The Israelites (; he|בני ישראל ''Bnei Yisra'el'') were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes
of the ancient Near East
, who inhabited a part of Canaan
during the tribal and monarchic periods
In the Hebrew Bible
, the term ''Israelites'' is used interchangeably with the term ''Twelve Tribes of Israel
''. Although related, the terms Hebrews
, Israelites, and Jews
are not interchangeable in all instances. "Israelites" (''Yisraelim'') refers to the people whom the Hebrew Bible describes specifically as the direct descendants of any of the sons of the patriarch Jacob
(later called Israel), and his descendants as a people are also collectively called "Israel", including converts to their faith in worship of the national god
of Israel, Yahweh
. "Hebrews" (''ʿIvrim''), on the contrary, is used to denote the Israelites' immediate forebears who dwelt in the land of Canaan
, the Israelites themselves, and the Israelites' ancient and modern descendants (including Jews and Samaritans
). "Jews" (''Yehudim'') is used to denote the descendants of the Israelites who coalesced when the Tribe of Judah
absorbed the remnants of various other Israelite tribes.
During the period of the divided monarchy, "Israelites" was only used to refer to the inhabitants of the northern Kingdom of Israel
, and it is only extended to cover the people of the southern Kingdom of Judah
in post-exilic usage.
Efforts to confirm the Israelites' biblical origins through archaeology, once widespread, have been largely abandoned as unproductive, with many scholars viewing the stories as inspiring national myth
narratives with little historical value.
Based on the archaeological evidence, according to the modern archaeological account, the Israelites and their culture did not overtake the region by force, but instead branched out of the indigenous Canaanite peoples
that long inhabited the Southern Levant
, ancient Israel
, and the Transjordan region
through a gradual evolution of a distinct monolatristic
—later cementing as monotheistic
—religion centered on Yahweh
. The outgrowth of Yahweh-centric monolatrism from Canaanite polytheism
started with Yahwism
, the belief in the existence of the many gods and goddesses of the Canaanite pantheon
but with the consistent worship of only Yahweh. Along with a number of cultic practices
, this gave rise to a separate Israelite ethnic group
identity. The final transition of their Yahweh-based religion to monotheism and rejection of the existence of the other Canaanite gods set the Israelites apart from their fellow Canaanite brethren. The Israelites, however, continued to retain various cultural commonalities with other Canaanites, including use of one of the Canaanite dialects
, which is today the only living descendant of that language group.
According to the religious narrative of the Hebrew Bible
, the Israelites' origin is traced back to the biblical patriarchs
and matriarchs Abraham
and his wife Sarah
, through their son Isaac
and his wife Rebecca
, and their son Jacob
(who was later called Israel
, whence they derive their name) with his wives Leah
and the handmaids Zilpa
. The Israelites are the ethnic stock from which modern Jews and Samaritans originally trace their ancestry.
[ (855 KB), Hum Mutat 24:248–260, 2004.] [The Samaritan Update]
Retrieved 1 January 2017.
Modern Jews are named after and also descended from the southern Israelite Kingdom of Judah
[ Natural History 102:11 (November 1993): 12–19.]
particularly the tribes of Judah
and partially Levi
. Many Israelites took refuge in the Kingdom of Judah following the collapse of the Kingdom of Israel.
Finally, in Judaism
, the term "Israelite" is, broadly speaking, used to refer to a lay
member of the Jewish ethnoreligious group
, as opposed to the priestly orders of Kohanim
. In texts of Jewish law
such as the Mishnah
, the term יהודי (''Yehudi''), meaning Jew, is rarely used, and instead the ethnonym
ישראלי (''Yisraeli''), or Israelite, is widely used to refer to Jews. Samaritans are not and never call themselves "Jews" יהודים (''Yehudim''), but commonly refer to themselves and to Jews collectively as Israelites, and they describe themselves as Israelite Samaritans.
The term ''Israelite'' is the English name for the descendants of the biblical patriarch Jacob
in ancient times, which is derived from the Greek
Ἰσραηλῖται, which was used to translate the Biblical Hebrew
term ''b'nei yisrael'', יִשְׂרָאֵל as either "sons of Israel
" or "children of Israel".
The name ''Israel'' first appears in the Hebrew Bible
in . It refers to the renaming of Jacob, who, according to the Bible, wrestled with an angel
, who gave him a blessing and renamed him ''Israel'' because he had "striven with God and with men, and have prevailed". The Hebrew Bible etymologizes the name as from ''yisra'' "to prevail over" or "to struggle/wrestle with", and ''El
[Scherman, Rabbi Nosson (editor), ''The Chumash'', The Artscroll Series, Mesorah Publications, LTD, 2006, pp. 176–77] [Kaplan, Aryeh, "Jewish Meditation", Schocken Books, New York, 1985, p. 125]
However, modern scholarship interprets ''El'' as the subject, "El rules/struggles", from ''sarar'' (שָׂרַר) 'to rule' (cognate with ''sar'' (שַׂר) 'ruler', Akkadian ''šarru'' 'ruler, king'), which is likely cognate with the similar root ''sara'' (שׂרה) "fought, strove, contended".
The name ''Israel'' first appears in non-biblical sources c. 1209 BCE, in an inscription
of the Egyptian pharaoh Merneptah
. The inscription is very brief and says simply: "Israel is laid waste and his seed is not" (see below). The inscription refers to a people, not to an individual or a nation-state.
Three Egyptologists have suggested that the name 'Israel' appears in a topographical relief that either dates to the period of the Nineteenth Dynasty
(perhaps during the reign of Ramses II
) or even earlier during the Eighteenth Dynasty
. This reading remains controversial.
Judahite, Judaean, Jew
The Greek term ''Ioudaios
) was an exonym
originally referring to members of the Tribe of Judah
, and by extension the inhabitants of the Kingdom of Judah and the Judea
n region, and was later adopted as a self-designation by people in the Jewish diaspora
who identified themselves as loyal to the God of Israel and the Temple in Jerusalem.
, who claim descent from the tribes of Ephraim
s), are named after the Israelite Kingdom of Samaria
, but many Jewish authorities contest their claimed lineage, deeming them to have been conquered foreigners who were settled
in the Land of Israel by the Assyrians
, as was the typical Assyrian policy to obliterate national identities.
The terms "Jews" and "Samaritans" largely replaced the title "Children of Israel" as the commonly used ethnonym for each respective community.
Model of the _constructed_under_the_auspices_of_[[Moses">Mishkan
_constructed_under_the_auspices_of_[[Moses,_in_[[Timna_Park.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Moses.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Mishkan constructed under the auspices of [[Moses">Mishkan constructed under the auspices of [[Moses, in [[Timna Park">Moses.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Mishkan constructed under the auspices of [[Moses">Mishkan constructed under the auspices of [[Moses, in [[Timna Park, [[Israel|upright=1.15
The Israelite story begins with some of the [[culture heroes of the Jewish people, the patriarchs. The [[Torah traces the Israelites to the patriarch Jacob, grandson of Abraham, who was renamed Israel after a mysterious incident in which he wrestles all night with God or an angel. Jacob's twelve sons (in order of birth), Reuben
, become the ancestors of twelve tribes, with the exception of Joseph, whose two sons Manasseh
, who were adopted by Jacob, become tribal eponym
[''The Jews in the time of Jesus: an introduction'' p. 18](_blank)
Stephen M. Wylen, Paulist Press, 1996, 215 pages, pp. 18–20
The mothers of Jacob's sons are:
: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun
: Joseph (Ephraim and Manasseh), Benjamin
(Rachel's maid): Dan, Naphtali
(Leah's maid): Gad, Asher ()
Jacob and his sons are forced by famine to go down into Egypt
, although Joseph was already there, as he had been sold into slavery while young. When they arrive they and their families are 70 in number, but within four generations they have increased to 600,000 men of fighting age, and the Pharaoh of Egypt, alarmed, first enslaves them and then orders the death of all male Hebrew children. A woman from the tribe of Levi hides her child, places him in a woven basket, and sends him down the Nile
river. He is named Mosheh, or Moses
, by the Egyptians who find him. Being a Hebrew baby, they award a Hebrew woman the task of raising him, the mother of Moses volunteers, and the child and his mother are reunited.
At the age of forty Moses kills an Egyptian, after he sees him beating a Hebrew to death, and escapes as a fugitive into the Sinai desert, where he is taken in by the Midianites and marries Zipporah
, the daughter of the Midianite priest Jethro
. When he is eighty years old, Moses is tending a herd of sheep in solitude on Mount Sinai
when he sees a desert shrub that is burning but is not consumed
. The God of Israel
calls to Moses from the fire and reveals his name, Yahweh, and tells Moses that he is being sent to Pharaoh to bring the people of Israel out of Egypt.
Yahweh tells Moses that if Pharaoh refuses to let the Hebrews go to say to Pharaoh "Thus says Yahweh: Israel is my son, my first-born and I have said to you: Let my son go, that he may serve me, and you have refused to let him go. Behold, I will slay your son, your first-born". Moses returns to Egypt and tells Pharaoh that he must let the Hebrew slaves go free. Pharaoh refuses and Yahweh strikes the Egyptians with a series of horrific plagues, wonders, and catastrophes
, after which Pharaoh relents and banishes the Hebrews from Egypt. Moses leads the Israelites out of bondage
toward the Red Sea
, but Pharaoh changes his mind and arises to massacre the fleeing Hebrews. Pharaoh finds them by the sea shore and attempts to drive them into the ocean with his chariots and drown them.
Yahweh causes the Red Sea to part
and the Hebrews pass through on dry land into the Sinai. After the Israelites escape from the midst of the sea, Yahweh causes the ocean to close back in on the pursuing Egyptian army, drowning them. In the desert
Yahweh feeds them with manna
that accumulates on the ground with the morning dew. They are led by a column of cloud
, which ignites at night and becomes a pillar of fire
to illuminate the way, southward through the desert until they come to Mount Sinai. The twelve tribes of Israel encamp around the mountain, and on the third day Mount Sinai begins to smolder, then catches fire, and Yahweh speaks the Ten Commandments
from the midst of the fire to all the Israelites, from the top of the mountain.
Moses ascends biblical Mount Sinai
and fasts for forty days while he writes down the Torah as Yahweh dictates, beginning with Bereshith
and the creation of the universe and earth. He is shown the design of the Mishkan
and the Ark of the Covenant
, which Bezalel
is given the task of building. Moses descends from the mountain forty days later with the Sefer Torah
he wrote, and with two rectangular lapis lazuli
tablets, into which Yahweh had carved the Ten Commandments in Paleo–Hebrew
. In his absence, Aaron
has constructed an image of Yahweh, depicting him as a young golden calf
, and has presented it to the Israelites, declaring "Behold O Israel, this is your god who brought you out of the land of Egypt". Moses smashes the two tablets and grinds the golden calf into dust, then throws the dust into a stream of water flowing out of Mount Sinai, and forces the Israelites to drink from it.
Moses ascends Mount Sinai for a second time and Yahweh passes before
him and says: 'Yahweh, Yahweh, a god of compassion, and showing favor, slow to anger, and great in kindness and in truth, who shows kindness to the thousandth generation, forgiving wrongdoing and injustice and wickedness, but will by no means clear the guilty, causing the consequences of the parent's wrongdoing to befall their children, and their children's children, to the third and fourth generation' Moses then fasts for another forty days while Yahweh carves the Ten Commandments into the second set of stone tablets. After the tablets are completed, light emanates from the face of Moses for the rest of his life, causing him to wear a veil so he does not frighten people.
Moses descends Mount Sinai and the Israelites agree to be the chosen people of Yahweh
follow all the laws of the Torah
. Moses prophesies if they forsake the Torah, Yahweh will exile
them for the total number of years they did not observe the shmita
. Bezael constructs the Ark of the Covenant and the Mishkan, where the presence of Yahweh dwells on earth in the Holy of Holies
, above the Ark of the Covenant, which houses the Ten Commandments. Moses sends spies to scout out the Land of Canaan
, and the Israelites are commanded to go up and conquer the land, but they refuse, due to their fear of warfare and violence. In response, Yahweh condemns the entire generation, including Moses, who is condemned for striking the rock
at Meribah, to exile and death in the Sinai desert.
Before Moses dies he gives a speech to the Israelites where he paraphrases a summary
of the mizwoth
given to them by Yahweh, and recites a prophetic song called the Ha'azinu
. Moses prophesies that if the Israelites disobey the Torah, Yahweh will cause a global exile
in addition to the minor one prophesied earlier at Mount Sinai, but at the end of days Yahweh will gather them back to Israel from among the nations
when they turn back to the Torah with zeal. The events of the Israelite exodus and their sojourn in the Sinai are memorialized in the Jewish and Samaritan festivals of Passover
, and the giving of the Torah in the Jewish celebration of Shavuoth
Forty years after the Exodus
, following the death of the generation of Moses, a new generation, led by Joshua
, enters Canaan and takes possession of the land in accordance with the promise made to Abraham by Yahweh. The land is allocated to the tribes by lottery
. Eventually, the Israelites ask for a king, and Yahweh gives them Saul
, the youngest (divinely favored) son of Jesse
would succeed Saul
. Under David, the Israelites establish the united monarchy
, and under David's son Solomon
they construct the Holy Temple in Jerusalem
, using the 400-year-old materials of the Mishkan, where Yahweh continues to tabernacle himself among them. On the death of Solomon and reign of his son, Rehoboam
, the kingdom is divided in two.
The kings of the northern Kingdom of Israel are uniformly bad, permitting the worship of other gods and failing to enforce the worship of Yahweh alone, and so Yahweh eventually allows them to be conquered and dispersed among the peoples of the earth; and strangers rule over their remnant in the northern land. In Judah some kings are good and enforce the worship of Yahweh alone, but many are bad and permit other gods, even in the Holy Temple itself, and at length Yahweh allows Judah to fall to her enemies, the people taken into captivity in Babylon
, the land left empty and desolate, and the Holy Temple itself destroyed.
Yet despite these events, Yahweh does not forget his people but sends Cyrus, king of Persia
to deliver them from bondage. The Israelites are allowed to return to Judah and Benjamin, the Holy Temple is rebuilt, the priestly orders restored, and the service of sacrifice resumed. Through the offices of the sage Ezra
, Israel is constituted as a holy nation, bound by the Torah and holding itself apart from all other peoples.
Several theories exist proposing the origins of the Israelites in raiding groups, infiltrating nomads or emerging from indigenous Canaanites driven from the wealthier urban areas by poverty to seek their fortunes in the highland. Various, ethnically distinct groups of itinerant nomads such as the Habiru
recorded in Egyptian texts as active in Edom
and Canaan could have been related to the later Israelites, which does not exclude the possibility that the majority may have had their origins in Canaan proper. The name Yahweh, the god of the later Israelites, may indicate connections with the region of Mount Seir
[K. van der Toor]
''Family Religion in Babylonia, Ugarit and Israel: Continuity and Changes in the Forms of Religious Life''
BRILL 1996 pp. 181, 282.
The prevailing academic opinion today is that the Israelites were a mixture of peoples predominantly indigenous to Canaan, although an Egyptian matrix of peoples may also have played a role in their ethnogenesis,
with an ethnic composition similar to that in Ammon
, Edom and Moab
''Tribes of Yahweh: A Sociology of the Religion of Liberated Israel, 1250–1050 BCE''
A&C Black, 1999 p. 433, cf. 455–56
and including Habiru and Shasu.
''Creation and Judgement: Creation Texts in Some Eighth Century Prophets''
Brill, 2003 pp. 110–21, 144.
The defining feature which marked them off from the surrounding societies was a staunch egalitarian organisation focused on the worship of Yahweh, rather than mere kinship.
The language of the Canaanites may perhaps be best described as an "archaic form of Hebrew, standing in much the same relationship to the Hebrew of the Old Testament as does the language of Chaucer to modern English." The Canaanites were also the first people, as far as is known, to have used an alphabet
, as early as the 12th century BCE
The name "Israel"
The name Israel first appears c. 1209 BCE, at the end of the Late Bronze Age
and the very beginning of the period archaeologists and historians call Iron Age I
, on the Merneptah Stele raised by the Egyptian Pharaoh Merneptah. The inscription is very brief:
As distinct from the cities named (Ashkelon
) which are written with a toponymic marker
, Israel is written hieroglyph
ically with a demonym
indicating that the reference is to a human group, variously located in central Palestine
or the highlands of Samaria
Pre-state (Iron Age I) and monarchies (Iron Age II)
Over the next two hundred years (the period of Iron Age I) the number of highland villages
increased from 25 to over 300
[McNutt 1999, p. 47.]
and the settled population doubled to 40,000.
[McNutt 1999, p. 70.]
By the 10th century BCE a rudimentary state had emerged in the north-central highlands, and in the 9th century this became a kingdom. Settlement in the southern highlands was minimal from the 12th through the 10th centuries BCE, but a state began to emerge there either in the 10th or the 9th century, and from 850 BCE onwards a series of inscriptions are evidence of a kingdom which its neighbours refer to as the "House of David
From the downfall of the two kingdoms to Bar Kochba
In the pre-exilic First Temple Period
the political power of Judea was concentrated within the tribe of Judah
, Israel was dominated by the tribe of Ephraim
and the House of Joseph
, while the Galilee
was associated with the tribe of Naphtali
, the most eminent tribe of northern Israel.
After the destruction of the kingdom of Israel and kingdom of Judah in 720 and 586 BCE respectively,
the concepts of Jew and Samaritan gradually replaced Judahite and Israelite.
At the time of the Kingdom of Israel, the Galilee
was populated by northern tribes of Israel, but following the Babylonian exile the region became Jewish.
Four centuries after the Jews returned from the Babylonian captivity
, the Hasmonean kingdom
was established, consisting of three regions, Judea
, and the Galilee
During the Second Temple period
relations between the Jews and Samaritans remained tense. In 120 BCE the Hasmonean king Yohanan Hyrcanos I
destroyed the Samaritan temple on Mount Gerizim
, due to the resentment between the two groups over a disagreement of whether Mount Moriah
or Mount Gerizim
was the actual site of the Aqedah
, and the chosen place for the Holy Temple
, a source of contention that had been growing since the two houses of the former united monarchy
first split asunder in 930 BCE and which had finally exploded into warfare. 190 years after the destruction of the Samaritan Temple and the surrounding area of Shechem, the Roman general and future emperor Vespasian
launched a military campaign to crush the Jewish revolt
of 66 CE, which resulted in the destruction
of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem
in 70 CE by his son Titus
, and the subsequent exile
of Jews from Judea and the Galilee in 135 CE following the Bar Kochba revolt
[Josephus, ''Antiquities of the Jews'' XVIII.7.2. Josephus, ''War of the Jews'' II.8.11, II.13.7, II.14.4, II.14.5]
In 2000, M. Hammer, et al. conducted a study on 1371 men and definitively established that part of the paternal gene pool of Jewish communities
in Europe, North Africa and Middle East came from a common Middle East ancestral population.
Another study (Nebel et al. 2001) noted; "In comparison with data available from other relevant populations in the region, Jews were found to be more closely related to groups in the north of the Fertile Crescent (Kurds, Turks, and Armenians) than to their Arab neighbors. The authors found that "Palestinian Arabs and Bedouin differed from the other Middle Eastern populations studied, mainly in specific high-frequency Eu 10 haplotypes not found in the non-Arab groups." and suggested that some of this difference might be due to migration and admixture from the Arabian peninsula during the last two millennia.
A 2004 study (by Shen et al.) comparing Samaritans to several Jewish populations (including Ashkenazi Jews
, Iraqi Jews
, Libyan Jews
, Moroccan Jews
, and Yemenite Jews
, as well as Israeli Druze
) found that "the principal components analysis suggested a common ancestry of Samaritan and Jewish patrilineages. Most of the former may be traced back to a common ancestor in what is today identified as the paternally inherited Israelite high priesthood (Cohanim) with a common ancestor projected to the time of the Assyrian conquest of the kingdom of Israel."
* Biblical archaeology
* Groups claiming affiliation with Israelites
* Lachish relief
* Masoretic Text
* Samaritan Pentateuch
* Tribal allotments of Israel
* Who is a Jew?
* Yom HaAliyah
Category:Ancient Jewish history
Category:Ancient peoples of the Near East
Category:Land of Israel
Category:Samaritan culture and history