HOME

TheInfoList




Chu, or Ch'u in
Wade–Giles Wade–Giles () is a romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken lang ...
romanization, (,
Hanyu Pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objecti ...
: Chǔ,
Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It i ...
: ''*s-r̥aʔ'') was a
Zhou dynasty The Zhou dynasty ( ; Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China ( ...
vassal state A vassal state is any state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...
. Their first ruler was
King Wu of Chu King Wu of Chu (, died 690 BC) was the first king of the Chu (state), State of Chu during the Spring and Autumn period of ancient China. He was the second son of Xiao'ao, and brother of former ruler Fenmao whom he is rumored to have murdered in 740 ...
in the early 8th century BCE. Chu was located in the south of the Zhou heartland and lasted during the
Spring and Autumn period #REDIRECT Spring and Autumn period#REDIRECT Spring and Autumn period The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dyna ...
. At the end of the
Warring States period The Warring States period () was an era in ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation. It followed the Spring and Autumn period The Spring and Autumn period was a period i ...
it was destroyed by the
QinQin may refer to: Dynasties and states * Qin (state) (秦), a major state during the Zhou Dynasty of ancient China * Qin dynasty (秦), founded by the Qin state in 221 BC and ended in 206 BC * Daqin (大秦), ancient Chinese name for the Roman Empi ...
in 223 BCE during the
Qin's wars of unification Qin's wars of unification were a series of military campaigns launched in the late 3rd century BC by the Qin state against the other six major Chinese states — Han Han may refer to: Ethnic groups * Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Also known as Jing () and Jingchu (), Chu included most of the present-day provinces of
Hubei Hubei (; ; alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity ...

Hubei
and
Hunan Hunan (, ; ) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdi ...

Hunan
, along with parts of
Chongqing Chongqing ( ; ; Sichuanese dialects, Sichuanese pronunciation: , Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ), Postal Romanization, alternately romanized as Chungking, is a Direct-administered municipalities of China, municipality in southwest China. ...

Chongqing
,
Guizhou Guizhou (; alternately Kweichow) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational enti ...

Guizhou
,
Henan Henan (; ; alternatively Honan) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of China, in the Central China, central part of the country. Henan is often referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou (), which literally means "central plain" or "midlan ...

Henan
,
Anhui Anhui (; Postal romanization, formerly romanized as Anhwei) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, part of the East China region. Its provincial capital and largest city is Hefei. The province is l ...

Anhui
,
Jiangxi Jiangxi (; ; alternately romanized as Kiangsi or Chianghsi, Gan Chinese Gan, Gann or Kan is a group of Sinitic languages spoken first language, natively by many people in the Jiangxi province of China, as well as significant populations in ...

Jiangxi
,
Jiangsu Jiangsu (; ; formerly romanized Kiangsu) is an eastern-central coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative regi ...

Jiangsu
,
Zhejiang Zhejiang (, ; , Chinese postal romanization, also romanized as Chekiang) is an East China, eastern, coastal Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Hangzhou. Zhejiang is bordered ...

Zhejiang
, and
Shanghai Shanghai (, , Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ) is one of the four Direct-administered municipalities of China, direct-administered municipalities of the China, People's Republic of China. The city is located on the sou ...

Shanghai
. For more than 400 years, the Chu capital Danyang was located at the junction of the Dan and
Xi River The Xi River (;"Xi"
''Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary''. ) or Si-Kiang is the western tributary of the Pearl River ( ...
s near present-day
Xichuan County Xichuan County () is a county in the southwest of Henan Henan (; ; alternatively Honan) is a landlocked province of China Provincial-level administrative divisions () or first-level administrative divisions (), are the highest-level Ch ...
, Henan, but later moved to Ying. The house of Chu originally bore the
clan name
clan name
Nai ( OC: /*rneːlʔ/) which was later written as Mi ( OC: /*meʔ/). They also bore the lineage name Yan ( OC: /*qlamʔ/, /*qʰɯːm/) which would later be written Xiong ( OC: /*ɢʷlɯm/).


History


Founding

According to legends recounted in
Sima Qian Sima Qian (; ; ) was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu B ...

Sima Qian
's ''
Records of the Grand Historian The ''Records of the Grand Historian'', also known by its Chinese name ''Shiji'', is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Western Han Dynasty official Sima Qian after having been started by his father ...

Records of the Grand Historian
'', the ruling family of Chu descended from the
Yellow Emperor The Yellow Emperor, also known as the Yellow Thearch, or by his Chinese name Huangdi (), is a deity A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena that are not subject to the laws of nature.https://w ...

Yellow Emperor
and his grandson and successor
Zhuanxu Zhuanxu ( Chinese:  trad. , simp. , pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin Chinese in mainland China, Taiwan (ROC), and Singapore. ...
. Zhuanxu's great-grandson Wuhui () was put in charge of fire by
Emperor Ku Kù (, variant graph ), usually referred to as Dì Kù (), also known as Gaoxin or Gāoxīn Shì (), was a descendant of Huangdi, the Yellow Emperor. He went by the name Gaoxin until receiving imperial authority, when he took the name Ku and the t ...
and given the title
Zhurong Zhurong (), also known as Chongli (), is an important personage in Chinese mythology and Chinese folk religion. According to the ''Huainanzi The ''Huainanzi'' is an ancient Chinese text that consists of a collection of essays that resulted fr ...
. Wuhui's son Luzhong () had six sons, all born by
Caesarian section Caesarean section, also known as C-section, or caesarean delivery, is the surgical procedure Surgery ''cheirourgikē'' (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via la, chirurgiae, meaning "hand work". is a medical or dental s ...
. The youngest,
Jilian Jilian () was the first recorded ruler of the ancient Chinese state that was later known as Chu. He adopted the clan name Mi () and was the founder of the House of Mi that ruled Chu for over eight centuries. Ancestry According to legends record ...
, adopted the ancestral surname Mi. 's descendant
Yuxiong Yuxiong (, reigned 11th century BC), also known as Yuzi or Master Yu (), was an early ruler of the ancient Chinese state Ancient Chinese states () were typified by variously sized city-states and territories that existed in China prior to its unif ...
was the teacher of
King Wen of Zhou King Wen of Zhou (; 1112–1050 BC, the Civilizing King) was Count of ZhouZhou may refer to: Chinese history * King Zhou of Shang () (1105 BC–1046 BC), the last king of the Shang dynasty * Predynastic Zhou (), 11th-century BC precursor to the Z ...

King Wen of Zhou
(r. 1099–1050 BCE). After the Zhou overthrew the
Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a Chinese dynasty Dynasties in Chinese history, or Chinese dynasties, were hereditary monarchical regimes that ruled over China during much of its history. From ...

Shang dynasty
,
King Cheng
King Cheng
(r. 1042–1021 BCE) enfeoffed Yuxiong's great-grandson
Xiong Yi Xiong Yi (, reigned 11th century BC) was the first viscount and an early ruler of the State of Chu Chu (, Hanyu Pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization Romanization or romanisation, in ...
with the
fiefdom A fief (; la, feudum) was the central element of feudalism Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe In the histor ...
of Chu and the hereditary title of (''zǐ'', "
viscount A viscount ( , for male) or viscountess (, for female) is a title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qu ...
"). Then the first capital of Chu was established at Danyang (present-day Xichuan in Henan).


Western Zhou

In 977 BCE, during his campaign against Chu,
King Zhao of Zhou King Zhao of Zhou (), personal name Jī Xiá, was the fourth Chinese sovereign#King, king of the Chinese Zhou dynasty. He ruled from 977/75 BC until his death twenty years later. Famous for his disastrous Zhou–Chu War, war against the Chu (state), ...

King Zhao of Zhou
's boat sank and he drowned in the
Han RiverHan River may refer to: *Han River (Guangdong) (''Han-jiang'', 韩江), southeast China, flows into the South China Sea *Han River (Hubei) (''Han-shui'', 漢水 or ''Han-jiang'', 漢江), the longest tributary of the Yangtze, China *Han River (Korea ...
. After this death, Zhou ceased to expand to the south, allowing the southern tribes and Chu to cement their own autonomy much earlier than the states to the north. The Chu viscount
Xiong Qu Xiong Qu () was the sixth viscount of the state of Chu during the early Zhou Dynasty The Zhou dynasty ( ) was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a ...
overthrew E in 863 BCE but subsequently made its capital
Ezhou Ezhou () is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi main urban area. A prefectural-level municipality ...

Ezhou
one of his capitals. In either 703 or 706, the ruler Xiong Tong became the ruler of Chu.


Spring and Autumn Period

Under the reign of King Zhuang, Chu reached the height of its power and its ruler was considered one of the
five Hegemons The Five Hegemons () refers to several especially powerful rulers of Chinese states of the Spring and Autumn period The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history The earliest known written records of the history of China da ...

five Hegemons
of the era. After a number of battles with neighboring states, sometime between 695 and 689 BCE, the Chu capital moved south-east from Danyang to Ying. Chu first consolidated its power by absorbing other states in its original area (modern
Hubei Hubei (; ; alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity ...

Hubei
), then it expanded into the north towards the
North China Plain 200px, The North China Plain is shown in dark. The Yellow River is shown as "Río Amarillo". The North China Plain () is a large-scale downfaulted rift basin formed in the late Paleogene The Paleogene ( ; also spelled Palaeogene or Palæogene; ...
. In the summer of 648 BCE, the State of Huang was annexed by the state of Chu. The threat from Chu resulted in multiple northern alliances under the leadership of Jin. These alliances kept Chu in check, and the Chu kingdom lost their first major battle at the in 632 BCE. During the 6th century BCE, Jin and Chu fought numerous battles over the hegemony of central plain. In 597 BCE, Jin was defeated by Chu in the
battle of Bi The Battle of Bi () was fought during the Spring and Autumn period The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynas ...

battle of Bi
, causing Jin's temporary inability to counter Chu's expansion. Chu strategically used the
state of Zheng Zheng (; ; Old Chinese: *') was a vassal State (Ancient China), state in China during the Zhou Dynasty (1046–221 BCE) located in the centre of ancient China in modern-day Henan Province on the North China Plain about east of the royal capital a ...
as its representative in the central plain area, through the means of intimidation and threats, Chu forced Zheng to ally with itself. On the other hand, Jin had to balance out Chu's influence by repeatedly allying with Lu, Wey, and
Song A song is a musical composition Musical composition can refer to an piece or work of , either or , the of a musical piece or to the process of creating or writing a new piece of music. People who create new compositions are called s ...
. The tension between Chu and Jin did not loosen until the year of 579 BCE when a truce was signed between the two states. At the beginning of the sixth century BCE, Jin strengthened the state of Wu near the
Yangtze The Yangtze or Yangzi ( or ) is the longest river in Asia, the third-longest in the world and the longest in the world to flow entirely within one country. It rises at Jari Hill in the Tanggula Mountains The Tanggula ( Chinese:  ...
delta to act as a counterweight against Chu. Wu defeated Qi and then invaded Chu in 506 BCE. Following the
Battle of Boju The Battle of Boju () was the decisive battle of the war fought in 506 BC between Wu and Chu, two major kingdoms during the Spring and Autumn period The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history The earliest known writte ...

Battle of Boju
, it occupied Chu's capital at Ying, forcing King Zhao to flee to his allies in Yun and " Sui". King Zhao eventually returned to Ying but, after another attack from Wu in 504 BCE, he temporarily moved the capital into the territory of the former state of Ruo. Chu began to strengthen Yue in modern
Zhejiang Zhejiang (, ; , Chinese postal romanization, also romanized as Chekiang) is an East China, eastern, coastal Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Hangzhou. Zhejiang is bordered ...

Zhejiang
to serve as allies against Wu. Yue was initially subjugated by King Fuchai of Wu until he released their king
Goujian Goujian () (reigned 496–465 BC) was the king of the State of Yue, Kingdom of Yue (present-day northern Zhejiang) near the end of the Spring and Autumn period. He was the son of King Yunchang. Goujian's reign coincided with arguably the last ma ...
, who took revenge for his former captivity by crushing and completely annexing Wu.


Warring States period

Freed from its difficulties with Wu, Chu annexed
Chen Chen may refer to: People *Chen (surname) Chen () () is a common East Asian surname and one of the most common surnames in the world. It is the most common surname in Taiwan (2010) and Singapore (2000). Chen is also the most common family na ...
in 479 BCE and overran Cai to the north in 447 BCE. However, eventually Chu was completely obliterated by the Qin dynasty ( Lu was conquered by King Kaolie in 223 BCE). By the end of the 5th century BCE, the Chu government had become very corrupt and inefficient, with much of the state's treasury used primarily to pay for the royal entourage. Many officials had no meaningful task except taking money and Chu's army, while large, was of low quality. In the late 390s BCE,
King Dao of Chu King Dao of Chu (, died 381 BC) was the king of the state of Chu from 401 BC to 381 BC during the early Warring States period of ancient China. He was born Xiong Yi () and King Dao was his posthumous title. King Dao succeeded his father King ...
made
Wu Qi Wu Qi (, 440–381 BC) was a Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world ...

Wu Qi
his
chancellor Chancellor ( la, links=no, cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations. The original chancellors were the ''cancellarii Cancelli are lattice-work, placed before a window, a door-way, the tribunal o ...
. Wu's reforms began to transform Chu into an efficient and powerful state in 389 BCE, as he lowered the salaries of officials and removed useless officials. He also enacted building codes to make the capital Ying seem less barbaric. Despite Wu Qi's unpopularity among Chu's ruling class, his reforms strengthened the king and left the state very powerful until the late 4th century BCE, when Zhao and
QinQin may refer to: Dynasties and states * Qin (state) (秦), a major state during the Zhou Dynasty of ancient China * Qin dynasty (秦), founded by the Qin state in 221 BC and ended in 206 BC * Daqin (大秦), ancient Chinese name for the Roman Empi ...
were ascendant. Chu's powerful army once again became successful, defeating the states of Wei and Yue. Yue was partitioned between Chu and Qi in either 334 or 333 BCE. However, the officials of Chu wasted no time in their revenge and Wu Qi was assassinated at King Dao's funeral in 381 BCE. Prior to Wu's service in the state of Chu, Wu lived in the state of Wei, where his military analysis of the six opposing states was recorded in his magnum opus, ''''. Of Chu, he said: During the late Warring States period, Chu was increasingly pressured by Qin to its west, especially after Qin enacted and preserved the Legalistic reforms of
Shang Yang Shang Yang (; c. 390 – 338 BC), also known as Wei Yang () and originally surnamed Gongsun, was an ancient Chinese philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφο ...
. In 241 BCE, five of the seven major warring states–Chu, Zhao, Wei, Yan and Han–formed an alliance to fight the rising power of Qin. King Kaolie of Chu was named the leader of the alliance and Lord Chunshen the military commander. According to historian
Yang Kuan Yang Kuan (1914 − September 1, 2005) was a Chinese historian specializing in pre-Qin Dynasty Chinese history. He is considered an authority of the Warring States period The Warring States period () was an era in ancient Chinese history c ...
, the Zhao general Pang Nuan () was the actual commander in the battle. The allies attacked Qin at the strategic
Hangu Pass Hangu Pass or Hanguguan is a pass separating the upper Yellow River and Wei valleys—the cradle of Chinese civilization and seat of its longtime capital Xi'an Xi'an ( , ; Chinese: ), also known as Sian, is the list of capitals in Ch ...

Hangu Pass
but were defeated. King Kaolie blamed
Lord Chunshen Lord Chunshen (; died 238 BC), born Huang Xie (), was a nobleman, general, and Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Chu during the late Warring States period of ancient China. He was one of the Four Lords of the Warring States. Lord Chunshen is a ...
for the loss and began to mistrust him. Afterwards, Chu moved its capital east to
Shouchun Shou County or Shouxian () is a county in the north-central part of Anhui Anhui (; Postal romanization, formerly romanized as Anhwei) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, part of the East Chin ...
, farther away from the threat of Qin. As Qin expanded into Chu's territory, Chu was forced to expand southwards and eastwards, absorbing local cultural influences along the way. By the late 4th century BCE, however, Chu's prominent status had fallen into decay. As a result of several invasions headed by Zhao and Qin, Chu was eventually completely wiped out by Qin.


Defeat

The Chu state was completely eradicated by the Qin dynasty. According to the '' Records of the Warring States'', a debate between the
Diplomat A diplomat (from grc, δίπλωμα; romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( ...
strategist Zhang Yi and the Qin general Sima Cuo led to two conclusions concerning the unification of China. Zhang Yi argued in favor of conquering
Han Han may refer to: Ethnic groups * Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on ...
and seizing the
Mandate of Heaven The Mandate of Heaven () is a Chinese political philosophy that was used in ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsShu Shu may refer to: China * Sichuan, China, officially abbreviated as Shu (蜀) * Shu (state) (conquered by Qin in 316 BC), an ancient state in modern Sichuan * Shu Han (221–263) during the Three Kingdoms Period * Western Shu (405–413), also k ...
is conquering Chu" and, "once Chu is eliminated, the country will be united". The importance of Shu in the
Sichuan Basin The Sichuan Basin (), formerly transliterated as the Szechwan Basin, sometimes called the Red Basin, is a Sedimentary basin, lowland region in southwestern China. It is surrounded by mountains on all sides and is drained by the upper Yangtze River ...
was its great agricultural output and its control over the upper reaches of the
Yangtze River The Yangtze or Yangzi ( or ) is the longest river in Asia, the third-longest in the world and the longest in the world to flow entirely within one country. It rises at Jari Hill in the Tanggula Mountains The Tanggula ( Chinese:  ...
, leading directly into the Chu heartland.
King Huiwen of Qin King Huiwen of Qin (; 356–311 BC), also known as Lord Huiwen of Qin () or King Hui of Qin (), given name Si (駟), was the ruler of the Qin state from 338 to 311 BC during the Warring States period The Warring States period () was an era in ...
opted to support Sima Cuo. In 316 BCE, Qin invaded and conquered
Shu Shu may refer to: China * Sichuan, China, officially abbreviated as Shu (蜀) * Shu (state) (conquered by Qin in 316 BC), an ancient state in modern Sichuan * Shu Han (221–263) during the Three Kingdoms Period * Western Shu (405–413), also k ...
and nearby Ba, expanding downriver in the following decades. In 278 BCE, the Qin general
Bai Qi Bai Qi (; – 257 BC), also known as Gongsun Qi (), was a military general of the Qin state in the Warring States period The Warring States period () was an era in ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic a ...

Bai Qi
finally conquered Chu's capital at Ying. Following the fall of Ying, the Chu government moved to various locations in the east until settling in
Shouchun Shou County or Shouxian () is a county in the north-central part of Anhui Anhui (; Postal romanization, formerly romanized as Anhwei) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, part of the East Chin ...
in 241 BCE. After a massive two-year struggle, Bai Qi lured the main Zhao force of 400,000 men onto the field, surrounding them and forcing their surrender at
ChangpingChangping or Chang Ping, may refer to: Transportation *Changping station (Beijing Subway) (昌平), a subway station on Changping line of Beijing Subway. Located in Beijing. *Changping line (昌平线), a subway line of Beijing Subway *Changping ra ...

Changping
in 260 BCE. The Qin army massacred their prisoners, removing the last major obstacle to Qin dominance over the Chinese states. By 225 BCE, only four kingdoms remained: Qin, Chu,
Yan Yan may refer to: Chinese states * Yan (state) Yan (; Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, official ...
, and Qi. Chu had recovered sufficiently to mount serious resistance. Despite its size, resources, and manpower, though, Chu's corrupt government worked against it. In 224 BCE,
Ying Zheng Qin Shi Huang (, ; 18 February 25910 September 210) was the founder of the Qin dynasty and the first emperor of a unified China. From 247 to 221 BC he was Zheng, King of Qin (, ''Qín Wáng Zhèng'', personal name 嬴政 ''Yíng Zhèng'' or ...
called for a meeting with his subjects to discuss his plans for the invasion of Chu. Wang Jian said that the invasion force needed to be at least 600,000 strong, while Li Xin thought that less than 200,000 men would be sufficient. Ying Zheng ordered Li Xin and Meng Wu to lead the army against Chu. The Chu army, led by Xiang Yan secretly followed Li Xin's army for three days and three nights, before launching a surprise offensive and destroying Li Xin army. Upon learning of Li's defeat, Ying Zheng replaced Li with Wang Jian, putting Wang in command of the 600,000-strong army he had requested earlier and placing Meng Wu beneath him as a deputy. Worried that the Qin tyrant might fear the power he now possessed and order him executed upon some pretense, Wang Jian constantly sent messengers back to the king in order to remain in contact and reduce the king's suspicion. Wang Jian's army passed through southern Chen (; present-day Huaiyang County, Huaiyang in Henan) and made camp at Pingyu. The Chu armies under Xiang Yan used their full strength against the camp but failed. Wang Jian ordered his troops to defend their positions firmly but avoid advancing further into Chu territory. After failing to lure the Qin army into an attack, Xiang Yan ordered a retreat; Wang Jian seized this opportunity to launch a swift assault. The Qin forces pursued the retreating Chu forces to Qinan (; northwest of present-day Qichun County, Qichun in
Hubei Hubei (; ; alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity ...

Hubei
) and Xiang Yan was either killed in the action or committed suicide following his defeat. The next year, in 223 BCE, Qin launched another campaign and captured the Chu capital Shouchun. King Fuchu was captured and his state annexed.Li and Zheng, page 188 The following year, Wang Jian and Meng Wu led the Qin army against Wu (region), Wuyue around the mouth of the
Yangtze The Yangtze or Yangzi ( or ) is the longest river in Asia, the third-longest in the world and the longest in the world to flow entirely within one country. It rises at Jari Hill in the Tanggula Mountains The Tanggula ( Chinese:  ...
, capturing the descendants of the royal family of Yue. These conquered territories became the Kuaiji Prefecture of the Qin Empire. At their peak, Chu and Qin together fielded over 1,000,000 troops, more than the massive Battle of Changping between Qin and Zhao 35 years before. The excavated personal letters of two regular Qin soldiers, Hei Fu () and Jing (), tell of a protracted campaign in Huaiyang under Wang Jian. Both soldiers wrote letters requesting supplies of clothing and money from home to sustain the long waiting campaign.


Qin and Han dynasties

The Chu populace in areas conquered by Qin openly ignored the stringent Qin laws and governance, as recorded in the Shuihudi Qin bamboo texts, excavated bamboo slips of a Qin administrator in Hubei. Chu aspired to overthrow the painful yoke of Qin rule and re-establishing a separate state. The attitude was captured in a Chinese expression about implacable hostility: "Though Chu have but three Chinese clan, clans, Qin surely be perished by none other but Chu" (). After Ying Zheng declared himself the First Emperor (Shi Huangdi) and reigned briefly, the people of Chu and its former ruling house organized the first violent insurrections against the new Qin administration. They were especially resentful of the Qin corvée; folk poems record the mournful sadness of Chu families whose men worked in the frigid north to construct the Great Wall of China. The Dazexiang Uprising occurred in 209 BCE under the leadership of a Chu peasant, Chen Sheng, who proclaimed himself "King of Rising Chu" (''Zhangchu''). This uprising was crushed by the Qin army but it inspired a new wave of other rebellions. One of the leaders, Jing Ju of Chu, proclaimed himself the new king of Chu. Jing Ju was defeated by another rebel force under Xiang Liang. Xiang installed Emperor Yi of Chu, Xiong Xin, a scion of Chu's traditional royal family, on the throne of Chu under the regnal name King Huai II. In 206 BCE, after the fall of the Qin Empire, Xiang Yu, Xiang Liang's nephew, proclaimed himself the "Hegemon-King of Western Chu" and promoted King Huai II to "Emperor Yi". He subsequently had Yi assassinated. Xiang Yu then engaged with Emperor Gaozu of Han, Liu Bang, another prominent anti-Qin rebel, in a long struggle for supremacy over the lands of the former Qin Empire, which became known as the Chu–Han Contention. The conflict ended in victory for Liu Bang: he proclaimed the Han dynasty and was later honored with the temple name Gaozu, while Xiang Yu committed suicide in defeat. Liu Bang immediately enacted a more traditional and less intrusive administration than the Qin before him, made peace with the Xiongnu through heqin intermarriages, rewarded his allies with large fiefdoms, and allowed the population to rest from centuries of warfare. The core Chu territories centered in Pengcheng was granted first to general Han Xin and then to Liu Bang's brother Liu Jiao (prince), Liu Jiao as the Chu Kingdom (Han dynasty), Kingdom of Chu. By the time of Emperor Wu of Han, the southern folk culture and aesthetics were mixed with the Han-sponsored Confucian tradition and Qin-influenced central governance to create a distinct "Han Chinese, Chinese" culture.


Culture

Based on the archaeological finds, Chu's culture was initially quite similar to that of the other Zhou states of the Yellow River basin. However, subsequently, Chu absorbed indigenous elements from the Baiyue lands that it conquered to the south and east, developing a blended culture compared to the northern plains. During the Western Zhou period, the difference between the culture of Chu and the Central Plains states to the north was negligible. Only in the late Spring and Autumn Period does Chu culture begin to diverge, preserving some older aspects of the culture and developing new phenomena. It also absorbed some elements from annexed areas. The culture of Chu had significant internal diversity from locality to locality. Chu, like
QinQin may refer to: Dynasties and states * Qin (state) (秦), a major state during the Zhou Dynasty of ancient China * Qin dynasty (秦), founded by the Qin state in 221 BC and ended in 206 BC * Daqin (大秦), ancient Chinese name for the Roman Empi ...
and
Yan Yan may refer to: Chinese states * Yan (state) Yan (; Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, official ...
, was often described as being not as cultured by people in the Central plains. However, this image originated with the later development of Chu relative to the Central plains, and the stereotype was retrospectively cultivated by Confucian scholars in the Qin dynasty, to indirectly criticise the ruling regime, and the Han dynasty as a means of curbing their ideological opponents who were associated with such cultural practices. As the founder of the Han dynasty was from the state, Chu culture would later become a basis of the culture of the later Han dynasty, along with that of the Qin dynasty's and other preceding states' from the Warring States period. Early Chu burial offerings consisted primarily of Chinese ritual bronzes, bronze vessels in the Zhou style. Later Chu burials, especially during the Warring States, featured distinct Chinese funerary art, burial objects, such as colorful lacquerware, iron, and silk, accompanied by a reduction in List of Chinese names of bronze vessels, bronze vessel offerings. A common Chu motif was the vivid depiction of wildlife, mystical animals, and natural imagery, such as snakes in Chinese mythology, snakes, Chinese dragon, dragons, Chinese phoenix, phoenixes, tigers, and free-flowing clouds and serpent-like beings. Some archaeologists speculate that Chu may have had cultural connections to the previous
Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a Chinese dynasty Dynasties in Chinese history, or Chinese dynasties, were hereditary monarchical regimes that ruled over China during much of its history. From ...

Shang dynasty
, since many motifs used by Chu appeared earlier at Shang sites such as serpent-tailed gods. Later Chu culture was known for its affinity for wu (shaman), shamans. The Chu culture and government supported Taoism and native wu (shaman), shamanism supplemented with some Confucianism, Confucian glosses on Zhou ritual. Chu people affiliated themselves with the god of fire
Zhurong Zhurong (), also known as Chongli (), is an important personage in Chinese mythology and Chinese folk religion. According to the ''Huainanzi The ''Huainanzi'' is an ancient Chinese text that consists of a collection of essays that resulted fr ...
in Chinese mythology. For this reason, fire worshiping and red coloring were practiced by Chu people. The naturalistic and flowing art, the ''Chu Ci, Songs of Chu'', historical records, excavated bamboo documents such as the Guodian Chu Slips, Guodian slips, and other artifacts reveal heavy Taoist and native folk influence in Chu culture. The disposition to a spiritual, often pleasurable and decadent lifestyle, and the confidence in the size of the Chu realm led to the inefficiency and eventual destruction of the Chu state by the ruthless Legalism (Chinese philosophy), Legalist state of Qin. Even though the Qin realm lacked the vast natural resources and waterways of Chu, the Qin government maximized its output under the efficient minister
Shang Yang Shang Yang (; c. 390 – 338 BC), also known as Wei Yang () and originally surnamed Gongsun, was an ancient Chinese philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφο ...
, installing a meritocracy focused solely on agricultural and military might. Archaeological evidence shows that Chu music was annotated differently from Zhou. Chu music also showed an inclination for using different performance ensembles, as well as unique instruments. In Chu, the ''Se (instrument), se'' was preferred over the guqin, zither, while both instruments were equally preferred in the northern Zhou states. Chu came into frequent contact with other peoples in the south, most notably the Ba, Yue, and the Baiyue. Numerous burials and burial objects in the Ba and Yue styles have been discovered throughout the territory of Chu, co-existing with Chu-style burials and burial objects. Some archaeological records of the Chu appear at Mawangdui. After the Han dynasty tomb architecture, Han dynasty, some Confucian scholars considered Chu culture with distaste, criticizing the "lewd" music and shamanistic rituals associated with Chu culture. Chu artisanship includes color, especially the lacquer woodworks. Red and black pigmented lacquer were most used. Silk-weaving also attained a high level of craftsmanship, creating lightweight robes with flowing designs. These examples (as at Mawangdui) were preserved in waterlogged tombs where the lacquer did not peel off over time and in tombs sealed with coal or white clay. Chu used the calligraphic script called "Birds and Worms" style, which was borrowed by the Wu and Yue states. It has a design that embellishes the characters with motifs of animals, snakes, birds, and insects. This is another representation of the natural world and its liveliness. Chu produced broad bronze swords that were similar to Wuyue swords but not as intricate. Chu created a riverine transport system of boats augmented by wagons. These are detailed in bronze tallies with gold inlay regarding trade along the river systems connecting with those of the Chu capital at Ying.


Linguistic influences

Although bronze inscriptions from the ancient state of Chu show little linguistic differences from the "Elegant Speech" (yǎyán 雅言) during the Eastern Zhou, Eastern Zhou period, the variety of
Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It i ...
spoken in Chu has long been assumed to reflect Loanword, lexical borrowings and syntactical interferences from non-Sinitic Stratum (linguistics)#Substratum, substrates, which the Chu may have acquired as a result of its southern migration into what Tian Jizhou believed to be a Kra–Dai languages, Kra-Dai or (para-) Hmong–Mien languages, Hmong-Mien area in southern China. Recent excavated texts, corroborated by dialect words recorded in the ''Fangyan (book), Fangyan'', further demonstrated substrate influences, but there are competing hypotheses on their genealogical affiliation. * Aberrant early Chinese dialect, originally from the North * Austroasiatic (Norman & Mei 1976, Boltz 1999) * Hmong-Mienic (Erkes 1930, Long & Ma 1983, Brooks 2001, Sagart et al. 2005) * Tai-Kadaic (Liu Xingge 1988, Zheng-Zhang Shangfang, 2005) * Tibeto-Burman (Zhang Yongyan 1992, Zhou Jixu 2001) * Mixture of Austroasiatic or Hmong-Mienic (Pullyblank 1983) * Mixture of Austroasiatic and Tibeto-Burman (Schuessler 2004, 2007) * Unknown Noticing that both 荆 ''Jīng'' and 楚 ''Chǔ'' refer to the thorny chaste tree species Vitex agnus-castus, Schuessler (2007) proposes two Austroasiatic correlations: * 楚 ''Chǔ'' < Old Chinese *''tshraɁ'' is comparable to Monic languages, Proto-Monic *''jrlaaɁ'' "thorn, thorny bamboo (added to names of thorny plants)", Khmu language, Khmu /cǝrlaɁ/, Semai language, Semai /jǝrlaaɁ/, all descending from Proto-Austroasiatic_language#Shorto_(2006), Proto-Mon-Khmer *''ɟlaʔ'' "thorn"; * 荆 ''Jīng'' < Old Chinese *''kreŋ'' is comparable to Khmer ជ្រាំង ''crĕəng'' “to bristle” and ប្រែង ''praeng'' “bristle”, with Chinese intiial *''k-'' possibly being a noun-forming reffix.


Bureaucracy

Mo'ao () and the Prime minister (Chu State) / Lingyin were the top government officials of Chu. Sima was the military commander of Chu's army. Lingyin, Mo'ao and Sima were the San Gong () of Chu. In the Spring and Autumn period, Zuoyin () and Youyin () were added as the undersecretaries of Lingyin. Likewise, Sima () was assisted by Zuosima () and Yousima () respectively. Mo'ao's status was gradually lowered while Lingyin and Sima became more powerful posts in the Chu court. Ministers whose functions vary according to their titles were called Yin (). For example: Lingyin (Prime minister), Gongyin (Minister of works), and Zhenyin were all suffixed by the word "Yin". Shenyin () was the minister of religious duties or the high priest of Chu, multiple entries in Zuo Zhuan indicated their role as oracles. Other Yins recorded by history were: Yuyin, Lianyin, Jiaoyin, Gongjiyin, Lingyin, Huanlie Zhi Yin (Commander of Palace guards) and Yueyin (Minister of Music). In counties and commanderies, Gong (), also known as Xianyin (minister of county) was the chief administrator. In many cases, positions in Chu's bureaucracy were hereditarily held by members of a cadet branch of Chu's royal house of Mi. Mo'ao, one of the three chancellors of Chu, was exclusively chosen from Qu () clan. During the early spring and autumn period and before the Ruo'ao rebellion, Lingyin was a position held by Ruo'aos, namely Dou () and Cheng ().


Geography

Progenitors of Chu such as viscount
Xiong Yi Xiong Yi (, reigned 11th century BC) was the first viscount and an early ruler of the State of Chu Chu (, Hanyu Pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization Romanization or romanisation, in ...
were said to originate from the Jing Mountains; a chain of mountains located in today's Hubei province. Rulers of Chu systematically migrated states annexed by Chu to the Jing mountains in order to control them more efficiently. East of Jing mountains are the Tu () mountains. In the north-east part of Chu are the Dabie Mountains, Dabie mountains; the drainage divide of Huai River, Huai river and Yangtse river. The first capital of Chu, Danyang () was located in today's Zhijiang, Hubei, Zhijiang, Hubei province. Ying (), one of the later capitals of Chu, is known by its contemporary name Jingzhou. In Chu's northern border lies the Fangcheng mountain. Strategically, Fangcheng is an ideal defense against states of central plain. Due to its strategic value, numerous List of castles in China, castles were built on the Fangcheng mountain. Yunmeng Ze in Jianghan Plain was an immense freshwater lake that historically existed in Chu's realm, It was crossed by Yanzi river, the northern Yunmeng was named Meng (), the southern Yunmeng was known as Yun (). The lake's body covers parts of today's Zhijiang, Jianli County, Jianli, Shishou, Macheng, Huanggang, and Anlu. Wu Pass, Shaoxi Pass was an important outpost in the mountainous western border of Chu. It was located in today's Wuguan town of Danfeng County, Shaanxi. Any forces that marched from the west, mainly from Qin, to Chu's realm would have to pass Shaoxi.


List of states later became part of the Chu

* 863 BCE E * 704 BCE State of Quan, Quan * 690 BCE Luo (state), Luo * 688–680 BCE Shen (state), Shen * 684–680 BCE Xi (state), Xi * 678 BCE Deng (state), Deng * 648 BCE Huang (state), Huang * after 643 BCE Dao (state), Dao * 623 BCE Jiang * 622 BCE Liao (Zhou dynasty state), Liao * 622 BCE Lù ().Gongyang Zhuan, Duke Wen, 6th year of, Duke Xuan, 8th year of * after 622 BCE Ruo * 611 BCE Yong * 601 BCE Shuliao * Sometime in the 6th century BCE Zhongli (state), Zhongli * after 506 BCE Sui * 574 BCE Shuyong * 538 BCE Lai () * 512 BCE Xu (state), Xu * 479 BCE
Chen Chen may refer to: People *Chen (surname) Chen () () is a common East Asian surname and one of the most common surnames in the world. It is the most common surname in Taiwan (2010) and Singapore (2000). Chen is also the most common family na ...
* 445 BCE Qi (Henan), Qi * 447 BCE Cai * 431 BCE Ju (state), Ju * after 418 BCE Pi (state), Pi * About 348 BCE Zou (state), Zou * 334 BCE Yue * 249 BCE Lu


Rulers

;Early rulers #
Jilian Jilian () was the first recorded ruler of the ancient Chinese state that was later known as Chu. He adopted the clan name Mi () and was the founder of the House of Mi that ruled Chu for over eight centuries. Ancestry According to legends record ...
(), married Bi Zhui (), granddaughter of Shang Dynasty king Pangeng; adopted Mi () as ancestral name #Yingbo (𦀚伯) or Fuju (附沮), son of Jilian #
Yuxiong Yuxiong (, reigned 11th century BC), also known as Yuzi or Master Yu (), was an early ruler of the ancient Chinese state Ancient Chinese states () were typified by variously sized city-states and territories that existed in China prior to its unif ...
(), ruled 11th century BCE: also called Xuexiong (), teacher of
King Wen of Zhou King Wen of Zhou (; 1112–1050 BC, the Civilizing King) was Count of ZhouZhou may refer to: Chinese history * King Zhou of Shang () (1105 BC–1046 BC), the last king of the Shang dynasty * Predynastic Zhou (), 11th-century BC precursor to the Z ...

King Wen of Zhou
#Xiong Li (), ruled 11th century BCE: son of Yuxiong, first use of clan name Yan (), later written as Xiong () #Xiong Kuang (), ruled 11th century BCE: son of Xiong Li ;Viscounts #
Xiong Yi Xiong Yi (, reigned 11th century BC) was the first viscount and an early ruler of the State of Chu Chu (, Hanyu Pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization Romanization or romanisation, in ...
(), ruled 11th century BCE: son of Xiong Kuang, enfeoffed by King Cheng of Zhou #Xiong Ai (), ruled BCE: son of Xiong Yi, defeated and killed
King Zhao of Zhou King Zhao of Zhou (), personal name Jī Xiá, was the fourth Chinese sovereign#King, king of the Chinese Zhou dynasty. He ruled from 977/75 BC until his death twenty years later. Famous for his disastrous Zhou–Chu War, war against the Chu (state), ...

King Zhao of Zhou
#Xiong Dan (熊䵣), ruled BCE: son of Xiong Ai, defeated King Mu of Zhou #Xiong Sheng (), son of Xiong Dan #Xiong Yang (), younger brother of Xiong Sheng #
Xiong Qu Xiong Qu () was the sixth viscount of the state of Chu during the early Zhou Dynasty The Zhou dynasty ( ) was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a ...
(), son of Xiong Yang, gave the title king to his three sons #Xiong Kang (), son of Xiong Qu. ''Shiji'' says Xiong Kang died early without ascending the throne, but the Tsinghua Bamboo Slips recorded him as the successor of Xiong Qu. #Xiong Zhi (), son of Xiong Kang, abdicated due to illness #Xiong Yan (elder) (), ruled ?–848 BCE: younger brother of Xiong Zhi #Xiong Yong (), ruled 847–838 BCE: son of Xiong Yan #Xiong Yan (younger) (), ruled 837–828 BCE: brother of Xiong Yong #Xiong Shuang (), ruled 827–822 BCE: son of Xiong Yan #Xiong Xun (), ruled 821–800 BCE: youngest brother of Xiong Shuang #Xiong E (), ruled 799–791 BCE: son of Xiong Xun #Ruo'ao () (Xiong Yi 熊儀), ruled 790–764 BCE: son of Xiong E #Xiao'ao () (Xiong Kan 熊坎), ruled 763–758 BCE: son of Ruo'ao #Fenmao () (Xiong Xuan 熊眴) ruled 757–741 BCE: son of Xiao'ao ;Kings #
King Wu of Chu King Wu of Chu (, died 690 BC) was the first king of the Chu (state), State of Chu during the Spring and Autumn period of ancient China. He was the second son of Xiao'ao, and brother of former ruler Fenmao whom he is rumored to have murdered in 740 ...
() (Xiong Da 熊達), ruled 740–690 BCE: either younger brother or younger son of Fenmao, murdered son of Fenmao and usurped the throne. Declared himself first king of Chu. #King Wen of Chu () (Xiong Zi 熊貲), ruled 689–677 BCE: son of King Wu, moved the capital to Ying #Du'ao () or Zhuang'ao () (Xiong Jian 熊艱), ruled 676–672 BCE: son of King Wen, killed by younger brother, the future King Cheng #King Cheng of Chu () (Xiong Yun 熊惲), ruled 671–626 BCE: brother of Du'ao, defeated by the Jin (Chinese state), state of Jin at the Battle of Chengpu. Husband to Zheng Mao. He was murdered by his son, the future King Mu #King Mu of Chu () (Xiong Shangchen 熊商臣) ruled 625–614 BCE: son of King Cheng #King Zhuang of Chu () (Xiong Lü 熊侶) ruled 613–591 BCE: son of King Mu. Defeated the State of Jin at the Battle of Bi, and was recognized as a Five Hegemons, Hegemon. #King Gong of Chu () (Xiong Shen 熊審) ruled 590–560 BCE: son of King Zhuang. Defeated by Jin at the Battle of Yanling. #King Kang of Chu () (Xiong Zhao 熊招) ruled 559–545 BCE: son of King Gong #Jia'ao () (Xiong Yuan 熊員) ruled 544–541 BCE: son of King Kang, murdered by his uncle, the future King Ling. #King Ling of Chu () (Xiong Wei 熊圍, changed to Xiong Qian 熊虔) ruled 540–529 BCE: uncle of Jia'ao and younger brother of King Kang, overthrown by his younger brothers and committed suicide. #Zi'ao () (Xiong Bi 熊比) ruled 529 BCE (less than 20 days): younger brother of King Ling, committed suicide. #King Ping of Chu () (Xiong Qiji 熊弃疾, changed to Xiong Ju 熊居) ruled 528–516 BCE: younger brother of Zi'ao, tricked Zi'ao into committing suicide. #King Zhao of Chu () (Xiong Zhen 熊珍) ruled 515–489 BCE: son of King Ping. The State of Wu captured the capital Ying and he fled to the State of Sui. #King Hui of Chu () (Xiong Zhang 熊章) ruled 488–432 BCE: son of King Zhao. He conquered the states of Cai and
Chen Chen may refer to: People *Chen (surname) Chen () () is a common East Asian surname and one of the most common surnames in the world. It is the most common surname in Taiwan (2010) and Singapore (2000). Chen is also the most common family na ...
. The year before he died, Zeng-hou-yi Tomb, Marquis Yi of Zeng died, so he made a commemorative bell and attended the Marquis's funeral at Suizhou. #King Jian of Chu () (Xiong Zhong 熊中) ruled 431–408 BCE: son of King Hui #King Sheng of Chu () (Xiong Dang 熊當) ruled 407–402 BCE: son of King Jian #
King Dao of Chu King Dao of Chu (, died 381 BC) was the king of the state of Chu from 401 BC to 381 BC during the early Warring States period of ancient China. He was born Xiong Yi () and King Dao was his posthumous title. King Dao succeeded his father King ...
() (Xiong Yi 熊疑) ruled 401–381 BCE: son of King Sheng. He made
Wu Qi Wu Qi (, 440–381 BC) was a Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world ...

Wu Qi
chancellor and reformed the Chu government and army. #King Su of Chu () (Xiong Zang 熊臧) ruled 380–370 BCE: son of King Dao #King Xuan of Chu () (Xiong Liangfu 熊良夫) ruled 369–340 BCE: brother of King Su. Defeated and annexed the Zou (state), Zuo state around 348 BCE. #King Wei of Chu () (Xiong Shang 熊商) ruled 339–329 BCE: son of King Xuan. Defeated and partitioned the Yue (state), Yue state with Qi (state), Qi state. #King Huai of Chu () (Xiong Huai 熊槐) ruled 328–299 BCE: son of King Wei, was tricked and held hostage by the State of Qin until death in 296 BC #King Qingxiang of Chu () (Xiong Heng 熊橫) ruled 298–263 BCE: son of King Huai. As a prince, one of his elderly tutors was buried at the site of the Guodian Chu Slips in
Hubei Hubei (; ; alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity ...

Hubei
. The Chu capital of Ying was captured and sacked by Qin. #King Kaolie of Chu () (Xiong Yuan 熊元) ruled 262–238 BCE: son of King Qingxiang. Moved capital to
Shouchun Shou County or Shouxian () is a county in the north-central part of Anhui Anhui (; Postal romanization, formerly romanized as Anhwei) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, part of the East Chin ...
. #King You of Chu () (Xiong Han 熊悍) ruled 237–228 BCE: son of King Kaolie. #King Ai of Chu () (Xiong You 熊猶 or Xiong Hao 熊郝) ruled 228 BCE: brother of King You, killed by Fuchu #Fuchu () (熊負芻 Xiong Fuchu) ruled 227–223 BCE: brother of King Ai. Captured by Qin troops and deposed #Lord Changping () ruled 223 BCE (Chu conquered by Qin): brother of Fuchu, killed in battle against Qin ;Others *Chen Sheng () as King Yin of Chu () ruled 210–209 BCE *Jing Ju () as King Jia of Chu 楚假王 (Jia for fake) ruled 209–208 BCE *Xiong Xin () as Emperor Yi of Chu () (originally King Huai II 楚後懷王) ruled 208–206 BCE: grandson or great-grandson of King Huai *Xiang Yu () as Hegemon-King of Western Chu () ruled 206–202 BCE


People

*Qu Yuan, poet who committed suicide *
Lord Chunshen Lord Chunshen (; died 238 BC), born Huang Xie (), was a nobleman, general, and Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Chu during the late Warring States period of ancient China. He was one of the Four Lords of the Warring States. Lord Chunshen is a ...
, one of the Four Lords of the Warring States *Xiang Yu, the Hegemon-King of Western Chu who defeated the Qin at Battle of Julu, Julu and vied with Liu Bang in the Chu–Han Contention *Emperor Gaozu of Han, Liu Bang, later citizen of the Qin dynasty and then founder of the Han dynasty


Astronomy

In traditional Chinese astronomy, Chu is represented by a star in the "Twelve States" Asterism (astronomy), asterism, part of the "Girl (Chinese constellation), Girl" 28 Mansions, lunar mansion in the "Black Tortoise, Black Turtle" Four Symbols (China), symbol. Opinions differ, however, as to whether that star is Phi Capricorni, Phi or 24 Capricorni. It is also represented by the star Epsilon Ophiuchi in the "Right Wall" asterism in the Heavenly Market enclosure, "Heavenly Market" enclosure.AEEA.

". 24 Jun 2006.


Biology

The virus Taxon, taxa ''Chuviridae'' and ''Jingchuvirales'' are named after Chǔ.


See also

*Prime minister (Chu State), Prime Minister of Chu *Chu Silk Manuscript *Chu Kingdom (Han dynasty)


References

*Sima, Qian. ''Records of the Grand Historian'' (). *Zuo Qiuming, ''Zuo Zhuan'' (左传) *张淑一《先秦姓氏制度考察》 *''Defining Chu: Image And Reality In Ancient China'', Edited by Constance A. Cook and John S. Major, *So, Jenny F., ''Music in the Age of Confucius'',


Sources

* * * *


Further reading

*Marc Miyake, Miyake, Marc. 2018
Chu and Kra-Dai
{{DEFAULTSORT:Chu Chu (state), Ancient Chinese states 11th-century BC establishments in China States and territories established in the 11th century BC 223 BC States and territories disestablished in the 3rd century BC 3rd-century BC disestablishments in China