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Cincinnati ( ) is a city in the
U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory where it shares its with the . Due to this shared sovereignty, are both of t ...
of
Ohio Ohio () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Col ...

Ohio
and the
county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state. Th ...
of
Hamilton CountyHamilton may refer to: * Alexander Hamilton (1755–1804), first American Secretary of the Treasury and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States **Hamilton (musical), ''Hamilton'' (musical), a 2015 Broadway musical written by Lin-Manuel Mira ...
. Settled in 1788, the city is located at the northern side of the confluence of the
Licking grooming its paw by licking Licking is the action of passing the tongue over a surface, typically either to deposit saliva onto the surface, or to collect liquid, food or minerals onto the tongue for ingestion, or to animal communication, communi ...
and
Ohio Ohio () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Col ...

Ohio
rivers, the latter of which marks the state line with
Kentucky Kentucky ( , ), officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a U.S. state, state in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States, bordered by Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio to the north; West Virginia and Virginia to ...
. The city is the economic and cultural hub of the Cincinnati metropolitan area. With an estimated population of 2,190,209, it is Ohio's largest metropolitan area and the nation's 29th-largest, and with a city population of 309,317, Cincinnati is the third-largest city in Ohio and 64th in the United States. Throughout much of the 19th century, it was among the top 10 U.S. cities by population, surpassed only by
New Orleans New Orleans (,New Orleans
Merriam-Webster.
; french: La Nouvelle-Orléans ) is a Consolidat ...

New Orleans
and the older, established settlements of the United States eastern seaboard, as well as being the sixth-most populous city from 1840 until 1860. Cincinnati developed with fewer immigrants and less influence from Europe than East Coast cities in the same period. However, it received a significant number of German-speaking immigrants, who founded many of the city's cultural institutions. By the end of the 19th century, with the shift from steamboats to railroads drawing off freight shipping, trade patterns had altered and Cincinnati's growth slowed considerably. The city was surpassed in population by other inland cities, particularly
Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive map of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name ...

Chicago
, which developed based on strong commodity exploitation, economics, and the railroads, and
St. Louis St. Louis () is the second-largest city in Missouri Missouri is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State ( ...

St. Louis
, which for decades after the
Civil War A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same Sovereign state, state (or country). The aim of one side may be to take control of the country or a region, to achieve independen ...
served as the gateway to westward migration. Cincinnati is home to three major sports teams: the
Cincinnati Reds The Cincinnati Reds are an American professional baseball team based in Cincinnati. The Reds compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a member club of the National League (NL) National League Central, Central division, and were a charter membe ...

Cincinnati Reds
of
Major League Baseball Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball organization and the oldest major professional sports league in the world. , a total of 30 teams play in Major League Baseball—15 teams in the National League (NL) and 15 in the Ame ...
; the
Cincinnati Bengals The Cincinnati Bengals are a professional American football franchise based in Cincinnati. The Bengals compete in the National Football League (NFL) as a member club of the league's American Football Conference (AFC) AFC North, North division. T ...

Cincinnati Bengals
of the
National Football League The National Football League (NFL) is a professional American football American football, referred to simply as football in the United States and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rect ...
; and
FC Cincinnati Football Club Cincinnati, commonly known as FC Cincinnati, is an American professional soccer club based in Cincinnati, Ohio. The club plays in the Eastern Conference of Major League Soccer (MLS). The team succeeded the lower-division team of ...
of
Major League Soccer Major League Soccer (MLS) is a men's professional league sanctioned by the , which represents the sport's highest level in the . The league comprises 28 teams—25 in the U.S. and 3 in Canada—and plans to expand to 29 teams by the 2023 sea ...
; it is also home to the
Cincinnati Cyclones The Cincinnati Cyclones are a professional ice hockey team based in Cincinnati, Ohio. The team is a member of the ECHL. Originally established in 1990, the team first played their games in the Cincinnati Gardens and now play at Heritage Bank Ce ...
, a minor league ice hockey team. The city's largest institution of higher education, the
University of Cincinnati The University of Cincinnati (UC or Cincinnati) is a public university, public research university in Cincinnati, Ohio. Founded in 1819 as Cincinnati College, it is the oldest institution of higher education in Cincinnati and has an annual enro ...
, was founded in 1819 as a municipal college and is now ranked as one of the 50 largest in the United States. Cincinnati is home to historic architecture with many structures in the urban core having remained intact for 200 years. In the late 1800s, Cincinnati was commonly referred to as the "Paris of America", due mainly to such ambitious architectural projects as the
Music Hall Music hall is a type of British theatrical entertainment that was popular from the early Victorian era, beginning around 1850. It faded away after 1918 as the halls Rebranding, rebranded their entertainment as Variety show, variety. Perceptio ...

Music Hall
,
Cincinnatian Hotel The Cincinnatian Hotel is a registered historic building in downtown Cincinnati, Downtown Cincinnati, Ohio, Cincinnati, Ohio, listed in the National Register of Historic Places, National Register on March 3, 1980. It is a member of the Historic Hote ...
, and
Shillito Department StoreShillito is a surname. Notable people with the surname include: * DM Ashura (born William James Robert Shillito, 1986–), American electronic musician * Alan Shillito, British rugby league player * John Shillito (1809–1879), American businessperso ...
. Cincinnati is the birthplace of
William Howard Taft William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857March 8, 1930) was the 27th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of the and is the of the . The power of ...

William Howard Taft
, the 27th President of the United States.


History


Etymology

Two years after the founding of the settlement,
Arthur St. Clair
Arthur St. Clair
, the governor of the
Northwest Territory The Northwest Territory, also known as the Old Northwest and formally known as the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio, was formed from unorganized western territory of the United States after the . Established in 1787 by the through the , ...

Northwest Territory
, changed its name to "Cincinnati", possibly at the suggestion of the surveyor
Israel Ludlow Israel Ludlow (1765 – January 1804) was a government surveyor who helped found Cincinnati, Ohio, Cincinnati, Dayton, Ohio, Dayton and Hamilton, Ohio, Hamilton in southwest Ohio. Israel Ludlow was born near Morristown, New Jersey in 1765.#grev ...
, in honor of the
Society of the Cincinnati The Society of the Cincinnati is a lineage society, fraternal, hereditary society with thirteen constituent societies in the United States and one in France, founded in 1783, to perpetuate "the remembrance of this vast event" (the achievement of ...

Society of the Cincinnati
. St. Clair was at the time president of the Society, made up of
Continental Army The Continental Army was the army of the Thirteen Colonies and the Revolutionary-era United States. It was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, and was established by a resolution of ...
officers of the Revolutionary War who named their club for
Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus Lucius Quinctius (or Quintius) Cincinnatus (; – BC) was a Ancient Rome, Roman patrician (ancient Rome), patrician, Roman Senate, statesman, and Roman army, military leader of the early Roman Republic who became a legendary figure of Virtus (vir ...

Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus
, a dictator in the early
Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run through public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an indiv ...
who saved Rome from a crisis, and then retired to farming because he did not want to remain in power.


Early history

Cincinnati began in 1788 when Mathias Denman, Colonel Robert Patterson, and
Israel Ludlow Israel Ludlow (1765 – January 1804) was a government surveyor who helped found Cincinnati, Ohio, Cincinnati, Dayton, Ohio, Dayton and Hamilton, Ohio, Hamilton in southwest Ohio. Israel Ludlow was born near Morristown, New Jersey in 1765.#grev ...
landed at a spot at the northern bank of the Ohio opposite the mouth of the
Licking grooming its paw by licking Licking is the action of passing the tongue over a surface, typically either to deposit saliva onto the surface, or to collect liquid, food or minerals onto the tongue for ingestion, or to animal communication, communi ...
and decided to settle there. The original surveyor,
John Filson John Filson (c. 1747 – October 1788) was an United States, American author, historian of Kentucky, pioneer, surveying, surveyor and one of the founders of Cincinnati, Ohio. Biography John Filson was born in Chester County, Pennsylvania, around 17 ...

John Filson
, named it "Losantiville". On January 4, 1790,
St. Clair Saint Clair (also spelled St. Clair, St Clair or even Sinclair, and sometimes also pronounced that way) may refer to: Saints * Clair of Nantes (3rd century), first bishop of Nantes, the Saint named Clair * Clare of Assisi (1194–1253), source nam ...

St. Clair
changed the name of the settlement to honor the Society of the Cincinnati. In 1811, the introduction of steamboats on the Ohio River opened up the city's trade to more rapid shipping, and the city established commercial ties with
St. Louis, Missouri St. Louis () is the second-largest city in Missouri Missouri is a U.S. state, state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern region of the United States. With more than six million residents, it is the List of U.S. states and territor ...

St. Louis, Missouri
, and
New Orleans New Orleans (,New Orleans
Merriam-Webster.
; french: La Nouvelle-Orléans ) is a Consolidat ...

New Orleans
downriver. Cincinnati was incorporated as a city on March 1, 1819. Exporting pork products and hay, it became a center of pork processing in the region. From 1810 to 1830, the city's population nearly tripled, from 9,642 to 24,831. Construction on the
Miami and Erie Canal The Miami and Erie Canal was a canal Canals are waterways Channel (geography), channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles. They may also help with irrigation. It can be thought of as a ...

Miami and Erie Canal
began on July 21, 1825, when it was called the Miami Canal, related to its origin at the
Great Miami River The Great Miami River (also called the Miami River) (Shawnee language, Shawnee: ''Msimiyamithiipi'') is a tributary of the Ohio River, approximately long,U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline dataThe Nation ...

Great Miami River
. The first section of the canal was opened for business in 1827. In 1827, the canal connected Cincinnati to nearby Middletown; by 1840, it had reached
Toledo Toledo most commonly refers to: * Toledo, Spain, a city in Spain * Province of Toledo, Spain * Toledo, Ohio, a city in the United States Toledo may also refer to: Places Belize * Toledo District * Toledo Settlement Bolivia * Toledo, Oruro ...
. Railroads were the next major form of commercial transportation to come to Cincinnati. In 1836, the
Little Miami Railroad The Little Miami Railroad was a railway of southwestern Ohio, running from the eastern side of Cincinnati to Springfield, Ohio. By merging with the Columbus and Xenia Railroad in 1853, it created the first through-rail route from the important manu ...
was chartered. Construction began soon after, to connect Cincinnati with the Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad, and provide access to the ports of the
Sandusky BaySandusky Bay is a bay on Lake Erie Lake Erie is the fourth-largest lake (by surface area) of the five Great Lakes in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Weste ...
on
Lake Erie Lake Erie (; french: Lac Érié) is the fourth largest lake (by surface area) of the five Great Lakes in North America and the eleventh-largest globally. It is the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume of the Great Lakes and theref ...

Lake Erie
. During the time, employers struggled to hire enough people to fill positions. The city had a labor shortage until large waves of immigration by Irish and Germans in the late 1840s. The city grew rapidly over the next two decades, reaching 115,000 people by 1850. During this period of rapid expansion and prominence, residents of Cincinnati began referring to the city as the Queen City.


Industrial development and Gilded Age

Cincinnati's location, on the border between the free state of Ohio and the slave state of Kentucky, made it a prominent location for slaves to escape the slave-owning south. Many prominent abolitionists also called Cincinnati their home during this period, and made it a popular stop on the
Underground Railroad#REDIRECT Underground Railroad The Underground Railroad was a network of secret routes and safe houses established in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is ...
. In 2004, the
National Underground Railroad Freedom Center The National Underground Railroad Freedom Center is a museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is an institution that Preservation (library and archival science), cares for (conserves) a collection (artwork), collection of a ...
was completed along Freedom Way in Downtown, honoring the city's involvement in the Underground Railroad. In 1859, Cincinnati laid out six streetcar lines; the cars were pulled by horses and the lines made it easier for people to get around the city. By 1872, Cincinnatians could travel on the streetcars within the city and transfer to rail cars for travel to the hill communities. The Cincinnati Inclined Plane Company began transporting people to the top of Mount Auburn that year. In 1889, the Cincinnati streetcar system began converting its horse-drawn cars to . In 1880 the city government completed the
Cincinnati Southern Railway Cincinnati ( ) is a major city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the government county seat, seat of Hamilton County, Ohio, Hamilton County. Settled in 1788, the city is located at the northern side of the confluence of the Licking River (Kentucky) ...
to
Chattanooga, Tennessee Chattanooga ( ) is a city in and the county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of publi ...

Chattanooga, Tennessee
. It is the only municipally-owned interstate railway in the United States. In 1884 outrage over a
manslaughter Manslaughter is a common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or ) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial by virtue of being stated in written opinions. ' is the most-used legal ...
verdict in what many observers thought was a clear case of murder triggered the Courthouse riots, one of the most destructive riots in American history. Over the course of three days, 56 people were killed and over 300 were injured. The riots ended the regime of political bosses
John Roll McLean John Roll McLean (17 September 1848 – 9 June 1916) was the owner and publisher of ''The Washington Post ''The Washington Post'' (also known as the ''Post'' and, informally, ''WaPo'') is an American daily newspaper published in Washingt ...

John Roll McLean
and Thomas C. Campbell in Cincinnati.


During the Great Depression

An early rejuvenation of downtown began in the 1920s and continued into the next decade with the construction of , the post office, and the large
Cincinnati and Suburban Telephone Company Building Cincinnati and Suburban Telephone Company Building is a registered historic building in Cincinnati, Ohio, Cincinnati, Ohio. It was designed by Harry Hake, and listed in the National Register of Historic Places, National Register on April 20, 1995. ...
. Cincinnati weathered the
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a economic recession, recess ...
better than most American cities of its size, largely due to a resurgence in river trade, which was less expensive than transporting goods by rail. The flood in 1937 was one of the worst in the nation's history and destroyed many areas along the
Ohio valley The Ohio River is a long river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course wi ...
. Afterward the city built protective
flood wall A flood wall (or floodwall) is a primarily vertical artificial barrier designed to temporarily contain the waters of a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another ...

flood wall
s.


Nicknames

Cincinnati has many
nickname A nickname (also moniker) is a substitute for the proper name of a familiar person, place or thing. Commonly used to express affection, a form of endearment, and sometimes amusement, it can also be used to express defamation of character De ...
s, including Cincy, The 'Nati, The Queen City, The Queen of the West, The Blue Chip City, and The City of Seven Hills. These are more typically associated with professional, academic, and public relations references to the city, including restaurant names such as Blue Chip Cookies, and are not commonly used by locals in casual conversation. "The City of Seven Hills" stems from the June 1853 edition of the ''West American Review'', "Article III—Cincinnati: Its Relations to the West and South", which described and named seven specific hills. The hills form a crescent around the city: Mount Adams, Walnut Hills, Mount Auburn, Vine Street Hill, College Hill, Fairmont (now rendered Fairmount), and Mount Harrison (now known as Price Hill). The name refers to ancient Rome, reputed to be built on seven hills. "Queen City" is taken from an 1819 newspaper article and further immortalized by the 1854 poem "Catawba Wine". In it,
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (February 27, 1807 – March 24, 1882) was an American poet and educator whose works include "", ', and '. He was the first American to translate 's ' and was one of the from New England. Longfellow was born in , w ...

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
wrote of the city: For many years, Cincinnati was also known as "Porkopolis"; this less desirable nickname came from the city's large pork interests. Newer nicknames such as "The 'Nati" are emerging and are attempted to be used in different cultural contexts. For example, the local
Keep America Beautiful 335px, Keep America Beautiful's famous 1971 Ad Campaign, featuring Italian- American actor Iron Eyes Cody as the "Crying Indian" Keep America Beautiful is a Stamford, Connecticut-based nonprofit organization founded in 1953. It is the largest commun ...
affiliate, Keep Cincinnati Beautiful, introduced the
catchphrase A catchphrase (alternatively spelled catch phrase) is a phrase or expression recognized by its repeated utterance. Such phrases often originate in popular culture Popular culture (also called mass culture or pop culture) is generally recogniz ...
"Don't Trash the 'Nati" in 1998 as part of a
litter Litter consists of waste products that have been discarded incorrectly, without consent, at an unsuitable location. Litter can also be used as a verb; to litter means to drop and leave objects, often man-made, such as aluminum can An alumi ...

litter
-prevention campaign.


Society

Like all major cities in the United States, Cincinnati was proliferated by
Americans Americans are the citizens Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines the conditions under which it will recogn ...
, but also Ulster Scots known as the Scots Irish, frontiersmen, and
keelboat Barges twice: A long cigar-shaped keelboat passing a " flatboat" on the Ohio River.">Ohio_River.html" ;"title="flatboat" on the Ohio River">flatboat" on the Ohio River. A keelboat is a riverine cargo-capable working boat, or a small- to mid-sized ...
ers. Most of Cincinnati's longtime residents have kinships rooted throughout the Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana tristate and deeper. The first Methodist class came about in 1798, city residents for years already inspired by the Methodist circuit preachers; among Methodist institutes were The Christ Hospital as well as projects of the
German Methodist Church German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language * Germanic peoples * Ger ...
. Cincinnati, being on the heartland plain, depended on trade with the slave states south of the Ohio River at a time when thousands of black people were settling in the free state of Ohio. Most of them came after the Civil War and were from Kentucky and Virginia with many of them fugitives who had sought freedom and work in the North. In the antebellum years, the majority of native-born whites in the city came from northern states, primarily
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( , elsewhere ; pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basi ...

Pennsylvania
. Though 57 percent of whites migrated from free states, 26 percent were from southern states and they retained their cultural support for slavery. This quickly led to tensions between pro-slavery residents and those in favor of
abolitionism Abolitionism, or the abolitionist movement, was the movement to end . In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism was a historic movement that sought to end the and liberate the enslaved people. The British abolitionist movement star ...
and lifting restrictions on free Blacks, as codified in the "Black Code" of 1804. Germans were among the earliest newcomers, migrating from Pennsylvania and the backcountry of Virginia and Tennessee. General
David Ziegler David Ziegler (July 13, 1748 – September 24, 1811) was a German immigrant to the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, pr ...
succeeded General St. Clair in command at
Fort WashingtonFort Washington may refer to: Events * Battle of Fort Washington, during the American Revolutionary War Places United States * Fort Washington, a sub-post of Fort Adams, Mississippi, near Washington in the Mississippi Territory * Fort Washington, ...
. After the conclusion of the
Northwest Indian War The Northwest Indian War (1785–1795), also known as the Ohio War, Little Turtle's War, and by other names, was a war between the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or ...
and removal of Native Americans to the west, he was elected as Cincinnati's first town president (equivalent to a mayor) in 1802. Cincinnati was influenced by
Irishmen The Irish ( ga, Muintir na hÉireann or ''Na hÉireannaigh'') are an ethnic group and nation native to the island of Ireland, who share a common identity and Culture of Ireland, culture. Ireland has been inhabited for about 12,500 years acco ...

Irishmen
, and
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europ ...

Prussia
ns and
Saxons The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of early Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic langua ...
( northern Germans), seeking to emigrate away from crowding and strife. In 1830 residents with German roots made up 5% of the population, as many had migrated from Pennsylvania; ten years later this had increased to 30%. Thousands of Germans entered the city after the Prussian revolution of 1848, and by 1900, more than 60 percent of its population was of Prussian background. The menial-jobbed, aggravated Irish often organized mobs, and the Germans, far away from their
Pennsylvania Dutch The Pennsylvania Dutch (), translated from German to English as Pennsylvania Germans, are a cultural group formed by German immigrants settling in the state of Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( , elsewhere ; pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially t ...
connections, did the same. Thus, leaders of the city had to use fortifying measures against the arrivals' clashes. Volatile social conditions saw riots in 1829, when many blacks lost their homes and property. As the Irish entered the city in the late 1840s, they competed with blacks at the lower levels of the economy. White-led riots against blacks occurred in 1836, when an abolitionist press was twice destroyed; and in 1842. More than 1,000 blacks abandoned the city after the 1829 riots. Blacks in Philadelphia and other major cities raised money to help the refugees recover from the destruction. By 1842 blacks had become better established in the city; they defended themselves and their property in the riot, and worked politically as well. The emigres, while having been widely discussed, never overtook settlers in population. Nearby Waynesville hosts the yearly Ohio Sauerkraut Festival, and Cincinnati hosts several big yearly events which commemorate connections to the Old World. Oktoberfest Zinzinnati, Bockfest, and the Taste of Cincinnati feature local restaurateurs. Cincinnati's Jewish community was developed by those from England and Germany. A large segment of the community, led by Isaac M. Wise, developed
Reform Judaism Reform Judaism (also known as Liberal Judaism or Progressive Judaism) is a major Jewish religious movements, Jewish denomination that emphasizes the evolving nature of the faith, the superiority of its Jewish ethics, ethical aspects to its cerem ...
in response to the influences of the Enlightenment and making their new lives in the United States. Rabbi Wise, known as a founding father of the Reform movement, and his contemporaries, bore a great influence on the Jewish faith in Cincinnati, the United States, and worldwide.
Jewish Encyclopedia bibliography: *I. M. Wise, ''Reminiscences'', transl. from the German and ed. by David Philipson, Cincinnati, 1901; * *''
The American Israelite ''The American Israelite'' is an English-language Jewish newspaper published weekly in Cincinnati, Ohio. Founded in 1854 as ''The Israelite'' and assuming its present name in 1874, it is the longest-running English-language Jewish newspaper still ...
'', 1854–1900, , and the Jubilee number, June 30, 1904.
The
NRHP The National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) is the United States federal government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government or U.S. government) is the national government of the United States ...
-listed
Potter Stewart United States Courthouse The Potter Stewart United States Courthouse is a courthouse and federal building of the United States government located in Cincinnati, Ohio, and housing the headquarters of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Ohio and t ...
is a
federal court Federal court may refer to: United States * Federal judiciary of the United States ** United States district court, a particular federal court Elsewhere * Federal Court of Australia * Federal courts of Brazil * Federal Court (Canada) * Federal Cou ...
, the
United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit The United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit (in case citation Case citation is a system used by legal professionals to identify past court case A legal case is in a general sense a dispute between opposing parties which may be ...
, one of thirteen United States courts of appeals.
Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland Cincinnati Branch The Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland Cincinnati Branch Office is one of two Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland branch offices (Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland Pittsburgh Branch , the other is in Pittsburgh). The Cincinnati Office of the Federal Re ...
is located across the street from the East Fourth Street Historic District.


Economy

Metropolitan Cincinnati has the twenty-eighth largest economy in the United States and the fifth largest in the Midwest, after
Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive map of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name ...

Chicago
, Minneapolis-St. Paul,
Detroit (strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrowing, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. The surface water generally flows at the same elevation on both sides and through the strait in either direction. Mo ...

Detroit
, and
St. Louis St. Louis () is the second-largest city in Missouri Missouri is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State ( ...

St. Louis
. In 2016, it had the fastest-growing Midwestern economic capital. The gross domestic product for the region was $127 billion in 2015. The median home price is $158,200, and the
cost of living Cost of living is the cost of maintaining a certain standard of living. Changes in the cost of living over time are often operationalized in a cost-of-living index. Cost of living calculations are also used to compare the cost of maintaining a c ...
in Cincinnati is 8% below national average. The unemployment rate is also below the average at 4.2%. Several Fortune 500 companies are headquartered in Cincinnati, such as
Procter & Gamble The Procter & Gamble Company (P&G) is an American multinational consumer goods A final good or consumer good is a final product In Production (economics), production, a final product, or finished product is a product (business), product th ...
, The Kroger Company, and
Fifth Third Bank in Southfield, Michigan. (signage since been removed) Image:Fifth Third Center Nashville.jpg, Fifth Third Center (Nashville), Fifth Third Center in Nashville, Tennessee. Fifth Third Bank (5/3 Bank) is a bank headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio, ...

Fifth Third Bank
.
General Electric General Electric Company (GE) is an American Multinational corporation, multinational Conglomerate (company), conglomerate incorporated in New York State and headquartered in Boston. Until 2021, the company operated through GE Aviation, aviat ...
has headquartered their Global Operations Center in Cincinnati. The Kroger Company employs 21,646 people locally, making it the largest employer in the city, and the University of Cincinnati is the second largest at 16,000.


Food


Restaurants

Frisch's Frisch's Big Boy is a regional Big Boy Restaurants, Big Boy restaurant chain with headquarters in Cincinnati, Ohio. For many years a Big Boy franchisee, in 2001, Frisch's became the exclusive owner of the Big Boy trademark in Indiana, Kentucky, and ...
Big Boy, Graeter's Ice Cream,
Kroger The Kroger Company, or simply Kroger, is an American retail company founded by Bernard Kroger in 1883 in Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio. It is the United States' largest supermarket by revenue ($121.16 billion for fiscal year 2019), and the ...
, LaRosa's, Montgomery Inn, , Gold Star Chili, and (UDF/Trauth) are Cincinnati eateries that sell their brand commodities in grocery markets and gas stations. Glier's
goetta Goetta () is a meat-and-grain sausage or mash of German inspiration that is popular in Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky metropolitan area, Metro Cincinnati. It is primarily composed of ground meat (pork, or pork and beef), steel-cut oats, pin-head oat ...
is produced in the Cincinnati area and is a popular local food. Cincinnati has many gourmet restaurants. The Maisonette in Cincinnati was Mobil Travel Guide's longest-running Star (classification), five-star restaurant in the United States, holding that distinction for 41 consecutive years until it closed in 2005. Its former head chef, Jean-Robert de Cavel, has opened four new restaurants in the area since 2001. One of the United States's oldest and most celebrated bars, Arnold's Bar and Grill in downtown Cincinnati has won awards from ''Esquire'' magazine's "Best Bars in America", Thrillist's "Most Iconic Bar in Ohio", The Daily Meal's "150 Best bars in America" and Serious Eats, Seriouseats.com's "The Cincinnati 10". "If Arnold's were in New York, San Francisco, Chicago, or Boston—somewhere, in short, that people actually visit—it would be world-famous," wrote David Wondrich.


Cincinnati chili

Cincinnati chili, a spiced sauce served over noodles, usually topped with cheese and often with diced onions and/or beans, is the area's "best-known regional food." A variety of recipes are served by respective parlors, including , Gold Star Chili, and Dixie Chili and Deli, plus independent chili parlors including Camp Washington Chili, Empress Chili and Moonlight Chili. It was first developed by Macedonian Americans, Macedonian immigrant restaurateurs in the 1920s. Cincinnati has been called July 2016 the "Chili Capital of America" and "of the World" because it has more chili restaurants per capita than any other city in the United States or in the world.


Goetta

Goetta is a meat-and-grain sausage or mush of German inspiration. It is primarily composed of ground meat (pork, or pork and beef), steel-cut oats, pin-head oats and spices.


Mock turtle soup

Similarly to goetta's origins, mock turtle soup was a dish popularized by the influx of German immigrants in the late 19th century. Original made with offal, today Cincinnati mock turtle soup is characterized by ground beef, hard-boiled eggs, and ketchup. The only remaining commercial canner of the soup, Worthmore, has produced it in Cincinnati since 1918.


Dialect

The citizens of Cincinnati speak in a General American dialect. Unlike the rest of the Midwest, Southwest Ohio shares some aspects of its vowel system with New Jersey English dialects#North Jersey English, northern New Jersey English. Most of the distinctive local features among speakers float as Midland American. There is also some influence from the Southern American English, Southern American dialect found in Kentucky. A touch of northern German is audible in the local vernacular: some residents use the word ''wikt:please#Etymology 3, please'' when asking a speaker to repeat a statement. This usage is taken from the German practice, when ''bitte'' (a shortening of the formal, "Wie bitte?" or "How please?" rendered word-for-word from German into English), was used as shorthand for asking someone to repeat.


Demographics

In 1950 Cincinnati reached its peak population of 504,000; it has lost population in every census-count from 1960 to 2010. In the late-20th century industrial restructuring caused a loss of jobs. More recently, the population has recovered slightly: the 2020 census reports a population of 309,317, representing a small increase from 296,945 in 2010. At the 2010 census, there were 296,943 people, 133,420 households, and 62,319 families residing in the city. The population density was . There were 161,095 housing units at an average density of . The racial makeup of the city was 49.3% White (U.S. Census), White, 45.0% African American (U.S. Census), African American, 0.3% Native American (U.S. Census), Native American, 1.8% Asian (U.S. Census), Asian, 0.1% Race (U.S. Census), Pacific Islander, 1.2% from Race (U.S. Census), other races, and 2.5% from two or more races. Hispanic (U.S. Census), Hispanic or Latino (U.S. Census), Latino of any race were 2.8% of the population. There were 133,420 households, of which 25.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 23.2% were married couples living together, 19.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.4% had a male householder with no wife present, and 53.3% were non-families. 43.4% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.12 and the average family size was 3.00. The median age in the city was 32.5 years. 22.1% of residents were under the age of 18; 14.6% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 28.4% were from 25 to 44; 24.1% were from 45 to 64; and 10.8% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.0% male and 52.0% female. As of 2019 estimates, the Cincinnati- Middletown−Wilmington, Ohio, Wilmington Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 2,221,208 making it the 30th-largest metropolitan statistical area in the country. It includes the
Ohio Ohio () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Col ...

Ohio
counties of Hamilton County, Ohio, Hamilton, Butler County, Ohio, Butler, Warren County, Ohio, Warren, Clermont County, Ohio, Clermont, Clinton County, Ohio, Clinton, and Brown County, Ohio, Brown, as well as the
Kentucky Kentucky ( , ), officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a U.S. state, state in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States, bordered by Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio to the north; West Virginia and Virginia to ...
counties of Boone County, Kentucky, Boone, Bracken County, Kentucky, Bracken, Campbell County, Kentucky, Campbell, Gallatin County, Kentucky, Gallatin, Grant County, Kentucky, Grant, Kenton County, Kentucky, Kenton, and Pendleton County, Kentucky, Pendleton, and the Indiana counties of Dearborn County, Indiana, Dearborn, Franklin County, Indiana, Franklin, Union County, Indiana, Union, and Ohio County, Indiana, Ohio.


Cityscape and climate

The city is undergoing significant changes due to The cityscape of Cincinnati, Ohio#New development projects, new development and private investment. This includes buildings of the long-stalled The Banks, Cincinnati, Banks project that includes apartments, retail, restaurants, and offices, which will stretch from Great American Ball Park to Paul Brown Stadium. Phase 1A is already complete and 100 percent occupied as of early 2013. Smale Riverfront Park is being developed along with The Banks, and is Cincinnati's newest park. Nearly $3.5 billion have been invested in the urban core of Cincinnati (including Northern Kentucky). Much of this development has been undertaken by 3CDC. The Cincinnati Bell Connector began in September 2016. Cincinnati is midway by river between the cities of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Cairo, Illinois. The downtown lies near the mouth of the
Licking grooming its paw by licking Licking is the action of passing the tongue over a surface, typically either to deposit saliva onto the surface, or to collect liquid, food or minerals onto the tongue for ingestion, or to animal communication, communi ...
, a confluence where the first settlement occurred. Greater Cincinnati, Metro Cincinnati spans southern Ohio and Indiana, and northern Kentucky; the United States Census Bureau, census bureau has measured the city proper at , of which are land and are water. The city spreads over a number of hills, bluffs, and low ridges overlooking the Ohio in the Bluegrass region of the country. The tristate is geographically located within the Midwest and is on the far northern of the Upland South. Three municipalities are enveloped by the city: Norwood, Ohio, Norwood, Elmwood Place, Ohio, Elmwood Place, and Saint Bernard, Ohio, Saint Bernard. Norwood is a business and industrial city, while Elmwood Place and Saint Bernard are small, primarily residential, villages. Cincinnati does not have an exclave, but the city government does own several properties outside the corporation limits: French Park (Amberley, Ohio), French Park in Amberley, Ohio, Amberley Village, the disused runway at the former Cincinnati–Blue Ash Airport, Blue Ash Airport in Blue Ash, Ohio, Blue Ash, and the
Cincinnati Southern Railway Cincinnati ( ) is a major city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the government county seat, seat of Hamilton County, Ohio, Hamilton County. Settled in 1788, the city is located at the northern side of the confluence of the Licking River (Kentucky) ...
, which runs between Cincinnati and
Chattanooga, Tennessee Chattanooga ( ) is a city in and the county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of publi ...

Chattanooga, Tennessee
.


Landscape

Cincinnati is home to numerous embankments that are noteworthy due to their architectural characteristics or historic associations, as well as the Carew Tower, the Scripps Center, the Ingalls Building, Cincinnati Union Terminal, and the Isaac M. Wise Temple. Notable historic public parks and landscapes include the 19th-century Spring Grove Cemetery, Spring Grove Cemetery and Arboretum, Eden Park (Cincinnati), Eden Park, and Mount Storm Park, all designed by Prussian émigré landscape architect Adolph Strauch. Great American Insurance Building at Queen City Square, Queen City Square opened in January 2011. The building is the tallest in Cincinnati (surpassing the Carew Tower), and is the third tallest in Ohio, reaching a height of . The mile-long Cincinnati Skywalk, completed in 1997, was shortened to bring more commerce, yet remains the viable way to walk downtown during poor weather. The Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden in Avondale, Cincinnati, Avondale is the second oldest zoo in the United States.


Waterscape

Downtown Cincinnati towers about Fountain Square, Cincinnati, Fountain Square, the public square and event locale. Fountain Square was renovated in 2006. Cincinnati rests along of riverfront about northern banks of the Ohio, stretching from California, Cincinnati, California to Sayler Park, Cincinnati, Sayler Park, giving the mighty Ohio and its movements a prominent place in the life of the city. Frequent flooding has hampered the growth of Cincinnati's municipal airport at Cincinnati Municipal Lunken Airport, Lunken Field and the Coney Island (Cincinnati, Ohio), Coney Island amusement park. Downtown Cincinnati is protected from flooding by the Serpentine Wall at Sawyer Point Park & Yeatman's Cove, Yeatman's Cove and another flood wall built into Fort Washington Way. Parts of Cincinnati also experience flooding from the Little Miami River and Mill Creek (Ohio), Mill Creek. Since April 1, 1922, the Ohio flood stage at Cincinnati has officially been set at , as measured from the John A. Roebling Suspension Bridge. At this depth, the pumping station at the mouth of Mill Creek is activated. From 1873 to 1898, the flood stage was . From 1899 to March 31, 1922, it was . The Ohio reached its lowest level, less than , in 1881; conversely, its all-time high water mark is , having crested January 26, 1937. Various parts of Cincinnati flood at different points: Riverbend Music Center in the California neighborhood floods at , while Sayler Park floods at and the Freeman Avenue flood gate closes at .


Climate

Cincinnati is at the southern limit (considering the Contour line#Temperature and related subjects, isotherm) of the humid continental climate zone (Köppen climate classification, Köppen: ''Dfa''), bordering the humid subtropical climate zone (''Cfa''). Summers are hot and humid, with significant rainfall in each month and highs reaching or above on 21 days per year, often with high dew points and humidity. July is the warmest month, with a daily average temperature of . Winters tend to be cold and snowy, with January, the coldest month, averaging at . Lows reach on an average 2.6 nights yearly. An average winter will see around of snowfall, contributing to the yearly of precipitation, with rainfall peaking in spring. Extremes range from on January 18, 1977, up to on July 21 and 22, 1934. Severe thunderstorms are common in the warmer months, and tornadoes, while infrequent, are not unknown, with such events striking the Metro Cincinnati area most recently in 1974, 1999, 2012, and 2017.


Sports

Cincinnati has three major league teams, seven minor league teams, five college institutions with sports teams, and seven major sports venues. Cincinnati's three major league teams are Major League Baseball's Cincinnati Reds, Reds, who were named for America's first professional baseball team, the Cincinnati Red Stockings; the Cincinnati Bengals, Bengals of the
National Football League The National Football League (NFL) is a professional American football American football, referred to simply as football in the United States and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rect ...
; and
FC Cincinnati Football Club Cincinnati, commonly known as FC Cincinnati, is an American professional soccer club based in Cincinnati, Ohio. The club plays in the Eastern Conference of Major League Soccer (MLS). The team succeeded the lower-division team of ...
, promoted to
Major League Soccer Major League Soccer (MLS) is a men's professional league sanctioned by the , which represents the sport's highest level in the . The league comprises 28 teams—25 in the U.S. and 3 in Canada—and plans to expand to 29 teams by the 2023 sea ...
in 2019. On Major League Baseball Opening Day, Cincinnati has the distinction of holding the "traditional opener" in baseball each year, due to its baseball history. Children have been known to skip school on Opening Day, and it is commonly thought of as a holiday. The Flying Pig Marathon is a yearly event attracting many runners and acts as a qualifier to the Boston Marathon. The Cincinnati Reds have won five World Series titles and had one of the most successful baseball teams of all time in the mid-1970s, known as The Big Red Machine. The Bengals have made two Super Bowl appearances since its founding, in 1981 and 1988, but have yet to win a championship. As of 2016, the Bengals have the longest active playoff win drought (26 years) despite making five straight playoff appearances from 2011 to 2015. Whenever the Bengals and Carolina Panthers play against each other (an interconference matchup that occurs every four years), their games are dubbed the "Queen City Bowl", as Charlotte, North Carolina, Charlotte, North Carolina, the home city of the Panthers, is also known as the Queen City. The Bengals enjoy strong rivalries with the Cleveland Browns and Pittsburgh Steelers (both of whom are also members of the AFC North). Cincinnati is also home to two men's college basketball teams: The Cincinnati Bearcats and Xavier Musketeers. These two teams face off as one of college basketball's rivalries known as the Crosstown Shootout. In 2011–12 NCAA Division I men's basketball season, 2011, the rivalry game erupted in 2011 Crosstown Shootout brawl, an on-court brawl at the end of the game that saw multiple suspensions follow. The Musketeers have made 10 of the last 11 NCAA tournaments while the Bearcats have made six consecutive appearances. Previously, the Cincinnati Royals competed in the National Basketball Association from 1957 to 1972; they are now known as the Sacramento Kings.
FC Cincinnati Football Club Cincinnati, commonly known as FC Cincinnati, is an American professional soccer club based in Cincinnati, Ohio. The club plays in the Eastern Conference of Major League Soccer (MLS). The team succeeded the lower-division team of ...
is a soccer team that plays in Major League Soccer, MLS. FC Cincinnati made its home debut in the USL Championship, USL on April 9, 2016, before a crowd of more than 14,000 fans. On their next home game vs Louisville City FC, FC Cincinnati broke the all-time USL attendance record with a crowd of 20,497; on May 14, 2016, it broke its own record, bringing in an audience of 23,375 on its 1–0 victory against the Pittsburgh Riverhounds. FC Cincinnati has since broken the USL attendance record on several additional occasions, and moved to
Major League Soccer Major League Soccer (MLS) is a men's professional league sanctioned by the , which represents the sport's highest level in the . The league comprises 28 teams—25 in the U.S. and 3 in Canada—and plans to expand to 29 teams by the 2023 sea ...
(MLS) for the 2019 season. FC Cincinnati was awarded an MLS bid on May 29, 2018, and moved to a TQL Stadium, new stadium in the West End neighborhood just northwest of downtown in 2021. The Cincinnati Masters, Western & Southern Open, a historic international men's and women's tennis tournament that is part of the ATP Tour Masters 1000 Series and the WTA Premier tournaments, WTA Tour Premier 5, was established in the city in 1899 and has been held at the Lindner Family Tennis Center in suburban Mason, Ohio, Mason since 1979. The
Cincinnati Cyclones The Cincinnati Cyclones are a professional ice hockey team based in Cincinnati, Ohio. The team is a member of the ECHL. Originally established in 1990, the team first played their games in the Cincinnati Gardens and now play at Heritage Bank Ce ...
is a minor league AA-level professional hockey team playing in the ECHL. Founded in 1990, the team plays at the Heritage Bank Center. They won the 2010 Kelly Cup Finals, their 2nd championship in three seasons. The Cincinnati Sizzle is a women's minor professional tackle football team that plays in the Women's Football Alliance. The team was established in 2003, by former
Cincinnati Bengals The Cincinnati Bengals are a professional American football franchise based in Cincinnati. The Bengals compete in the National Football League (NFL) as a member club of the league's American Football Conference (AFC) AFC North, North division. T ...

Cincinnati Bengals
running back Ickey Woods. In 2016 the team claimed their first National Championship Title in the United States Women's Football League. The table below shows sports teams in the Cincinnati area that average more than 5,000 fans per game:


Police and fire services

The city of Cincinnati's emergency services for fire, rescue, EMS, hazardous materials and explosive ordnance disposal is handled by the Cincinnati Fire Department. On April 1, 1853, the Cincinnati Fire Department became the first paid professional fire department in United States. The Cincinnati Fire Department operates out of 26 fire stations, located throughout the city in 4 districts, each commanded by a district chief. The Cincinnati Fire Department is organized into 4 bureaus: Operations, Personnel and Training, Administrative Services, and Fire Prevention. Each bureau is commanded by an assistant chief, who in turn reports to the chief of department. The Cincinnati Police Department has more than 1,000 sworn officers. Before the Cincinnati riots of 2001, riots of 2001, Cincinnati's overall crime rate had been dropping steadily and by 1995 had reached its lowest point since 1992 but with more murders and rapes. After the riot, violent crime increased, but crime has been on the decline since. In 2015, there were 71 homicides. The Cincinnati Police Department was featured on TLC (TV channel), TLC's ''Police Women of Cincinnati'' and on A&E's reality show ''The First 48''.


Government and politics


Government

The city proper operates with a Election Results, City Council of Cincinnati, Ohio, nine-member city council, whose members are elected at-large. Prior to 1924, City council members were elected through a system of Ward (politics), wards. The ward system was subject to corruption due to partisan rule. From the 1880s to the 1920s, the Republican Party (United States), Republican Party dominated city politics, with the political machine of George B. George B. Cox, "Boss" Cox exerting control. A reform movement arose in 1923, led by another Republican, Murray Seasongood. Seasongood founded the Charter Committee, which used ballot initiatives in 1924 to replace the ward system with the current at-large system. They gained approval by voters for a council–manager government form of government, in which the smaller council (compared to the number of previous ward representatives) hires a professional manager to operate the daily affairs of the city. From 1924 to 1957, the council was elected by proportional representation and single transfer voting (STV). Starting with Ashtabula in 1915, several major cities in Ohio adopted this electoral system, which had the practical effect of reducing ward boss and political party power. For that reason, such groups opposed it. In an effort to overturn the charter that provided for proportional representation, opponents in 1957 fanned fears of black political power, at a time of increasing civil rights activism.Douglas J. Amy, "A Brief History of Proportional Representation in the United States"
, revised version of "The Forgotten History of the Single Transferable Vote in the United States", in ''Representation'' 34, number 1 (Winter 1996/7), accessed March 30, 2015
The PR/STV system had enabled minorities to enter local politics and gain seats on the city council more than they had before, in proportion to their share of the population. This made the government more representative of the residents of the city.
, Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1995, pp. Introduction
Overturning that charter, in 1957, all candidates had to run in a single race for the nine city council positions. The top nine vote-getters were elected (the "9-X system"), which favored candidates who could appeal to the entire geographic area of the city and reach its residents with campaign materials. The mayor was elected by the council. In 1977, 33-year-old Jerry Springer, later a notable television talk show host, was chosen to serve one year as mayor. Residents continued to work to improve their system. To have their votes count more, starting in 1987, the top vote-getter in the city council election was automatically selected as mayor. Starting in 1999, the List of mayors of Cincinnati, Ohio, mayor was elected separately in a general at-large election for the first time. The city manager's role in government was reduced. These reforms were referred to as the "Mayor-council government, strong mayor" reforms, to make the publicate accountable to voters. Cincinnati politics include the participation of the Charter Party of Cincinnati, Ohio, Charter Party, the political party with the third-longest history of winning in local elections. On October 5, 2011, the Council became the first local government in the United States to adopt a resolution recognizing freedom from domestic violence as a fundamental human right. On January 30, 2017, Cincinnati's mayor declared the city a sanctuary city.


Race relations

Due to its location on the Ohio River, Cincinnati was a border town in a free state, across from Kentucky, which was a slave state. Residents of Cincinnati played a major role in Abolitionism in the United States, abolitionism. Many fugitive slaves used the Ohio River at Cincinnati to escape to the North. Cincinnati had numerous stations on the Underground Railroad, but there were also runaway slave catchers active in the city, who put escaping slaves at risk of recapture. Given its southern Ohio location, Cincinnati had also attracted settlers from the Upper South, who traveled along the Ohio River into the territory. Tensions between abolitionists and slavery supporters broke out in repeated violence, with whites attacking black people in 1829. Anti-abolitionists attacked black people in the city in a wave of destruction that resulted in 1,200 black people leaving the city and the country; they resettled in Canada. The riot and its refugees were topics of discussion throughout the country, and black people organized the first Negro Convention in 1830 in Philadelphia to discuss these events. White riots against black people took place again in Cincinnati in 1836 and 1842. In 1836 a mob of 700 pro-slavery men attacked black neighborhoods, as well as a press run by James M. Birney, publisher of the anti-slavery weekly ''The Philanthropist''. Tensions increased after congressional passage in 1850 of the Fugitive Slave Act, which required cooperation by citizens in free states and increased penalties for failing to try to recapture escaped slaves. Levi Coffin made the Cincinnati area the center of his anti-slavery efforts in 1847. Harriet Beecher Stowe lived in Cincinnati for a time, met escaped slaves and used their stories as a basis for her novel ''Uncle Tom's Cabin'' (1852). The
National Underground Railroad Freedom Center The National Underground Railroad Freedom Center is a museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is an institution that Preservation (library and archival science), cares for (conserves) a collection (artwork), collection of a ...
, which opened in 2004 on the Cincinnati riverfront in the middle of "The Banks, Cincinnati, The Banks" area between Great American Ballpark and Paul Brown Stadium, commemorates the volunteers who aided refugee slaves and their drive for freedom, as well as others who have been leaders for social justice. Located in a free state and attracting many European immigrants, Cincinnati has historically had a predominantly white population. By 1940, the Census Bureau reported the city's population as 87.8 percent white and 12.2 percent black. In the second half of the 20th century, Cincinnati, along with other rust belt cities, underwent a vast demographic transformation. By the early 21st century, the city's population was 40% black. Predominantly white, working-class families who constituted the urban core during the European immigration boom in the 19th and early 20th centuries, moved to newly constructed suburbs before and after World War II. Blacks people, fleeing the oppression of the Jim Crow South in hopes of better socioeconomic opportunity, had moved to these older city neighborhoods in their Great Migration (African American), Great Migration to the industrial North. The downturn in industry in the late 20th century caused a loss of many jobs, leaving many people in poverty. In 1968 passage of national civil rights legislation had raised hopes for positive change, but the assassination of national leader Martin Luther King, Jr. resulted in riots in many black neighborhoods in Cincinnati; unrest occurred in black communities in nearly every major U.S. city after King's murder. More than three decades later, in April 2001, racially charged Cincinnati riots of 2001, riots occurred after police fatally shot a young unarmed black man, Cincinnati riots of 2001#Incident, Timothy Thomas, during a foot pursuit to arrest him, mostly for outstanding traffic warrants. After the 2001 riots, the ACLU, Cincinnati Black United Front, the city and its police union agreed upon a community-oriented policing strategy. The agreement has been used as a model across the country for building relationships between police and local communities. On July 19, 2015, Shooting of Samuel DuBose, Samuel DuBose, an unarmed black motorist, was fatally shot by white University of Cincinnati Police Officer Ray Tensing after a routine traffic stop for a missing front license plate. The resulting legal proceedings in late 2016 have been a recurring focus of national news media. Several protests involving the Black Lives Matter movement have been carried out. Tensing was indicted on charges of murder and voluntary manslaughter, but a November 2016 trial ended in Mistrial (law), mistrial after the jury became Hung jury, deadlocked. A retrial began in May 2017, which also ended in mistrial after deadlock. The prosecution then announced they did not plan to try Tensing a third time. The University of Cincinnati has Settlement (litigation), settled with the DuBose family for $4.8 million and free tuition for each of the 12 children.


Schools

The city has an extensive library system, both the city's public one and university facilities. The Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County was the third-largest public library nationally in 1998. The
University of Cincinnati The University of Cincinnati (UC or Cincinnati) is a public university, public research university in Cincinnati, Ohio. Founded in 1819 as Cincinnati College, it is the oldest institution of higher education in Cincinnati and has an annual enro ...
, called Cincinnati or nicknamed UC, is a public university. The university is renowned in architecture and engineering, liberal arts, music, nursing, and social science. The Art Academy of Cincinnati, nicknamed AAC was founded as the McMicken School of Design in 1869. The University of Cincinnati Medical Center is the leading institute for community health in Ohio. The College Conservatory of Music taught Kathleen Battle, Al Hirt and Faith Prince. The Cincinnati Public Schools (CPS) include sixteen high schools all with citywide acceptance. CPS, third-largest school cluster by student population, was the biggest one to have an overall 'effective' rating from the State. The district currently includes public Montessori method, Montessori schools, including the first public Montessori high school established in the United States, Clark Montessori High School, Clark Montessori. Cincinnati Public Schools' top-rated school is Walnut Hills High School, ranked 34th on the national list of best public schools by ''Newsweek''. Walnut Hills offers 28 Advanced Placement courses. Cincinnati is also home to the first Kindergarten – 12th grade Arts School in the country, the School for Creative and Performing Arts. Cincinnati State is a small college that includes the Midwest Culinary School. Also located in Cincinnati is Cincinnati Christian University. Five hundred years since the Reformation Cincinnati provided a global distinguished lecture marking the layout of books and research for stirred city goers and the Cincinnati Art Museum staff built ''Albrecht Durer: The Age of Reformation and Renaissance'', with more crafting by the university design, art, and architecture program given for the city. Most of the work explores social ontology of the birth of mainline beliefs and propriety, woven with scripture and pamphlets which launched a widespread Religion in Europe, European grooming. The Jewish community has several schools, including the all-girl RITSS (Regional Institute for Torah and Secular Studies) high school, and the all-boy Yeshivas Lubavitch High School. Hebrew Union College- Jewish Institute of Religion (HUC-JIR), founded by Isaac Mayer Wise, is a seminary for training of Reform rabbis and others religious. Xavier University (Cincinnati), Xavier University, one of three Roman Catholic colleges along with Chatfield College and Mount St. Joseph University, was at one time affiliated with The Athenaeum of Ohio, the seminary of the Cincinnati Archdiocese. The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cincinnati operates 16 Diocese of Cincinnati#Schools, high schools in Cincinnati, ten of which are Single-sex school, single-sex. There are six all-female high schools and four all-male high schools in the city, with additional schools in the metro areas. Antonelli College, a career training school, is based in Cincinnati with several satellite campuses in
Ohio Ohio () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Col ...

Ohio
and Mississippi.


Theater and music

Professional theatre has operated in Cincinnati since at least as early as the 1800s. Among the professional companies based in the city are Ensemble Theatre Cincinnati, Cincinnati Shakespeare Company, the Know Theatre of Cincinnati, Stage First Cincinnati, Cincinnati Public Theatre, Cincinnati Opera, The Performance Gallery and Clear Stage Cincinnati. The city is also home to Cincinnati Playhouse in the Park, which hosts regional premieres, and the Aronoff Center, which hosts touring Broadway shows each year via Broadway Across America. The city has community theatres, such as the Cincinnati Young People's Theatre, the Showboat Majestic (which is the last surviving showboat in the United States and possibly the world), and the Mariemont Players. Since 2011, Cincinnati Opera and the University of Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music have partnered to sponsor the Opera Fusion: New Works project. The Opera Fusion: New Works project acts as a program for composers or librettists to workshop an opera in a 10-day residency. This program is headed by the Director of Artistic Operations at Cincinnati Opera, Marcus Küchle, and the Head of Opera at University of Cincinnati – College-Conservatory of Music, CCM, Robin Guarino. Music-related events include the Cincinnati May Festival, Bunbury Music Festival, and Cincinnati Bell/WEBN Riverfest. Cincinnati has hosted the World Choir Games with the catchy mantra "Cincinnati, the City that Sings!" In 2015, Cincinnati held the USITT 2015 Conference and Stage Expo at the Duke Energy Convention Center, bringing 5,000+ students, university educators, theatrical designers and performers, and other personnel to the city. The USITT Conference is considered the main conference for Theatre, Opera, and Dance in the United States. ''A Rage in Harlem'' was filmed entirely in the Cincinnati neighborhood of Over the Rhine because of its similarity to 1950s Harlem. Movies that were filmed in part in Cincinnati include ''The Best Years of Our Lives'' (aerial footage early in the film), ''The Ides of March (2011 film), Ides of March'', ''Fresh Horses (film), Fresh Horses'', ''The Asphalt Jungle'' (the opening is shot from the Public Landing, Cincinnati, Public Landing and takes place in Cincinnati although only Boone County, Kentucky, is mentioned), ''Rain Man'', ''Miles Ahead (film), Miles Ahead'', ''Airborne (1993 film), Airborne'', ''Grimm Reality'', ''Little Man Tate'', ''City of Hope (film), City of Hope'', ''An Innocent Man (film), An Innocent Man'', ''Tango & Cash'', ''A Mom for Christmas'', ''Lost in Yonkers (film), Lost in Yonkers'', ''Summer Catch'', ''Artworks'', ''Dreamer (2005 film), Dreamer'', ''Elizabethtown (film), Elizabethtown'', ''Jimmy and Judy'', ''Eight Men Out'', ''Milk Money (film), Milk Money'', ''Traffic (2000 film), Traffic'', ''The Pride of Jesse Hallam'', ''The Great Buck Howard'', ''In Too Deep (1999 film), In Too Deep'', ''Seven Below'', ''Carol (film), Carol'', ''The Public Eye (film), Public Eye'', ''The Last Late Night'', and ''The Mighty''. In addition, ''Wild Hogs'' is set, though not filmed, in Cincinnati. The Cincinnati skyline was prominently featured in the opening and closing sequences of the CBS/ABC daytime drama ''The Edge of Night'' from its start in 1956 until 1980, when it was replaced by the Los Angeles skyline; the cityscape was the stand-in for the show's setting, Monticello. Procter & Gamble, the show's producer, is based in Cincinnati. The sitcom ''WKRP in Cincinnati'' and its sequel/spin-off ''The New WKRP in Cincinnati'' featured the city's skyline and other exterior shots in its credits, although was not filmed in Cincinnati. The city's skyline has also appeared in an April Fool's episode of ''The Drew Carey Show'', which was set in Carey's hometown of Cleveland. 3 Doors Down's music video "It's Not My Time" was filmed in Cincinnati, and features the skyline and Fountain Square. Also, ''Harry's Law'', the NBC legal dramedy created by David E. Kelley and starring Kathy Bates, was set in Cincinnati. Cincinnati has given rise or been home to popular musicians and singers, Lonnie Mack, Doris Day, Odd Nosdam, Dinah Shore, Fats Waller, Rosemary Clooney, Bootsy Collins, The Isley Brothers, Merle Travis, Hank Ballard, Otis Williams, Mood (band), Mood, Midnight Star (band), Midnight Star, Calloway (band), Calloway, The Afghan Whigs, Over the Rhine (band), Over the Rhine, Blessid Union of Souls, Freddie Meyer, 98 Degrees, The Greenhornes, The Deele, Enduser, Heartless Bastards, The Dopamines, Adrian Belew, The National (band), The National, Foxy Shazam, Why? (American band), Why?, Wussy, H-Bomb Ferguson and Walk the Moon, and alternative hip hop producer Hi-Tek calls the Cincinnati – Northern Kentucky metropolitan area, Metro Cincinnati region home. Andy Biersack, the lead vocalist for the rock band Black Veil Brides, was born in Cincinnati. The Cincinnati May Festival Chorus is an amateur choir that has been in existence since 1880. The city is home to the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, Cincinnati Opera, Cincinnati Boychoir, and Cincinnati Ballet. Metro Cincinnati is also home to several regional orchestras and youth orchestras, including the Starling Chamber Orchestra and the Cincinnati Symphony Youth Orchestra. Music Director James Conlon and Chorus Director Robert Porco lead the Chorus through an extensive repertoire of classical music. The May Festival Chorus is the mainstay of the oldest continuous choral festival in the Western Hemisphere. Music Hall (Cincinnati), Cincinnati Music Hall was built to house the May Festival. The Hollows (series), Hollows series of books by Kim Harrison is an urban fantasy that takes place in Cincinnati. American Girl's ''Kit Kittredge'' sub-series also took place in the city, although the Kit Kittredge: An American Girl, film based on it was shot in Toronto. Cincinnati also has its own chapter (or "Tent") of ''The Sons of the Desert (The Laurel and Hardy Appreciation Society)'', which meets several times per year. Cincinnati is the subject of a Connie Smith song written by Bill Anderson (singer), Bill Anderson, called Cincinnati, Ohio (song), Cincinnati, Ohio. Cincinnati is the main scenario for the international music production of Italian artist and songwriter Veronica Vitale called "Inside the Outsider". She embedded the sounds of the trains at Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Downtown Cincinnati, filmed her music single "Mi Sono innamorato di Te" at the American Sign Museum and recorded her heartbeat sound at Cincinnati Children's Hospital replacing it to the drums for her song "The Pulse of Light" during the broadcasting at Ryan Seacrest's studio. Furthermore, she released the music single "Nobody is Perfect" featuring legendary Cincinnati's bass player Bootsy Collins. Cincinnati was a major early music recording center, and was home to King Records (United States), King Records, which helped launch the career of James Brown, who often recorded there, as well as Jewel Records (Cincinnati record label), Jewel Records, which helped launch Lonnie Mack's career, and Fraternity Records. Cincinnati had a vibrant jazz scene from the 1920s to today. Louis Armstrong's first recordings were done in the Cincinnati area, at Gennett Records, as were Jelly Roll Morton's, Hoagy Carmichael's, and Bix Beiderbecke, who took up residency in Cincinnati for a time. Fats Waller was on staff at WLW in the 1930s.


Media


Newspapers

Cincinnati's daily newspaper is ''The Cincinnati Enquirer'', which was established in 1841. The city is home to several alternative, weekly, and monthly publications, among which are free weekly print magazine publications including ''Cincinnati CityBeat, CityBeat'' and ''TSJ Media, La Jornada Latina''. The city's weekly African American newspaper, ''The Cincinnati Herald'', was founded by Gerald Porter in 1955 and purchased by Sesh Communications in 1996.


Television

According to Nielsen Media Research, Cincinnati is the 36th largest Media market, television market in the United States as of the 2016–2017 television season. Twelve television stations broadcast from Cincinnati. Major commercial stations in the area include WLWT 5 (NBC), WCPO-TV 9 (American Broadcasting Company, ABC), WKRC-TV 12 (CBS, with The CW, CW on DT2), WXIX-TV 19 (Fox Broadcasting Company, Fox), and WSTR-TV 64 (MyNetworkTV). In addition, locally owned Block Broadcasting owns one Low-power broadcasting, low-power station, WBQC-LD 25. WCET (TV), WCET channel 48, now known as CET, is the United States' oldest licensed public television station (License #1, issued in 1951). It is now co-owned with WPTD, WPTO 14, a satellite of WPTD in nearby Dayton, Ohio, Dayton.


Radio

As of December 2017, Cincinnati is the 30th largest Media market, radio market in the United States, with an estimated 1.8 million listeners aged 12 and above. Major radio station operators include iHeartMedia and Cumulus Media. WLW and WCKY (AM), WCKY, both owned by iHeartMedia, are both clear-channel stations that broadcast at 50,000 watts, covering most of the eastern United States at night.


Online

CincyMusic.com is the city's comprehensive guide to live concerts, local bands, and hyper-local music-related news.


Transportation

The city of Cincinnati has a higher than average percentage of households without a car. In 2015, 19.3 percent of Cincinnati households lacked a car and increased slightly to 21.2 percent in 2016. The national average was 8.7 percent in 2016. Cincinnati averaged 1.3 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8. The development of a light rail system has long been a goal for Cincinnati, with several proposals emerging over many decades. The city grew rapidly during Streetcars in Cincinnati, its streetcar era of the late 19th century and early 1900s. Public transit ridership has been in decline for several decades and bicycles and walking has accounted for a relatively small portion of all trips in the past. Like many other midwestern cities, however, bicycle use is growing fairly rapidly in the 2000s and 2010s. In 1916 the Mayor and citizens voted to spend $6 million to build the Cincinnati Subway. The subway was planned to be a 16-mile loop from Downtown to Norwood, Ohio, Norwood to Oakley and back to the east side of Downtown. World War I delayed the construction in 1920 and inflation raised the costs causing the Oakley portion never to be built. Mayor Seasongood who took office later on argued it would cost too much money to finish the system.


Public transportation

A century later, the Cincinnati Bell Connector streetcar line, which opened for service on September 9, 2016, crosses directly above the unfinished subway on Central Parkway downtown. Cincinnati is served by Amtrak's Cardinal (train), Cardinal, an intercity passenger train which makes three weekly trips in each direction between Chicago and New York City through Cincinnati Union Terminal. Cincinnati is served by the Southwest Ohio Regional Transit Authority (SORTA), the Transit Authority of Northern Kentucky (TANK) and the Clermont Transportation Connection. SORTA and TANK primarily operate 40-foot diesel buses, though some lines are served by longer articulated or hybrid-engine buses. SORTA buses operate under the "Metro" name and are referred to by locals as such. In 2012–16, Cincinnati constructed a Cincinnati Bell Connector, streetcar line in Downtown and Over-the-Rhine. This modern version of the streetcar opened in September 2016. The Cincinnati Streetcar project experienced railcar-manufacturing delays and initial funding issues, but was completed on-time and within its budget in mid-2016. A system of public staircases known as the Steps of Cincinnati guides pedestrians up and down the city's many hills. In addition to practical use linking hillside neighborhoods, the 400 stairways provide visitors scenic views of the Cincinnati area.


Air transportation

The city is served by Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport (IATA: CVG) which is actually located in Hebron, Kentucky. The airport is a focus city for Allegiant Air and a global hub for both Amazon Air and DHL Aviation. In addition to that Delta Air Lines, Delta offers daily nonstop flights to Paris, France. Cincinnati Municipal Lunken Airport (IATA: LUK), has daily service on commercial charter flights, and is located in
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Ohio
. The airport serves as hub for Ultimate Air Shuttle and Flamingo Air (Cincinnati airline), Flamingo Air.


Streets and highways

Bus traffic is heavy in Cincinnati. Greyhound Lines, Greyhound and several smaller motor coach companies operate out of Cincinnati, making trips within the Midwest and beyond. The city has a Orbital road, beltway, Interstate 275 (Ohio), Interstate 275 (which is the longest beltway in the Interstate Highway System, at 85 miles) and a spur, Interstate 471, to
Kentucky Kentucky ( , ), officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a U.S. state, state in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States, bordered by Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio to the north; West Virginia and Virginia to ...
. It is also served by Interstate 71 (Ohio), Interstate 71, Interstate 74 (Ohio), Interstate 74, Interstate 75 (Ohio), Interstate 75 and numerous U.S. highways: U.S. Highway 22 (Ohio), US 22, U.S. Highway 25 (Ohio), US 25, U.S. Highway 27 (Ohio), US 27, U.S. Highway 42 (Ohio), US 42, U.S. Route 50 in Ohio, US 50, U.S. Highway 52 (Ohio), US 52, and U.S. Highway 127 (Ohio), US 127. The Riverfront Transit Center, built underneath 2nd Street, is about the size of eight football fields. It is only used for sporting events and school field trips. At its construction, it was designed for public transit buses, charter buses, school buses, city coach buses, light rail, and possibly commuter rail. When not in use for sporting events, it is closed off and rented to a private parking vendor.


Notable people


International relations

Cincinnati has nine town twinning, sister cities: * Amman, Jordan * Gifu, Gifu, Gifu City, Japan * Harare, Zimbabwe * Kharkiv, Ukraine * Liuzhou, Guangxi, People's Republic of China * Munich, Germany * Mysore, Karnataka, India * Nancy, France, Nancy, Meurthe-et-Moselle, France * New Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China


See also

* City Plan for Cincinnati * List of Cincinnati neighborhoods * National Register of Historic Places listings in Cincinnati * Vine Street, Cincinnati


Notes


References


Further reading

* George W. Engelhardt, ''Cincinnati: The Queen City''. Cincinnati, Ohio: George W. Engelhardt Co., 1901. * Charles Frederic Goss, ''Cincinnati: The Queen City, 1788–1912''. In Four Volumes. Chicago: S.J. Clarke Publishing Co., 1912. *
Volume 1

Volume 2
, Volume 3
Volume 4
* * William C. Smith
''Queen City Yesterdays: Sketches of Cincinnati in the Eighties''
Crawfordsville, Indiana: R. E. Banta, 1959. *


External links


Official website

Cincinnati Parks
– Official City of Cincinnati Public Parks website
Greater Cincinnati Convention & Visitors Bureau

Cincinnati USA: Official Visitors and Tourist Site


* {{Authority control Cincinnati, 1788 establishments in the Northwest Territory Cities in Hamilton County, Ohio Cities in Ohio Populated places established in 1788 Underground Railroad