HOME

TheInfoList




The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) is the foundational
treaty A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relat ...

treaty
of the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
, an
intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through formal treaties for handling/serving common interests and governed by interna ...
. It establishes the purposes, governing structure, and overall framework of the
UN system The United Nations System consists of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to a ...
, including its six principal organs: the
Secretariat Secretariat may refer to: * Secretariat (administrative office) The secretariat of an organization is the department that fulfils its Central administration, central administrative or General Secretary, general secretary duties. The term is especi ...
, the
General Assembly A general assembly or general meeting is a meeting of all the members of an organization or shareholders of a company. Specific examples of general assembly include: Churches * General Assembly (presbyterian church), the highest court of presbyt ...
, the
Security Council The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, sec ...

Security Council
, the
Economic and Social Council
Economic and Social Council
, the
International Court of Justice The International Court of Justice (ICJ; french: Cour internationale de justice, links=no; ), sometimes known as the World Court, is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmenta ...

International Court of Justice
, and the
Trusteeship Council The United Nations Trusteeship Council (french: Conseil de tutelle des Nations unies) is one of the organs of the United Nations, six principal organs of the United Nations, established to help ensure that United Nations Trust Territories, trust ...
. The UN Charter mandates the UN and its
member states A member state is a state that is a member of an international organization An international organization (also known as an international institution or intergovernmental organization) is a stable set of norms and rules meant to govern the be ...

member states
to maintain international peace and security, uphold international law, achieve "higher standards of living" for their citizens, address "economic, social, health, and related problems", and promote "universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to
race Race, RACE or "The Race" may refer to: * Race (biology), an informal taxonomic classification within a species, generally within a sub-species * Race (human categorization), classification of humans into groups based on physical traits, and/or s ...
,
sex Sex is either of two divisions, typically male Male (♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete known as sperm. A male gamete can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fertilization. A male cannot sexual r ...
,
language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the ...

language
, or
religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology ...

religion
." As a
charter A charter is the grant of authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social scie ...
and
constituent treaty
constituent treaty
, its rules and obligations are binding on all members and supersede those of other treaties. During the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, the Allied powers—known formally as the United Nations agreed to establish a new postwar international organization. Pursuant to this goal, the UN Charter was discussed, prepared, and drafted during the
San Francisco Conference The United Nations Conference on International Organization (UNCIO), commonly known as the San Francisco Conference, was a convention of delegates from 50 Allied nations that took place from 25 April 1945 to 26 June 1945 in San Francisco ...
that began 25 April 1945, which involved most of the world's sovereign nations. Following two-thirds approval of each part, the final text was unanimously adopted by delegates and opened for signature on 26 June 1945; it was signed in San Francisco, United States, by 50 of the 51 original member countries.
Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , and has a largely Temperate climate, temperate seasonal cli ...
, which was not represented at the conference, signed it two months later.
The Charter entered into force on 24 October 1945, following ratification by the five permanent members of the
United Nations Security Council The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed ...

United Nations Security Council
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...
,After 1949, located in
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
; replaced on 25 October 1971 by the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

People's Republic of China
Provisional Government of the French Republic, France,Later replaced by the French Fourth Republic, Fourth Republic and then the French Fifth Republic, Fifth Republic. the Soviet Union,Replaced by the Russia, Russian Federation in 1991. the United Kingdom, and the United States—and a majority of the other signatories; this is considered the official starting date of the United Nations, with the first session of the General Assembly, representing all 51 initial members, opening in London the following January. The General Assembly formally recognized 24 October as United Nations Day in 1947, and declared it an official international holiday in 1971. With 193 parties, Member states of the United Nations#Current members, most countries have now ratified the Charter.


Summary

The Charter consists of a ''Preamble to the United Nations Charter, preamble'' and 111 articles grouped into 19 chapters. The Preamble to the United Nations Charter, preamble consists of two principal parts. The first part contains a general call for the maintenance of peace and international security and respect for human rights. The second part of the preamble is a declaration in a contractual style that the governments of the peoples of the United Nations have agreed to the Charter and it is the first international document regarding human rights. * Chapter I of the United Nations Charter, Chapter I sets forth the purposes of the United Nations, including the important provisions of the maintenance of international peace and security. * Chapter II of the United Nations Charter, Chapter II defines the criteria for membership in the United Nations. * Chapter III of the United Nations Charter, Chapters III–Chapter XV of the United Nations Charter, XV, the bulk of the document, describe the organs and institutions of the UN and their respective powers. * Chapter XVI of the United Nations Charter, Chapters XVI and Chapter XVII of the United Nations Charter, Chapter XVII describe arrangements for integrating the UN with established international law. * Chapter XVIII of the United Nations Charter, Chapters XVIII and Chapter XIX of the United Nations Charter, Chapter XIX provide for Amendments to the United Nations Charter, amendment and ratification of the Charter. The following chapters deal with the enforcement powers of UN bodies: * Chapter VI of the United Nations Charter, Chapter VI describes the
Security Council The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, sec ...

Security Council
's power to investigate and mediate :wikt:dispute, disputes; * Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, Chapter VII describes the Security Council's power to authorize economic, diplomatic, and military sanctions, as well as the use of military force, to resolve disputes; * Chapter VIII of the United Nations Charter, Chapter VIII makes it possible for regional arrangements to maintain peace and security within their own region; * Chapter IX of the United Nations Charter, Chapters IX and Chapter X of the United Nations Charter, Chapter X describe the UN's powers for economic and social cooperation, and the that oversees these powers; * Chapter XII of the United Nations Charter, Chapters XII and Chapter XIII of the United Nations Charter, Chapter XIII describe the Trusteeship Council, which oversaw decolonization; * Chapter XIV of the United Nations Charter, Chapters XIV and Chapter XV of the United Nations Charter, Chapter XV establish the powers of, respectively, the
International Court of Justice The International Court of Justice (ICJ; french: Cour internationale de justice, links=no; ), sometimes known as the World Court, is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmenta ...

International Court of Justice
and the United Nations Secretariat. * Chapters XVI through Chapter XIX deal respectively with Chapter XVI of the United Nations Charter, XVI: miscellaneous provisions, Chapter XVII of the United Nations Charter, XVII: transitional security arrangements related to World War II, Chapter XVIII of the United Nations Charter, XVIII: the charter amendment process, and Chapter XIX of the United Nations Charter, XIX: ratification of the charter


History


Background

The principles and conceptual framework of the United Nations were formulated incrementally through a series of conferences by the Allies of World War II, Allied nations during the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. The Declaration of St James's Palace, issued in London on 12 June 1941, was the first joint statement of the goals and principles of the Allies, and the first to express a vision for a postwar world order. The Declaration called for the "willing cooperation of free peoples" so that "all may enjoy economic and social security". Roughly two months later, the United States and the United Kingdom issued a joint statement elaborating these goals, known as the Atlantic Charter. It called for no territorial changes made against the wishes of the people, the right to Self-determination, self-determination for all peoples, restoration of self-government to those deprived of it, reduction of trade barriers, global cooperation to secure better economic and social conditions for the world, freedom from fear and want, freedom of the seas, and abandonment of the use of force, including mutual disarmament after the war. Many of these principles would inspire or form part of the UN Charter. The following year, on 1 January 1942, representatives of thirty nations formally at war with the Axis powers—led by the Big Four in World War 2, "Big Four" powers of China, the Soviet Union, the U.K., and the U.S.—signed the Declaration by United Nations, which formalized the anti-Axis alliance and reaffirmed the purposes and principles of the Atlantic Charter. The following day, representatives of twenty-two other nations added their signatures. The term "United Nations" became synonymous with the Allies for the duration of the war, and was considered the formal name under which they were fighting. The Declaration by United Nations formed the basis of the United Nations Charter; virtually all nations that acceded to it would be invited to take part in the 1945
San Francisco Conference The United Nations Conference on International Organization (UNCIO), commonly known as the San Francisco Conference, was a convention of delegates from 50 Allied nations that took place from 25 April 1945 to 26 June 1945 in San Francisco ...
to discuss and prepare the Charter. On 30 October 1943, the Declaration of the Four Nations, one of the four Moscow Declarations, was signed by the foreign ministers of the Big Four, calling for the establishment of a "general international organization, based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all peace-loving states, and open to membership by all such states, large and small, for the maintenance of international peace and security.”Some sources
such as the United Nations
refer to Declaration of the Four Nations as the "Moscow Declaration"
This was the first formal announcement that a new international organization was being contemplated to replace the moribund League of Nations. Pursuant to the Moscow Declarations, from 21 August 1944 to 7 October 1944, the U.S. hosted the Dumbarton Oaks Conference to develop a blueprint for what would become the United Nations. Many of the rules, principles, and provisions of the UN Charter were discussed proposed during the conference, including the structure of the UN system; the creation of a "Security Council" to prevent future war and conflict; and the establishment of other "organs" of the organization, such as the General Assembly, International Court of Justice, and Secretariat. The conference was led by the Big Four, with delegates from other nation participating in the consideration and formulation of these principles. At the Paris peace conference in 1919, it was Prime Minister Jan Smuts of South Africa and Robert Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood, Lord Cecil of the United Kingdom who came up with the structure of the League of Nations with the League being divided into a League Assembly consisting of all the member states and a League Council consisting of the great powers. The same design that Smuts and Cecil had devised for the League of Nations was copied for the United Nations with a Security Council made up of the great powers and a General Assembly of the UN member states. The subsequent Yalta Conference in February 1945 between the U.S., U.K., and Soviet Union resolved the lingering debate regarding the voting structure of the proposed Security Council, calling for a "Conference of United Nations" in San Francisco on 25 April 1945 to "prepare the charter of such an organization, along the lines proposed in the formal conversations of Dumbarton Oaks.”


Drafting and adoption

The United Nations Conference on International Organization, San Francisco Conference, formally the United Nations Conference on International Organization (UNCIO), began as scheduled on 25 April 1945 with the goal of drafting a charter that would create a new international organization. The Big Four, which sponsored the event, invited all forty-six signatories to the Declaration by United Nations.Poland, despite having signed the Declaration by United Nations, did not attend the conference because there was no consensus on the formation of the postwar Polish government. Therefore, a space was left blank for the Polish signature. The new Polish government was formed after the conference (28 June) and signed the United Nations Charter on 15 October, making Poland one of the founding countries of the United Nations. Conference delegates invited four more nations: Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, recently liberated Denmark and Argentina. The conference was perhaps the largest international gathering up to that point, with 850 delegates, along with advisers and organizers, for a total of 3,500 participants. An additional 2,500 representatives from media and various civil society groups were also in attendance. Plenary meetings involving all delegates were chaired on a rotational basis by the lead delegates of the Big Four. Several committees were formed to facilitate and address different aspects of the drafting process, with over 400 meetings convened in the subsequent weeks. Following multiple reviews, debates, and revisions, a final full meeting was held on 25 June 1945 with the final proposed draft posed to attendees. Following unanimous approval, the Charter was signed by delegates the following day in Veterans' Memorial Hall.


Charter Provisions


Preamble

The Preamble to the treaty reads as follows:
; WE THE PEOPLES OF THE UNITED NATIONS DETERMINED * to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and * to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and * to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and * to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, ; AND FOR THESE ENDS * to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbours, and * to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and * to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and * to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples, ; HAVE RESOLVED TO COMBINE OUR EFFORTS TO ACCOMPLISH THESE AIMS. Accordingly, our respective Governments, through representatives assembled in the city of San Francisco, who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good and due form, have agreed to the present Charter of the United Nations and do hereby establish an international organization to be known as the United Nations.
Although the Preamble is an integral part of the Charter, it does not set out any of the rights or obligations of member states; its purpose is to serve as an interpretative guide for the provisions of the Charter through the highlighting of some of the core motives of the founders of the organization.Report of the Rapporteur of Commission I/1 UNICO VI, pp 446–7, Doc. 944 I/1/34(1).


Chapter I: Purposes And Principles


Article 1

The Purposes of the United Nations are # To maintain international peace and security, to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace; # To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of civil rights, equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace; # To achieve international co-operation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or international humanitarian law, humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion; and # To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of these common ends.


Article 2

The Organization and its Members, in pursuit of the Purposes stated in Article 1, shall act in accordance with the following Principles: # The Organization is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all its Members. # All Members, in order to ensure, to all of them the rights and benefits resulting from membership, shall fulfill in good faith the obligations assumed by them in accordance with the present Charter. # All Members shall settle their international disputes by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security, and justice, are not endangered. # All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations. # All Members shall give the United Nations every assistance in any action it takes in accordance with the present Charter and shall refrain from giving assistance to any state against which the United Nations is taking preventive or enforcement action. # The Organization shall ensure that states which are not Members of the United Nations act in accordance with these Principles so far as may be necessary for the maintenance of international peace and security. # Nothing contained in the present Charter shall authorize the United Nations to intervene in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state or shall require the Members to submit such matters to settlement under the present Charter; but this principle shall not prejudice the application of enforcement measures under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter.


Chapter II: Membership

Chapter II of the United Nations Charter deals with membership of the United Nations organization


Chapter III: Organs

# There are established as principal organs of the United Nations: a General Assembly, a Security Council, an Economic and Social Council, a Trusteeship Council, an International Court of Justice, and a Secretariat. # Such subsidiary organs as may be found necessary may be established in accordance with the present Charter.


Chapter IV: The General Assembly


Chapter V: The Security Council

COMPOSITION Article 23 1. The Security Council shall consist of fifteen Members of the United Nations. The Republic of China, France, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America shall be permanent members of the Security Council. The General Assembly shall elect ten other Members of the United Nations to be non-permanent members of the Security Council, due regard being specially paid, in the first instance to the contribution of Members of the United Nations to the maintenance of international peace and security and to the other purposes of the Organization, and also to equitable geographical distribution. 2. The non-permanent members of the Security Council shall be elected for a term of two years. In the first election of the non-permanent members after the increase of the membership of the Security Council from eleven to fifteen, two of the four additional members shall be chosen for a term of one year. A retiring member shall not be eligible for immediate re-election. 3. Each member of the Security Council shall have one representative. FUNCTIONS and POWERS Article 24 1. In order to ensure prompt and effective action by the United Nations, its Members confer on the Security Council primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security and agree that in carrying out its duties under this responsibility the Security Council acts on their behalf. 2. In discharging these duties the Security Council shall act in accordance with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations. The specific powers granted to the Security Council for the discharge of these duties are laid down in Chapters VI, VII, VIII, and XII. 3. The Security Council shall submit annual and, when necessary, special reports to the General Assembly for its consideration. Article 25 The Members of the United Nations agree to accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council in accordance with the present Charter. Article 26 In order to promote the establishment and maintenance of international peace and security with the least diversion for armaments of the world's human and economic resources, the Security Council shall be responsible for formulating, with the assistance of the Military Staff Committee referred to in Article 47, plans to be submitted to the Members of the United Nations for the establishment of a system for the regulation of armaments. VOTING Article 27 1. Each member of the Security Council shall have one vote. 2. Decisions of the Security Council on procedural matters shall be made by an affirmative vote of nine members. 3. Decisions of the Security Council on all other matters shall be made by an affirmative vote of nine members including the concurring votes of the permanent members; provided that, in decisions under Chapter VI, and under paragraph 3 of Article 52, a party to a dispute shall abstain from voting. PROCEDURE Article 28 1. The Security Council shall be so organized as to be able to function continuously. Each member of the Security Council shall for this purpose be represented at all times at the seat of the Organization. 2. The Security Council shall hold periodic meetings at which each of its members may, if it so desires, be represented by a member of the government or by some other specially designated representative. 3. The Security Council may hold meetings at such places other than the seat of the Organization as in its judgment will best facilitate its work. Article 29 The Security Council may establish such subsidiary organs as it deems necessary for the performance of its functions. Article 30 The Security Council shall adopt its own rules of procedure, including the method of selecting its president. Article 31 Any Member of the United Nations which is not a member of the Security Council may participate, without vote, in the discussion of any question brought before the Security Council whenever the latter considers that the interests of that Member are specially affected. Article 32 Any Member of the United Nations which is not a member of the Security Council or any state which is not a Member of the United Nations, if it is a party to a dispute under consideration by the Security Council, shall be invited to participate, without vote, in the discussion relating to the dispute. The Security Council shall lay down such conditions as it deems just for the participation of a state which is not a Member of the United Nations.


Chapter VI: Peaceful Settlement of Disputes


Chapter VII: Action with respect to Threats to the Peace, Breaches of the Peace, and Acts of Aggression


Chapter VIII: Regional Arrangements


Chapter IX: International Economic and Social Co-operation


Chapter X: The Economic and Social Council


Chapter XI: Declaration regarding Non-Self-Governing Territories


Chapter XII: International Trusteeship System


Chapter XIII: The Trusteeship Council


Chapter XIV: The International Court of Justice


Chapter XV: The Secretariat

* It comprises the Secretary-General and such other staff as the organization may require. * It provides services to the other organs of the United Nations, such as the General Assembly, the S.C, the ECOSOC, and the trusteeship council, as well as their subsidiary bodies. * The Secretary-General is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of security council. * The staff of the secretariat is appointed by the Secretary-General according to the regulations laid down by the General Assembly. * The secretariat is located at the headquarters of the U.N in New York City, New York. * The secretariat also includes the regional commission secretariat at Baghdad, Bangkok, Geneva and Santiago.


Functions of the Secretariat

# preparation of report and other documents containing information, analysis, historical background research finding, policy suggestions and so forth, to facilitate deliberations and decision making by other organs. # to facilitate legislative organs and their subsidiary bodies. # provision of meeting services for the General Assembly and other organs # provision of editorial, translation and document reproduction services for the issuance of UN documents in different language. # conduct of studies and provision of information to various member states in meeting challenge in various fields # preparation of statistical publication, information bulletin and analytical work which the General Assembly has decided # organization of conferences experts group meetings and seminar on topics of concern to the international community # provision of technical assistance to develop countries. # understanding of service mission to countries, areas or location as authorized by the General Assembly or the security


Chapter XVI: Miscellaneous Provisions


Chapter XVII: Transitional Security Arrangements


Chapter XVIII: Amendments

The General Assembly has the power to amend the UN Charter. Amendments adopted by a vote of two-thirds of the members of the Assembly need to ratified by two-thirds of the Member-States, including all the Permanent Members of the Security Council.


Chapter XIX: Ratification and Signature

Provided that the Charter would enter into force once ratified by the Permanent Five members of the
United Nations Security Council The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed ...

United Nations Security Council
and a majority of the other signatory states, and set forth related procedures, such as providing certified copies to ratifying governments.


See also

* Command responsibility * History of United Nations peacekeeping * Nuremberg Principles * Universal Declaration of Human Rights


Footnotes


References


Books and articles

* *


External links


Full Text In the UN Website

Scanned copy of the signed charter

Original ratifications

Ratifications/admissions under Article IV


* [http://legal.un.org/avl/ha/cun/cun.html Procedural history note and audiovisual material] on the ''Charter of the United Nations'' in th
Historic Archives of the United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law


* [http://legal.un.org/avl/ls/Rosenboom_LT.html Lecture by Annebeth Rosenboom] entitled ''Practical Aspects of Treaty Law: Treaty Registration under Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations'' in th

* {{DEFAULTSORT:United Nations Charter Charter of the United Nations, 1945 in the United Nations June 1945 events October 1945 events International law, United Nations Charter Crime of aggression, United Nations Charter Political charters, United Nations Charter Treaties concluded in 1945, United Nations Charter Treaties entered into force in 1945, United Nations Charter Treaties of the Kingdom of Afghanistan Treaties of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania Treaties of Algeria Treaties of Andorra Treaties of the People's Republic of Angola Treaties of Antigua and Barbuda Treaties of Argentina Treaties of Armenia Treaties of Australia Treaties of Austria Treaties of Azerbaijan Treaties of the Bahamas Treaties of Bahrain Treaties of Bangladesh Treaties of Barbados Treaties of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic Treaties of Belgium Treaties of Belize Treaties of the Republic of Dahomey Treaties of Bhutan Treaties of Bolivia Treaties of Bosnia and Herzegovina Treaties of Botswana Treaties of Vargas-era Brazil Treaties of Brunei Treaties of the People's Republic of Bulgaria Treaties of Burkina Faso Treaties of Myanmar Treaties of Burundi Treaties of the Kingdom of Cambodia (1953–1970) Treaties of Cameroon Treaties of Canada Treaties of Cape Verde Treaties of the Central African Republic Treaties of Chad Treaties of Chile Treaties of the Republic of China (1912–1949) Treaties of Colombia Treaties of the Comoros Treaties of the Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville) Treaties of the Republic of the Congo Treaties of Costa Rica Treaties of Ivory Coast Treaties of Croatia Treaties of Cuba Treaties of Cyprus Treaties of the Czech Republic Treaties of Czechoslovakia Treaties of Denmark Treaties of Djibouti Treaties of Dominica Treaties of the Dominican Republic Treaties of East Timor Treaties of Ecuador Treaties of the Kingdom of Egypt Treaties of El Salvador Treaties of Equatorial Guinea Treaties of Eritrea Treaties of Estonia Treaties of the Ethiopian Empire Treaties of Fiji Treaties of Finland Treaties of the French Fourth Republic Treaties of Gabon Treaties of the Gambia Treaties of Georgia (country) Treaties of West Germany Treaties of East Germany Treaties of Ghana Treaties of the Kingdom of Greece Treaties of Grenada Treaties of Guatemala Treaties of Guinea Treaties of Guinea-Bissau Treaties of Haiti Treaties of Honduras Treaties of the Hungarian People's Republic Treaties of Iceland Treaties of British India Treaties of Indonesia Treaties of Pahlavi Iran Treaties of the Kingdom of Iraq Treaties of Ireland Treaties of Israel Treaties of Italy Treaties of Jamaica Treaties of Japan Treaties of Jordan Treaties of Kazakhstan Treaties of Kenya Treaties of Kiribati Treaties of North Korea Treaties of South Korea Treaties of Kuwait Treaties of Kyrgyzstan Treaties of the Kingdom of Laos Treaties of Latvia Treaties of Lebanon Treaties of Lesotho Treaties of Liberia Treaties of the Kingdom of Libya Treaties of Liechtenstein Treaties of Lithuania Treaties of Luxembourg Treaties of North Macedonia Treaties of Madagascar Treaties of Malawi Treaties of the Federation of Malaya Treaties of the Maldives Treaties of Mali Treaties of Malta Treaties of the Marshall Islands Treaties of Mauritania Treaties of Mauritius Treaties of Mexico Treaties of the Federated States of Micronesia Treaties of Moldova Treaties of Monaco Treaties of the Mongolian People's Republic Treaties of Montenegro Treaties of Morocco Treaties of the People's Republic of Mozambique Treaties of Namibia Treaties of Nauru Treaties of Nepal Treaties of the Netherlands Treaties of New Zealand Treaties of Nicaragua Treaties of Niger Treaties of Nigeria Treaties of Norway Treaties of Oman Treaties of the Dominion of Pakistan Treaties of Palau Treaties of Panama Treaties of Papua New Guinea Treaties of Paraguay Treaties of Peru Treaties of the Commonwealth of the Philippines Treaties of the Polish People's Republic Treaties of the Estado Novo (Portugal) Treaties of Qatar Treaties of the Socialist Republic of Romania Treaties of Rwanda Treaties of Saint Kitts and Nevis Treaties of Saint Lucia Treaties of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Treaties of Samoa Treaties of San Marino Treaties of São Tomé and Príncipe Treaties of Saudi Arabia Treaties of Senegal Treaties of Serbia and Montenegro Treaties of Seychelles Treaties of Sierra Leone Treaties of Singapore Treaties of Slovakia Treaties of Slovenia Treaties of the Solomon Islands Treaties of the Somali Republic Treaties of the Union of South Africa Treaties of South Sudan Treaties of the Soviet Union Treaties of Francoist Spain Treaties of the Dominion of Ceylon Treaties of the Republic of the Sudan (1956–1969) Treaties of Suriname Treaties of Eswatini Treaties of Sweden Treaties of Switzerland Treaties of the Syrian Republic (1930–1963) Treaties of Tajikistan Treaties of Tanganyika Treaties of Thailand Treaties of Togo Treaties of Tonga Treaties of Trinidad and Tobago Treaties of Tunisia Treaties of Turkey Treaties of Turkmenistan Treaties of Tuvalu Treaties of Uganda Treaties of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Treaties of the United Arab Emirates Treaties of the United Kingdom Treaties of the United States Treaties of Uruguay Treaties of Uzbekistan Treaties of Vanuatu Treaties of Venezuela Treaties of Vietnam Treaties of South Yemen Treaties of the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen Treaties of Yugoslavia Treaties of Zambia Treaties of the Sultanate of Zanzibar Treaties of Zimbabwe United Nations treaties Treaties establishing intergovernmental organizations, United Nations Charter 1945 in California, United Nations Charter Treaties extended to Curaçao and Dependencies Treaties extended to Portuguese Macau Treaties extended to British Hong Kong Treaties extended to Midway Atoll Treaties extended to the Faroe Islands Treaties extended to Greenland Treaties extended to Tokelau History of San Francisco