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The chief executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region is the representative of the
Hong Kong Hong Kong (, ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR) (), is a metropolitan area and Special administrative regions of China, special administrative region of the China, People's Repu ...
Special Administrative Region and head of the Government of Hong Kong. The position was created to replace the office of governor of Hong Kong, the representative of the monarch of the United Kingdom during British rule.Bill 1999
" Info.gov.hk. Retrieved 28 March 2010.
The office, stipulated by the
Hong Kong Basic Law The Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China is a national law of China that serves as the ''de facto'' constitution of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). Comprising nine chapt ...
, formally came into being on 1 July 1997 when the sovereignty of Hong Kong was transferred from the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shortha ...
to the
People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion. Covering approximately 9.6& ...
. The functions of the chief executive include nominating principal officials for appointment by the Central People's Government of China (State Council), which is headed by the
premier Premier is a title for the head of government in some countries, states and sub-national governments. A second in command to a premier is designated as a vice-premier or deputy premier. Examples by country The word comes from french "Premier mi ...
, conducting foreign relations, appointing judges and other public officers, giving consent to legislation passed by the Legislative Council, and bestowing honours. The Basic Law grants the chief executive a wide range of powers, but obliges him or her, before making important policy decisions, introducing bills to the Legislative Council, making subsidiary legislation, and dissolving the Legislative Council, to act only after consultation with the Executive Council (all of whose members are the CE's own appointees). The Executive Council consists of official and non-official members, including the
chief secretary for administration The Chief Secretary for Administration, commonly known as the Chief Secretary of Hong Kong, is the most senior principal official of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The Chief Secretary is head of the Government ...
, the most senior official and head of the Government Secretariat, in charge of overseeing the administration of the Government. The chief executive holds the title "The Honourable", and ranks first in the Hong Kong order of precedence. The official residence of the chief executive is Government House, Hong Kong, Government House in Central, Hong Kong, Central, Hong Kong Island. The current chief executive is Carrie Lam, who was 2017 Hong Kong Chief Executive election, selected on 26 March 2017, appointed by the State Council of the People’s Republic of China, Central People's Government with the State Council Decree signed by Premier Li Keqiang, on 11 April 2017 and took office on 1 July 2017. She is the first woman to serve as Chief Executive.


Eligibility for office

According to article 44 of the Basic Law, the chief executive must be a Chinese citizen as defined by the HKSAR Passports Ordinance.HK Basic law
." Basiclaw.org.hk. Retrieved 28 March 2010.
Nomination of Candidates
." HK Electoral Affairs Commission. Retrieved 28 March 2010.
The individual must be at least 40 years old, a Hong Kong residents, Hong Kong permanent resident who is a Nationality law of the People's Republic of China, Chinese citizen with right of abode in Hong Kong, and has ordinarily resided in Hong Kong for a continuous period of not less than 20 years. Article 47 further requires that the chief executive be a person of integrity, dedicated to his or her duties. In addition, since the fourth chief executive term, candidates may not stand for selection by the Election Committee without first obtaining 150 nominations from its members.


Election

The chief executive is elected from a 2014 NPCSC Decision on Hong Kong, restricted pool of candidates supportive of the Central Government by a 1200-member Election Committee, an electoral college consisting of individuals (i.e. private citizens) and bodies (i.e. special interest groups) selected or elected within 28 Functional constituency (Hong Kong), functional constituencies, as prescribed in Annex I to the Basic Law. In the 1996 Hong Kong Chief Executive election, first election of the chief executive, the committee consisted of only 400 members. It was expanded to 800 for the 2002 Hong Kong Chief Executive election, second term. As a result of enabling legislation stemming from a Consultation Document on the Methods for Selecting the Chief Executive and for Forming the LegCo in 2012, public consultation in 2010, and its approval by the National People's Congress Standing Committee in Beijing, the number of representatives was increased from 800 to 1200. The functional constituencies correspond to various sectors of the economy and society, each of which hold their own internal procedures to select electors. The chosen chief executive must be appointed by the State Council of the People’s Republic of China, Central People's Government before taking office. According to Hong Kong Basic Law Article 46, article 46 the term of office of the chief executive is five years with a maximum of two consecutive terms. If a vacancy occurs mid-term, the new chief executive's first term is for the remainder of the previous chief executive's term only. The method of selecting the chief executive is provided under Hong Kong Basic Law Article 45, Article 45 and Annex I of the Basic Law, and the Chief Executive Election Ordinance. According to the Chief Executive Election Ordinance, the winning candidate in the chief executive election shall, within seven working days after the election, publicly make a statutory declaration that he or she is not a member of any political party and will not become a member of any political party or do any act that has the effect of subjecting himself or herself to the discipline of any political party during his or her term of office.


Term of office


Duties and powers

Under the Basic Law the chief executive is the chief representative of the Hongkonger, people of Hong Kong and is the head of the government of Hong Kong. The chief executive's powers and functions include leading the government, implementing the law, signing bills and budgets passed by the Legislative Council, deciding on government policies, advising appointment and dismissal of principal officials of the Government of Hong Kong to the State Council of the People’s Republic of China, Central People's Government (State Council), appointing judges and holders of certain public offices and to pardon or commutation of sentence, commute sentences. The position is also responsible for the Policy address of Hong Kong, policy address made to the public. The chief exeutive's powers and functions are established by article 48 of the Basic Law. The Executive Council of Hong Kong is an organ for assisting the chief executive in policy-making. The council is consulted before making important policy decisions, introducing bills to the Legislative Council, making subordinate legislation or dissolving the Legislative Council.


Resignation

Article 52 stipulates circumstances under which the chief executive must resign. Examples include the loss of ability to discharge his or her duties or refusal to sign a bill passed by a two-thirds majority of the Legislative Council.


Acting and succession

The acting and succession line is spelled out in article 53. If the chief executive is not able to discharge his or her duties for short periods (such as during overseas visits), the duties would be assumed by the Chief Secretary for Administration of Hong Kong, chief secretary for administration, the Financial Secretary of Hong Kong, financial secretary or the secretary for justice, by rotation, in that order, as acting chief executive. In case the position becomes vacant, a new chief executive would have to be selected.


Residence and office

Prior to the handover in 1997, the office of the chief executive-designate was at the 7th floor of the Asia Pacific Finance Tower. When Tung Chee-hwa assumed duty on 1 July 1997, the office of the chief executive was located at the fifth floor of the Former Central Government Offices (Main Wing). In the past the governor had his office at Government House. Tung did not use Government House, Hong Kong, Government House as the primary residence because he lived at his own residence at Grenville House. Donald Tsang decided to return to the renovated Government House during his First term of Donald Tsang as Chief Executive of Hong Kong, first term, and moved in on 12 January 2006, for both his office and residence. In 2011, the office of the chief executive moved to the low block of the new Central Government Complex in Tamar. Government House, Hong Kong, Government House continues to serve as the official residence of the chief executive.


Former chief executives

Upon retirement, former chief executives have access to office space at the Office of Former Chief Executives, 28 Kennedy Road, Hong Kong, Kennedy Road. The office provides administrative support to former chief executives to perform promotional, protocol-related, or any other activities in relation to their former official role. The activities include receiving visiting dignitaries and delegations, giving local and overseas media interviews, and taking part in speaking engagements. A chauffeur-driven car is provided to discharge promotional and protocol-related functions. Depending on police risk assessment, personal security protection is provided. Former chief executives also enjoy medical and dental care. Former chief executives hold the title "The Honourable", and ranks third in the Hong Kong order of precedence.


Remuneration

Remuneration for the chief executive of Hong Kong is List of salaries of heads of state and government, among the highest in the world for a political leader, and only second to that of the Prime Minister of Singapore. The pay level took a cue from the handsome amounts paid to the city's colonial governors – worth $273,000 per annum plus perks in 1992. In 2005, Tung Chee Hwa received some HK$3 million ($378,500) in pay as chief executive. From 2009 until the end of 2014, the salary for the job stood at HK$4.22 million. In January 2015, CY Leung reversed a pay freeze imposed in 2012, resulting in its increase to HK$4.61 million ($591,000). In July 2017, Directors of Bureau (DoBs) were approved to have a 12.4% pay rise and the 3.5% pay differential between Secretaries of Departments (SoDs) and DoBs remained, indicating a new annual pay of approximately HK$5 million for the city's leading role because the chief executive received a salary of 112% of the Chief Secretary for Administration, chief secretary, which means that the new salary of the chief executive of Hong Kong is about thirty-nine times more than the current annual salary of the President of the People's Republic of China, president of China.


Criticism of the office

Since the chief executive is directly appointed by the Central People's Government after an election by a committee of 1,200 people selected by the Central People's Government, rather than the general population, many people, in particular the pro-democracy camp, pro-democrats, have criticised the office as undemocratic, and have criticised the entire election process as a "small-circle election." Former Chief Executive Tung Chee-hwa has even stated that the election's result is a non-binding one. Democratic development in Hong Kong, Many events, including 2010 events such as the Five Constituencies Referendum have attempted to push for greater democracy and universal suffrage. In January 2015, when CY Leung reversed a pay freeze imposed on the chief executive and senior civil servants in 2012, he was accused of granting himself a pay rise by stealth and going against the trend of top politicians taking pay cuts instead of pay increases.


List of chief executives of Hong Kong

Political party: ImageSize = width:800 height:auto barincrement:15 PlotArea = top:10 bottom:50 right:130 left:20 AlignBars = late Colors = id:ind value:rgb(0.8,0.8,0.8) id:non value:gray(0.8) legend:Nonpartisan id:gray1 value:gray(0.8) id:gray2 value:gray(0.9) DateFormat = dd/mm/yyyy Period = from:01/01/1997 till:31/12/2022 TimeAxis = orientation:horizontal ScaleMajor = gridcolor:gray1 unit:year increment:5 start:2000 ScaleMinor = gridcolor:gray2 unit:year increment:1 start:1997 Legend = columns:1 left:150 top:24 columnwidth:90 TextData = pos:(20,27) textcolor:black fontsize:M text:"Political party:" BarData = barset:CE PlotData= width:5 align:left fontsize:S shift:(5,-4) anchor:till barset:CE from: 01/07/1997 till:12/03/2005 color:non text:"Tung Chee-hwa, Tung" fontsize:9 from: 21/06/2005 till:30/06/2012 color:non text:"Donald Tsang, Tsang" fontsize:9 from: 01/07/2012 till:30/06/2017 color:non text:"Leung Chun-ying, Leung" fontsize:9 from: 01/07/2017 till:10/02/2020 color:non text:"Carrie Lam, Lam" fontsize:9


See also

* Chief Executive of Macau * Governor of Hong Kong * Politics of Hong Kong


References


External links


Office of the Chief Executive


* [http://www.ceo.gov.hk/eng/index.html Archive – Chief Executive 1 July 2012 – 30 June 2017]
Archive – Chief Executive 21 June 2005 – 30 June 2012

Archive – Chief Executive 12 March 2005 – 20 June 2005

Archive – Chief Executive 1 July 1997 – 11 March 2005

Corpus of Political Speeches
Free access to political speeches by Chief Executive of Hong Kong and other politicians, developed by Hong Kong Baptist University Library {{HKExco Chief Executives of Hong Kong, Lists of political office-holders in China, Hong Kong Lists of political office-holders in Hong Kong Politics of Hong Kong Regional leaders in the People's Republic of China, *