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Chandigarh (; ) is a city,
district A district is a type of that, in some countries, is managed by the . Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning s or , several , subdivisions of municipalities, , or . By country/region Afghanistan In , a d ...
and
union territory #REDIRECT Union territory#REDIRECT Union territory A union territory ( hi, script=latn, kendraśāsit pradeś, , centrally administered province) is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , ...
in
India India, officially the Republic of India (: ), is a country in . It is the by area, the country, and the most populous in the world. Bounded by the on the south, the on the southwest, and the on the southeast, it shares land borders wit ...

India
that serves as the joint capital of the two neighbouring states of
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...
and
Haryana Haryana (; ) is a in India located in the northern-part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of on 1 November 1966 on a basis. It is ranked 21st in terms of area, with less than 1.4% () of India's land area. The state capital ...

Haryana
. Chandigarh is bordered by the state of Punjab to the north, the west and the south, and by the state of Haryana to the east. It is considered to be a part of the
Chandigarh Capital Region Chandigarh () is a city, Districts of India, district and union territory in India that serves as the capital of the two neighbouring states of Punjab, India, Punjab and Haryana. Chandigarh is bordered by the state of Punjab to the north, the w ...
or Greater Chandigarh, which includes Chandigarh, and the city of
Panchkula Panchkula is a planned city and district headquarter in the Panchkula district, part of Ambala division in Haryana Haryana () is a States and union territories of India, state in India located in the northern part of the country. It was ...
(in Haryana) and cities of Kharar, New Chandigarh,
Mohali Mohali, officially known as Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar, is a planned city 250px, Abuja, in Nigeria, which was built mainly in the 1980s, was the fastest growing city in the world between 2000 and 2010, with an increase of 139.7%, and stil ...
and
Zirakpur Zirakpur is a satellite town, in Mohali District, Punjab, India, Punjab, neighbouring Chandigarh in India. It is set on the foothills of Shivalik hills. It is part of the tehsil Dera Bassi. It is the gateway to Chandigarh from Delhi. It compris ...

Zirakpur
(in Punjab). It is located 260 km (162 miles) north of
New Delhi New Delhi (, ''Naī Dillī'') is the Capital city, capital of India and a part of the NCT Delhi, National Capital Territory of Delhi. New Delhi is the seat of all three branches of the government of India, hosting the Rashtrapati Bhavan, Pa ...

New Delhi
and 229 km (143 miles) southeast of
Amritsar Amritsar (), historically also known as ''Rāmdāspur'' and colloquially as ''Ambarsar'', is the second List of cities in Punjab and Chandigarh by population, largest city in the Indian state of Punjab, India, Punjab, after Ludhiana. It is a m ...

Amritsar
. Chandigarh is one of the early
planned cities 250px, Abuja, in Nigeria, which was built mainly in the 1980s, was the fastest growing city in the world between 2000 and 2010, with an increase of 139.7%, and still expanding rapidly A planned community, planned city, or planned town is an ...
in post-independence India and is internationally known for its architecture and urban design. The master plan of the city was prepared by Swiss-French architect
Le Corbusier Charles-Édouard Jeanneret (6 October 188727 August 1965), known as Le Corbusier ( , , ; roughly, "the crow-like one"), was a Swiss people, Swiss-French people, French architect, designer, painter, urban planner, writer, and one of the pionee ...

Le Corbusier
, which transformed from earlier plans created by the Polish architect
Maciej Nowicki Maciej Nowicki (born 28 September 1941 in Warsaw Warsaw, * la, Varsovia (Polish language, Polish: ''Warszawa'' ), officially the Capital City of Warsaw, is the capital and List of cities and towns in Poland, largest city of Poland. The m ...
and the American planner Albert Mayer. Most of the government buildings and housing in the city were designed by the Chandigarh Capital Project Team headed by Le Corbusier,
Jane Drew Jane may refer to: * Jane (given name), a feminine given name * Jane (surname), related to the given name Film and television * Jane (1915 film), ''Jane'' (1915 film), a silent comedy film directed by Frank Lloyd * Jane (2016 film), ''Jane'' (201 ...
and
Maxwell Fry Edwin Maxwell Fry, CBE, RA, FRIBA, FRTPI, known as Maxwell Fry (2 August 1899 – 3 September 1987), was an English modernist , Solomon Guggenheim Museum 1946–1959 Modernism is both a philosophy, philosophical movement and an art movemen ...
. In 2015, an article published by
BBC The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public service broadcaster, headquartered at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of ...

BBC
named Chandigarh as one of the few master-planned cities in the world to have succeeded in terms of combining monumental architecture, cultural growth, and modernisation. Chandigarh's Capitol Complex was in July 2016 declared by
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a List of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialised agency of th ...

UNESCO
as World Heritage at the 40th session of World Heritage Conference held in
Istanbul ) , postal_code_type = Postal code A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, PIN or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or numerical digit, digits or ...

Istanbul
. UNESCO inscription was under "The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier an outstanding contribution to the Modern Movement". The Capitol Complex buildings include the
Punjab and Haryana High Court Punjab (; ; ; ; also romanised Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and m ...
, Punjab and Haryana
Secretariat Secretariat may refer to: * Secretariat (administrative office) The secretariat of an organization is the department that fulfils its central administrative or general secretary duties. The term is especially associated with government ...
and Punjab and Haryana Assembly along with monuments Open hand, Martyrs Memorial, Geometric Hill and Tower of Shadow and the Rock Garden. The city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the country. The union territory has one of the highest
Human Development Index The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of , (mean years of schooling completed and expected years of schooling upon entering the education system), and indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers ...
. In 2015, a survey by
LG Electronics LG Electronics Inc. () is a South Korean multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinati ...

LG Electronics
ranked it as the happiest city in India over the happiness index. The metropolitan area of Chandigarh, Mohali and Panchkula collectively forms a Tricity, with a combined population of over 1,611,770.


Etymology

The name ''Chandigarh'' is a
compound Compound may refer to: Architecture and built environments * Compound (enclosure), a cluster of buildings having a shared purpose, usually inside a fence or wall ** Compound (fortification), a version of the above fortified with defensive structu ...
of ''Chandi'' and ''Garh''. ''Chandi'' refers to the Hindu goddess
Chandi Chandi (Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. ...

Chandi
and ''Garh'' means fortress. The name is derived from
Chandi Mandir Chandi Mandir (Hindi, ''Mandir'': "Temple") is a Hindu temple near Chandigarh, India, dedicated to Chandi, the goddess of power. It is about 15 km from the city of Chandigarh, which was named after the temple, and about 10 km away from th ...
, an ancient temple devoted to the
Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism. Jeffery D. Long (2007), A Vision for Hinduism, IB Tauris, , pages 35–37 Historically, the term has also been used as ...

Hindu
Goddess
Chandi Chandi (Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. ...

Chandi
(
Parvati Parvati ( sa, पार्वती, ), Uma ( sa, उमा, ) or Gauri ( sa, गौरी, ) is the Hindu goddess of fertility, love, beauty, harmony, marriage, children, and devotion; as well as of divine strength and power.Suresh Chandra (1 ...

Parvati
) near the city in
Panchkula Panchkula is a planned city and district headquarter in the Panchkula district, part of Ambala division in Haryana Haryana () is a States and union territories of India, state in India located in the northern part of the country. It was ...
District. The motif or sobriquet of "The City of Beauty" was derived from the City Beautiful movement that was a popular philosophy in North American urban planning during the 1890s and 1900s. Architect Albert Mayer, the initial planner of Chandigarh, lamented the American rejection of ''City Beautiful'' concepts and declared "We want to create a beautiful city..." The phrase was used on as a logo in official publications in the 1970s and is now how the city describes itself.


History

The area that is today Chandigarh was home to some settlements of
Indus valley civilisation , c. 2500 BCE. Terracotta Terracotta, terra cotta, or terra-cotta (; Italian language, Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin ''terra cocta''), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based ceramic glaze, unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the ...
. It was also the site of a short-lived late 18th century principality, with a small fort at Mani Majra. As part of the
partition of India The partition of India was the division of British India The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the Indian subcont ...

partition of India
in 1947, the former British province of Punjab was divided into two, mostly Sikh and Hindu
East Punjab East Punjab (known simply as Punjab from 1950) was a province and later a state of India from 1947 until 1966, consisting of the parts of the Punjab (British India), Punjab Province of British India that went to India following the Partition ...
in India and mostly Muslim
West Punjab West Punjab was a province of Pakistan from 1947 to 1955. The province covered an area of 205,344 km2 (79,284 sq mi), including much of the current Punjab (Pakistan), Punjab province and the Islamabad Capital Territory, but excluding the former P ...
in
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
. The capital of undivided Punjab,
Lahore Lahore (; pnb, ; ; ur, ; ) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab and is the country's List of most populous cities in Pakistan, 2nd largest city after Karachi, as well as the List of cities proper by populat ...

Lahore
, had become part of Pakistan after the partition. Instead of shifting the capital to an already existing and established city,
Jawaharlal Nehru Jawaharlal Nehru (; ; ; 14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was an Indian Anti-colonial nationalism, anti-colonial nationalist, secular humanist, social democrat, and author who was a central figure in India during the middle third of ...

Jawaharlal Nehru
, the first Prime Minister of India, envisioned an altogether new and modern city be built to serve as the capital of
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...
. In 1949 the American planner and architect Albert Mayer was commissioned to design a new city to be called "Chandigarh". The government carved out Chandigarh from about fifty Puadhi-speaking villages in the then-state of East Punjab, India.
Shimla Shimla (; ; also known as Simla, the official name until 1972) is the capital and the largest city of the Northern Indian state of Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh (; ; "Province of the Snow-laden Mountains") is a States and union terr ...

Shimla
was the temporary capital of the state until Chandigarh was completed. Albert Mayer developed a superblock-based city interspersed with green spaces which with an emphasis on cellular neighbourhoods and traffic segregation. His site-plan took advantage of natural land characteristics; the land's gentle grade promoted proper drainage. Mayer stopped work after his architect-partner Matthew Nowicki died in a plane crash in 1950. Government officials recruited
Le Corbusier Charles-Édouard Jeanneret (6 October 188727 August 1965), known as Le Corbusier ( , , ; roughly, "the crow-like one"), was a Swiss people, Swiss-French people, French architect, designer, painter, urban planner, writer, and one of the pionee ...

Le Corbusier
to succeed Mayer and Nowicki, who enlisted many elements of Mayer's original plan without attributing them to him. Le Corbusier designed many administration buildings, including the High Court, the Palace of Assembly, and the Secretariat Building. Le Corbusier also designed the general layout of the city, dividing it into sectors. Chandigarh hosts the largest of Le Corbusier's many ''Open Hand'' sculptures, standing 26 metres high. '' The Open Hand (La Main Ouverte)'' is a recurring motif in Le Corbusier's architecture, a sign for him of "peace and reconciliation. It is open to give and open to receive." It represents what Le Corbusier called the "Second Machine Age". Two of the six monuments planned in the Capitol Complex which has the High Court, the Assembly, and the Secretariat, remain incomplete. These include Geometric Hill and Martyrs Memorial; drawings were made, and they were begun in 1956, but they were never completed. The capital city was officially shifted from Shimla to Chandigarh on 21 September 1953, though Chandigarh was formally inaugurated by India's first president,
Rajendra Prasad Rajendra Prasad (3 December 1884 – 28 February 1963) was an Indian independence upright=1.0, Pedro surrounded by a crowd in Brazil's independence on September 7, 1822.">Independence of Brazil">Brazil's independence on September ...
on 7 October 1953. On 1 November 1966, the newly formed state of
Haryana Haryana (; ) is a in India located in the northern-part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of on 1 November 1966 on a basis. It is ranked 21st in terms of area, with less than 1.4% () of India's land area. The state capital ...

Haryana
was carved out of the eastern and southern portion of East Punjab, to create a new state for the majority
Haryanvi Haryanvi ( ' or ') is a Central Indo-Aryan language or dialect spoken in Haryana, India. It is also spoken in metropolitan cities like Delhi and Kolkata to a lesser extent. Haryanvi is considered to be a Western Hindi dialect, like Khariboli a ...
-speaking people in that portion, while the western portion of East Punjab retained a mostly
Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a ge ...
-speaking majority and was renamed as
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...
. Chandigarh was located on the border of both states and the states moved to incorporate the city into their respective territories. However, the city of Chandigarh was declared a
union territory #REDIRECT Union territory#REDIRECT Union territory A union territory ( hi, script=latn, kendraśāsit pradeś, , centrally administered province) is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , ...
to serve as capital of both states. As of 2016, many historical villages in Chandigarh are still inhabited within the modern blocks of sectors including ''Burail'' and ''Ottawa'', while several non-sectoral villages lie on the outskirts of the city. These villages were a part of the pre-Chandigarh era. The government's handling of the
COVID-19 pandemic in India The COVID-19 pandemic in India is a part of the COVID-19 pandemic, worldwide pandemic of COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019 () caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (). , according to official figures, India has the sec ...
damaged BJP's image as the voters felt that they were not given desired help in getting the hospital beds and medical oxygen from their elected representatives. The sitting Councillors were found to be unapproachable when the public needed support. No major relief measure was taken by the local government.


Geography and ecology


Location

Chandigarh is located near the foothills of the Sivalik range of the
Himalaya The Himalayas, or Himalaya (; Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; , , ) is a of that belongs to the branch of the . It arose in South Asia after its predecessor languages had there from the northwest in the late . Sanskrit is t ...

Himalaya
s in northwest India. It covers an area of approximately 114 km2. It borders the states of Punjab and Haryana. The exact geographic coordinates of Chandigarh are . It has an average elevation of 321 metres (1053 ft). The city, lying in the northern plains, includes a vast area of flat, fertile land. Its northeast covers sections of
Bhabar Bhabar or Bhabhar ( Kumaoni: bhābar) is a region south of the Lower Himalayas The Himalayas, or Himalaya (); Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language ...
and while the remainder of its terrain is part of the
Terai , image =Terai nepal.jpg , image_size = , image_alt = , caption =Aerial view of Terai plains near Biratnagar, Nepal , map = , map_size = , map_alt = , map_caption = , biogeographic_realm = Indomalayan realm , global200 = Terai-Duar savanna and ...
. The surrounding cities are
Mohali Mohali, officially known as Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar, is a planned city 250px, Abuja, in Nigeria, which was built mainly in the 1980s, was the fastest growing city in the world between 2000 and 2010, with an increase of 139.7%, and stil ...
, New Chandigarh,
Patiala Patiala () is a city in southeastern , northwestern . It is the fourth largest city in the state and is the administrative capital of . Patiala is located around the ' (the 'Fortunate Castle') constructed by the chieftain , who founded the roy ...
,
Zirakpur Zirakpur is a satellite town, in Mohali District, Punjab, India, Punjab, neighbouring Chandigarh in India. It is set on the foothills of Shivalik hills. It is part of the tehsil Dera Bassi. It is the gateway to Chandigarh from Delhi. It compris ...

Zirakpur
and
Rupnagar Rupnagar (; formerly known as Ropar) is a city and a municipal council in Rupnagar district in the India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependenc ...
in Punjab, and
Panchkula Panchkula is a planned city and district headquarter in the Panchkula district, part of Ambala division in Haryana Haryana () is a States and union territories of India, state in India located in the northern part of the country. It was ...
and
Ambala Ambala (), is a city and a municipal corporation A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local government, local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) city, cities, county, counties, towns, townships, charter t ...
in Haryana. Chandigarh is situated 44 km (28 miles) northeast of
Ambala Ambala (), is a city and a municipal corporation A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local government, local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) city, cities, county, counties, towns, townships, charter t ...
, 229 km (143 miles) southeast of
Amritsar Amritsar (), historically also known as ''Rāmdāspur'' and colloquially as ''Ambarsar'', is the second List of cities in Punjab and Chandigarh by population, largest city in the Indian state of Punjab, India, Punjab, after Ludhiana. It is a m ...

Amritsar
, and 250 km (156 miles) north of
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
.


Climate

Chandigarh has a
humid subtropical climate A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and cool to mild winters. These climates normally lie on the southeast side of all continents, generally between latitude In geography Geograp ...
( Köppen: ''Cwa'') characterised by a seasonal rhythm: very hot summers, mild winters, unreliable rainfall and great variation in temperature (). The average annual rainfall is . The city also receives occasional winter rains from the Western Disturbance originating over the
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , on the south by , and on the east by the . The Sea has played a central role in the . Although the Mediterrane ...
. The western disturbances usually bring rain predominantly from mid-December till the end of April which can be heavier sometimes with strong winds and hails if the weather turns colder (during March–April months) which usually proves disastrous to the crops. Cold winds usually tend to come from Himalayas that lie to the north, which receive snowfall during wintertime. The city experiences the following seasons and the respective average temperatures: * Spring: In the spring season (from February-end to early-April), temperatures vary between (max) and (min) . * Autumn: In autumn (from September-end to mid-November), the temperature may rise to a maximum of . Temperatures usually remain between in autumn. The minimum temperature is around . * Summer: The temperature in summer (from mid-April to June-end) may rise to in mid-June, and generally vary between . * Monsoon: During the monsoon (from early-July to mid-September), Chandigarh receives moderate to heavy rainfall and sometimes heavy to very heavy rainfall (generally during the month of August or September). Usually, the rain-bearing monsoon winds blow from south-west/south-east. Mostly, the city receives heavy rain from the south (which is mainly a persistent rain) but it generally receives most of its rain during monsoon either from northwest or northeast. The maximum amount of rain received by the city of Chandigarh during the monsoon season is in a single day. * Winter: Winters (November-end to February-end) are mild but can get chilly during peak winter weeks. Average temperatures in the winter remain at (max) and (min) . Rain usually comes from the
west 250px, A compass rose with west highlighted in black West or Occident is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet-based directions are conventionally defined. A co ...
during winter and usually as a persistent rain for 2–3 days, sometimes with hailstorms.


Wildlife and biodiversity

Most of Chandigarh is covered by dense
banyan A banyan, also spelled "banian", is a fig that begins its life as an epiphyte 200px, '' Tillandsia bourgaei'' growing on an oak tree in Mexico An epiphyte is an organism that grows on the surface of a plant and derives its moisture and nutrie ...

banyan
, and
eucalyptus ''Eucalyptus'' () is a of over seven hundred species of s, shrubs or in the , Myrtaceae. Along with several other genera in the , including ', they are commonly known as s. Plants in the genus ''Eucalyptus'' have bark that is either smooth, ...

eucalyptus
plantations.
Ashoka Ashoka (; Brāhmi: 𑀅𑀲𑁄𑀓, ''Asoka'', IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Brahmic family, Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit ...

Ashoka
,
cassia Cassia typically refers to cassia bark, the spice made from the bark of East Asian evergreen trees. Cassia may also refer to: Plants ;Cinnamon trees * ''Cinnamomum cassia'' (, ''ròuguì''), the cassia or Chinese cinnamon, found in southern China ...

cassia
,
mulberry ''Morus'', a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living and fossil organisms as well as Virus classification#ICTV classification, viruses. In ...

mulberry
and other trees flourish in the forested ecosystem. The city has forests surrounding that sustain many animal and plant species.
Deer Deer or true deer are hoof A hoof ( or ), plural hooves ( or ) or hoofs , is the tip of a toe Toes are the digits (fingers) of the foot of a tetrapod. Animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organis ...

Deer
, sambars,
barking deer Barking may refer to: Places * Barking, London Barking is a district of East London East London is a popularly and informally defined part of London, capital of the United Kingdom. By most definitions, it is east of the ancient City of Lon ...

barking deer
, parrots,
woodpecker Woodpeckers are part of the Family (biology), family Picidae, which also includes the piculets, wrynecks, and sapsuckers. Members of this family are found worldwide, except for Australia, New Guinea, New Zealand, Madagascar, and the extreme pol ...

woodpecker
s, and
peacock Peafowl is a common name for three bird species in the genera Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the ...

peacock
s inhabit the protected forests.
Sukhna Lake Sukhna Lake in Chandigarh, India, is a reservoir at the foothills (Shivalik hills) of the Himalayas. This 3 km² rainfed lake was created in 1958 by damming the Sukhna Choe, a seasonal stream coming down from the Shivalik Hills. Originally ...

Sukhna Lake
hosts a variety of ducks and geese, and attracts migratory birds from parts of Siberia and Japan in the winter season. The Parrot Bird Sanctuary Chandigarh provides a home to a large number of parrots. Sukhna Wildlife Sanctuary was declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1998.


Gallery

File:Junglefowl, Sukhna wildlife sanctuary, Chandigarh, India.JPG, Junglefowl, Sukhna wildlife sanctuary, Chandigarh File:Sambar deer in City Forest Park,Chandigarh.jpg, Sambar deer in City Forest Park, Chandigarh File:Nilgai, Dhanas Lake, Chandigarh 03.jpg, Nilgai, Dhanas lake, Chandigarh File:Sukhna_Lake_Chandigarh_India.jpg, Sukhna Lake, Chandigarh


Heritage Trees of Chandigarh

Many trees in Chandigarh are given a status of the natural heritage of the city. The Chandigarh government have identified a list of 31 trees as Heritage Trees. Department of forest & wildlife Chandigarh administration is the nodal department for this purpose which has published a detailed booklet about it. The trees which are 100 years or more old have been given ''heritage status''.


Landscape

Sukhna Lake Sukhna Lake in Chandigarh, India, is a reservoir at the foothills (Shivalik hills) of the Himalayas. This 3 km² rainfed lake was created in 1958 by damming the Sukhna Choe, a seasonal stream coming down from the Shivalik Hills. Originally ...

Sukhna Lake
, a 3 km2 artificial rain-fed lake in Sector 1, was created in 1958 by damming the Sukhna Choe, a seasonal stream coming down from the
Shivalik Hills The Sivalik Hills (also known as the Shivalik Hills and Churia Hills) are a mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain r ...
. Chandigarh has a belt of parks running from sectors. It is known for its green belts and other special tourist parks.
Sukhna Lake Sukhna Lake in Chandigarh, India, is a reservoir at the foothills (Shivalik hills) of the Himalayas. This 3 km² rainfed lake was created in 1958 by damming the Sukhna Choe, a seasonal stream coming down from the Shivalik Hills. Originally ...

Sukhna Lake
itself hosts the Garden of Silence. The
Rock Garden A rock garden, also known as a rockery or an alpine garden, is a garden design, small field or plot of ground designed to feature and emphasize a variety of Rock (geology), rocks, stones, and boulders. The standard layout for a rock garden c ...

Rock Garden
, is located near the
Sukhna Lake Sukhna Lake in Chandigarh, India, is a reservoir at the foothills (Shivalik hills) of the Himalayas. This 3 km² rainfed lake was created in 1958 by damming the Sukhna Choe, a seasonal stream coming down from the Shivalik Hills. Originally ...

Sukhna Lake
and has numerous sculptures made by using a variety of different discarded waste materials. The Zakir Hussain Rose Garden (which is also Asia's largest rose garden) contains nearly 825 varieties of roses in it and more than 32,500 varieties of other medicinal plants and trees. Other gardens include the Garden of Fragrance in Sector 36, Garden of Palms in Sector 42, Butterfly Park in Sector 26, Valley of Animals in Sector 49, the
Japanese Garden are traditional garden A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the cultivation, display, and enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature. The single feature identifying even the wildest wild garden A wildlife garden (or ...
in Sector 31, the
Terraced Garden In gardening, a terrace is an element where a raised flat paved or gravelled section overlooks a wikt:prospect, prospect. A raised terrace keeps a house dry and provides a transition between the hardscape and the softscape. History ;Persia Sin ...
in Sector 33, Shanti Kunj Garden, the
Botanical garden A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms ''botanic'' and ''botanical'' and ''garden'' or ''gardens'' are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word ''botanic'' is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens. is ...

Botanical garden
and the Bougainvillea Garden. There is also a Government museum and art gallery in Sector 10, Chandigarh.


Demographics


Population

India census, Chandigarh had a population of 1,055,450, making for a density of about 9,252 (7,900 in 2001) persons per square kilometre. Males constitute 55% of the population and females 45%. The sex ratio is 818 females for every 1,000 males. The child sex ratio is 880 females per thousand males. Chandigarh has an effective literacy rate of 86.77% (based on population 7 years and above), higher than the national average; with male literacy of 90.81% and female literacy of 81.88%. 10.8% of the population is under 6 years of age. The population of Chandigarh forms 0.09 per cent of India in 2011. There has been a substantial decline in the population growth rate in Chandigarh, with just 17.10% growth between 2001 and 2011. Since, 1951–1961 the rate has decreased from 394.13% to 17.10%. This is probably because of rapid urbanisation and development in neighbouring cities. The urban population constitutes as high as 97.25% of the total and the rural population makes up 2.75% as there are only a few villages within Chandigarh on its Western and South-Eastern border and the majority of people live in the heart of Chandigarh.


Languages

English is the sole official language of Chandigarh. The majority of the population speaks
Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, North India. Hindi has been described as a Standard la ...

Hindi
(73.6%) while
Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a ge ...
is spoken by 22.03%. Government schools use English, Hindi, and Punjabi textbooks. The percentage of Punjabi speakers has come down from 36.2% in 1981 to 22.03% in 2011, while that of Hindi speakers has increased from 51.5% to 73.6%.


Religion

Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent. These religions, which include Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, ...

Hinduism
is the predominant religion of Chandigarh followed by 80.78% of the population.
Sikhism Sikhism () or Sikhi ( pa, ਸਿੱਖੀ ', , from pa, ਸਿੱਖ, lit=disciple', 'seeker', or 'learner, translit=Sikh, label=none)''Sikhism'' (indigenously known as ''Sikhī'') originated from the word ''Sikh'', which comes from the Sanskr ...
is the second most popular religion in the city, followed by 13.11% of the people.
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
is followed by 4.87%. Minorities are
Christians Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of ...

Christians
0.83%,
Jains Jainism (), traditionally known as ''Jain Dharma'', is an ancient Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduis ...
0.19%,
Buddhists Buddhism (, ) is the Major religious groups#Largest religions, world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and ...
0.11%, those that didn't state a religion are 0.10%, and others are 0.02%. Many institutions serve minorities in the city. One such being the Roman Catholic Diocese of Simla and Chandigarh, serving the Catholics, which even has a
co-cathedral A co-cathedral is a cathedral church which shares the function of being a bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and ov ...
in the city, Christ the King Co-Cathedral, although it never was a separate bishopric. Most of the convent schools of Chandigarh are governed by this institution. Chandigarh hosts many religious places, including Chandimandir, the temple after which it was named. The
ISKCON The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), known colloquially as the Hare Krishna movement or Hare Krishnas, is a Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Gaudiya Vaishnava religious organisation. ISKCON was founded in 1966 in New York City by ...
temple in Sector 36 is one of the worship places for Hindus. Nada Sahib Gurudwara, a famous place for Sikh worship lies in its vicinity. Apart from this, there are a couple of historical mosques in Manimajra and Burail.


Government and politics

Chandigarh, as a
union territory #REDIRECT Union territory#REDIRECT Union territory A union territory ( hi, script=latn, kendraśāsit pradeś, , centrally administered province) is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , ...
, is not entitled to a state-level election: thus State Assembly elections are not held and it is directly controlled by the central government. One seat for Chandigarh is allocated in the Elections in India#General Elections (Lok sabha), Lok Sabha elections held every five years. Kirron Kher (Bharatiya Janata Party, BJP) is the Member of parliament, Lok Sabha, Members of Parliament elected in 2019 Indian general election, 2019 from the Chandigarh_(Lok_Sabha_constituency), Chandigarh Lok Sabha constituency.


Civic administration

The city is governed by a civic administration or local government headed by Municipal Commissioner (India), Municipal Commissioner Kamal Kishore Yadav and Mayor Ravi Kant Sharma. The city comprises 26 wards represented by 26 elected councillors, and also nominates 9 councillors. Ravi Kant Sharma is the mayor of the Municipal Corporation Chandigarh, Municipal Corporation of Chandigarh, who assumed office on 8 January 2021. Composition of Chandigarh Municipal Corporation after 2021 Chandigarh Municipal Corporation election as of December 2021


Civic utilities

The prime responsibilities of the civic body Municipal Corporation Chandigarh, are to ensure cleanliness and sanitation in the city, illumination of street lights, maintenance of parks, and sewerage disposal. The city has both brick and pipe sewers laid in four phases. In September 2020, the civic body announced that it would upgrade and renew the 50-year-old sewerage system. The pilot project for the 24x7 water supply is expected to begin in Chandigarh in May 2021, which was initially to start in September 2020 and end in March 2022. On 8 April 2021, the Chandigarh Smart City Ltd (CSCL) board is yet to take the final decision. In 2021, the BJP ruled corporation had increased the water tariff by 200 times. This created a widespread discontent among the residents. In 2021, there was an acute shortage of parking space. As the problem aggravated BJP led corporation increased the parking charges in the city. The increase in the waste collection charges, water tariff and property tax rates during the last five years 2016 to 2021 were unpopular among the public.


Cleanliness

In 2016, Chandigarh was the List of cleanest cities in India, second cleanest city of India. In 2016 BJP came to power in the corporation. In the years that followed, garbage from the city was not disposed off properly. Lack of a proper process or mechanism led to the garbage piled up at Dadu Majra garbage dump site. In 2021, Chandigarh fell to the 66 position in the cleanest cities of India. The city had always taken pride in the fact that it was one of the cleanest cities of the country. The fall in cleanliness became an important poll issue. The residents were upset with the downfall in the cleanliness.


Economy

Chandigarh has been rated as one of the "Wealthiest Towns" of India.Chandigarh has been rated as the "Wealthiest Town" of India.http://chandigarh.gov.in/knowchd_redfinechd.htm The Reserve Bank of India ranked Chandigarh as the third-largest deposit centre and seventh largest credit centre nationwide as of June 2012. With a per capita income of Indian Rupee, ₹99,262, Chandigarh is one of the richest cities in India. Chandigarh's List of Indian states and union territories by GDP, gross state domestic product for 2014–15 is estimated at Indian Rupee, ₹0.29 trillion (Long and short scales, short scale) (US$4.3 billion) at current prices. According to a 2014 survey, Chandigarh is ranked 4th in the top 50 cities identified globally as "emerging outsourcing and IT services destinations" ahead of cities like Beijing.


Employment

The government is a major employer in Chandigarh with three governments having their base here i.e. Chandigarh Administration, Punjab government and Haryana government. A significant percentage of Chandigarh's population, therefore, consists of people who are either working for one of these governments or have retired from government service mainly armed forces. For this reason, Chandigarh is often called a "Pensioner's Paradise". Ordnance Cable Factory of the Ordnance Factories Board has been set up by the government of India. There are about 15 medium to large industries including two in the public sector. In addition, Chandigarh has over 2,500 units registered under the small-scale sector. The important industries are paper manufacturing, basic metals and alloys, and machinery. Other industries are relating to food products, sanitary ware, auto parts, machine tools, pharmaceuticals, and electrical appliances. The main occupation here is trade and business. However, the
Punjab and Haryana High Court Punjab (; ; ; ; also romanised Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and m ...
, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), the availability of an IT Park, and more than a hundred government schools provide job opportunities to people. Four major trade promotion organisations have their offices in Chandigarh. These are ASSOCHAM, The Associated Chambers of Commerce & Industry, ASSOCHAM India in Sector 8, Chandigarh, Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry, (FICCI) the PhD Chamber of Commerce and Industry and the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) which has its regional headquarters at Sector 31, Chandigarh. Chandigarh IT Park (also known as Rajiv Gandhi Chandigarh Technology Park) is the city's attempt to break into the information technology world. Chandigarh's infrastructure, proximity to
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
, Haryana, Punjab, and Himachal Pradesh, and the IT talent pool attracts IT businesses looking for office space in the area. Major Indian firms and multinational corporations like Quark, Inc., Quark, Infosys, EVRY, Dell, Inc., Dell, IBM, Inc., IBM, TechMahindra, Airtel, Amadeus IT Group, DLF (company), DLF have set up base in the city and its suburbs. The work of the Chandigarh Metro was earlier slated to start by the year 2019. It was opposed by the Member of parliament, Lok Sabha, Member of Parliament from Chandigarh, Kirron Kher. With an estimated cost of around Indian Rupee, ₹109 billion including 50% funds from the governments of Punjab and Haryana and 25% from Chandigarh and government of India, funds from the Japanese government were proposed to include approximately 56% of the cost. However, the project was turned down owing to its non-feasibility. Kher promised a film city for Chandigarh. After winning the seat, she said that she had difficulty in acquiring land in Chandigarh. Her proposal was accepted by the Chandigarh Administration and the Chandigarh film city, film city is proposed to be set up in Sarangpur, Chandigarh. This has been considered as a source of employment in the future.


Culture


Festivals

Every year, in September or October during the festival of Navaratri, Navratri, many associations and organisations hold a ''Ramlila'' event which has been conducted for over 50 years. The rose festival chandigarh, Rose Festival in Zakir Hussain Rose Garden every February shows thousands of subspecies of roses. The Mango Festival held during the monsoons, and other festivals are held at
Sukhna Lake Sukhna Lake in Chandigarh, India, is a reservoir at the foothills (Shivalik hills) of the Himalayas. This 3 km² rainfed lake was created in 1958 by damming the Sukhna Choe, a seasonal stream coming down from the Shivalik Hills. Originally ...

Sukhna Lake
.


Transport


Road

Chandigarh has the largest number of vehicles per capita in India. Wide, well-maintained roads and parking spaces all over the city ease local transport. The Chandigarh Transport Undertaking (CTU) operates public transport buses from its Inter State Bus Terminals (ISBT) in Sector-17, Chandigarh, Sectors 17 and 43 of the city. CTU also operates frequent bus services to the neighbouring states of Punjab region, Punjab,
Haryana Haryana (; ) is a in India located in the northern-part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of on 1 November 1966 on a basis. It is ranked 21st in terms of area, with less than 1.4% () of India's land area. The state capital ...

Haryana
, Himachal Pradesh, and to
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
. Chandigarh is well connected by road to the following nearby cities, by the following highway routes: * National Highway 7 (India), NH 7 to
Patiala Patiala () is a city in southeastern , northwestern . It is the fourth largest city in the state and is the administrative capital of . Patiala is located around the ' (the 'Fortunate Castle') constructed by the chieftain , who founded the roy ...
in the southwest. * National Highway 152 (India), NH 152 to
Ambala Ambala (), is a city and a municipal corporation A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local government, local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) city, cities, county, counties, towns, townships, charter t ...
and Kaithal in the south (National Highway 44 (India), NH 44 catches up from Ambala to Panipat-
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
). * National Highway 5 (India), NH 5 to
Shimla Shimla (; ; also known as Simla, the official name until 1972) is the capital and the largest city of the Northern Indian state of Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh (; ; "Province of the Snow-laden Mountains") is a States and union terr ...

Shimla
in the northeast, and to Ludhiana in the west.


Air

Chandigarh Airport has scheduled commercial flights to major cities of India. An international terminal was completed in 2015, and international flights to Dubai and Sharjah were started.


Rail

Chandigarh Junction railway station lies in the Northern Railway zone of the Indian Railways network and provides connectivity to most of the regions of India. The railway station also serves the neighbouring town of Panchkula. There were long-standing proposals to develop a Chandigarh Metro, metro rail system in the city, which were formally scrapped in 2017.


Education

There are numerous educational institutions in Chandigarh. These range from privately and publicly operated schools to colleges. These include Panjab University, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Punjab Engineering College, Chandigarh, Punjab Engineering College, National Institute of Technical Teacher Training and Research (NITTTR), Post Graduate Government College, Sector 11, Chandigarh, Post Graduate Government College, and DAV College, Chandigarh, DAV College. According to Chandigarh administration's department of education, there are a total of 115 government schools in Chandigarh, including Government Model Senior Secondary School, Sector-16, Chandigarh, Government Model Senior Secondary School, Sector 16, Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Chandigarh, Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Bhavan Vidyalaya, Chandigarh, Bhavan Vidyalaya, convent schools like St. Stephen's School, Chandigarh, St. Stephen's School, St. John's High School, Chandigarh, Sacred Heart Senior Secondary School, St. Kabir Public School, St. Xavier's Senior Secondary School and Carmel Convent School and other private schools like Delhi Public School, Chandigarh, Delhi Public School and D.A.V. Public School.


Sports

The Sector 16 Stadium has been a venue of several international cricket matches, but it has lost prominence after the PCA Stadium was constructed in Mohali. It still provides a platform for cricketers in this region to practice and play inter-state matches. The Chandigarh Golf Club has a 7,202-yard, 18-hole course known for its challenging narrow fairways, dogleg 7th hole, and floodlighting on the first nine holes.


Postcolonial significance


Background

Nehru said of Chandigarh when he first visited the site of the new city in 1952: "Let this be a new town, symbolic of the freedom of India, unfettered by the traditions of the past, an expression of the nation's faith in the future". For Nehru, Chandigarh represented a vision for how a new planned city could be a canvas for the regeneration of the nation itself after centuries of oppression under British colonial rule and the dilution of Indian character from the nation's towns. Guided by the architectural optics of
Le Corbusier Charles-Édouard Jeanneret (6 October 188727 August 1965), known as Le Corbusier ( , , ; roughly, "the crow-like one"), was a Swiss people, Swiss-French people, French architect, designer, painter, urban planner, writer, and one of the pionee ...

Le Corbusier
the development of Chandigarh was part of a state-driven exercise to break from the traditions of imperialism in urban planning, city making and begin the process of healing from the injustices suffered. To the extent that Chandigarh epitomises the destructive influence of the British, in the impetus of its creation as a solution to the otherwise violent partitioning of territory between India and Pakistan, it represents an early ideological symbol for the birth of India's future. The selection of the physical site involved an extensive vetting process. Many existing towns in Punjab were surveyed as options for the new capital and dismissed for poor performance in relation to factors such as military defensibility and capacity for accommodating potential refugee influxes. The construction of a new town in Chandigarh was determined to be the best option due to its relative strength in these factors as well as its proximity to the national capital, New Delhi, its central location within the state of Punjab, its abundance of fecund land and its beautiful natural landscape.


Modernism in new town design

Off the back of this conflation of assets Chandigarh then was well poised to serve a function as a city-building project in national identity. From a federal policy perspective, the development of the new town became a tool in India for modernisation and an intended driver of economic activity, legal reform, and regional growth as well as a significant agent for the decolonisation project. As Britain's grip on British Raj, their empire began to weaken Partition of India, their accelerated withdrawal between the beginning of the second world war and 1947 left their former colony in states of disarray and disorganisation, and policymakers for the new Indian government were required to contend with issues such as rapid rural depopulation, urban congestion, and poverty. As well as in Chandigarh this policy tool was implemented in the creation of new capital cities in Bhubaneswar and Gandhinagar, and more broadly throughout India in the List of planned cities#India, 112 planned cities created between independence and 1971, purposed to absorb migration from those regions in demise after being abandoned by the British and provide hubs for growing industries such as in steel and energy. These examples from a genealogy of Ideal city, utopian urban forms developed in post-independence India as a panacea for issues related to underdevelopment as well as post-independence complications to do with separatist religious conflict and the resulting diplomatic tensions. Chandigarh is the first example of a state-funded master-planned modernization theory, modernisation scheme. These "urban utopias" attempt to enforce nation-building policies through a federalised rule of law at a regional level, and diffuse postcolonial urbanism which codes justice in its design. The intent is that the economic success and progressivism of cities such as Chandigarh as a lightning rod for social change would gradually be emulated at the scale of the nation. Chandigarh was for Nehru and Le Corbusier an embodiment of the egalitarian potential offered by modernism, where the machine age would complete the liberation of the nation's citizens through the productive capacity of industrial technology and the relative ease of constructing civic facilities such as dams, hospitals, and schools; the very antithesis of the conservative and traditional legacy of colonialism. Though built as a state capital Chandigarh came to be focused in industry and higher education. The specialisation of these new towns in particular functions represents a crucial aspect of the modernisation process as a decolonising enterprise, in completing a national portfolio where each town forms a part of the utopian model for contemporary India. The post-colonialism of Chandigarh is rooted in the transformation of the political ideas of those such as Nehru who generated a new Indian nationalism into the design of newly built forms. Scholars such as Edward Said have emphasised the sinister nature of nostalgia and the romanticisation of colonial architecture in newly independent colonies as artefacts that perpetuate the ideological legacy of the hegemony and replicate the hierarchy of power even after decolonisation. Insofar as modernism in architecture (which defined town planning under the Nehru era of rule) represents an active radical break from tradition and a colonial past even the very presence of Le Corbusier has been recognised as an indelible resistance to the British construction legacy, as he provided the first non-British influence on design thinking in India, enabling a generational shift in the contemporary cohort of architects and planners to be hired by the state throughout the rest of the century who were initiated under Modernist conditioning. As early as the 1950s the presence of the International Style (architecture), International Style could be detected in the design of houses in India, "whether mistri or architect-designed". The development of low-cost housing was a priority for Chandigarh, and the modern forms designed by Corbusier are characterised by a dispensing with colonial forms focused on classic aesthetics and a refocusing on strategies such as using narrow frontages and orientation for minimising direct exposure to the sun and maximising natural ventilation and efficient cost while providing modern amenities in the International Style aesthetic. These developments are credited as the beginning of a "Chandigarh architecture", inspiring gradual experimentation with form and an "Indianising" of the International Style which precipitated the formation of the country's new cultural identity in town design.


Criticisms

Criticisms are well established of the implementation of the postcolonial vision of Nehru and Le Corbusier, and of the critical emphasis on its influence. Claims have been made that the focus on Corbusier's architect-centered discourse erases the plural authorship of the narrative of Chandigarh's development, arguing that it was, in fact, a hybridity of values and of "contested modernities" of Western and indigenous Indian origin and cultural exchanges rather than an uncontested administrative enterprise. Such criticism is consistent with claims that decolonisation in India has marked a shift from segregation based on race to segregation based on class, and that planned cities are truly "designed" ones which represent the values and interests of a westernised middle-class Indian elite which ignore the complexities of India's diverse ethnic and cultural landscape and enabled neocolonial hierarchies such as the imposition of the Hindi language on non-conforming castes. Brent C. Brolin argues that Le Corbusier ignored Indian preferences in designing the housing and communities, and that the residents have done what they can to recreate their accustomed lifestyle. Furthermore, the early over-saturation of the minimalist International Style on building design in Chandigarh has attracted criticisms of effecting a "democratic, self-effacing banality", though this criticism is perhaps negligent of how this was necessary in galvanising higher standards of urban living throughout the country.


Notable people

* Sarbjit Bahga, architect, author, photo-artist * Binny Bansal, founder of Flipkart, Billionaire. * Sachin Bansal, founder of Flipkart, Billionaire. * Neerja Bhanot, youngest Ashoka Chakra Awardee, flight attendant and model * Sabeer Bhatia, Indian-American Entrepreneur who founded Hotmail * Jaspal Bhatti, Padma Bhushan Awardee, Film and TV Actor and renowned satirist * Abhinav Bindra, Olympic gold medalist * Nek Chand, Indian artist and creator of the Rock Garden of Chandigarh * Surveen Chawla, Punjabi Film Actress * Gurleen Chopra, Cinema of Punjab, Punjabi actress * Vivek Dahiya, actor * Harita Kaur Deol, pilot * Kapil Dev, former Indian international cricketer * Harmeet Dhillon, American lawyer * Mukesh Gautam, Punjabi film director * Yami Gautam, Indian film actress * Mahie Gill, Indian actress * Sandesh Jhingan, Indian International Professional footballer * Mamta Joshi, Sufi singer * Gurbani Judge, MTV India VJ and actress * AJ Kanwar, award Winning Dermatologist, Former Professor & Head, PGI, Chandigarh * Kirron Kher, Indian actress and theatre artist (also BJP M.P. from the city) * Aparshakti Khurana, Indian film actor * Ayushmann Khurrana, Indian film actor * Rochak Kohli, music composer, singer, lyricist * Aanchal Kumar model, actress * Sargun Mehta, Punjabi film actress * Anjum Moudgil, Indian Rifle Shooter * Prince Narula, actor * Ramesh Kumar Nibhoria, winner of Ashden Awards-UK * Gul Panag, Indian film actress and Social Activist * Neel Kamal Puri novelist, columnist * Gajendra Pal Singh Raghava, Bioinformatics Scientist * Kulraj Randhawa, Punjabi Film Actress * Mohinder Singh Randhawa, Civil Servant who had a major role in establishing Chandigarh * Harnaaz Sandhu, winner of Miss Universe 2021 * Mohit Sehgal, TV actor * Piare Lal Sharma, writer * Jeev Milkha Singh, professional Golfer * Milkha Singh Commonwealth gold medalist. * Yuvraj Singh, Indian international cricketer * Pammi Somal, Bollywood journalist and filmmaker * Sri Srinivasan, United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit * Manan Vohra, cricketer


See also

* New Chandigarh, Punjab * Chandigarh capital region *
Mohali Mohali, officially known as Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar, is a planned city 250px, Abuja, in Nigeria, which was built mainly in the 1980s, was the fastest growing city in the world between 2000 and 2010, with an increase of 139.7%, and stil ...
*
Panchkula Panchkula is a planned city and district headquarter in the Panchkula district, part of Ambala division in Haryana Haryana () is a States and union territories of India, state in India located in the northern part of the country. It was ...
* Pinjore * Ambala Chandigarh Expressway * List of tourist attractions in Chandigarh


Notes


References


Further reading

* Fynn, Shaun. ''Chandigarh Revealed: Le Corbusier's City Today''. Princeton Architectural Press, 2017. * Evenson, Norma. ''Chandigarh''. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1966. * Sarbjit Bahga, Surinder Bahga (2014) ''Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret: The Indian Architecture'', CreateSpace, * Joshi, Kiran. ''Documenting Chandigarh: The Indian Architecture of Pierre Jeanneret, Edwin Maxwell Fry and
Jane Drew Jane may refer to: * Jane (given name), a feminine given name * Jane (surname), related to the given name Film and television * Jane (1915 film), ''Jane'' (1915 film), a silent comedy film directed by Frank Lloyd * Jane (2016 film), ''Jane'' (201 ...
''. Ahmedabad: Mapin Publishing in association with Chandigarh College of Architecture, 1999. * Kalia, Ravi. ''Chandigarh: The Making of an Indian City''. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1999. *
Maxwell Fry Edwin Maxwell Fry, CBE, RA, FRIBA, FRTPI, known as Maxwell Fry (2 August 1899 – 3 September 1987), was an English modernist , Solomon Guggenheim Museum 1946–1959 Modernism is both a philosophy, philosophical movement and an art movemen ...
and
Jane Drew Jane may refer to: * Jane (given name), a feminine given name * Jane (surname), related to the given name Film and television * Jane (1915 film), ''Jane'' (1915 film), a silent comedy film directed by Frank Lloyd * Jane (2016 film), ''Jane'' (201 ...
. ''Chandigarh and Planning Development in India'', London: Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, No.4948, 1 April 1955, Vol. CIII pages 315–333. I. ''The Plan'', by E. Maxwell Fry, II. ''Housing'', by Jane B. Drew. * Nangia, Ashish. ''Re-locating Modernism: Chandigarh, Le Corbusier and the Global Postcolonial''. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington, 2008. * Perera, Nihal. "Contesting Visions: Hybridity, Liminality, and Authorship of the Chandigarh Plan" ''Planning Perspectives'' 19 (2004): 175–199 * Prakash, Vikramaditya. ''Chandigarh’s Le Corbusier: The Struggle for Modernity in Postcolonial India''. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2002. * Sarin, Madhu. ''Urban Planning in the Third World: The Chandigarh Experience''. London: Mansell Publishing, 1982.


External links

; Government
The Official Website of Chandigarh Administration
; General information * * {{Authority control Chandigarh, North India, * Union territories of India Indian union territory capitals Planned cities in India Populated places established in 1948 1948 establishments in India Le Corbusier buildings in India Modernist architecture in India States and union territories of India Districts of Chandigarh