The Channeled Scablands at one time were a relatively barren and soil-free region of interconnected relict and dry flood channels, coulee
s and cataracts
eroded into Palouse loess and the typically flat-lying basalt flows that remain after cataclysmic floods within the southeastern part of the U.S. state
[Bjornstad, B., and Kiver, E., 2012, ''On the Trail of the Ice Age Floods: The Northern Reaches: A geological field guide to northern Idaho and the Channeled Scabland.'' Keokee Books, Sandpoint, Idaho. 480 pp. ] [Neuendorf, K.K.E., J.P. Mehl, Jr., and J.A. Jackson, eds. (2005) ''Glossary of Geology'' (5th ed.). Alexandria, Virginia, American Geological Institute. 779 pp. ]
The channeled scablands were scoured by more than 40 cataclysmic
floods during the Last Glacial Maximum
and innumerable older cataclysmic floods over the last two million years.
These cataclysmic floods were repeatedly unleashed when a large glacial lake
repeatedly drained and swept across eastern Washington and down the Columbia River Plateau
during the Pleistocene epoch
. The last of the cataclysmic floods occurred between 18,200 and 14,000 years ago.
[Balbas, A.M., Barth, A.M., Clark, P.U., Clark, J., Caffee, M., O'Connor, J., Baker, V.R., Konrad, K. and Bjornstad, B., 2017]
Geologist J Harlen Bretz
''10Be dating of late Pleistocene megafloods and Cordilleran Ice Sheet retreat in the northwestern United States.''
''Geology,'' 45(7), pp. 583-586.
defined "scablands" in a series of papers written in the 1920s as lowlands diversified by a multiplicity of irregular channels and rock basins eroded into basalt. Flood waters eroded the loess
cover, creating large anastomizing channels
that exposed bare basalt and creating butte
topography. The buttes range in height from , while the rock basins range from in width up to the long and 30 m deep Rock Lake
. Bretz further stated, "The channels run uphill and downhill, they unite and they divide, they head on the back-slopes and cut through the summit; they could not be more erratically and impossibly designed."
The debate on the origin of the Scablands that ensued for four decades became one of the great controversies in the history of earth science
. The Scablands are also important to planetary scientists as perhaps the best terrestrial analog of the Martian outflow channels
[Carr, M. H. (2006), ''The Surface of Mars''. Cambridge Planetary Science Series, Cambridge University Press.]
Bretz conducted research and published many papers during the 1920s describing the Channeled Scablands. His theories of how they were formed required short but immense flood
s – – for which Bretz had no explanation. Bretz's theories met with vehement opposition from geologists of the day, who tried to explain the features with uniformitarian
first suggested in 1925 to Bretz that the draining of a glacial lake
could account for flows of the magnitude needed. Pardee continued his research over the next 30 years, collecting and analyzing evidence that eventually identified Lake Missoula
as the source of the Missoula Floods
and creator of the Channeled Scablands.
Pardee's and Bretz's theories were accepted only after decades of painstaking work and fierce scientific debate. Research on open-channel hydraulics in the 1970s put Bretz's theories on solid scientific ground. In 1979 Bretz received the highest medal of the Geological Society of America
, the Penrose Medal
, to recognize that he had developed one of the great ideas in the earth sciences.
Distinct geomorphological features
include coulees, dry falls, streamlined hills and islands of remnant loess, gravel fans and bars
, and giant current ripples
The term scabland refers to an area that has experienced fluvial erosion resulting in the loss of loess and other soils, leaving the land barren.] [Baker (2008)] River valleys formed by erosional downcutting of rivers create V-shaped valleys, while glaciers carve out U-shaped valleys. The Channeled Scablands have a rectangular cross section, with flat plateaus and steep canyon sides, and are spread over immense areas of eastern Washington. The morphology of the scablands is butte-and-basin. The area that encompasses the Scablands has been estimated between , though those estimates still may be too conservative. [Foster (2011)]
They exhibit a unique drainage pattern that appears to have an entrance in the northeast and an exit in the southwest. The Cordilleran Ice Sheet dammed up Glacial Lake Missoula at the Purcell Trench Lobe. A series of floods occurring over the period of 18,000 to 13,000 years ago swept over the landscape when the ice dam broke. The eroded channels also show an anastomosing, or braided, appearance.
The presence of Middle and Early Pleistocene Missoula flood deposits have been documented within the Channeled Scabland as other parts of the Columbia Basin, e.g. the Othello Channels, Columbia River Gorge, Quincy Basin, Pasco Basin, and the Walla Walla Valley. Based on the presence of multiple interglacial calcretes interbedded with glaciofluvial flood deposits, magnetostratigraphy, optically stimulated luminescence dating, and unconformity truncated clastic dikes, it has been estimated that the oldest of these megafloods flowed through the Channel Scablands sometime before 1.5 million years ago. Because of the fragmentary nature of older glaciofluvial deposits, which have been largely removed by subsequent Missoula floods, the exact number of older Missoula floods, which are known as ''Ancient Cataclysmic Floods'', that occurred during the Pleistocene cannot be estimated with any confidence. [Medley, E. (2012) ''Ancient Cataclysmic Floods in the Pacific Northwest: Ancestors to the Missoula Floods.'' Unpublished Masters thesis, Portland State University, Portland, Oregon. 174 pp.] [Spencer, P. K., and M. A. Jaffee (2002) ''Pre-Late Wisconsinan Glacial Outburst Floods in Southeastern Washington—The Indirect Record.'' Washington Geology. vol. 30, no. 1/2, pp. 9-16.] As many as 100 separate, cataclysmic Ice Age floods may have occurred during the last glaciation. [Waitt, RB, Jr. (1994) ''Scores of Gigantic, Successively Smaller Lake Missoula Floods Through Channeled Scabland and Columbia Valley'', in ''Geologic Field Trips in the Pacific Northwest: 1994 Geological Society of America Meeting'', Chapter 1K, D. A. Swanson and R. A. Haugerud (eds.), Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado.] There have been at least 17 complete interglacial-glacial cycles since about 1.77 million years ago, and perhaps as many as 44 interglacial-glacial cycles since the beginning of the Pleistocene about 2.58 million years ago. Presuming a dozen (or more) floods were associated with each glaciation, the total number of cataclysmic Ice Age Missoula floods that flowed through the Channeled Scablands for the entire Pleistocene Epoch could possibly number in the hundreds, perhaps exceeding a thousand Ancient Cataclysmic Floods. [Bjornstad, B. (2002) ''Standardized Stratigraphic Nomenclature for Post-Ringold-Formation Sediments Within the Central Pasco Basin.'' Report DOE/RL-2002-39 Rev. 0. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland, Washington.]
There are also immense potholes and ripple marks, much larger than those found on ordinary rivers. When these features were first studied, no known theories could explain their origin. The giant current ripples are between high and are regularly spaced, relatively uniform hills. Vast volumes of flowing water would be required to produce ripple marks of this magnitude, as they are larger-scale versions of the ripple marks found on streambeds that are typically only centimeters high. Large potholes were formed by swirling vortexes of water called kolks scouring and plucking out the bedrock.
The Scablands are littered with large boulders called glacial erratics that rafted on glaciers and were deposited by the glacial outburst flooding. The lithology of erratics usually does not match the rock type that surrounds it, as they are often carried very far from their origin.
*Allen, John Eliot; Marjorie Burns; and Sam C. Sargent. (1986) ''Cataclysms on the Columbia''. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press,
*Baker, Victor R.
"The Channeled Scabland: A Retrospective."
Reviews in Advance. Annual Reviews, 30 Dec 2008. Web. 9 Oct 2013.
*Bjornstad, Bruce: and Eugene Kiver. (2012) "On the Trail of the Ice Age Floods: The Northern Reaches", Keokee Co. Publishing, Inc., Sandpoint, Idaho, .
Ice Age Floodscapes YouTube Channel
*Bretz, J Harlen (1923), "The Channeled Scabland of the Columbia Plateau." ''Journal of Geology'', v.31, p. 617-649.
*Bretz, J Harlen (1925), "The Spokane flood beyond the Channeled Scablands." ''Journal of Geology'', v.33, p. 97-115, 236–259.
*Bretz, J H.; Smith, H.T.U.; and Neff, G.E., (1956) "Channeled Scabland of Washington — New Data and Interpretations." ''Geological Society of America Bulletin'', v.67, p. 957-1049.
Spokane Outdoors. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Oct 2013.
Huge Floods. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Oct 2013.
*Soennichsen, John (2008), "Bretz's Flood: The Remarkable Story of a Rebel Geologist and the World's Greatest Flood", Seattle, Washington, Sasquatch Books,
* United States Geological Surve
Five chapters with 23 illustrations and maps.
*Steven Dutch, University of Wisconsin - Green Bay
Channeled Scablands: Overview
* PBS's ''NOVA''
''Mystery of the Megaflood''
Scablands in Google Maps
from the National Park Service about the geologic origins of the scablands.
Sun Lakes-Dry Falls State Park
in the Channeled Scablands
Columbia Plateau Trail StatePark
in the Channeled Scablands
- "Trailing an Apocalypse" - 30-Sep-2007
The channeled scabland
a guide to the geomorphology of the Columbia Basin, Washington : prepared for the Comparative Planetary Geology Field Conference held in the Columbia Basin, June 5–8, 1978 / sponsored by Planetary Geology Program, Office of Space Science, National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; edited by Victor R. Baker and Dag Nummedal.
* Keenan Lee
Category:Geology of Washington (state)
Category:Deserts of the United States
Category:Landforms of Washington (state)