big Ben is the nickname for the Great Bell of the striking clock at the north end of the Palace of Westminster; the name is frequently Metonymy, extended to refer to both the clock and the clock tower. The official name of the tower in which ...

Big Ben
.


Parks and open spaces

These include
Green Park The Green Park, usually known without the definite article An article is any member of a class of dedicated words that are used with noun phrases to mark the identifiability of the referents of the noun phrases. The category of articles const ...

Green Park
,
Hyde Park Hyde Park may refer to: Places In England * Hyde Park, London, a Royal Park in Central London * Hyde Park, Leeds, an inner-city area of north-west Leeds * Hyde Park, Sheffield, district of Sheffield * Hyde Park, in Hyde, Greater Manchester * Hyde ...

Hyde Park
,
Kensington Gardens Image:Kensington Palace from across Long Water.JPG, up250px, View across The Long Water to Kensington Palace Kensington Gardens, once the private gardens of Kensington Palace, are among the Royal Parks of London. The gardens are shared by the Ci ...

Kensington Gardens
,
Regent's Park Regent's Park (officially The Regent's Park) is one of the Royal Parks of London. It occupies high ground in north-west Inner London, administratively split between the City of Westminster and the London Borough of Camden, Borough of Camden (and ...

Regent's Park
and
St James's Park St James's Park is a park in the City of Westminster, central London. It is at the southernmost tip of the St James's area, which was named after a leper hospital dedicated to St James the Less. It is the most easterly of a near-continuous c ...

St James's Park
. In addition to parks and open spaces within the borough, the City owns and maintains
East Finchley Cemetery East Finchley Cemetery is a cemetery and crematorium in East End Road, East Finchley East Finchley is an area in North London North London is the northern part of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in ...

East Finchley Cemetery
and crematorium in the
London Borough of Barnet The London Borough of Barnet () is a suburban London boroughs, London borough in North London. The borough was formed in 1965 from parts of the ceremonial counties of Middlesex and Hertfordshire. It forms part of Outer London and is the largest ...
.


Transport


National Rail stations

Four National Rail stations serve the City of Westminster:


London Underground

The City of Westminster is served by 27
London Underground The London Underground (also known simply as the Underground, or by its nickname the Tube) is a rapid transit system serving Greater London and some parts of the adjacent ceremonial counties of England, counties of Buckinghamshire, Essex and H ...

London Underground
stations and 10 of the 11 lines.


Electric charging points

By 2009 Westminster City Council had electric vehicle charging points in 15 locations through the city (13 car parks and two on-street points). Users pay an annual fee to cover administration costs to register and use the points. By 2018 there were 60 electric vehicle charging locations.


Travel to work

In March 2011, the main forms of transport that residents used to travel to work were: underground, metro, light rail, tram, 21.0% of all residents aged 16–74; on foot, 9.3%; bus, minibus or coach, 9.3%; driving a car or van, 6.0%; work mainly at or from home, 5.5%; bicycle, 3.1%; train, 3.0%.


Education

Westminster Children's Services administers many primary and secondary schools. In addition, there are several state-funded faith schools, primarily
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
(CE), and
Roman Catholic Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...

Roman Catholic
(RC), but Christian non-denominational (ND) schools are also in the borough, and there are several non-profit-making junior and senior
independent school An independent school is independent in its finances and governance. Also known as private schools, non-governmental, privately funded, or non-state schools, they are not administered by local, state or national governments. In British Engli ...
s.


Universities and colleges

*The
University of Westminster The University of Westminster is a public university, public research university based in London, United Kingdom. Founded in 1838 as the Royal Polytechnic Institution, it was the first Polytechnic (United Kingdom), polytechnic to open in London. T ...

University of Westminster
has its three campuses in the borough; 309
Regent Street Regent Street is a major shopping street in the West End of London. It is named after George IV of the United Kingdom, George, the Prince Regent (later George IV) and was laid out under the direction of the architect John Nash (architect), Jo ...

Regent Street
(with 4–12 / 16 Little Titchfield Street and 32 / 38 Wells Street buildings uniting under the same campus), 115 New Cavendish Street, and 25
Marylebone Road Marylebone Road ( ) is an important thoroughfare in central London, within the City of Westminster. It runs east–west from the Euston Road at Regent's Park to the A40 road, A40 Westway (London), Westway at Paddington. The road which runs in 3 l ...
. *The
Strand Strand may refer to: Topography *The flat area of land bordering a body of water, a: ** Beach ** Shoreline *Strand swamp, a type of swamp habitat in Florida Places Africa *Strand, Western Cape, a seaside town in South Africa *Strand Street, ...
campus of
King's College London King's College London (informally King's or KCL) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or ...
is located within the district. *The
London Business School London Business School (LBS) is a business school A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in business administration or management. A business school may also be referred to as school of management, management ...

London Business School
, in
Regent's Park Regent's Park (officially The Regent's Park) is one of the Royal Parks of London. It occupies high ground in north-west Inner London, administratively split between the City of Westminster and the London Borough of Camden, Borough of Camden (and ...

Regent's Park
. *The
London School of Economics , mottoeng = To understand the causes of things , established = 1895 , type = Public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of s ...
, at
Clare MarketClare may refer to: Places Antarctica * Clare RangeClare Range () is the range extending west-southwest from Sperm Bluff to the Willett Range on the south side of Mackay Glacier, in Victoria Land. It was circumnavigated in 1957 by the New Zealand N ...
, near
Aldwych Aldwych (pronounced ) is a one-way street and the name of the area immediately surrounding it in central London, England, within the City of Westminster. The street starts Points of the compass, east-northeast of Charing Cross, the convention ...
. *The
Royal Academy of Music The Royal Academy of Music (RAM) in London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head ...

Royal Academy of Music
, on
Marylebone Road Marylebone Road ( ) is an important thoroughfare in central London, within the City of Westminster. It runs east–west from the Euston Road at Regent's Park to the A40 road, A40 Westway (London), Westway at Paddington. The road which runs in 3 l ...
. *
University of the Arts London University of the Arts London is a collegiate university A collegiate university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, ter ...
has constituent colleges in
Millbank Millbank is an area of central London in the City of Westminster. Millbank is located by the River Thames, east of Pimlico and south of Westminster. Millbank is known as the location of major government offices, Burberry headquarters, the Millb ...

Millbank
(Chelsea College of Art and Design) and
Oxford Street Oxford Street is a major road in the City of Westminster The City of Westminster is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and London boroughs, borough in Inner London which forms a core part of Central London. It is the site of the Un ...

Oxford Street
(London College of Fashion). *The Courtauld Institute of Art, in Somerset House, Strand. *Brigham Young University London Centre, on Palace Court. *The northern half of Imperial College London's main South Kensington campus lies within the borough. *City of Westminster College is a further education college with campuses on Paddington Green, London, Paddington Green and at Queen's Park, London, Queens Park. It also owns the Cockpit Theatre, which is used as a training and performance venue. *Regent's College, whose campus is within the grounds of Regent's Park, which houses: European Business School London; Regent's American College London; Regent's Business School; School of Psychotherapy and Counselling; Webster Graduate School; Internexus, a provider of English language courses. *Westminster Kingsway College is a further education college with centres in
Soho Soho is an area of the City of Westminster The City of Westminster is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and London boroughs, borough in Inner London which forms a core part of Central London. It is the site of the United Kingdom's ...

Soho
and
Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddess of Victory * Victoria, Seychelles ...
in Westminster. It also has centres in London Borough of Camden, Camden. *The Royal College of Art in Kensington Gore.


Public libraries

The London Library, an independent lending library, is at 14 St James Square, London, St James Square.Libraries
." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 21 January 2009.
The city operates two reference libraries; Westminster Reference Library and Marylebone Information Service. Westminster Reference Library holds several special collections: of which the Sherlock Holmes, Arts and Business collections are the most comprehensive. In addition to the collections in Westminster Reference Library the city has two specialist libraries: the Westminster Music Library, the largest music library in the UK and the Westminster Chinese Library in the Charing Cross Library. Free City of Westminster operated public lending libraries in Westminster include: * Charing Cross Library * Church Street Library * The Maida Vale Library * Marylebone Library * Mayfair Library * Paddington Library * Pimlico Library * Queen's Park Library * St. John's Wood Library * Victoria Library


Embassies and High Commissions

Many countries' embassies or High commissioner (Commonwealth), High Commissions are in Westminster.


Notable people


Freedom of the City

The following people and military units have received the Freedom of the City of Westminster.


Individuals

* Winston Churchill, Rt Hon. Sir Winston Churchill: 1946. * Robert Mark, Sir Robert Mark: 22 June 1977. * Margaret Thatcher, Rt Hon. Margaret Thatcher: 12 December 1990.


Military units

* HMS Westminster (F237), HMS Westminster, Royal Navy, RN: 11 December 2005.


See also

* History of local government in London * History of London * List of churches in the City of Westminster * River Westbourne * Tri-borough shared services * Westminster St Margaret and St John


Notes


References

*Gray, Robert, ''A History of London'', Hutchinson & Co, London, 1978,


External links


City of Westminster
*
Westminster
', by Sir Walter Besant and Geraldine Edith Mitton and A. Murray Smith, 1902, from Project Gutenberg
Westminster City Council
YouTube channel
''West End Extra''
A local newspaper covering the City of Westminster {{DEFAULTSORT:Westminster, City Of City of Westminster, London boroughs Local authorities adjoining the River Thames Cities in London 1965 establishments in the United Kingdom