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A citation is a
reference Reference is a relationship between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another object. The first object in this relation is said to ''refer to'' the second object. It is called a ''name ...
to a source. More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation appears. Generally, the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not). References to single, machine-readable assertions in electronic scientific articles are known as nanopublications, a form of
microattribution The term microattribution (a form of data citation) is defined as "giving database accessions the same citation conventions and indices that journal articles currently enjoy". In the sense that the purpose of precise attribution is to extend the sch ...
. Citations have several important purposes: to uphold
intellectual honesty Intellectual honesty is an applied method of problem solving Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc Ad hoc is a List of Latin phrases, Latin phrase meaning literally 'to this'. In English, it generally signifies a solution desi ...
(or avoiding
plagiarism Plagiarism is the representation of another author An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book or play, and is also considered a writer. More broadly defined, an author is "the person who originated or gave existe ...

plagiarism
), to attribute prior or unoriginal work and ideas to the correct sources, to allow the reader to determine independently whether the referenced material supports the author's argument in the claimed way, and to help the reader gauge the strength and validity of the material the author has used. The forms of citations generally subscribe to one of the generally accepted citations systems, such as the Oxford, Harvard, MLA,
American Sociological Association The American Sociological Association (ASA) is a non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a ...
(ASA),
American Psychological Association The American Psychological Association (APA) is the largest scientific and professional organization of psychologist A psychologist is a professional A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns a living from a speci ...
(APA), and other citations systems, because their syntactic conventions are widely known and easily interpreted by readers. Each of these citation systems has its advantages and disadvantages. Editors often specify the citation system to use. Bibliographies, and other list-like compilations of references, are generally not considered citations because they do not fulfill the true spirit of the term: deliberate acknowledgment by other authors of the priority of one's ideas.


Concept

A bibliographic citation is a reference to a
book A book is a medium for recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sense, data are a set of v ...

book
,
article Article often refers to: * Article (grammar) An article is any member of a class of dedicated words that are used with noun phrases to mark the identifiability of the referents of the noun phrases. The category of articles constitutes a part of ...
,
web page A web page (or webpage) is a hypertext Hypertext is text displayed on a or other with references () to other text that the reader can immediately access. Hypertext documents are interconnected by hyperlinks, which are typically acti ...

web page
, or other published item. Citations should supply detail to identify the item uniquely. Different citation systems and styles are used in
scientific citation Scientific citation A citation is a reference to a source. More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the ...
,
legal citation Legal citation is the practice of crediting and referring to authoritative documents and sources. The most common sources of authority cited are court decisions (cases), statutes, regulations, government documents, treaties, and scholarly writin ...
,
prior art Prior art (also known as state of the art or background art) is a concept in patent law NPOV disputes from March 2021 A patent is a title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signif ...
,
the arts The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something somehow new and somehow valuable is formed. The created item may be intangible (such as an idea, a scienti ...
, and the
humanities Humanities are academic disciplines An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. ...

humanities
. Regarding the use of citations in the scientific literature, some scholars also put forward "the right to refuse unwanted citations" in certain situations deemed inappropriate.


Content

Citation content can vary depending on the type of source and may include: * ''Book:'' author(s), book title, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, and page number(s) if appropriate. * ''Journal:'' author(s), article title, journal title, date of publication, and page number(s). * ''Newspaper:'' author(s), article title, name of newspaper, section title and page number(s) if desired, date of publication. * ''Web site:'' author(s), article, and publication title where appropriate, as well as a
URL A Uniform Resource Locator (URL), colloquially termed a web address, is a reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network A computer network is a group of computers that use a set of common communication prot ...

URL
, and a date when the site was accessed. * ''Play:'' inline citations offer part, scene, and line numbers, the latter separated by periods: 4.452 refers to scene 4, line 452. For example, "In Eugene Onegin, Onegin rejects Tanya when she is free to be his, and only decides he wants her when she is already married" (Pushkin 4.452–53). * ''Poem:'' spaced slashes are normally used to indicate separate lines of a poem, and parenthetical citations usually include the line number(s). For example: "For I must love because I live / And life in me is what you give." (Brennan, lines 15–16). * ''Interview:'' name of interviewer, interview descriptor (ex. personal interview), and date of interview.


Unique identifiers

Along with information such as author(s), date of publication, title and page numbers, citations may also include
unique identifier A unique identifier (UID) is an identifier An identifier is a name that identifies (that is, labels the identity of) either a unique object or a unique ''class'' of objects, where the "object" or class may be an idea, physical countable In math ...
s depending on the type of work being referred to. * Citations of books may include an
International Standard Book Number The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book A book is a medium for recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or it ...
(ISBN). * Specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable parts of a periodical, may have an associated
Serial Item and Contribution Identifier The Serial Item and Contribution Identifier (SICI) was a code (ANSI The American National Standards Institute (ANSI ) is a private non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit ...
(SICI) or an
International Standard Serial Number An International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number A serial number is a unique identifier A unique identifier (UID) is an identifier that is guaranteed to be unique among all identifiers used for those objec ...
(ISSN). * Electronic documents may have a
digital object identifier#REDIRECT Digital object identifier {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
(DOI). * Biomedical research articles may have a PubMed Identifier (
PMID PubMed is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE MEDLINE (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, or MEDLARS Online) is a bibliographic database A bibliographic database is a database of bibliographic records, ...
).


Systems

Broadly speaking, there are two types of citation systems, the Vancouver system and parenthetical referencing. However, the
Council of Science Editors The Council of Science Editors (CSE), formerly the Council of Biology Editors (CBE; 1965-2000) and originally the Conference of Biology Editors (CBE) (1957-1965), is a United States-based nonprofit organization that supports editorial practice amo ...
(CSE) adds a third, the'' citation-name system''.Council of Science Editors, Style Manual Committee (2007). Scientific style and format: the CSE manual for authors, editors, and publishers.


Vancouver system

The Vancouver system uses sequential numbers in the text, either bracketed or superscript or both. The numbers refer to either footnotes (notes at the end of the page) or endnotes (notes on a page at the end of the paper) that provide source detail. The notes system may or may not require a full bibliography, depending on whether the writer has used a full-note form or a shortened-note form. For example, an excerpt from the text of a paper using a notes system ''without'' a full bibliography could look like: :"The five stages of grief are denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance."1 The note, located either at the foot of the page (footnote) or at the end of the paper (endnote) would look like this: :1. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, ''On Death and Dying'' (New York: Macmillan, 1969) 45–60. In a paper with a full bibliography, the shortened note might look like: :1. Kübler-Ross, ''On Death and Dying'' 45–60. The bibliography entry, which is required with a shortened note, would look like this: :Kübler-Ross, Elisabeth. ''On Death and Dying''. New York: Macmillan, 1969. In the humanities, many authors also use footnotes or endnotes to supply anecdotal information. In this way, what looks like a citation is actually supplementary material, or suggestions for further reading.


Parenthetical referencing

Parenthetical referencing, also known as Harvard referencing, has full or partial, in-text, citations enclosed in circular brackets and embedded in the paragraph. An example of a parenthetical reference: :"The five stages of grief are denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance" (Kübler-Ross, 1969, pp. 45–60). Depending on the choice of style, fully cited parenthetical references may require no end section. Other styles include a list of the citations, with complete bibliographical references, in an end section, sorted alphabetically by author. This section is often called "References", "Bibliography", "Works cited" or "Works consulted". In-text references for online publications may differ from conventional parenthetical referencing. A full reference can be hidden, only displayed when wanted by the reader, in the form of a
tooltip The tooltip, also known as infotip or hint, is a common graphical user interface The graphical user interface (GUI "UI" by itself is still usually pronounced . or ) is a form of user interface that allows User (computing), users to Human–co ...

tooltip
. This style makes citing easier and improves the reader's experience.


Citation-name system

Superscripted numbers are inserted at the point of reference, just as in the citation‐sequence system, but the citations are numbered according to the order of cited works at the end of the paper or book; this list is often sorted alphabetically by author.


Styles

Citation styles can be broadly divided into styles common to the Humanities and the Sciences, though there is considerable overlap. Some style guides, such as
the Chicago Manual of Style ''The Chicago Manual of Style'' (abbreviated in writing as ''CMOS'' or ''CMS'', or sometimes as ''Chicago'') is a style guide for American English published since 1906 by the University of Chicago Press. Its 17 editions have prescribed writi ...
, are quite flexible and cover both parenthetical and note citation systems. Others, such as
MLA MLA may refer to: Organizations * ''The MLA Style Manual'', published by the Modern Language Association replaced by the MLA Handbook * Massachusetts Lobstermen's Association * Master Locksmiths Association, United Kingdom * Meat and Livestock ...
and APA styles, specify formats within the context of a single citation system. These may be referred to as citation formats as well as citation styles. The various guides thus specify order of appearance, for example, of publication date, title, and page numbers following the author name, in addition to conventions of punctuation, use of italics, emphasis, parenthesis, quotation marks, etc., particular to their style. A number of organizations have created styles to fit their needs; consequently, a number of different guides exist. Individual publishers often have their own in-house variations as well, and some works are so long-established as to have their own citation methods too:
Stephanus pagination Stephanus pagination is a system of reference and organization used in modern editions and translations of Plato (and less famously, Plutarch) based on the three volume 1578 edition''Platonis opera quae extant omnia'' edidit Henricus Stephanus, Gen ...
for
Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was an Classical Athens, Athenian philosopher during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece, founder of the Platonist school of thought and the Platoni ...

Plato
;
Bekker numbers August Immanuel Bekker Bekker numbering or Bekker pagination is the standard form of citation to the works of Aristotle. It is based on the page numbers used in the Prussian Academy of Sciences The Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences (german: ...
for
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questio ...

Aristotle
; citing the Bible by book, chapter and verse; or
Shakespeare William Shakespeare (bapt. 26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616) was an English playwright, poet and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's greatest dramatist. He is often called England's national p ...

Shakespeare
notation by play. The
Citation Style Language The Citation Style Language (CSL) is an open XML-based language to describe the formatting of citations and bibliographic, bibliographies. Reference management software, Reference management programs using CSL include Zotero, Mendeley and Papers (so ...
(CSL) is an open XML-based language to describe the formatting of citations and bibliographies.


Humanities

* The Chicago Style (CMOS) was developed and its guide is ''The Chicago Manual of Style''. It is most widely used in history and economics as well as some social sciences. The closely related
Turabian ''A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations'' is a style guide A style guide or manual of style is a set of standards for the writing, formatting and design of documents. It is often called a style sheet, although th ...
style—which derives from it—is for student references, and is distinguished from the CMOS by omission of quotation marks in reference lists, and mandatory access date citation. * The Columbia Style was created by Janice R. Walker and Todd Taylor to give detailed guidelines for citing internet sources. Columbia Style offers models for both the humanities and the sciences. * ''Evidence Explained: Citing History Sources from Artifacts to Cyberspace'' by Elizabeth Shown Mills covers primary sources not included in CMOS, such as censuses, court, land, government, business, and church records. Includes sources in electronic format. Used by genealogists and historians.Elizabeth Shown Mills. ''Evidence Explained : Citing History Sources from Artifacts to cyberspace.'' 2d ed. Baltimore:Genealogical Pub. Co., 2009. * Harvard referencing (or author-date system) is a specific kind of
parenthetical referencing Parenthetical referencing, also known as Harvard referencing, is a citation A citation is a reference Reference is a relationship between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, anothe ...
. Parenthetical referencing is recommended by both the
British Standards Institution The British Standards Institution (BSI) is the national standards body of the United Kingdom. BSI produces technical standard A technical standard is an established norm Norm, the Norm or NORM may refer to: In academic disciplines * Norm (g ...
and the
Modern Language Association The Modern Language Association of America, often referred to as the Modern Language Association (MLA), is the principal professional association A professional association (also called a professional body, professional organization, or prof ...
. Harvard referencing involves a short author-date reference, e.g., "(Smith, 2000)", being inserted after the cited text within parentheses and the full reference to the source being listed at the end of the article. *
MLA style ''MLA Handbook'' (9th ed., 2021), formerly ''MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers'' (1977–2009), establishes a system for documenting sources in scholarly writing. It is published by the Modern Language Association The Modern Language ...
was developed by the
Modern Language Association The Modern Language Association of America, often referred to as the Modern Language Association (MLA), is the principal professional association A professional association (also called a professional body, professional organization, or prof ...
and is most often used in
the arts The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something somehow new and somehow valuable is formed. The created item may be intangible (such as an idea, a scienti ...
and the
humanities Humanities are academic disciplines An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. ...

humanities
, particularly in
English studies English studies (usually called simply English) is an academic discipline taught in primary education, primary, secondary education, secondary, and post-secondary education in English-speaking world, English-speaking countries; it is not to ...
, other
literary studies Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation Evaluation is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, su ...
, including
comparative literature Comparative literature is an academic field An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge that is Education, taught and researched at the college or university level. Disciplines are defined (in part) and recognized ...

comparative literature
and
literary criticism Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. Modern literary criticism is often influenced by literary theory, which is the philosophical analysis, philosophical discussion of literature ...
in languages other than English (" foreign languages"), and some interdisciplinary studies, such as
cultural studies #REDIRECT Cultural studies #REDIRECT Cultural studies#REDIRECT Cultural studies Cultural studies is a field of theoretically, politically, and empirically engaged cultural analysis that concentrates upon the political dynamics of contemporary cul ...
,
drama Drama is the specific Mode (literature), mode of fiction Mimesis, represented in performance: a Play (theatre), play, opera, mime, ballet, etc., performed in a theatre, or on Radio drama, radio or television.Elam (1980, 98). Considered as a ...

drama
and
theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actor, actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage. The p ...

theatre
,
film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, ...

film
, and other
media Media may refer to: Physical means Communication * Media (communication) In mass communication, media are the communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, It ...
, including
television Television, sometimes shortened to TV or telly, is a telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylindrical A cylinder (from Gre ...

television
. This style of citations and bibliographical format uses parenthetical referencing with author-page (Smith 395) or author-
hort Hort may refer to: People * Erik Hort Erik Hort (born February 16, 1987 in Montebello, New York) is an Americans, American soccer player who is currently a Free Agent. Hort grew up In Montebello, NY. He is one of five children. His father, Davi ...

hort
title-page (Smith, ''Contingencies'' 42) in the case of more than one work by the same author within parentheses in the text, keyed to an alphabetical list of sources on a "Works Cited" page at the end of the paper, as well as notes (footnotes or endnotes). * The
MHRA Style Guide The ''MHRA Style Guide: A Handbook for Authors, Editors, and Writers of Theses''—formerly the ''MHRA Style Book''—is an academic style guide published by the Modern Humanities Research Association. It is most widely used in the arts and humaniti ...
is published by the
Modern Humanities Research Association The Modern Humanities Research Association (MHRA) is a United Kingdom–based international organisation that aims to encourage and promote advanced study and research of humanities. It is most notable for producing the ''MHRA Style Guide''. His ...
(MHRA) and most widely used in the arts and humanities in the United Kingdom, where the MHRA is based. It is available for sale both in the UK and in the United States. It is similar to MLA style, but has some differences. For example, MHRA style uses footnotes that reference a citation fully while also providing a bibliography. Some readers find it advantageous that the footnotes provide full citations, instead of shortened references, so that they do not need to consult the bibliography while reading for the rest of the publication details. In some areas of the Humanities, footnotes are used exclusively for references, and their use for conventional
footnotes A note is a string of text placed at the bottom of a page (paper), page in a book or document or at the end of a chapter, volume or the whole text. The note can provide an author's comments on the main text or citations of a reference work in s ...

footnotes
(explanations or examples) is avoided. In these areas, the term "footnote" is actually used as a synonym for "reference", and care must be taken by editors and typesetters to ensure that they understand how the term is being used by their authors.


Law

* The
Bluebook ''The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation'' is a style guide A style guide or manual of style is a set of standards for the writing, formatting, and design of documents A document is a writing, written, drawing, drawn, presented, o ...
is a citation system traditionally used in American academic legal writing, and the Bluebook (or similar systems derived from it) are used by many courts. At present, academic legal articles are always footnoted, but motions submitted to courts and court opinions traditionally use inline citations, which are either separate sentences or separate clauses. Inline citations allow readers to quickly determine the strength of a source based on, for example, the court a case was decided in and the year it was decided. * The legal citation style used almost universally in Canada is based on the ''
Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation The ''Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation'' (a.k.a. the ''McGill Guide''), establishes the legal citation Legal citation is the practice of crediting and referring to authoritative documents and sources. The most common sources of authority ...
'' (AKA "McGill Guide"), published by ''McGill Law Journal''. * British legal citation almost universally follows the ''
Oxford Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities The ''Oxford University Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities'' (''OSCOLA'') is a style guide A style guide or manual of style is a set of standards for the writing, formatting, and design of documents A document is a writing, writte ...
'' (OSCOLA).


Sciences, mathematics, engineering, physiology, and medicine

* The
American Chemical Society The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a scientific society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization that exists to promote an discipline (academia), academic disci ...
style, or
ACS style The ACS Style is a set of standards for writing documents relating to chemistry, including a standard method of citation A citation is a reference Reference is a relationship between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a mea ...
, is often used in
Chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. T ...

Chemistry
and some of the
physical sciences Physical science is a branch of natural science Natural science is a branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a b ...
. In ACS style references are numbered in the text and in the reference list, and numbers are repeated throughout the text as needed. * In the style of the
American Institute of Physics The American Institute of Physics (AIP) promotes science and the profession of physics, publishes physics journals, and produces publications for scientific and engineering societies. The AIP is made up of various member societies. Its corporate ...
(AIP style), references are also numbered in the text and in the reference list, with numbers repeated throughout the text as needed. * Styles developed for the
American Mathematical Society The American Mathematical Society (AMS) is an association of professional mathematicians dedicated to the interests of mathematics, mathematical research and scholarship, and serves the national and international community through its publicatio ...
(AMS), or AMS styles, such as , are typically implemented using the
BibTeX BibTeX is reference management software Reference management software, citation management software, or bibliographic management software is software for scholars and authors to use for recording and utilising bibliographic citations (reference ...
tool in the
LaTeX Latex is a stable dispersion (emulsion An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally Miscibility, immiscible (unmixable or unblendable) owing to liquid-liquid phase separation. Emulsions are part of a more general class o ...

LaTeX
typesetting environment. Brackets with the author's initials and year are inserted in the text and at the beginning of the reference. Typical citations are listed in line with alphabetic-label format, e.g. This type of style is also called an "''Authorship trigraph.''" * The
Vancouver system The Vancouver system, also known as Vancouver reference style or the author–number system, is a citation style that uses numbers within the text that refer to numbered entries in the reference list. It is popular in the physical sciences and is on ...
, recommended by the
Council of Science Editors The Council of Science Editors (CSE), formerly the Council of Biology Editors (CBE; 1965-2000) and originally the Conference of Biology Editors (CBE) (1957-1965), is a United States-based nonprofit organization that supports editorial practice amo ...
(CSE), is used in medical and scientific papers and research. ** In one major variant, that used by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), citation numbers are included in the text in square brackets rather than as superscripts. All bibliographical information is exclusively included in the list of references at the end of the document, next to the respective citation number. ** The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) is reportedly the original kernel of this biomedical style, which evolved from the Vancouver 1978 editors' meeting. The
MEDLINE MEDLINE (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, or MEDLARS Online) is a bibliographic database A bibliographic database is a database of bibliographic records, an organized digital collection of references to published literatu ...

MEDLINE
/
PubMed PubMed is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE bibliographic database, database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes ...

PubMed
database uses this citation style and the
National Library of Medicine The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government or U.S. government) is the national government of the United Sta ...
provides "ICMJE
Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals The ICMJE recommendations (full title, "Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals") are a set of guidelines produced by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors for stan ...
– Sample References". * The AMA Style. * The style of the
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association A professional association (also called a professional body, professional organization, or professional society) usually seeks to further Further or F ...
(IEEE), or IEEE style, encloses citation numbers within square brackets and numbers them consecutively, with numbers repeated throughout the text as needed. * In areas of biology that falls within the ICNafp (which itself uses this citation style throughout), a variant form of author-title citation is the primary method used when making nomenclatural citations and sometimes general citations (for example in code-related proposals published in ''
Taxon In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechani ...
''), with the works in question not cited in the bibliography unless also cited in the text. Titles use standardized abbreviations following ''Botanico-Periodicum-Huntianum'' for periodicals and ''Taxonomic Literature 2'' (later
IPNI The International Plant Names Index (IPNI) describes itself as "a database In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorith ...
) for books. * Pechenik Citation Style is a style described in ''A Short Guide to Writing about Biology'', 6th ed. (2007), by Jan A. Pechenik. * In 1955, Eugene Garfield proposed a bibliographic system for scientific literature, to consolidate the integrity of
scientific publications : ''For a broader class of literature, see Academic publishing.'' Scientific literature comprises scholarly publications that report original Empirical evidence, empirical and theoretical work in the natural science, natural and social sciences ...
.


Social sciences

* The style of the
American Psychological Association The American Psychological Association (APA) is the largest scientific and professional organization of psychologist A psychologist is a professional A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns a living from a speci ...
, or
APA style APA style is a writing style and format for academic documents such as scholarly journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Academic j ...
, published in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, is most often used in
social sciences Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biol ...

social sciences
. APA citation style is similar to Harvard referencing, listing the author's name and year of publication, although these can take two forms: ''name citations'' in which the surnames of the authors appear in the text and the year of publication then appears in parentheses, and ''author-date citations'', in which the surnames of the authors and the year of publication all appear in parentheses. In both cases, in-text citations point to an alphabetical list of sources at the end of the paper in a References section. * The
American Political Science Association The American Political Science Association (APSA) is a professional association A professional association (also called a professional body, professional organization, or professional society) usually seeks to further Further or Furthur may r ...
publishes both a style manual and a style guide for publications in this field.Stephen Yoder, ed. (2008). ''The APSA Guide to Writing and Publishing'' and ''Style Manual for Political Science''. Rev. ed. August 2006
APSAnet.org Publications
Retrieved 2015-09-28.
The style is close to the CMOS. * The
American Anthropological Association The American Anthropological Association (AAA) is an organization of scholars and practitioners in the field of anthropology Anthropology is the of ity, concerned with , , , and , in both the present and past, including . studies patterns ...
utilizes a modified form of the Chicago Style laid out in their Publishing Style Guide. * The
ASA style ASA style is a widely accepted format for writing university research papers in the field of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds ...
of
American Sociological Association The American Sociological Association (ASA) is a non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a ...
is one of the main styles used in
sociological Sociology is a social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of ...
publications.


Issues

In their research on footnotes in scholarly journals in the field of communication, Michael Bugeja and Daniela V. Dimitrova have found that citations to online sources have a rate of decay (as cited pages are taken down), which they call a "half-life", that renders footnotes in those journals less useful for scholarship over time. Other experts have found that published replications do not have as many citations as original publications. Another important issue is citation errors, which often occur due to carelessness on either the researcher or journal editor's part in the publication procedure. For example, a study that analyzed 1,200 randomly selected citations from three major business ethics journal concluded that an average article contains at least three plagiarized citations when authors copy and paste a citation entry from another publication without consulting the original source. Experts have found that simple precautions, such as consulting the author of a cited source about proper citations, reduce the likelihood of citation errors and thus increase the quality of research. Research suggests the impact of an article can be, partly, explained by superficial factors and not only by the scientific merits of an article. Field-dependent factors are usually listed as an issue to be tackled not only when comparisons across disciplines are made, but also when different fields of research of one discipline are being compared. For example, in medicine, among other factors, the number of authors, the number of references, the article length, and the presence of a colon in the title influence the impact; while in sociology the number of references, the article length, and title length are among the factors.
Nature IndexThe Nature Index is a database, that tracks institutions and countries and their scientific output since its introduction in 2016. Each year, Nature Index ranks the leading institutions (which can be companies, universities, government agencies, rese ...
recognizes that citations remain a controversial and yet important metric for academics. They report five ways to increase citation counts: (1) watch the title length and punctuation; (2) release the results early as preprints; (3) avoid referring to a country in the title, abstract, or keywords; (4) link the article to supporting data in a repository; and (5) avoid hyphens in the titles of research articles. Citation patterns are also known to be affected by unethical behavior of both the authors and journal staff. Such behavior is called impact factor boosting and was reported to involve even the top-tier journals. Specifically the high-ranking journals of medical science, including ''The Lancet'', ''JAMA'' and ''The New England Journal of Medicine'', are thought to be associated with such behavior, with up to 30% of citations to these journals being generated by commissioned opinion articles. On the other hand, the phenomenon of citation cartels is rising. Citation cartels are defined as groups of authors that cite each other disproportionately more than they do other groups of authors who work on the same subject.


See also


Notes


References


Further reading

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