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Charles V, french: Charles Quint, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, ca, Carles V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was
Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as ...
and
Archduke of Austria Austria was ruled by the House of Babenberg until 1246 and by the House of Habsburg The House of Habsburg (; ; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; german: Haus Habsburg, es, Casa de Habsburgo, hu, Habsburg-család), also House of Aust ...
from 1519 to 1556,
King of Spain , coatofarms = Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch.svg , coatofarms_article = Coat of arms of the King of Spain , image = King Felipe VI of Spain.jpg , incumbent = Felipe VI , incumbentsince = 19 June 2014 , h ...

King of Spain
(
Castile
Castile
and
Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma ast, comunidá autónoma , alt_n ...
) from 1516 to 1556, and
Lord of the Netherlands Habsburg Netherlands ( nl, Habsburgse Nederlanden; french: Pays-Bas des Habsbourg), in Latin referred to as Belgica, is the collective name of Renaissance period fiefs in the Low Countries The term Low Countries, also known as the Low Lands ...
as titular
Duke of Burgundy Duke of Burgundy (french: duc de Bourgogne) was a title used by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy The Duchy of Burgundy (; la, Ducatus Burgundiae; french: Duché de Bourgogne, ) emerged in the 9th century as one of the successors of the an ...
from 1506 to 1555. As he was head of the rising
House of Habsburg The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English (german: Haus Habsburg ; es, Casa de Habsburgo ; hu, Habsburg-család), also known as the House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich; es, link=no, Casa de Austria), ...
during the first half of the 16th century, his dominions in Europe included the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
, extending from
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the and by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the , according to population within city l ...
to
northern Italy Northern Italy ( it, Italia settentrionale, it, Nord Italia, label=none, it, Alta Italia, label=none or just it, Nord, label=none) is a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical cha ...
with direct rule over the Austrian hereditary lands and the
Burgundian Low Countries The Burgundian inheritance in the Low Countries consisted of numerous fiefs held by the Dukes of Burgundy in modern-day Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg. The Duke of Burgundy was a member of the House of Valois-Burgundy and, after 1482, of the ...
, and the
Kingdom of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_ ...
with its southern Italian possessions of
Naples Naples (; it, Napoli ; nap, Napule ), from grc, Νεάπολις, Neápolis, lit=new city. is the regional capital of and the third-largest city of , after and , with a population of 967,069 within the city's administrative limits as of ...

Naples
,
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...

Sicily
, and
Sardinia Sardinia ( ; it, Sardegna ; sc, Sardigna or ) is the Mediterranean islands#By area, second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, and one of the Regions of Italy, 20 regions of Italy. It is located west of the Italian Penin ...
. Furthermore, he oversaw both the continuation of the long-lasting
Spanish colonization of the Americas The Spanish colonization of the Americas began under the Crown of Castile The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decad ...

Spanish colonization of the Americas
and the short-lived
German colonization of the Americas The German colonization of the Americas consisted of German Venezuela (german: Klein-Venedig, also german: Welser Welser was a German banking A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates a d ...
. The
personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The Stat ...

personal union
of the European and American territories of Charles V was the first collection of realms labelled "
the empire on which the Sun never sets The phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets" ( es, el imperio donde nunca se pone el sol) has been used to describe certain global empire An empire is a sovereign state consisting of several territories and peoples subject to a singl ...
". Charles was born in the
County of Flanders The County of Flanders ( nl, Graafschap Vlaanderen; vls, Groafschap Vloandern; french: Comté de Flandre) was a historic territory in the Low Countries The term Low Countries, also known as the Low Lands ( nl, de Lage Landen, french: les Pays- ...
to
Philip of Habsburg
Philip of Habsburg
(son of
Maximilian I of Habsburg
Maximilian I of Habsburg
and
Mary of Burgundy Mary (french: Marie; nl, Maria; 13 February 1457 – 27 March 1482), nicknamed the Rich, titular Duchess of Burgundy This article lists queens, countesses, and duchesses consort of the Kingdom of Burgundy, Kingdom, County of Burgundy, Count ...

Mary of Burgundy
) and
Joanna of Trastámara
Joanna of Trastámara
(daughter of
Isabella I of Castile Isabella I ( es, Isabel I, 22 April 1451 – 26 November 1504) was Queen of Castile This is a list of kings and queens of the Kingdom and Crown of Castile The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the Iberian Peninsula that fo ...
and
Ferdinand II of Aragon Ferdinand II of Aragon ( an, Ferrando; ca, Ferran; eu, Errando; es, Fernando; 10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516), also called ''Ferdinand the Catholic'', was King of Aragon from 1479, King of Sicily (as Ferdinand II) from 1469, List of monar ...
, the
Catholic Monarchs of Spain The term Catholic Monarchs refers to Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous community in Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume ...
). The ultimate heir of his four grandparents, Charles inherited all of his family dominions at a young age. After the death of Philip in 1506, he inherited the Burgundian states originally held by his paternal grandmother Mary. In 1516, he became co-monarch of the Spanish kingdoms with his mother, and as such he was the first king of Spain to inherit the country as dynastically unified by his maternal grandparents Isabella I and Ferdinand II. The Spanish possessions at his accession also included the Castilian
West Indies The West Indies are a subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, in ...
and the Aragonese kingdoms of Naples, Sicily and Sardinia. At the death of his paternal grandfather Maximilian in 1519, he inherited
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine States o ...
and was elected to succeed him as Holy Roman Emperor. He adopted the Imperial name of ''Charles V'' as his main title, and styled himself as a new
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by i ...

Charlemagne
. Charles V revitalized the medieval concept of
universal monarchy A universal monarchy is a concept and political situation where one monarchy is deemed to have either sole rule over everywhere (or at least the predominant part of a geopolitical Geopolitics (from Greek γῆ ''gê'' "earth, land" and πολ ...
and spent most of his life defending the integrity of the Holy Roman Empire from the
Protestant Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity Western Christianity is one of two sub-divisions of Christianity Christianity is an Abra ...
, the expansion of the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
, and a series of wars with France. With no fixed capital city, he made 40 journeys, travelling from country to country; he spent a quarter of his reign on the road. The imperial wars were fought by German
Landsknechte The (also rendered as ''Landsknechts''; singular: , ) were Germanic mercenaries used in pike and shot formations during the early modern period. Consisting predominantly of pikemen and supporting infantry, foot soldiers, their front line was fo ...

Landsknechte
, Spanish
tercios A ''tercio'' (; Spanish for " third") was a military unit of the Spanish Army in the early modern period The early modern period of modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past ...

tercios
, Burgundian
knights A knight is a person granted an honorary title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qualification. In some ...
, and Italian
condottieri ''Condottieri'' (; singular ''condottiero'' or ''condottiere'') were Italian captain Captain is a title for the commander of a military unit, the commander of a ship, aeroplane, spacecraft, or other vessel, or the commander of a port, fire depar ...
. Charles V borrowed money from German and Italian bankers and, in order to repay such loans, he relied on the proto-capitalist economy of the Low Countries and on the flows of gold and especially silver from South America to Spain, which caused widespread inflation. He ratified the Spanish conquest of the Aztec and
Inca The Inca Empire, also Quechuan and Aymaran spelling shift, known as Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, and at the time known as the Realm of the Four Parts,,  "four parts together" was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. The admin ...
empires by the Spanish
conquistador Conquistadors (, ) or conquistadores (, ; meaning 'conquerors') were the invaders, knights, soldiers, and explorers of the Spanish Empire, Spanish and the Portuguese Empires. During the Age of Discovery, conquistadors sailed beyond Europe to t ...

conquistador
es
Hernán Cortés Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, 1st Marquess of the Valley of Oaxaca (; ; 1485 – December 2, 1547) was a Spanish ''Conquistador Conquistadors (, ) or conquistadores (, ; meaning 'conquerors') were the invaders, knight ...

Hernán Cortés
and
Francisco Pizarro Francisco Pizarro González (; ;  – 26 June 1541) was a Spanish conquistador, best known for his expeditions that led to the Spanish conquest of Peru. Born in Trujillo, Cáceres, Trujillo, Spain to a poor family, Pizarro chose to purs ...

Francisco Pizarro
, as well as the establishment of
Klein-Venedig (Little Venice) or Welserland (pronunciation vɛl.zɐ.lant was the most significant territory of the German colonization of the Americas, from 1528 to 1546, in which the Welser banking and patrician family of the Free Imperial Cities of Au ...
by the German
Welser Welser was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German langu ...
family in search of the legendary
El Dorado El Dorado (, ; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambigu ...

El Dorado
. In order to consolidate power in his early reign, Charles overcame two Spanish insurrections (the Comuneros' Revolt and Brotherhoods' Revolt) and two German rebellions (the
Knights' Revolt The Knights' Revolt (autumn 1522 – 7 May 1523) was a revolt by a number of Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Criticism o ...
and Great Peasants' Revolt). Crowned
King in Germany This is a list of monarchs who ruled over East Francia, and the Kingdom of Germany (''Regnum Teutonicum''), from Treaty of Verdun, the division of the Francia, Frankish Empire in 843 until German Revolution of 1918–19, the collapse of the German ...
, Charles sided with
Pope Leo X Pope Leo X (born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, 11 December 14751 December 1521) was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521. Born into the prominent political and banking Medici family ...

Pope Leo X
and declared
Martin Luther Martin Luther (; ; 10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citiz ...

Martin Luther
an outlaw at the
Diet of Worms The Diet of Worms of 1521 (german: Reichstag zu Worms ) was an imperial diet (a formal deliberative assembly) of the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic ...

Diet of Worms
(1521). The same year,
Francis I of France Francis I (french: François Ier; frm, Francoys; 12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was King of France from 1515 until his death in 1547. He was the son of Charles, Count of Angoulême, and Louise of Savoy. He succeeded his first cousin once ...
, surrounded by the Habsburg possessions, started a conflict in
Lombardy (man), (woman) lmo, lombard, links=no (man), (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = ...
that lasted until the
Battle of Pavia The Battle of Pavia, fought on the morning of 24 February 1525, was the decisive engagement of the Italian War of 1521–1526 between the Kingdom of France and the Habsburg empire of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, Holy Roman Empero ...

Battle of Pavia
(1525), which led to the French king's temporary imprisonment. The Protestant affair re-emerged in 1527 as Rome was sacked by an army of Charles's mutinous soldiers, largely of Lutheran faith. After his forces left the
Papal States The Papal States ( ; it, Stato Pontificio), officially the State of the Church ( it, Stato della Chiesa, ; la, Status Ecclesiasticus; also '), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Ital ...
, Charles V defended Vienna from the Turks and obtained the coronation as
King in Italy
King in Italy
by
Pope Clement VII Pope Clement VII (; ; born Giulio de' Medici; 26 May 1478 – 25 September 1534) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, l ...
. In 1535, he annexed the vacant
Duchy of Milan The Duchy of Milan was an Italian state located in northern Italy Northern Italy ( it, Italia settentrionale, it, Nord Italia, label=none, it, Alta Italia, label=none or just it, Nord, label=none) is a geographical and cultural region in th ...
and captured Tunis. Nevertheless, the
loss of Buda
loss of Buda
during the struggle for
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a in . Spanning of the , it is bordered by to the north, to the northeast, to the east and southeast, to the south, and to the southwest and to the west. Hungary has a population of 10 million, mostl ...

Hungary
and the Algiers expedition in the early 1540s frustrated his anti-Ottoman policies. Meanwhile, Charles V had come to an agreement with
Pope Paul III Pope Paul III ( la, Paulus III; 29 February 1468 – 10 November 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1.3 billion Cathol ...

Pope Paul III
for the organisation of the
Council of Trent The Council of Trent ( la, Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent (or Trento, in northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of ...

Council of Trent
(1545). The refusal of the Lutheran
Schmalkaldic League The Schmalkaldic League (; ; or ) was a military alliance of Lutheran Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism that identifies with the teachings of Martin Luther, a 16th-century German Protestant Reformers, reformer whos ...
to recognize the council's validity led to a war, won by Charles V with the imprisonment of the Protestant princes. However,
Henry II of France Henry II (french: Henri II; 31 March 1519 – 10 July 1559) was King of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de France, french: link=no, Royaume de France) was a medie ...
offered new support to the Lutheran cause and strengthened a close alliance with the sultan
Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I ( ota, سليمان اول, Süleyman-ı Evvel; tr, I. Süleyman; 6 November 14946 September 1566), commonly known as Suleiman the Magnificent in the West and Suleiman the Lawgiver ( ota, قانونى سلطان سليمان, Ḳā ...

Suleiman the Magnificent
, the ruler of the Ottoman Empire since 1520. Ultimately, Charles V conceded the
Peace of Augsburg The Peace of Augsburg, also called the Augsburg Settlement, was a treaty between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, german: Karl V, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman E ...
and abandoned his multi-national project with a series of abdications in 1556 that divided his hereditary and imperial domains between the Spanish Habsburgs headed by his son
Philip II of Spain Philip II) in Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption ...

Philip II of Spain
and the Austrian Habsburgs headed by his brother
Ferdinand Ferdinand is a Germanic nameGermanic given names are traditionally dithematic; that is, they are formed from two elements, by joining a prefix A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word. Adding it to the beginning of one w ...

Ferdinand
, who had been archduke of Austria in Charles's name since 1521 and the designated successor as emperor since 1531. The Duchy of Milan and the Habsburg Netherlands were also left in personal union to the king of Spain, although initially also belonging to the Holy Roman Empire. The two Habsburg dynasties remained allied until the extinction of the Spanish line in 1700. In 1557, Charles retired to the
Monastery of Yuste Monastery garden. The Monastery of Yuste is a monastery A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monk A monk (, from el, μοναχός, ''monachos'', "single, s ...
in
Extremadura Extremadura ( , ; ext, Estremaúra; pt, Estremadura; Fala: ''Extremaúra'') is an autonomous community of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Es ...

Extremadura
and died there a year later.


Heritage and early life


Childhood

Charles of
Habsburg The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English (german: Haus Habsburg ; es, Casa de Habsburgo ; hu, Habsburg-család), also known as the House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich; es, link=no, Casa de Austria), ...

Habsburg
was born on 24 February 1500 in the
Prinsenhof Bullet holes from the murder at the main stairs of the Prinsenhof The Prinsenhof ("The Court of the Prince") in the city of Delft Delft () is a city and municipality in the Provinces of the Netherlands, province of South Holland, Netherlands ...
of
Ghent Ghent ( ; Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Du ...

Ghent
, a
Flemish Flemish (''Vlaams'') is a Low Franconian Low Franconian, Low Frankish, NetherlandicSarah Grey Thomason, Terrence Kaufman: ''Language Contact, Creolization, and Genetic Linguistics'', University of California Press, 1991, p. 321. (Calling it " ...
city of the
Burgundian Low Countries The Burgundian inheritance in the Low Countries consisted of numerous fiefs held by the Dukes of Burgundy in modern-day Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg. The Duke of Burgundy was a member of the House of Valois-Burgundy and, after 1482, of the ...
, to
Philip of Habsburg
Philip of Habsburg
and Joanna of Trastámara. His father Philip, nicknamed ''Philip the Handsome'', was the firstborn son of Maximilian I of Habsburg,
Archduke of Austria Austria was ruled by the House of Babenberg until 1246 and by the House of Habsburg The House of Habsburg (; ; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; german: Haus Habsburg, es, Casa de Habsburgo, hu, Habsburg-család), also House of Aust ...
as well as
Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as ...
, and Mary the Rich, Burgundian duchess of the
Low Countries The term Low Countries, also known as the Low Lands ( nl, de Lage Landen, french: les Pays-Bas) and historically called the Netherlands ( nl, de Nederlanden), Flanders, or Belgica, refers to a coastal lowland region in Northwestern Europe ...
. His mother Joanna, known as ''Joanna the Mad'' for the mental disorders afflicting her, was a daughter of
Ferdinand II of Aragon Ferdinand II of Aragon ( an, Ferrando; ca, Ferran; eu, Errando; es, Fernando; 10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516), also called ''Ferdinand the Catholic'', was King of Aragon from 1479, King of Sicily (as Ferdinand II) from 1469, List of monar ...
and
Isabella I of Castile Isabella I ( es, Isabel I, 22 April 1451 – 26 November 1504) was Queen of Castile This is a list of kings and queens of the Kingdom and Crown of Castile The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the Iberian Peninsula that fo ...
, the
Catholic Monarchs of Spain The term Catholic Monarchs refers to Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous community in Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume ...
from the
House of Trastámara The House of Trastámara ( es, Casa de Trastámara) was a dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) ...
. The political marriage of Philip and Joanna was first conceived in a letter sent by Maximilian to Ferdinand in order to seal an Austro-Spanish alliance, established as part of the ''
League of Venice League or The League may refer to: Arts and entertainment * ''Leagues'' (band), an American rock band * ''The League ''The League'' is an American sitcom A sitcom, clipping Clipping may refer to: Words * Clipping (morphology) In lin ...
'' directed against the
Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France; frm, Royaulme de France; french: link=yes, Royaume de France) is the historiographical name or Hyponymy and hypernymy, umbrella term given to various political entities of France in the Middle Ages ...
during the
Italian Wars The Italian Wars, often referred to as the Great Wars of Italy and sometimes as the Habsburg–Valois Wars, were a long series of wars fought between 1494 and 1559 in Italy during the Renaissance. The Italian peninsula, economically advanced bu ...
.''Emperor, a new life of Charles V'', Geoffrey Parker The organization of ambitious political marriages reflected Maximilian's practice to expand the House of Habsburg with dynastic links rather than conquest, as exemplified by his saying "''Let others wage war, you, happy Austria, marry''". The
marriage contract A prenuptial agreement, antenuptial agreement, or premarital agreement (commonly referred to as a prenup), is a written contract A contract is a legally binding document between at least two parties that defines and governs the rights and duti ...
between Philip and Joanna was signed in 1495, and celebrations were held in 1496. Philip was already
Duke of Burgundy Duke of Burgundy (french: duc de Bourgogne) was a title used by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy The Duchy of Burgundy (; la, Ducatus Burgundiae; french: Duché de Bourgogne, ) emerged in the 9th century as one of the successors of the an ...
, given Mary's death in 1482, and also
heir apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession An order of succession or right of succession is the line of individuals entitled to hold a high office when it becomes vacated such as head of state A head of state ...
of Austria as honorific
Archduke Archduke (feminine: Archduchess; German: ''Erzherzog'', feminine form: ''Erzherzogin'') was the title borne from 1358 by the Habsburg rulers of the Archduchy of Austria, and later by all senior members of that dynasty. It denotes a rank within ...
. Joanna, in contrast, was only third in the Spanish
line of succession An order of succession or right of succession is the line of individuals entitled to hold a high office when it becomes vacated such as head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae ...
, preceded by her older brother John of Castile and older sister Isabella of Aragon. Although both John and Isabella died in 1498, the Catholic Monarchs desired to keep the Spanish kingdoms in Iberian hands and designated their Portuguese grandson Miguel da Paz as
heir presumptive An heir presumptive is the person entitled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honour, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an heir apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession ...
of Spain by naming him Prince of the Asturias. Only a series of dynastic accidents eventually favoured Maximilian's project. Charles was born in a bathroom of the Prinsenhof at 3:00 AM by Joanna not long after she attended a
ball A ball is a round object (usually spherical of a sphere A sphere (from Greek language, Greek —, "globe, ball") is a geometrical object in three-dimensional space Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional s ...
despite symptoms of labor pains, and his name was chosen by Philip in honour of
Charles I of Burgundy
Charles I of Burgundy
. According to a poet at the court, the people of Ghent "shouted Austria and Burgundy throughout the whole city for three hours" to celebrate his birth. Given the dynastic situation, the newborn was originally
heir apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession An order of succession or right of succession is the line of individuals entitled to hold a high office when it becomes vacated such as head of state A head of state ...
only of the Burgundian Low Countries as the honorific
Duke of Luxembourg The territory of Luxembourg Luxembourg ( ; lb, Lëtzebuerg ; french: link=no, Luxembourg; german: link=no, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, ; french: link=no, Grand-Duché de Luxembourg ; german: link=no, Großherzogtum ...
and became known in his early years simply as ''Charles of Ghent''. He was baptized at the Saint Bavo's Cathedral, Church of Saint John by the Bishop of Tournai: Charles I de Croÿ and John III of Glymes were his godfathers; Margaret of York, Duchess of Burgundy, Margaret of York and Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Savoy, Margaret of Austria his godmothers. Charles's baptism gifts were a sword and a helmet, objects of Burgundian chivalric tradition representing, respectively, the instrument of war and the symbol of peace. In 1501, Philip and Joanna left Charles to the custody of Margaret of York and went to Spain. They returned to visit their son very rarely, and thus Charles grew up parentless in the Low Countries. The main goal of their Spanish mission was the recognition of Joanna as Princess of Asturias, given prince Miguel's death a year earlier. They succeeded despite facing some opposition from the Spanish ''Cortes'', reluctant to create the premises for Habsburg succession. In 1504, as Isabella died, Joanna became Queen of Castile. Philip was recognized King in 1506. He died shortly after, an event that drove the mentally unstable Joanna into complete insanity. She retired in isolation into a tower of Tordesillas. Ferdinand took control of all the Spanish kingdoms, under the pretext of protecting Charles's rights, which in reality he wanted to elude, but his new marriage with Germaine de Foix failed to produce a surviving Trastámara heir to the throne. With his father dead and his mother confined, Charles became Duke of Burgundy and was recognized as prince of Asturias (heir presumptive of Spain) and honorific archduke (heir apparent of Austria).


Inheritances

The Burgundian inheritance included the Habsburg Netherlands, which consisted of a large number of the lordships that formed the
Low Countries The term Low Countries, also known as the Low Lands ( nl, de Lage Landen, french: les Pays-Bas) and historically called the Netherlands ( nl, de Nederlanden), Flanders, or Belgica, refers to a coastal lowland region in Northwestern Europe ...
and covered modern-day Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg. It excluded Burgundy, Burgundy proper, annexed by France in 1477, with the exception of Franche-Comté. At the death of Philip in 1506, Charles was recognized
Lord of the Netherlands Habsburg Netherlands ( nl, Habsburgse Nederlanden; french: Pays-Bas des Habsbourg), in Latin referred to as Belgica, is the collective name of Renaissance period fiefs in the Low Countries The term Low Countries, also known as the Low Lands ...
with the title of ''Charles II of Burgundy''. During his childhood and teen years, Charles lived in Mechelen together with his sisters Mary, Eleanor, and Isabella at the court of his aunt Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Savoy. William de Croÿ (later prime minister) and Adrian of Utrecht (later Pope Adrian VI) served as his tutors. The culture and courtly life of the Low Countries played an important part in the development of Charles's beliefs. As a member of the Burgundian Order of the Golden Fleece in his infancy, and later its grandmaster, Charles was educated to the ideals of the medieval knights and the desire for Christian unity to fight the infidel. The Low Countries were very rich during his reign, both History of capitalism, economically and Flemish art, culturally. Charles was very attached to his homeland and spent much of his life in Brussels. The Spanish inheritance, resulting from a dynastic union of the crowns of and Aragon, included Spain as well as the Castilian
West Indies The West Indies are a subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, in ...
and the Aragonese kingdoms of
Naples Naples (; it, Napoli ; nap, Napule ), from grc, Νεάπολις, Neápolis, lit=new city. is the regional capital of and the third-largest city of , after and , with a population of 967,069 within the city's administrative limits as of ...

Naples
,
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...

Sicily
, and
Sardinia Sardinia ( ; it, Sardegna ; sc, Sardigna or ) is the Mediterranean islands#By area, second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, and one of the Regions of Italy, 20 regions of Italy. It is located west of the Italian Penin ...
. Joanna inherited these territories in 1516 in a condition of mental illness. Charles, therefore, claimed the crowns for himself ''jure matris'', thus becoming co-monarch of Joanna with the title of ''Charles I of Castile and Aragon'' or ''Charles I of Spain''. Castile and Aragon together formed the largest of Charles's personal possessions, and they also provided a great number of generals and
tercios A ''tercio'' (; Spanish for " third") was a military unit of the Spanish Army in the early modern period The early modern period of modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past ...

tercios
(the formidable Spanish infantry of the time). However, at his accession to the throne, Charles was viewed as a foreign prince.History of Spain, Joseph Perez Two rebellions, the revolt of the Germanies and the revolt of the comuneros, contested Charles's rule in the 1520s. Following these revolts, Charles placed Spanish counselors in a position of power and spent a considerable part of his life in Castile, including his final years in a monastery. Indeed, Charles's motto "Plus Oultre" (''Further Beyond''), rendered as ''Plus Ultra (motto), Plus Ultra'' from the original French, became the national motto of Spain and his heir, later Philip II, was born and raised in Castile. Nonetheless, many Spaniards believed that their resources (largely consisting of flows of silver from the Americas) were being used to sustain Imperial-Habsburg policies that were not in the country's interest. Charles inherited the Austrian hereditary lands in 1519, as ''Charles I of Austria'', and obtained the election as Holy Roman Emperor against the candidacy of the French King. Since the Imperial election, he was known as ''Emperor Charles V'' even outside of Germany and the Habsburg motto ''A.E.I.O.U.'' ("Austria Est Imperare Orbi Universo"; "it is Austria's destiny to rule the world") acquired political significance. Despite the fact that he was elected as a German prince, Charles's staunch Catholicism in contrast to the growth of Lutheranism alienated him from various German princes who finally fought against him. Charles's presence in Germany was often marked by the organization of Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire), imperial diets to maintain religious and political unity.''Charles V'', Pierre Chaunu''Germany in the Holy Roman Empire'', Whaley He was frequently in Northern Italy, often taking part in complicated negotiations with the Popes to address the rise of Protestantism. It is important to note, though, that the German Catholics supported the Emperor. Charles had a close relationship with important German families, like the House of Nassau, many of which were represented at his Imperial court. Several German princes or noblemen accompanied him in his military campaigns against France or the Ottomans, and the bulk of his army was generally composed of German troops, especially the Imperial
Landsknechte The (also rendered as ''Landsknechts''; singular: , ) were Germanic mercenaries used in pike and shot formations during the early modern period. Consisting predominantly of pikemen and supporting infantry, foot soldiers, their front line was fo ...

Landsknechte
. It is said that Charles spoke several languages. He was fluent in French language, French and Dutch language, Dutch, his native languages. He later added an acceptable Spanish language, Castilian Spanish, which he was required to learn by the Old Castile, Castilian ''Cortes Generales''. He could also speak some Basque language, Basque, acquired by the influence of the History of the Basques, Basque secretaries serving in the royal court. He gained a decent command of German language, German following the Imperial election, though he never spoke it as well as French. By 1532, Charles was proficient in Portuguese language, Portuguese, to the amazement of diplomats. A witticism sometimes attributed to Charles is: "I speak Spanish/Latin (depending on the source) to God, Italian to women, French to men and German to my horse." A variant of the quote is attributed to him by Swift in his 1726 ''Gulliver's Travels'', but there are no contemporary accounts referencing the quotation (which has many other variants) and it is often attributed instead to Frederick the Great.


Reign

Given the vast dominions of the House of Habsburg, Charles was often on the road and needed regent, deputies to govern his realms for the times he was absent from his territories. His first Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands, Governor of the Netherlands was Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Savoy, Margaret of Austria (succeeded by Mary of Hungary (governor of the Netherlands), Mary of Hungary and Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy). His first Regent of Spain was Adrian of Utrecht (succeeded by Isabella of Portugal and
Philip II of Spain Philip II) in Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption ...

Philip II of Spain
). For the regency and governorship of the Austrian hereditary lands, Charles named his brother
Ferdinand Ferdinand is a Germanic nameGermanic given names are traditionally dithematic; that is, they are formed from two elements, by joining a prefix A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word. Adding it to the beginning of one w ...

Ferdinand
Archduke in the Austrian lands under his authority at the
Diet of Worms The Diet of Worms of 1521 (german: Reichstag zu Worms ) was an imperial diet (a formal deliberative assembly) of the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic ...

Diet of Worms
(1521). Charles also agreed to favor the election of Ferdinand as King of the Romans in Germany, which took place Imperial election, 1531, in 1531. By virtue of these agreements Ferdinand became Holy Roman Emperor and obtained hereditary rights over Austria at the abdication of Charles in 1556. Charles de Lannoy, 1st Prince of Sulmona, Charles de Lannoy, Ettore Pignatelli e Caraffa, 1st Duke of Monteleone, Carafa and Antonio Folc de Cardona y Enriquez were the viceroys of the kingdoms of Naples, Sicily and Sardinia, respectively. Charles V travelled ten times to the Low Countries, nine to Germany, seven to Spain, seven to Italy, four to France, two to England, and two to North Africa. During all his travels, the Emperor left a documentary trail in almost every place he went, allowing historians to surmise that he spent 10,000 days in the Low Countries, 6,500 days in Spain, 3,000 days in Germany, and 1,000 days in Italy. He further spent 195 days in France, 99 in North Africa and 44 days in England. For only 260 days his exact location is unrecorded, all of them being days spent at sea travelling between his dominions. As he put it in his last public speech: "my life has been one long journey".


Burgundy and the Low Countries

In 1506, Charles inherited his father's Burgundian territories that included Franche-Comté and, most notably, the Burgundian Netherlands, Low Countries. The latter territories lay within the Holy Roman Empire and its borders, but were formally divided between fiefs of the German kingdom and French fiefs such as Charles's birthplace of Flanders, a last remnant of what had been a powerful player in the Hundred Years' War. As he was a minor, his aunt Margaret of Austria (1480-1530), Margaret of Austria (born as Archduchess of Austria and in both her marriages as the Dowager Princess of Asturias and Dowager Duchess of Savoy) acted as regent, as appointed by Emperor Maximilian until 1515. She soon found herself at war with France over Charles's requirement to pay homage to the French king for Flanders, as his father had done. The outcome was that France relinquished its ancient claim on Flanders in 1528. From 1515 to 1523, Charles's government in the Netherlands also had to contend with the rebellion of Arumer Zwarte Hoop, Frisian peasants (led by Pier Gerlofs Donia and Wijard Jelckama). The rebels were initially successful but after a series of defeats, the remaining leaders were captured and decapitated in 1523. Charles extended the Burgundian territory with the annexation of Tournaisis, Tournai, County of Artois, Artois, Bishopric of Utrecht, Utrecht, Groningen (province), Groningen, and Guelders. The Seventeen Provinces had been unified by Charles's Burgundian ancestors, but nominally were fiefs of either France or the Holy Roman Empire. In 1549, Charles issued a Pragmatic Sanction of 1549, Pragmatic Sanction, declaring the Low Countries to be a unified entity of which his family would be the heirs. The Low Countries held an essential place in the Empire. For Charles V, they were his home, the region where he was born and spent his childhood. Because of trade and industry and the wealth of the region's cities, the Low Countries also represented a significant income for the Imperial treasury. The Burgundian territories were generally loyal to Charles throughout his reign. The important city of Ghent Revolt of Ghent (1539), rebelled in 1539 due to heavy tax payments demanded by Charles. The rebellion did not last long, however, as Charles's military response, with reinforcement from the Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba, Duke of Alba, was swift and humiliating to the rebels of Ghent.


Spanish Kingdoms

In the Castilian ''Cortes'' of Valladolid in 1506 and of Madrid in 1510, Charles was sworn as the Prince of Asturias, heir-apparent to his mother the Queen Joanna of Castile, Joanna. On the other hand, in 1502, the Aragonese ''Corts'' gathered in Saragossa and pledged an oath to Joanna as heiress-presumptive, but the Archbishop of Saragossa expressed firmly that this oath could not establish jurisprudence, that is to say, modify the right of the succession, except by virtue of a formal agreement between the ''Cortes'' and the King. So, upon the death of King Ferdinand II of Aragon, on 23 January 1516, Joanna inherited the Crown of Aragon, which consisted of Kingdom of Aragon, Aragon, Principality of Catalonia, Catalonia, Kingdom of Valencia, Valencia,
Naples Naples (; it, Napoli ; nap, Napule ), from grc, Νεάπολις, Neápolis, lit=new city. is the regional capital of and the third-largest city of , after and , with a population of 967,069 within the city's administrative limits as of ...

Naples
,
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...

Sicily
and Sardinia, while Charles became governor general. Nevertheless, the Flemings wished Charles to assume the royal title, and this was supported by Emperor Maximilian I and
Pope Leo X Pope Leo X (born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, 11 December 14751 December 1521) was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521. Born into the prominent political and banking Medici family ...

Pope Leo X
. Thus, after the celebration of Ferdinand II's obsequies on 14 March 1516, Charles was proclaimed king of the crowns of Castile and Aragon jointly with his mother. Finally, when the Castilian regent Cardinal Jiménez de Cisneros accepted the ''fait accompli'', he acceded to Charles's desire to be proclaimed king and imposed his enstatement throughout the kingdom. Charles arrived in his new kingdoms in autumn of 1517. Jiménez de Cisneros came to meet him but fell ill along the way, not without a suspicion of poison, and he died before reaching the King. Due to the irregularity of Charles assuming the royal title while his mother, the legitimate queen, was alive, the negotiations with the Castilian ''Cortes'' in Valladolid (1518) proved difficult. In the end Charles was accepted under the following conditions: he would learn to speak Spanish language, Castilian; he would not appoint foreigners; he was prohibited from taking precious metals from Castile beyond the Quinto Real; and he would respect the rights of his mother, Queen Joanna of Castile, Joanna. The Cortes paid homage to him in Valladolid in February 1518. After this, Charles departed to the crown of Aragon. He managed to overcome the resistance of the Aragonese ''Cortes'' and Catalan ''Corts'', and he was recognized as king of Aragon and count of Barcelona jointly with his mother. The Kingdom of Navarre#Spanish conquest, Kingdom of Navarre had been Spanish conquest of Navarre, invaded by Ferdinand of Aragon jointly with Castile in 1512, but he pledged a formal oath to respect the kingdom. On Charles's accession to the Spanish thrones, the Parliament of Navarre (''Cortes'') required him to attend the coronation ceremony (to become Charles IV of Navarre). Still, this demand fell on deaf ears, and the Parliament kept piling up grievances. Charles was accepted as sovereign, even though the Spanish felt uneasy with the Imperial style. Spanish kingdoms varied in their traditions. Castile had become an authoritarian, highly centralized kingdom, where the monarchs own will easily overrode legislative and justice institutions. By contrast, in the crown of Aragon, and especially in the Pyrenean kingdom of Navarre, law prevailed, and the monarchy was seen as Basque fuero, a contract with the people. This became an inconvenience and a matter of dispute for Charles V and later kings since realm-specific traditions limited their absolute power. With Charles, the government became more absolute, even though until his mother died in 1555, Charles did not hold the full kingship of the country. Soon resistance to the Emperor arose because of heavy taxation to support foreign wars in which Castilians had little interest and because Charles tended to select Flemings for high offices in Castile and America, ignoring Castilian candidates. The resistance culminated in the Revolt of the Comuneros, which Charles suppressed. Immediately after crushing the Castilian revolt, Charles was confronted again with the hot issue of Navarre when King Henry II of Navarre, Henry II attempted to Spanish conquest of Navarre#1521 French-Navarrese expedition, reconquer the kingdom. Main military operations lasted until 1524, when Hondarribia surrendered to Charles's forces, but frequent cross-border clashes in the western Pyrenees only stopped in 1528 (Treaties of Madrid and Cambrai). After these events, Navarre remained a matter of domestic and international litigation still for a century (a French dynastic claim to the throne did not end until the July Revolution in 1830). Charles wanted his son and heir Philip II of Spain, Philip II to marry the heiress of Navarre, Jeanne d'Albret. Jeanne was instead forced to marry William, Duke of Julich-Cleves-Berg, but that childless marriage was annulled after four years. She next married Antoine de Bourbon, and both she and their son would oppose Philip II of Spain, Philip II in the French Wars of Religion. After its integration into Charles's empire, Castile guaranteed effective military units and its American possessions provided the bulk of the empire's financial resources. However, the two conflicting strategies of Charles V, enhancing the possessions of his family and protecting Catholicism against Protestants heretics, diverted resources away from building up the Spanish economy. Elite elements in Spain called for more protection for the commercial networks, which were threatened by the Ottoman Empire. Charles instead focused on defeating Protestantism in Germany and the Netherlands, which proved to be lost causes. Each hastened the economic decline of the Spanish Empire in the next generation. The enormous budget deficit accumulated during Charles's reign, along with the Spanish price revolution, inflation that affected the kingdom, resulted in declaring bankruptcy during the reign of Philip II of Spain, Philip II.


Italian states

The Crown of Aragon inherited by Charles included the Kingdom of Naples, the Kingdom of Sicily and the Sardinia#Modern history, Kingdom of Sardinia. As Holy Roman Emperor, Charles was sovereign in several states of northern Italy and had a claim to the Iron Crown of Lombardy (obtained in 1530). The
Duchy of Milan The Duchy of Milan was an Italian state located in northern Italy Northern Italy ( it, Italia settentrionale, it, Nord Italia, label=none, it, Alta Italia, label=none or just it, Nord, label=none) is a geographical and cultural region in th ...
, however, was under French control. Early Modern France, France took Milan from the House of Sforza after victory against Switzerland at the Battle of Marignano in 1515. Imperial-Papal troops succeeded in re-installing the Sforza in Milan in 1521, in the context of an alliance between Charles V and Pope Leo X. A Franco-Swiss army was expelled from Lombardy at the Battle of Bicocca 1522. In 1524, Francis I of France retook the initiative, crossing into Lombardy where Milan, along with several other cities, once again fell to his attack. Pavia alone held out, and on 24 February 1525 (Charles's twenty-fifth birthday), Charles's forces led by Charles de Lannoy captured Francis and crushed his army in the
Battle of Pavia The Battle of Pavia, fought on the morning of 24 February 1525, was the decisive engagement of the Italian War of 1521–1526 between the Kingdom of France and the Habsburg empire of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, Holy Roman Empero ...

Battle of Pavia
. In 1535, Francesco II Sforza died without heirs and Charles V annexed the territory as a vacant Imperial state with the help of Massimiliano Stampa, one of the most influential courtiers of the late Duke. Charles successfully held on to all of its Italian territories, though they were invaded again on multiple occasions during the
Italian Wars The Italian Wars, often referred to as the Great Wars of Italy and sometimes as the Habsburg–Valois Wars, were a long series of wars fought between 1494 and 1559 in Italy during the Renaissance. The Italian peninsula, economically advanced bu ...
. In addition, Habsburg trade in the Mediterranean was consistently disrupted by the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
. In 1538 a Holy League (1538), Holy League consisting of all the Italian states and the Spanish kingdoms was formed to drive the Ottomans back, but it was defeated at the Battle of Preveza (1538), Battle of Preveza. Decisive naval victory eluded Charles; it would not be achieved until after his death, at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571.


The Americas

During Charles's reign, the Spanish colonization of the Americas, Castilian territories in the Americas were considerably extended by
conquistador Conquistadors (, ) or conquistadores (, ; meaning 'conquerors') were the invaders, knights, soldiers, and explorers of the Spanish Empire, Spanish and the Portuguese Empires. During the Age of Discovery, conquistadors sailed beyond Europe to t ...

conquistador
es like
Hernán Cortés Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, 1st Marquess of the Valley of Oaxaca (; ; 1485 – December 2, 1547) was a Spanish ''Conquistador Conquistadors (, ) or conquistadores (, ; meaning 'conquerors') were the invaders, knight ...

Hernán Cortés
and
Francisco Pizarro Francisco Pizarro González (; ;  – 26 June 1541) was a Spanish conquistador, best known for his expeditions that led to the Spanish conquest of Peru. Born in Trujillo, Cáceres, Trujillo, Spain to a poor family, Pizarro chose to purs ...

Francisco Pizarro
. They conquered the large Aztec and Inca empires and incorporated them into the Empire as the Viceroyalties of New Spain and Viceroyalty of Peru, Peru between 1519 and 1542. Combined with the circumnavigation of the globe by the Timeline of Magellan's circumnavigation, Magellan expedition in 1522, these successes convinced Charles of his divine mission to become the leader of Christendom, which still perceived a significant threat from Islam. The conquests also helped solidify Charles's rule by providing the state treasury with enormous amounts of bullion. As the conquistador Bernal Díaz del Castillo observed, "We came to serve God and his Majesty, to give light to those in darkness, and also to acquire that wealth which most men covet." Charles used the Spanish feudal system as a model for labor relations in the new colonies. The local Spaniards strongly objected because it assumed the equality of Indians and Spaniards. The locals wanted complete control over labor and got it under Philip II in the 1570s. On 28 August 1518, Charles issued a charter authorizing the transportation of slaves direct from Africa to the Americas. Up until that point (since at least 1510), African slaves had usually been transported to Castile or Portugal and had then been transhipped to the Caribbean. Charles's decision to create a direct, more economically viable Africa to America slave trade fundamentally changed the nature and scale of the transatlantic slave trade. In 1528 Charles assigned a concession in Venezuela Province to Bartholomeus V. Welser, in compensation for his inability to repay debts owed. The concession, known as
Klein-Venedig (Little Venice) or Welserland (pronunciation vɛl.zɐ.lant was the most significant territory of the German colonization of the Americas, from 1528 to 1546, in which the Welser banking and patrician family of the Free Imperial Cities of Au ...
(''little Venice''), was revoked in 1546. In 1550, Charles convened a conference at Valladolid in order to Valladolid debate, consider the morality of the force used against the indigenous populations of the New World, which included figures such as Bartolomé de las Casas. Charles V is credited with the first idea of constructing an American Isthmus canal in Panama as early as 1520.


Holy Roman Empire

After the death of his paternal grandfather, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian, in 1519, Charles inherited the Habsburg Monarchy. He was also the natural candidate of the Prince-elector, electors to succeed his grandfather as Holy Roman Emperor. He defeated the candidacies of Frederick III of Saxony,
Francis I of France Francis I (french: François Ier; frm, Francoys; 12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was King of France from 1515 until his death in 1547. He was the son of Charles, Count of Angoulême, and Louise of Savoy. He succeeded his first cousin once ...
, and Henry VIII of England. According to some, Charles became emperor due to the fact that by paying huge bribes to the electors, he was the highest bidder. He won the crown on 28 June 1519. On 23 October 1520 he was crowned in Germany and some ten years later, on Coronation of Charles V, 24 February 1530, he was crowned
Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as ...
by
Pope Clement VII Pope Clement VII (; ; born Giulio de' Medici; 26 May 1478 – 25 September 1534) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, l ...
in Bologna, the last emperor to receive a papal coronation. Others point out that while the electors were paid, this was not the reason for the outcome, or at most played only a small part. The important factor that swayed the final decision was that Frederick refused the offer, and made a speech in support of Charles on the ground that they needed a strong leader against the Ottomans, Charles had the resources and was a prince of German extraction. Despite his holding the imperial throne, Charles's real authority was limited by the German princes. They gained a strong foothold in the Empire's territories, and Charles was determined not to let this happen in the Netherlands. An inquisition was established as early as 1522. In 1550, the death penalty was introduced for all cases of unrepentant heresy. Political dissent was also firmly controlled, most notably in his place of birth, where Charles, assisted by the Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba, Duke of Alba, personally suppressed the Revolt of Ghent (1539), Revolt of Ghent in mid-February 1540. Charles abdicated as emperor in 1556 in favour of his brother Ferdinand; however, due to lengthy debate and bureaucratic procedure, the Imperial Diet did not accept the abdication (and thus make it legally valid) until 24 February 1558. Up to that date, Charles continued to use the title of emperor.


Wars with France

Much of Charles's reign was taken up by conflicts with France, which found itself encircled by Charles's empire while it still maintained ambitions in Italy. In 1520, Charles visited England, where his aunt, Catherine of Aragon, urged her husband, Henry VIII, to ally himself with the emperor. In 1508 Charles was nominated by Henry VII to the Order of the Garter. His Garter stall plate survives in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, Saint George's Chapel. The Italian War of 1521, first war with Charles's great nemesis
Francis I of France Francis I (french: François Ier; frm, Francoys; 12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was King of France from 1515 until his death in 1547. He was the son of Charles, Count of Angoulême, and Louise of Savoy. He succeeded his first cousin once ...
began in 1521. Charles allied with England and
Pope Leo X Pope Leo X (born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, 11 December 14751 December 1521) was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521. Born into the prominent political and banking Medici family ...

Pope Leo X
against the French and the Venetians, and was highly successful, driving the French out of Milan and defeating and capturing Francis at the
Battle of Pavia The Battle of Pavia, fought on the morning of 24 February 1525, was the decisive engagement of the Italian War of 1521–1526 between the Kingdom of France and the Habsburg empire of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, Holy Roman Empero ...

Battle of Pavia
in 1525. To gain his freedom, Francis ceded Duchy of Burgundy, Burgundy to Charles in the Treaty of Madrid (1526), Treaty of Madrid, as well as renouncing his support of Henry II's claim over Kingdom of Navarre, Navarre. When he was released, however, Francis had the Parliament of Paris denounce the treaty because it had been signed under duress. France then joined the War of the League of Cognac, League of Cognac that
Pope Clement VII Pope Clement VII (; ; born Giulio de' Medici; 26 May 1478 – 25 September 1534) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, l ...
had formed with Henry VIII of England, the Venetians, the Florentines, and the Milanese to resist imperial domination of Italy. In the ensuing war, Charles's sack of Rome (1527) and virtual imprisonment of Pope Clement VII in 1527 prevented the Pope from Annulment (Catholic Church), annulling the marriage of Henry VIII of England and Charles's aunt Catherine of Aragon, so Henry eventually broke with Rome, thus leading to the English Reformation.Holmes (1993)
p. 192
/ref>Froude (1891)
p. 35, pp. 90–91, pp. 96–97
Note: the link goes to page 480, then click the View All option
In other respects, the war was inconclusive. In the Treaty of Cambrai (1529), called the "Ladies' Peace" because it was negotiated between Charles's aunt and Francis' mother, Francis renounced his claims in Italy but retained control of Burgundy. A Italian War of 1536–38, third war erupted in 1536. Following the death of Francesco II Sforza, the last Sforza Duke of Milan, Charles installed his son Philip II of Spain, Philip in the duchy, despite Francis' claims on it. This war too was inconclusive. Francis failed to conquer Milan, but he succeeded in conquering most of the lands of Charles's ally, the Charles III, Duke of Savoy, Duke of Savoy, including his capital Turin. A truce at Nice in 1538 on the basis of ''uti possidetis'' ended the war but lasted only a short time. Italian War of 1542–46, War resumed in 1542, with Francis now allied with Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, Suleiman I and Charles once again allied with Henry VIII. Despite the conquest of Nice by a Franco-Ottoman alliance, Franco-Ottoman fleet, the French could not advance toward Milan, while a joint Anglo-Imperial invasion of northern France, led by Charles himself, won some successes but was ultimately abandoned, leading to another peace and restoration of the ''status quo ante bellum'' in 1544. A Italian War of 1551–1559, final war erupted with Francis' son and successor, Henry II of France, Henry II, in 1551. Henry won early success in Duchy of Lorraine, Lorraine, where he captured Metz, but French offensives in Italy failed. Charles abdicated midway through this conflict, leaving further conduct of the war to his son, Philip II of Spain, Philip II, and his brother, Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor.


Conflicts with the Ottoman Empire

Charles fought continually with the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
and its sultan,
Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I ( ota, سليمان اول, Süleyman-ı Evvel; tr, I. Süleyman; 6 November 14946 September 1566), commonly known as Suleiman the Magnificent in the West and Suleiman the Lawgiver ( ota, قانونى سلطان سليمان, Ḳā ...

Suleiman the Magnificent
. The defeat of Hungary at the Battle of Mohács in 1526 "sent a wave of terror over Europe." The Muslim advance in Central Europe was halted at the Siege of Vienna (1529), Siege of Vienna in 1529, followed by a counter-attack of Charles V across the Danube river. However, by 1541, central and southern Hungary fell under Turkish control. Suleiman won the contest for mastery of the Mediterranean, in spite of Christian victories such as the Conquest of Tunis (1535), conquest of Tunis in 1535. The regular Ottoman fleet came to dominate the Eastern Mediterranean after its victories at Battle of Preveza, Preveza in 1538 and Battle of Djerba, Djerba in 1560 (shortly after Charles's death), which severely decimated the Spanish marine arm. At the same time, the Muslim Barbary corsairs, acting under the general authority and supervision of the sultan, regularly devastated the Spanish and Italian coasts and crippled Spanish trade. The advance of the Ottomans in the Mediterranean and central Europe chipped at the foundations of Habsburg power and diminished Imperial prestige. In 1536 Francis I allied France with Suleiman against Charles. While Francis was persuaded to sign a peace treaty in 1538, he again allied himself with the Ottomans in 1542 in a Franco-Ottoman alliance. In 1543 Charles allied himself with Henry VIII and forced Francis to sign the Peace of Crépy, Truce of Crépy-en-Laonnois. Later, in 1547, Charles signed a humiliatingIn particular, in this Truce of Adrianople (1547) Charles was only referred to as "King of Spain" instead of by his extensive titulature. (see Crowley, p. 89) Truce of Adrianople (1547), treaty with the Ottomans to gain himself some respite from the huge expenses of their war. Charles V made overtures to the Safavid Empire to open a second front against the Ottomans, in an attempt at creating a Habsburg-Persian alliance. Contacts were positive, but rendered difficult by enormous distances. In effect, however, the Safavids did enter in conflict with the Ottoman Empire in the Ottoman-Safavid War (1532–1555), Ottoman-Safavid War, forcing it to split its military resources.


Protestant Reformation

The issue of the
Protestant Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity Western Christianity is one of two sub-divisions of Christianity Christianity is an Abra ...
was first brought to the imperial attention under Charles V. As
Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as ...
, Charles called
Martin Luther Martin Luther (; ; 10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citiz ...

Martin Luther
to the
Diet of Worms The Diet of Worms of 1521 (german: Reichstag zu Worms ) was an imperial diet (a formal deliberative assembly) of the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic ...

Diet of Worms
in 1521, promising him safe conduct if he would appear. After Luther defended the ''Ninety-five Theses'' and his writings, the Emperor commented: "that monk will never make me a heretic". Charles V relied on religious unity to govern his various realms, Personal union, otherwise unified only in his person, and perceived Luther's teachings as a disruptive form of heresy. He outlawed Luther and issued the Edict of Worms, declaring: Nonetheless, Charles V kept his word and left Martin Luther free to leave the city. Frederick the Wise, elector of Saxony and protector of Luther, lamented the outcome of the Diet. On the road back from Worms, Luther was kidnapped by Frederick's men and hidden in a distant castle in Wartburg. There, he began to work on his German translation of the bible. The spread of Lutheranism led to two major revolts: that of the knights in 1522–1523 and that of the peasants led by Thomas Muntzer in 1524–1525. While the pro-Imperial Swabian League, in conjunction with Protestant princes afraid of social revolts, restored order, Charles V used the instrument of pardon to maintain peace. Thereafter, Charles V took a tolerant approach and pursued a policy of reconciliation with the Lutherans. At the Diet of Augsburg, 1530 Imperial Diet of Augsburg was requested by Emperor Charles V to decide on three issues: first, the defense of the Empire against the Ottoman–Habsburg wars in Hungary (1526–1568), Ottoman threat; second, issues related to policy, currency and public well-being; and, third, disagreements about Christianity, in attempt to reach some compromise and a chance to deal with the German situation. The Diet was inaugurated by the emperor on June 20. It produced numerous outcomes, most notably the 1530 declaration of the Lutheranism, Lutheran estates known as the Augsburg Confession (''Confessio Augustana''), a central document of Lutheranism that was presented to the emperor. Luther's assistant Philip Melanchthon went even further and presented to Charles V the Lutheran Augsburg confession. The emperor strongly rejected it, and in 1531 the
Schmalkaldic League The Schmalkaldic League (; ; or ) was a military alliance of Lutheran Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism that identifies with the teachings of Martin Luther, a 16th-century German Protestant Reformers, reformer whos ...
was formed by Protestant princes. In 1532, Charles V recognized the League and effectively suspended the Edict of Worms with the ''standstill of Nuremberg''. The ''standstill'' required the Protestants to continue to take part in the Imperial wars against the Turks and the French, and postponed religious affairs until an ecumenical council of the Catholic Church was called by the Pope to solve the issue. Due to Papal delays in organizing a general council, Charles V decided to organize a German summit and presided over the ''Regensburg talks'' between Catholics and Lutherans in 1541, but no compromise was achieved. In 1545, the
Council of Trent The Council of Trent ( la, Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent (or Trento, in northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of ...

Council of Trent
was finally opened and the Counter-Reformation began. The Catholic initiative was supported by a number of the princes of the Holy Roman Empire. However, the Schmalkaldic League refused to recognize the validity of the council and occupied territories of Catholic princes. Therefore, Charles V outlawed the Schmalkaldic League and opened hostilities against it in 1546. The next year his forces drove the League's troops out of southern Germany, and defeated John Frederick, Elector of Saxony, and Philip I of Hesse, Philip of Hesse at the Battle of Mühlberg, capturing both. At the Augsburg Interim in 1548, he created a solution giving certain allowances to Protestants until the Council of Trent would restore unity. However, members of both sides resented the Interim and some actively opposed it. The council was re-opened in 1550 with the participation of Lutherans, and Charles V set up the Imperial court in Innsbruck, Austria, sufficiently close to Trent for him to follow the evolution of the debates. In 1552 Protestant princes, in alliance with
Henry II of France Henry II (french: Henri II; 31 March 1519 – 10 July 1559) was King of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de France, french: link=no, Royaume de France) was a medie ...
, Second Schmalkaldic War, rebelled again and the second Schmalkaldic War began. Maurice of Saxony, instrumental for the Imperial victory in the first conflict, switched side to the Protestant cause and bypassed the Imperial army by marching directly into Innsbruck with the goal of capturing the Emperor. Charles V was forced to flee the city during an attack of gout and barely made it alive to Villach in a state of semi-consciousness carried in a litter. After failing to recapture Metz from the French, Charles V returned to the Low Countries for the last years of his emperorship. In 1555, he instructed his brother Ferdinand to sign the
Peace of Augsburg The Peace of Augsburg, also called the Augsburg Settlement, was a treaty between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, german: Karl V, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman E ...
in his name. The agreements led to the religious division of Germany between Catholic and Protestant princedoms.


Patronage of the arts and architecture

Noted Spanish Poet Garcilaso de la Vega (poet), Garcilaso de la Vega, was a nobleman and ambassador in the royal court of Charles. He was first appointed "contino" (imperial guard) of the King in 1520. Alfonso de Valdés, twin brother of the humanist Juan de Valdés and secretary of the emperor, was a Spanish humanist. Peter Martyr d'Anghiera was an Italy, Italian historian at the service of Spain who wrote the first accounts of explorations in Central America, Central and South America in a series of letters and reports, grouped in the original Latin publications of 1511 to 1530 into sets of ten chapters called "decades." His ''Decades'' are of great value in the history of geography and discovery. His ''De Orbe Novo'' (On the New World, 1530) describes the first contacts of Europeans and Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Native Americans, Native American civilizations in the Caribbean and North America, as well as Mesoamerica, and includes, for example, the first European reference to India rubber. Martyr was given the post of chronicler (''cronista'') in the newly formed Council of the Indies, commissioned by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor to describe what was occurring in the explorations of the New World. In 1523 Charles gave him the title of Count Palatine, and in 1524 called him once more into the Council of the Indies. Martyr was investiture, invested by
Pope Clement VII Pope Clement VII (; ; born Giulio de' Medici; 26 May 1478 – 25 September 1534) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, l ...
, as proposed by Charles V, as Abbot of Jamaica. Juan Boscán Almogáver was a poet who participated with Garcilaso de la Vega (poet), Garcilaso de la Vega in giving naval assistance to the Isle of Rhodes during a Turkey, Turkish invasion. Boscà fought against the Turks again in 1532 with Álvarez de Toledo and Charles I of Spain, Charles I in Vienna. During this period, Boscán had made serious progress in his mastery of verse in the Italian style. The Palace of Charles V was commanded by Charles, who wished to establish his residence close to the Alhambra palaces. Although the Catholic Monarchs had already altered some rooms of the Alhambra after the conquest of the city in 1492, Charles V intended to construct a permanent residence befitting an emperor. The project was given to Pedro Machuca, an architect whose life and development are poorly documented. At the time, Spanish architecture was immersed in the Plateresque style, with traces of Gothic architecture still visible. Machuca built a palace corresponding stylistically to Mannerism, a mode then in its infancy in Italy. The exterior of the building uses a typically Renaissance combination of Rustication (architecture), rustication on the lower level and ashlar on the upper. The building has never been a home to a monarch and stood roofless until 1957.


Marriage and private life

During his lifetime, Charles V had several mistresses, his step-grandmother, Germaine de Foix among them. These liaisons occurred during his bachelorhood and only once during his widowerhood; there are no records of his having any extramarital affairs during his marriage. On 21 December 1507, Charles was betrothed to 11-year-old Mary Tudor, Queen of France, Mary, the daughter of King Henry VII of England and younger sister to the future King Henry VIII of England, who was to take the throne in two years. However, the engagement was called off in 1513, on the advice of Thomas Wolsey, Cardinal Wolsey, and Mary was instead married to King Louis XII of France in 1514. After his ascension to the Spanish thrones, negotiations for Charles's marriage began shortly after his arrival in Castile, with the Castilian nobles expressing their wishes for him to marry his first cousin Isabella of Portugal, the daughter of King Manuel I of Portugal and Charles's aunt Maria of Aragon, Queen of Portugal, Maria of Aragon. The nobles desired Charles's marriage to a princess of Castilian blood, and a marriage to Isabella would have secured an alliance between Castile and Portugal. However, the 18-year-old King was in no hurry to marry and ignored the nobles' advice, exploring other marriage options. Instead of marrying Isabella, he sent his sister Eleanor of Austria, Eleanor to marry Isabella's widowed father, King Manuel, in 1518. In 1521, on the advice of his Flemish counsellors, especially William de Croÿ, Charles became engaged to his other first cousin, Mary I of England, Mary, daughter of his aunt, Catherine of Aragon, and King Henry VIII, in order to secure an alliance with England. However, this engagement was very problematic because Mary was only 6 years old at the time, sixteen years Charles's junior, which meant that he would have to wait for her to be old enough to marry. By 1525, Charles was no longer interested in an alliance with England and could not wait any longer to have legitimate children and heirs. Following his victory in the
Battle of Pavia The Battle of Pavia, fought on the morning of 24 February 1525, was the decisive engagement of the Italian War of 1521–1526 between the Kingdom of France and the Habsburg empire of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, Holy Roman Empero ...

Battle of Pavia
, Charles abandoned the idea of an English alliance, cancelled his engagement to Mary and decided to marry Isabella and form an alliance with Portugal. He wrote to Isabella's brother, King John III of Portugal, making a double marriage contract – Charles would marry Isabella and John would marry Charles's youngest sister, Catherine of Austria, Queen of Portugal, Catherine. A marriage to Isabella was more beneficial for Charles, as she was closer to him in age, was fluent in Spanish and provided him with a very handsome dowry of 900,000 Portuguese cruzados or Castilian folds that would help to solve the financial problems brought on by the Italian Wars. On 10 March 1526, Charles and Isabella met at the Alcázar of Seville, Alcázar Palace in Seville. The marriage was originally a political arrangement, but on their first meeting, the couple fell deeply in love: Isabella captivated the Emperor with her beauty and charm. They were married that very same night in a quiet ceremony in the Hall of Ambassadors, just after midnight. Following their wedding, Charles and Isabella spent a long and happy honeymoon at the Alhambra in Granada. Charles began the construction of the Palace of Charles V in 1527, wishing to establish a permanent residence befitting an emperor and empress in the Alhambra palaces. However, the palace was not completed during their lifetimes and remained roofless until the late 20th century. Despite the Emperor's long absences due to political affairs abroad, the marriage was a happy one, as both partners were always devoted and faithful to each other. The Empress acted as regent of Spain during her husband's absences, and she proved herself to be a good politician and ruler, thoroughly impressing the Emperor with many of her political accomplishments and decisions. The marriage lasted for thirteen years, until Isabella's death in 1539. The Empress contracted a fever during the third month of her seventh pregnancy, which resulted in antenatal complications that caused her to miscarry a stillborn son. Her health further deteriorated due to an infection, and she died two weeks later on 1 May 1539, aged 35. Charles was left so grief-stricken by his wife's death that for two months he shut himself up in a monastery, where he prayed and mourned for her in solitude. Charles never recovered from Isabella's death, dressing in black for the rest of his life to show his eternal mourning, and, unlike most kings of the time, he never remarried. In memory of his wife, the Emperor commissioned the painter Titian to paint several posthumous portraits of Isabella; the finished portraits included Titian's ''Portrait of Isabella of Portugal, Portrait of Empress Isabel of Portugal'' and ''La Gloria (Titian), La Gloria''. Charles kept these paintings with him whenever he travelled, and they were among those that he brought with him after his retirement to the Monastery of Yuste in 1557. In 1540, Charles paid tribute to Isabella's memory when he commissioned the Flemish composer Thomas Crecquillon to compose new music as a memorial to her. Crecquillon composed his ''Missa 'Mort m'a privé'' in memory of the Empress. It expresses the Emperor's grief and great wish for a heavenly reunion with his beloved wife.


Siblings


Issue

Charles and Isabella had seven legitimate children, but only three of them survived to adulthood: Due to Philip II being a grandson of Manuel I of Portugal through his mother he was in the line of succession to the throne of Portugal, and claimed it after his uncle's death (Henry I of Portugal, Henry, the Cardinal-King, in 1580), thus establishing the Iberian Union, personal union between Spain and Portugal. Charles also had four illegitimate children: * Margaret of Parma, Margaret of Austria (1522–1586), daughter of Johanna Maria van der Gheynst, a servant of Charles I de Lalaing, Seigneur de Montigny, daughter of Gilles Johann van der Gheynst and wife Johanna van der Caye van Cocamby. Married firstly with Alessandro de' Medici, Duke of Florence, and secondly with Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma. * Joanna of Austria (1522–1530), daughter of Catalina de Rebolledo (or de Xériga), lady-in-waiting of Queen Joanna I of Castile and Aragon. * Tadea of Austria (1523? – ca. 1562), daughter of Orsolina della Penna. Married with Sinibaldo di Copeschi. * John of Austria (1547–1578), son of Barbara Blomberg, victor of the Battle of Lepanto File:MargarethevonParma02.jpg, File:John of Austria portrait.jpg,


Health

Charles suffered from an enlarged Human lower jaw, lower jaw (Prognathism#Mandibular prognathism (progenism), mandibular prognathism), a congenital deformity that became considerably worse in later Habsburg generations, giving rise to the term Habsburg jaw. This deformity may have been caused by the family's long history of inbreeding, the consequence of repeated marriages between close family members, as commonly practiced in royal families of that era to maintain dynastic control of territory. He suffered from epilepsy and was seriously afflicted with gout, presumably caused by a diet consisting mainly of red meat. As he aged, his gout progressed from painful to crippling. In his retirement, he was carried around the monastery of Yuste, St. Yuste in a Litter (vehicle), sedan chair. A ramp was specially constructed to allow him easy access to his rooms.Dr. Martyn Rady, University of London, lecture 2000.


Abdications and death

Between 1554 and 1556, Charles V gradually divided the Habsburg empire and the
House of Habsburg The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English (german: Haus Habsburg ; es, Casa de Habsburgo ; hu, Habsburg-család), also known as the House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich; es, link=no, Casa de Austria), ...
between a Spanish line and a German-Austrian branch. His abdications all occurred at the Palace of Coudenberg in the city of Brussels. First he abdicated the thrones of Sicily and Naples, both fiefs of the Papacy, and the Imperial
Duchy of Milan The Duchy of Milan was an Italian state located in northern Italy Northern Italy ( it, Italia settentrionale, it, Nord Italia, label=none, it, Alta Italia, label=none or just it, Nord, label=none) is a geographical and cultural region in th ...
, in favour of his son Philip II of Spain, Philip on 25 July 1554. Philip was secretly invested with Milan already in 1540 and again in 1546, but only in 1554 did the emperor make it public. Upon the abdications of Naples and Sicily, Philip was invested by Pope Julius III with the Kingdom of Naples on 2 October and with the Kingdom of Sicily on 18 November. The most famous—and only public—abdication took place a year later, on 25 October 1555, when Charles announced to the States General of the Netherlands (reunited in the great hall where he was emancipated exactly forty years before by Emperor Maximilian) his abdication in favour of his son of those territories as well as his intention to step down from all of his positions and retire to a monastery. During the ceremony, the gout-afflicted Emperor Charles V leaned on the shoulder of his advisor William the Silent and, crying, pronounced his resignation speech: He concluded the speech by mentioning his voyages: ten to the Low Countries, nine to Germany, seven to Spain, seven to Italy, four to France, two to England, and two to North Africa. His last public words were, "My life has been one long journey." With no fanfare, in 1556 he finalised his abdications. On 16 January 1556, he gave Spain and the Spanish Empire in the Americas to Philip. On 27 August 1556, he abdicated as Holy Roman Emperor in favour of his brother Ferdinand, elected King of the Romans in 1531. The succession was recognized by the prince-electors assembled at Frankfurt only in 1558, and by the Pope only in 1559. The Imperial abdication also marked the beginning of Ferdinand's legal and suo jure rule in the Austrian possessions, that he governed in Charles's name since 1521–1522 and were attached to Hungary and Bohemia since 1526. According to scholars, Charles decided to abdicate for a variety of reasons: the religious division of Germany sanctioned in 1555; the state of Spanish finances, bankrupted with inflation by the time his reign ended; the revival of Italian Wars with attacks from Henri II of France; the never-ending advance of the Ottomans in the Mediterranean and central Europe; and his declining health, in particular attacks of gout such as the one that forced him to postpone an attempt to recapture the city of Metz where he was later defeated. In September 1556, Charles left the Low Countries and sailed to Spain accompanied by Mary of Hungary and Eleanor of Austria. He arrived at the
Monastery of Yuste Monastery garden. The Monastery of Yuste is a monastery A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monk A monk (, from el, μοναχός, ''monachos'', "single, s ...
of
Extremadura Extremadura ( , ; ext, Estremaúra; pt, Estremadura; Fala: ''Extremaúra'') is an autonomous community of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Es ...

Extremadura
in 1557. He continued to correspond widely and kept an interest in the situation of the empire, while suffering from severe gout. He lived alone in a secluded monastery, surrounded by paintings by Titian and with clocks lining every wall, which some historians believe were symbols of his reign and his lack of time. In August 1558, Charles was taken seriously ill with what was later revealed to be malaria. He died in the early hours of the morning on 21 September 1558, at the age of 58, holding in his hand the cross that his wife Isabella had been holding when she died. Later historians claimed that, shortly prior to his death, the Emperor had ordered a mock-funeral to be held for himself, during which he lay in a coffin as the monks chanted Mass. The evidence for this is dubious. Neither his physician nor his secretary mention such a thing in their letters, and it would have been against the canon law of the Catholic Church. Charles was originally buried in the chapel of the Monastery of Yuste, but he left a codicil (will), codicil in his last will and testament asking for the establishment of a new religious foundation in which he would be reburied with Isabella. Following his return to Spain in 1559, their son Philip undertook the task of fulfilling his father's wish when he founded the El Escorial, Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial. After the Monastery's Royal Crypt was completed in 1574, the bodies of Charles and Isabella were relocated and re-interred into a small vault in directly underneath the altar of the Royal Chapel, in accordance with Charles's wishes to be buried "half-body under the altar and half-body under the priest's feet" side by side with Isabella. They remained in the Royal Chapel while the famous Basilica of the Monastery and the Royal tombs were still under construction. In 1654, after the Basilica and Royal tombs were finally completed during the reign of their great-grandson Philip IV of Spain, Philip IV, the remains of Charles and Isabella were moved into the Royal Pantheon of Kings, which lies directly under the Basilica. On one side of the Basilica are bronze effigies of Charles and Isabella, with effigies of their daughter Maria of Austria, Holy Roman Empress, Maria of Austria and Charles's sisters Eleanor of Austria and Mary of Hungary (governor of the Netherlands), Maria of Hungary behind them. Exactly adjacent to them on the opposite side of the Basilica are effigies of their son Philip with three of his wives and their ill-fated grandson Carlos, Prince of Asturias.


Titles

Charles V styled himself as Holy Roman Emperor after his election, according to a Papal dispensation conferred to the Habsburg family by Pope Julius II in 1508 and confirmed in 1519 to the prince-electors by the legates of
Pope Leo X Pope Leo X (born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, 11 December 14751 December 1521) was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521. Born into the prominent political and banking Medici family ...

Pope Leo X
. Although Papal coronation was not necessary to confirm the Imperial title, Charles V Coronation of Charles V, was crowned in the city of Bologna by
Pope Clement VII Pope Clement VII (; ; born Giulio de' Medici; 26 May 1478 – 25 September 1534) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, l ...
in the medieval fashion. Charles V accumulated a large number of titles due to his vast inheritance of Burgundian, Spanish, and Austrian realms. Following the Pacts of Worms (21 April 1521) and Brussels (7 February 1522), he secretly gave the Austrian lands to his younger brother Emperor Ferdinand I, Ferdinand and elevated him to the status of Archduke. Nevertheless, according to the agreements, Charles continued to style himself as Archduke of Austria and maintained that Ferdinand acted as his vassal and vicar. Furthermore, the pacts of 1521–1522 imposed restrictions on the governorship and regency of Ferdinand. For example, all of Ferdinand's letters to Charles V were signed "your obedient brother and servant". Nonetheless, the same agreements promised Ferdinand the designation as future emperor and the transfer of hereditary rights over Austria at the imperial succession. Following the death of Louis II of Hungary, Louis II, King of Hungary and Bohemia, at the Battle of Mohacs in 1526, Charles V favoured the election of Ferdinand as King of Hungary (and Croatia and Dalmatia) and Bohemia. Despite this, Charles also styled himself as King of Hungary and Bohemia and retained this titular use in official acts (such as his testament) as in the case of the Austrian lands. As a consequence, cartographers and historians have described those kingdoms both as realms of Charles V and as possessions of Ferdinand, not without confusion. Others, such as the Venetian envoys, reported that the states of Ferdinand were "all held in common with the Emperor". Therefore, although he had agreed on the future division of the dynasty between Ferdinand and
Philip II of Spain Philip II) in Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption ...

Philip II of Spain
, during his own reign Charles V conceived the existence of a single "House of Austria" of which he was the sole head. In the abdications of 1554–1556, Charles left his personal possessions to Philip II and the Imperial title to Ferdinand. The titles of King of Hungary, of Dalmatia, Croatia, etc., were also nominally left to the Spanish line (in particular to Don Carlos, Prince of Asturias and son of Philip II). However, Charles's Imperial abdication marked the beginning of Ferdinand's ''suo jure'' rule in Austria and his other lands: despite the claims of Philip and his descendants, Hungary and Bohemia were left under the nominal and substantial rule of Ferdinand and his successors. Formal disputes between the two lines over Hungary and Bohemia were to be solved with the Onate treaty of 1617. Charles's full titulature went as follows: ''Charles, by the grace of God, King of the Romans, Emperor of the Romans, forever Augustus (honorific), August, Kingdom of Germany, King of Germany, Kingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire), King of Italy, King of all Spains, of Kingdom of Castile, Castile, Kingdom of Aragon, Aragon, Kingdom of León, León, of Kingdom of Hungary (1526–1867), Hungary, of Kingdom of Dalmatia, Dalmatia, of Kingdom of Croatia (Habsburg), Croatia, Kingdom of Navarre, Navarra, Kingdom of Granada (Crown of Castile), Grenada, Kingdom of Toledo (Crown of Castile), Toledo, Kingdom of Valencia, Valencia, Kingdom of Galicia, Galicia, Kingdom of Majorca, Majorca, Kingdom of Seville, Sevilla, Kingdom of Córdoba, Cordova, Kingdom of Murcia, Murcia, Kingdom of Jaén, Jaén, Kingdom of the Algarve, Algarves, Taifa of Algeciras, Algeciras, Kingdom of Gibraltar, Gibraltar, the Canary Islands, King of both Kingdom of Naples, Hither and Kingdom of Sicily, Ultra Sicily, of
Sardinia Sardinia ( ; it, Sardegna ; sc, Sardigna or ) is the Mediterranean islands#By area, second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, and one of the Regions of Italy, 20 regions of Italy. It is located west of the Italian Penin ...
, Corsica, King of Jerusalem, King of the Indies, of the Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea, Archduchy of Austria, Archduke of Austria,
Duke of Burgundy Duke of Burgundy (french: duc de Bourgogne) was a title used by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy The Duchy of Burgundy (; la, Ducatus Burgundiae; french: Duché de Bourgogne, ) emerged in the 9th century as one of the successors of the an ...
, Duchy of Brabant, Brabant, Duchy of Lorraine, Lorraine, Duchy of Styria, Styria, Duchy of Carinthia, Carinthia, Duchy of Carniola, Carniola, Duchy of Limburg, Limburg, Duchy of Luxemburg, Luxembourg, Guelders, Gelderland, Duchy of Neopatras, Neopatria, Duchy of Württemberg, Württemberg, Landgrave of Alsace, Prince of Swabia, Prince of Asturias, Asturia and Catalonia, County of Flanders, Count of Flanders, House of Habsburg, Habsburg, County of Tyrol, Tyrol, County of Gorizia, Gorizia, County of Barcelona, Barcelona, County of Artois, Artois, County of Burgundy, Burgundy Palatine, County of Hainaut, Hainaut, County of Holland, Holland, County of Zeeland, Seeland, County of Ferrette, Ferrette, County of Kyburg, Kyburg, County of Namur, Namur, County of Roussillon, Roussillon, County of Cerdanya, Cerdagne, County of Drenthe, Drenthe, County of Zutphen, Zutphen, Margrave of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
, Burgau, Judge of Arborea, Oristano and Gociano, Lord of Frisia, Windic March, the Wendish March, Pordenone railway station, Pordenone, Lordship of Biscay, Biscay, Molin, Salins, Switzerland, Salins, Tripoli and Mechelen.''


Coat of arms of Charles V

Coat of arms of Charles I of Spain and V of the Holy Roman Empire according to the description: Arms of Charles I added to those of Kingdom of Castile, Castile, Kingdom of Leon, Leon,
Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma ast, comunidá autónoma , alt_n ...
, Kingdom of Sicily, Two Sicilies and Kingdom of Granada (Crown of Castile), Granada present in the previous coat, those of List of rulers of Austria, Austria, Duchy of Burgundy, ancient Burgundy, modern Burgundy, Duchy of Brabant, Brabant, County of Flanders, Flanders and County of Tyrol, Tyrol. Charles I also incorporates the pillars of Hercules with the inscription "Plus ultra (motto), Plus Ultra", representing the overseas Spanish empire and surrounding coat with the Order of the Golden Fleece, collar of the Golden Fleece, as sovereign of the Order ringing the shield with the imperial crown and Acola double-headed eagle of the Holy Roman Empire and behind it the Cross of Burgundy. From 1520 added to the corresponding quarter to Aragon and Sicily, one in which the arms of Jerusalem, Naples and Kingdom of Navarre, Navarre are incorporated. File:CoA Carlos I de España.svg, Coat of arms of King Charles I of Spain before becoming emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. File:Greater Coat of Arms of Charles I of Spain, Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor (1530-1556).svg, Coat of Arms of Charles I of Spain, Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor. File:Coat of arms of Charles, Infant of Spain, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy.png, Arms of Charles, Infante of Spain, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, KG at the time of his installation as a knight of the Order of the Garter, Most Noble Order of the Garter. File:Royal Bend of Charles V.svg, Variant of the Royal Bend of Castile used by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.


Ancestors


Commemoration and popular culture

References to Charles V include a large number of legends and folk tales; literary renderings of historical events connected to Charles's life and romantic adventures, his relationship to Flanders, and his abdication; and products marketed in his name. The 400th anniversary of his death, celebrated in 1958 in Francoist Spain, brought together the local National Catholicism, national catholic intelligentsia and a number of European (Catholic) conservative figures, underpinning an imperial nostalgia for Charles V's Europe and the ''Universitas Christiana'', also propelling a peculiar brand of europeanism.


Public monuments

Unusually among major European monarchs, Charles V discouraged monumental depictions of himself during his lifetime. * The Charles V Monument (Palermo), Charles V Monument in Palermo was erected in 1631 and depicts him triumphant following the Conquest of Tunis (1535), Conquest of Tunis. * Among other posthumous depictions, there are statues of Charles on the facade of the City Hall in
Ghent Ghent ( ; Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Du ...

Ghent
and the Royal Palace of Caserta. * A statue of Charles, donated by the city of Toledo, Spain, Toledo, was erected in 1966 in the Prinsenhof (Ghent), Prinsenhof in Ghent where he was born. * An imperial resolution of Franz Joseph I of Austria, dated February 28, 1863, included Charles V in the list of the "''most famous Austrian rulers and generals worthy of everlasting emulation''" and honored him with a life-size statue, made by the Bohemian sculptor Emanuel Max Ritter von Wachstein, located at the Museum of Military History, Vienna. * The Plaza del Emperador Carlos V is a square in the city of Madrid that is named after Charles V.


Literature

* In , published by Joan de Grieck in 1674, the short stories, anecdotes, citations attributed to the emperor, and legends about his encounters with famous and ordinary people, depict a noble Christian monarch with a perfect cosmopolitan personality and a strong sense of humour. Conversely, in Charles De Coster's masterpiece ''The Legend of Thyl Ulenspiegel and Lamme Goedzak, Thyl Ulenspiegel'' (1867), after his death Charles V is consigned to Hell as punishment for the acts of the Inquisition under his rule, his punishment being that he would feel the pain of anyone tortured by the Inquisition. De Coster's book also mentions the story on the spectacles in the coat of arms of Oudenaarde, the one about a paysant of Berchem in ''Het geuzenboek'' (1979) by Louis Paul Boon, while (1882–1939) included both tales in ''De liefdesavonturen van keizer Karel in Vlaanderen''. * Lord Byron's ''Ode to Napoleon Buonaparte'' refers to Charles as "The Spaniard". * Charles V is a notable character in Simone de Beauvoir's ''All Men Are Mortal''. * In ''The Maltese Falcon (novel), The Maltese Falcon'', the title object is said to have been an intended gift to Charles V.


Plays

* Charles V appears as a character in the play ''Doctor Faustus (play), Doctor Faustus'' by the Elizabethan playwright Christopher Marlowe. In Act 4 Scene 1 of the A Text, Faustus attends Court by the Emperor's request and with the assistance of Mephistopheles conjures up spirits representing Alexander the Great and his paramour as a demonstration of his magical powers.


Opera

* Ernst Krenek's opera ''Karl V (opera), Karl V'' (opus 73, 1930) examines the title character's career via flashbacks. * In the third act of Giuseppe Verdi's opera ''Ernani'', the election of Charles as Holy Roman Emperor is presented. Charles (Don Carlo in the opera) prays before the tomb of
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by i ...

Charlemagne
. With the announcement that he is elected as Carlo Quinto he declares an amnesty including the eponymous bandit Ernani who had followed him there to murder him as a rival for the love of Elvira. The opera, based on the Victor Hugo play ''Hernani (drama), Hernani'', portrays Charles as a callous and cynical adventurer whose character is transformed by the election into a responsible and clement ruler. * In another Verdi opera, ''Don Carlo'', the final scene implies that it is Charles V, now living the last years of his life as a hermit, who rescues his grandson, Don Carlo, from his father Philip II of Spain, Philip II and the Inquisition, by taking Carlo with him to his hermitage at the monastery in Yuste.


Food

* A Flemish legend about Charles being served a beer at the village of Olen, Belgium, Olen, as well as the emperor's lifelong preference of beer above wine, led to the naming of several beer varieties in his honor. The ''Haacht'' Brewery of Boortmeerbeek produces Charles Quint, while Het Anker Brewery in Mechelen produces Gouden Carolus, including a Grand Cru of the Emperor, brewed once a year on Charles V's birthday. Grupo Cruzcampo brews Legado De Yuste in honor of Charles and attributes the inspiration to his Flemish origin and his last days at the monastery of Yuste. * Carlos V (candy bar), Carlos V is the name of a popular chocolate bar in Mexico. Its tagline is "El Rey de los Chocolates" or "The King of Chocolates" and "Carlos V, El Emperador del Chocolate" or "Charles V, the Emperor of Chocolates."


Television and film

* Charles V is portrayed by Hans Lefebre and is figured prominently in the 1953 film ''Martin Luther (1953 film), Martin Luther'', covering Luther's years from 1505 to 1530. * Charles V is portrayed by Torben Liebrecht and is figured prominently in the 2003 film ''Luther (2003 film), Luther'' covering the life of
Martin Luther Martin Luther (; ; 10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citiz ...

Martin Luther
up until the Diet of Augsburg. * Charles V is portrayed in one episode of the Showtime series ''The Tudors'' by Sebastian Armesto. * Charles V is the main subject of the Televisión Española, TVE series ''Carlos, Rey Emperador'' and is portrayed by Álvaro Cervantes.


See also

*Royal Armoury of Madrid *Museum of Military History, Vienna


Notes


Citations


Sources


English

* Atkins, Sinclair. "Charles V and the Turks", ''History Today'' (Dec 1980) 30#12 pp 13–18 * Blockmans, W. P., and Nicolette Mout. ''The World of Emperor Charles V'' (2005) * Wim Blockmans, Blockmans, Wim. ''Emperor Charles V, 1500–1558.'' (Oxford University Press, 2002)
online
* Brandi, Karl. '' The emperor Charles V: The growth and destiny of a man and of a world-empire'' (1939
online
* Espinosa, Aurelio. "The Grand Strategy of Charles V (1500–1558): Castile, War, and Dynastic Priority in the Mediterranean", ''Journal of Early Modern History'' (2005) 9#3 pp 239–283
online
* Espinosa, Aurelio. "The Spanish Reformation: Institutional Reform, Taxation, and the Secularization of Ecclesiastical Properties under Charles V", ''Sixteenth Century Journal'' (2006) 37#1 pp 3–24. . * Espinosa, Aurelio. ''The Empire of the Cities: Emperor Charles V, the Comunero Revolt, and the Transformation of the Spanish System'' (2008) * Ferer, Mary Tiffany. ''Music and Ceremony at the Court of Charles V: The Capilla Flamenca and the Art of Political Promotion'' (Boydell & Brewer, 2012). * * * Headley, John M. ''Emperor & His Chancellor: A Study of the Imperial Chancellery under Gattinara'' (1983) covers 1518 to 1530. * Heath, Richard. ''Charles V: Duty and Dynasty. The Emperor and his Changing World 1500-1558.'' (2018) * * Kleinschmidt, Harald. ''Charles V: The World Emperor'' * Merriman, Roger Bigelow. ''The rise of the Spanish empire in the Old world and the New: Volume 3 The Emperor'' (1925
online
* Norwich, John Julius. ''Four Princes: Henry VIII, Francis I, Charles V, Suleiman the Magnificent and the Obsessions that Forged Modern Europe'' (2017), popular history
excerpt
* Parker, Geoffrey. ''Emperor: A New Life of Charles V'' (2019
excerpt
* Reston Jr, James. ''Defenders of the Faith: Charles V, Suleyman the Magnificent, and the Battle for Europe, 1520-1536'' (2009), popular history. * Richardson, Glenn. ''Renaissance Monarchy: The Reigns of Henry VIII, Francis I & Charles V'' (2002) 246pp. covers 1497 to 1558. * Rodriguez-Salgado, Mia. ''Changing Face of Empire: Charles V, Philip II & Habsburg Authority, 1551-1559'' (1988), 375pp. * Rosenthal, Earl E. ''Palace of Charles V in Granada'' (1986) 383pp. * Saint-Saëns, Alain, ed. ''Young Charles V''. (New Orleans: University Press of the South, 2000). * Tracy, James D. ''Emperor Charles V, impresario of war: campaign strategy, international finance, and domestic politics'' (Cambridge UP, 2002)
excerpt


Other languages

* Salvatore Agati (2009). ''Carlo V e la Sicilia. Tra guerre, rivolte, fede e ragion di Stato'', Giuseppe Maimone Editore, Catania 2009, * D'Amico, Juan Carlos. ''Charles Quint, Maître du Monde: Entre Mythe et Realite'' 2004, 290p. * Norbert Conrads: ''Die Abdankung Kaiser Karls V.'' Abschiedsvorlesung, Universität Stuttgart, 2003
text
) * Stephan Diller, Joachim Andraschke, Martin Brecht: ''Kaiser Karl V. und seine Zeit''. Ausstellungskatalog. Universitäts-Verlag, Bamberg 2000, * Alfred Kohler: ''Karl V. 1500–1558. Eine Biographie''. C. H. Beck, München 2001, * Alfred Kohler: ''Quellen zur Geschichte Karls V.'' Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1990, * Alfred Kohler, Barbara Haider. Christine Ortner (Hrsg): ''Karl V. 1500–1558. Neue Perspektiven seiner Herrschaft in Europa und Übersee''. Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien 2002, * Ernst Schulin: ''Kaiser Karl V. Geschichte eines übergroßen Wirkungsbereichs''. Kohlhammer Verlag, Stuttgart 1999, * Ferdinant Seibt: ''Karl V.'' Goldmann, München 1999, * Manuel Fernández Álvarez: ''Imperator mundi: Karl V. – Kaiser des Heiligen Römischen Reiches Deutscher Nation.''. Stuttgart 1977,


External links

* *
Genealogy history of Charles V and his ancestors

The Life and Times of Emperor Charles V 1500–1558

The Library of Charles V preserved in the National Library of France


* [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03625a.htm ''New Advent'' biography of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor] *
Charles V and the Tiburtine Sibyl

Charles V the Habsburg emperor, video
, - , - {{DEFAULTSORT:Charles 05, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, 1500 births 1558 deaths 16th-century Holy Roman Emperors 16th-century Aragonese monarchs 16th-century Castilian monarchs 16th-century Kings of Sicily 16th-century Roman Catholics 16th-century archdukes of Austria 16th-century Spanish monarchs 16th-century monarchs of Naples 16th-century Navarrese monarchs Aragonese infantes Burials in the Pantheon of Kings at El Escorial Castilian infantes Counts of Barcelona Counts of Burgundy Counts of Charolais Deaths from malaria Dukes of Burgundy Dukes of Milan Dukes of Montblanc Grand Masters of the Order of the Golden Fleece Infectious disease deaths in Spain Knights of Santiago Knights of the Garter Knights of the Golden Fleece Margraves of Namur, Charles 05 Modern child rulers Monarchs who abdicated Nobility from Ghent Princes of Asturias Rulers of the Habsburg Netherlands Spanish exploration in the Age of Discovery Spanish infantes Counts of Malta Dukes of Carniola