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The chancellor of Germany, officially the Federal Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (german: Bundeskanzler(
in
in
) der Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is the head of the federal
government of Germany The Federal Cabinet or Federal Government (german: Bundeskabinett or ') is the chief Executive (government), executive body of the Germany, Federal Republic of Germany. It consists of the Chancellor of Germany (1949–present), Federal Chancellor ...
and the commander in chief of the
German Armed Forces The ''Bundeswehr'' (, meaning literally: ''Federal Defence'') is the unified armed forces of Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_t ...
during wartime. The chancellor is the chief executive of the Federal Cabinet and heads the executive branch. The chancellor is elected by the
Bundestag The Bundestag (, "Federal Diet") is the Germany, German Federalism, federal parliament. It is the only body that is directly elected by the German people on the federal level. It can be compared to a lower house similar to the United States Hou ...
on the proposal of the federal president and without debate (Article 63 of the
German Constitution The Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany (german: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the le ...
). The current officeholder is
Olaf Scholz Olaf Scholz (; born ) is a German politician serving as federal minister of Finance and vice chancellor under chancellor Angela Merkel Angela Dorothea Merkel ( Kasner; born 17 July 1954) is a German politician serving as the chancellor of ...

Olaf Scholz
of the
SPD The Social Democratic Party of Germany (german: Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD; ) is a social democratic political party in Germany. It is one of the two major Major is a military rank of commissioned officer status, with ...
, who was elected in December 2021, succeeding
Angela Merkel Angela Dorothea Merkel ( Kasner; born 17 July 1954) is a German politician serving as the chancellor of Germany since 2005. She served as Leader of the Opposition (Germany), leader of the Opposition from 2002 to 2005 and as Christian Democratic ...
. He was elected after the SPD entered into a
coalition agreement In multiparty democracies, a coalition agreement is an agreement between the parties that form the government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the ...
with
Alliance 90/The Greens Alliance 90/The Greens, often simply Greens (german: Bündnis 90/Die Grünen or '; ), is a Green politics, green List of political parties in Germany, political party in Germany. It was formed in 1993 as the merger of The Greens, formed in West G ...
and the FDP.


History of the office

The office of Chancellor has a long history, stemming back to the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its D ...
, when the office of German
archchancellor An archchancellor ( la, archicancellarius, german: Erzkanzler) or chief chancellor was a title given to the highest dignitary of the Holy Roman Empire, and also used occasionally during the Middle Ages to denote an official who supervised the wor ...
was usually held by
archbishops of Mainz The Elector of Mainz was one of the seven Prince-elector Choosing the king. Above: the three ecclesiastical princes choosing the king, pointing at him. Middle: the Count Palatine of the Rhine hands over a golden bowl, acting as a servant. Behi ...
. The title was, at times, used in several states of German-speaking Europe. The modern office of chancellor was established with the
North German Confederation The North German Confederation (german: Norddeutscher Bund) was the Germans, German federal state which existed from July 1867 to December 1870. The Confederation came into existence after the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 over the lordship of tw ...
, of which
Otto von Bismarck Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (born von Bismarck-Schönhausen; german: Otto Eduard Leopold Fürst von Bismarck, Herzog zu Lauenburg; 1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck (), was a conservative ...

Otto von Bismarck
became ''Bundeskanzler'' (meaning "Federal Chancellor") in 1867. With the enlargement of this federal state to the German Empire in 1871, the title was renamed to ''Reichskanzler'' (meaning "Imperial Chancellor"). With Germany's constitution of 1949, the title of ''Bundeskanzler'' was revived. During the various eras, the role of the chancellor has varied. From 1867 to 1918, the chancellor was the only responsible minister of the federal level. He was installed by the federal presidium (i.e. the Prussian king; since 1871 called Emperor). The ''Staatssekretäre'' were civil servants subordinate to the chancellor. Besides the executive, the constitution gave the chancellor only one function: presiding over the Federal Council, the representative organ of the states (together with the parliament the lawmaker). But in reality, the chancellor was nearly always installed as minister president of Prussia, too. Indirectly, this gave the chancellor the power of the Federal Council, including the dissolution of parliament. Although effective government was possible only on cooperation with the parliament (Reichstag), the results of the elections had only an indirect influence on the chancellorship, at most. Only in October 1918 was the constitution changed: it required the chancellor to have the trust of the parliament. Some two weeks later, Chancellor Max von Baden declared the abdication of the emperor and ceded power illegally to the revolutionary Council of People's Delegates. According to the
Weimar Constitution The Constitution of the German Reich (german: Die Verfassung des Deutschen Reichs), usually known as the Weimar Constitution (''Weimarer Verfassung''), was the constitution that governed Germany during the Weimar Republic era (1919–1933). The c ...

Weimar Constitution
of 1919, the chancellor was head of a collegial government. The chancellor was appointed and dismissed by the president, as were the ministers, upon proposal by the chancellor. The chancellor or any minister had to be dismissed if demanded by parliament. As today, the chancellor had the prerogative to determine the guidelines of government (''Richtlinienkompetenz''). In reality this power was limited by coalition government and the president. When the
Nazis Nazism (), officially National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus; ), is the ideology and practices associated with Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (german: link=no, Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, NSDAP, or National Socia ...
came to power on 30 January 1933, the Weimar Constitution was ''
de facto ''De facto'' ( ; , "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even though they are not officially recognized by laws. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with '' de jure'' ("by law"), which refers to th ...
'' set aside. After the death of
President Hindenburg
President Hindenburg
in 1934,
Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (; 20 April 188930 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the dictator of Nazi Germany, Germany from 1933 to 1945. Adolf Hitler's rise to power, He rose to power as the leader of the Nazi Party, becoming Chan ...

Adolf Hitler
, the dictatorial party leader and chancellor, took over the powers of the president. The new official title became ''Führer und Reichskanzler'' (meaning "Leader and Reich Chancellor"). The 1949 constitution gave the chancellor much greater powers than during the
Weimar Republic The Weimar Republic (german: Weimarer Republik ) was the German state from 1918 to 1933 when it functioned as a federal constitutional republic. The state was officially named the German Reich (german: Deutsches Reich, link=no, label=none), a ...
, while strongly diminishing the role of the president. Germany is today often referred to as a "chancellor democracy", reflecting the role of the chancellor as the country's chief executive. Since 1867, 33 individuals have served as heads of government of Germany, West Germany, or Northern Germany, nearly all of them with the title of Chancellor. Due to his administrative tasks, the head of the
clerics Clergy are formal leaders within established religions. Their roles and functions vary in different religious traditions, but usually involve presiding over specific rituals and teaching their religion's doctrines and practices. Some of the ter ...
at the chapel of an imperial palace during the
Carolingian Empire The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large Franks, Frankish-dominated empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages. It was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty, which had ruled as kings of the Franks since 751 and as kings of ...
was called ''
chancellor Chancellor ( la, links=no, cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations. The original chancellors were the ''cancellarii Cancelli are lattice-work, placed before a window, a door-way, the tribunal of ...

chancellor
'' (from la, cancellarius). The chapel's college acted as the Emperor's
chancery Chancery may refer to: * Chancery (diplomacy), the building that houses a diplomatic mission, such as an embassy * Chancery (medieval office), a medieval writing office * Chancery (Scotland) (also called The office of Director of Chancery, or Chan ...
issuing deeds and
capitulariesA capitulary (Medieval Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, kn ...
. From the days of Louis the German, the
archbishop of Mainz The Elector of Mainz was one of the seven Prince-elector Choosing the king. Above: the three ecclesiastical princes choosing the king, pointing at him. Middle: the Count Palatine of the Rhine hands over a golden bowl, acting as a servant. Beh ...
was ''
ex officio An ''ex officio'' member is a member of a body (notably a board, committee, council) who is part of it by virtue of holding another office. The term ''List of Latin phrases (E)#ex officio, ex officio'' is Latin, meaning literally 'from the office', ...
'' German
archchancellor An archchancellor ( la, archicancellarius, german: Erzkanzler) or chief chancellor was a title given to the highest dignitary of the Holy Roman Empire, and also used occasionally during the Middle Ages to denote an official who supervised the wor ...
, a position he held until the end of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its D ...
in 1806, while ''de jure'' the
archbishop of Cologne Cologne was one of the seven electorates of the Holy Roman Empire ('' Codex Balduini Trevirorum'', c. 1340) The Archbishop of Cologne is an archbishop In many Christian denomination, Christian Denominations, an archbishop (, via Latin ''archiepis ...
was chancellor of
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the Alps, a Italian Peninsula, peninsula and List of islands of Italy, se ...
and the
archbishop of Trier The Roman Catholic diocese of Trier, in English traditionally known by its French name of Treves, is a diocese In Ecclesiastical polity, church governance, a diocese or bishopric is the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bisho ...
of
Burgundy Burgundy (; french: link=no, Bourgogne ) is a historical territory and a former regions of France, administrative region of east-central France. It is named for the Burgundians, an East Germanic tribes, East Germanic people who moved westwards b ...
. These three prince-archbishops were also
prince-elector Choosing the king. Above: the three ecclesiastical princes choosing the king, pointing at him. Middle: the Count Palatine of the Rhine hands over a golden bowl, acting as a servant. Behind him, the Duke of Saxony with his marshal's staff and t ...
s of the empire electing the
King of the Romans King of the Romans ( la, Rex Romanorum; german: König der Römer) was the title used by the German king following his election An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual or multiple in ...
. Already in medieval times, the German chancellor had political power like Archbishop
Willigis Saint Willigis ( la, Willigisus; german: Willigis, Willegis; 940 – 23 February 1011 AD) was Elector of Mainz, Archbishop of Mainz from 975 until his death as well as archchancellor of the Holy Roman Empire. Life Willigus was born in the Duchy o ...
(archchancellor 975–1011, regent for King
Otto III of Germany
Otto III of Germany
991–994) or Rainald von Dassel (Chancellor 1156–1162 and 1166–1167) under Emperor
Frederick Barbarossa Frederick Barbarossa (german: Friedrich I., it, Federico I; 1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick I, was the Holy Roman Emperor from 1155 until his death 35 years later. He was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt on ...

Frederick Barbarossa
. In 1559, Emperor
Ferdinand IFerdinand I or Fernando I may refer to: People * Ferdinand I of León, ''the Great'' (ca. 1000–1065, king from 1037) * Ferdinand I of Portugal and the Algarve, ''the Handsome'' (1345–1383, king from 1367) * Ferdinand I of Aragon and Sicily, ''of ...

Ferdinand I
established the agency of an imperial chancellery (''Reichshofkanzlei'') at the Vienna
Hofburg Palace The Hofburg is the official residence and office, workplace of the President of Austria and was formerly the principal imperial palace of the Habsburg dynasty. Located in the Innere Stadt, center of Vienna, it was built in the 13th century and exp ...

Hofburg Palace
, headed by a vice chancellor under the nominal authority of the Mainz archbishop. Upon the 1620
Battle of White Mountain ), near Prague Prague (; cs, Praha , german: Prag, la, Praga) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic The Czech Republic (; cs, Česká republika ), also known by its short-form name, Czechia (; cz, Česko ), is a l ...

Battle of White Mountain
, Emperor
Ferdinand II
Ferdinand II
created the office of an
Austrian Austrian may refer to: * Austrians, someone from Austria or of Austrian descent ** Someone who is considered an Austrian citizen, see Austrian nationality law * Something associated with the country Austria, for example: ** Austria-Hungary ** Austr ...
court chancellor in charge of the internal and foreign affairs of the
Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Monarchy (german: Habsburgermonarchie), or Danubian Monarchy (german: Donaumonarchie), or Habsburg Empire (german: Habsburgerreich) is a modern umbrella term In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of langua ...

Habsburg Monarchy
. From 1753 onwards, the office of an Austrian state chancellor was held by Prince Kaunitz. The imperial chancellery lost its importance, and from the days of
Maria Theresa Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina (german: Maria Theresia; 13 May 1717 – 29 November 1780) was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions, ruling from 1740 until her death in 1780. She was the sovereign of Austria Austria (, ...
and
Joseph II Joseph II (German: ''Josef Benedikt Anton Michel Adam''; English: ''Joseph Benedict Anthony Michael Adam''; 13 March 1741 – 20 February 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from August 1765 and sole ruler of the Habsburg Monarchy, Habsburg lands from N ...

Joseph II
, merely existed on paper. After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, Prince
Metternich Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar, Prince of Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein( ; german: Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar Fürst von Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein (15 May 1773 – 11 June 1859), known as Klemens von Metternich or Duke Metternich, ...

Metternich
served as state chancellor of the
Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was a Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common History, historical, Society, social and cultural i ...
(1821–1848), likewise Prince
Hardenberg Hardenberg () (Dutch Low Saxon Dutch Low Saxon ( nl, Nederlands Nedersaksisch; Dutch Low Saxon: ''Nederlaands Leegsaksies'' , Nederlaands Nedersaksisch) are the Low Saxon dialects that are spoken in the northeastern Netherlands The Netherl ...
acted as
Prussian Prussia, , Old Prussian: ''Prūsa'' or ''Prūsija'' was a historically prominent Germans, German state that originated in 1525 with Duchy of Prussia, a duchy centered on the Prussia (region), region of Prussia on the southeast coast of the Balt ...
chancellor (1810–1822). The
German Confederation The German Confederation (german: Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 predominantly German-speaking sovereign states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 as a replacement of the former Holy Roman Empire, which had b ...

German Confederation
of 1815–1866 did not have a government or parliament, only the Bundestag as representative organ of the states. In the now defunct
German Democratic Republic German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = Ge ...
(GDR, East Germany), which existed from 7 October 1949 to 3 October 1990 (when the territory of the former GDR was reunified with the Federal Republic of Germany), the position of chancellor did not exist. The equivalent position of head of government was called either Minister President ''(Ministerpräsident)'' or Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the GDR ''(Vorsitzender des
Ministerrat The Council of Ministers (German: ''Ministerrat der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik'') was the cabinet and head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign sta ...
s der DDR)'', which was the second powerful position under
General Secretary Secretary is a title often used in organizations to indicate a person having a certain amount of authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social intera ...
of the
Socialist Unity Party of Germany The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (german: Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands, SED), often known in English as the East German Communist Party, was the founding and ruling party of the German Democratic Republic (GDR; East Germany) fr ...
(See
Leaders of East Germany The political leadership of East Germany East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; german: Deutsche Demokratische Republik, , DDR, ), was a country that existed from 1949 to 1990, the period when the eastern portion of Ger ...
).


Federal Chancellor of the North German Confederation (1867–1870)

The head of the federal government of the
North German Confederation The North German Confederation (german: Norddeutscher Bund) was the Germans, German federal state which existed from July 1867 to December 1870. The Confederation came into existence after the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 over the lordship of tw ...
, which was created on 1 July 1867, had the title ''Bundeskanzler''. The only person to hold the office was
Otto von Bismarck Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (born von Bismarck-Schönhausen; german: Otto Eduard Leopold Fürst von Bismarck, Herzog zu Lauenburg; 1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck (), was a conservative ...

Otto von Bismarck
, the
prime minister of Prussia The office of Minister President (german: Ministerpräsident), or Prime Minister, of Prussia existed from 1848, when it was formed by the list of monarchs of Prussia, King Frederick William IV of Prussia, Frederick William IV during the German rev ...
. The king, being the bearer of the ''Bundespräsidium'', installed him on 14 July. Under the constitution of 1 January 1871, the king had additionally the title of Emperor. The constitution still called the chancellor ''Bundeskanzler''. This was only changed in the new constitution of 16 April 1871 to ''Reichskanzler''. The office remained the same, and Bismarck was not even re-installed.


Chancellor of the German Reich


Under the Emperor (1871–1918)

In the 1871
German Empire The German Empire or the Imperial State of Germany,, officially '.Herbert Tuttle Herbert Tuttle (1846–1894) was an American historian. Biography Herbert Tuttle was born in Bennington, Vermont Bennington is a New England town, town ...
, the ''Reichskanzler'' ("Imperial Chancellor") served both as the emperor's first minister and as presiding officer of the Bundesrat, the upper chamber of the German parliament. He was neither elected by nor responsible to Parliament (the ''
Reichstag is a German word generally meaning parliament, more directly translated as ''Diet (assembly), Diet of the Realm'' or ''National diet'', or more loosely as ''Imperial Diet''. It may refer to: Buildings and places is the god specific German word ...
''). Instead, the chancellor was appointed by the emperor. The federal level had four organs: * the king of Prussia in his federal constitutional role as bearer of the ''Bundespräsidium'', since 1871 with the title of emperor * the federal council (''Bundesrat''), consisting of representatives of the federal states and presided over by the chancellor * the parliament, called ''der Reichstag'' * the federal executive, first led by
Otto, Fürst von Bismarck
Otto, Fürst von Bismarck
, the
Minister-President of Prussia The office of Minister President (german: Ministerpräsident), or Prime Minister, of Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian: ''Prūsa'' or ''Prūsija'' was a historically prominent Germans, German state that originated in 1525 with Duchy of Prussia, ...
, as chancellor. Technically, the foreign ministers of the empire's states instructed their states' deputies to the federal council (Bundesrat) and therefore outranked the chancellor. For this reason, Prince Bismarck (as he was from 1871 onwards) continued to serve as both prime minister and foreign minister of Prussia for virtually his entire tenure as chancellor of the empire, since he wanted to continue to exercise this power. Since Prussia controlled seventeen votes in the Bundesrat, Bismarck could effectively control the proceedings by making deals with the smaller states. The term chancellor signalled the seemingly low priority of this institution compared to the governments of the German states, because the new chancellor of the federal empire should not be a full-fledged prime minister, in contrast to the heads of the states. The title of chancellor additionally symbolized a strong monarchist, bureaucratic, and ultimately antiparliamentary component, as in the Prussian tradition of, for instance,
Hardenberg Hardenberg () (Dutch Low Saxon Dutch Low Saxon ( nl, Nederlands Nedersaksisch; Dutch Low Saxon: ''Nederlaands Leegsaksies'' , Nederlaands Nedersaksisch) are the Low Saxon dialects that are spoken in the northeastern Netherlands The Netherl ...
. In both of these aspects, the executive of the federation, and then empire, as it was formed in 1867 and 1871, was deliberately different from the Imperial Ministry of the revolutionary years 1848/49, which had been led by a prime minister elected by the
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
. In 1871, the concept of the federal chancellor was transferred to the executive of the newly formed German Empire, which now also contained the South German states. Here too, the terms of “chancellor” and "federal agency" (as opposed to "ministry" or "government") suggested an (apparent) lower priority of the federal executive as compared to the governments of the federal states. For this reason, neither the chancellor nor the leaders of the imperial departments under his command used the title of Minister until 1918. The constitution of Germany was altered on 29 October 1918, when the parliament was given the right to dismiss the chancellor. However, the change could not prevent the outbreak of a revolution a few days later.


Revolutionary period (1918–1919)

On 9 November 1918, Chancellor Max von Baden handed over his office of chancellor to
Friedrich Ebert Friedrich Ebert (; 4 February 187128 February 1925) was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and the first President of Germany The president of Germany, officially the Federal President of the Federal Republi ...

Friedrich Ebert
. Ebert continued to serve as head of government during the three months between the end of the German Empire in November 1918 and the first gathering of the National Assembly in February 1919, but did not use the title of chancellor. During that time, Ebert also served as chairman of the "
Council of the People's Deputies The Council of the People's Deputies () was the name given to the government of the November Revolution in Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , ...
", until 29 December 1918 together with the Independent Social Democrat
Hugo Haase Hugo Haase (29 September 1863 – 7 November 1919) was a German socialist politician, jurist and pacifist. With Friedrich Ebert, he co-chaired of the Council of the People's Deputies after the German Revolution of 1918–19. Early life Hugo ...
.


Weimar Republic (1919–1933)

The office of chancellor was continued in the
Weimar Republic The Weimar Republic (german: Weimarer Republik ) was the German state from 1918 to 1933 when it functioned as a federal constitutional republic. The state was officially named the German Reich (german: Deutsches Reich, link=no, label=none), a ...
. The chancellor (Reichskanzler) was appointed by the
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
and was responsible to the parliament. Under the Weimar Republic, the chancellor was a fairly weak figure. Much like his French counterpart, he was usually more the cabinet's chairman than its leader. Cabinet decisions were made by majority vote. In fact, many of the Weimar governments depended highly on the cooperation of the president, due to the difficulty of finding a majority in the parliament.


Nazi Germany (1933–1945)

Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (; 20 April 188930 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the dictator of Nazi Germany, Germany from 1933 to 1945. Adolf Hitler's rise to power, He rose to power as the leader of the Nazi Party, becoming Chan ...

Adolf Hitler
was appointed chancellor of Germany on 30 January 1933 by
Paul von Hindenburg Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg (; abbreviated ; 2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German general and statesman who led the Imperial German Army The Imperial German Army (1871–1919), officially referred to a ...

Paul von Hindenburg
. Upon taking office, Hitler immediately began accumulating power and changing the nature of the chancellorship. After only two months in office, and following the
burning Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy, radiation, and physical pro ...
of the
Reichstag building The Reichstag (german: Reichstagsgebäude ; officially: ''Deutscher Bundestag – Plenarbereich Reichstagsgebäude'' ) is a historic edifice in Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, l ...
, the parliament passed the
Enabling Act An enabling act is a piece of legislation Legislation is the process or product of enrolled bill, enrolling, enactment of a bill, enacting, or promulgation, promulgating law by a legislature, parliament, or analogous Government, governing body. ...
giving the chancellor full legislative powers for a period of four years – the chancellor could introduce any law without consulting Parliament. Powers of the chancellor continued to grow until August 1934, when the incumbent
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
Paul von Hindenburg died. Hitler used the Enabling Act to merge the office of chancellor with that of the president to create a new office, "the leader" (or Führer). Although the offices were merged, Hitler continued to be addressed as "
Führer ( ; , spelled when the Umlaut (diacritic), umlaut is not available) is a German word meaning "leader" or "guide". As a political title it is associated with the Nazi Germany, Nazi dictator Adolf Hitler. Nazi Germany cultivated the ("leader ...

Führer
und Reichskanzler" indicating that the head of state and head of government were still separate positions, albeit held by the same man. This separation was made more evident when, in April 1945, Hitler gave instruction that upon his death the office of leader would dissolve and there would be a new president and chancellor. On 30 April 1945, when Hitler committed suicide, he was briefly succeeded as chancellor by
Joseph Goebbels Paul Joseph Goebbels (; 29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German Nazism, Nazi politician who was the ''Gauleiter'' (district leader) of Berlin, chief propagandist for the Nazi Party, and then Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment a ...
, and by Grand Admiral
Karl Dönitz Karl Dönitz (sometimes spelled Doenitz; ; 16 September 1891 24 December 1980) was a German admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. In the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth ...

Karl Dönitz
as
President of Germany The president of Germany, officially the Federal President of the Federal Republic of Germany (german: Bundespräsident der Bundesrepublik Deutschland),The official title within Germany is ', with ' being added in international correspondence; t ...
, as dictated in Hitler's will and testament. When Goebbels also committed suicide, Dönitz appointed Count Schwerin von Krosigk as head of government with the title “Leading Minister”.


Federal Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (1949–present)

The 1949 German constitution, the
Basic Law In countries with uncodified constitution An uncodified constitution is a type of constitution where the fundamental rules often take the form of custom (law), customs, usage, precedent and a variety of statutes and legal instruments.Johari, J. ...
(''Grundgesetz''), invests the chancellor (German, ''Bundeskanzler'') with broad powers to initiate government policy. For that reason, some observers refer to the German political system as a "chancellor democracy". Whichever major party (
CDU CDU may refer to: Education * Catholic Distance University, a worldwide Catholic university based in Hamilton, Virginia, U.S offering theological instruction and degrees via Internet * Cebu Doctors' University, a medical university in the Phili ...
/CSU or
SPD The Social Democratic Party of Germany (german: Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD; ) is a social democratic political party in Germany. It is one of the two major Major is a military rank of commissioned officer status, with ...
) does not hold the chancellorship usually calls its leading candidate for the federal election "chancellor-candidate" (''Kanzlerkandidat''). The federal government (''Bundesregierung'') consists of the chancellor and
cabinet ministers A cabinet is a body of high-ranking State (polity), state officials, typically consisting of the Executive (government), executive branch's top leaders. Members of a cabinet are usually called cabinet Minister (government), ministers or secret ...
. The chancellor's authority emanates from the provisions of the Basic Law and in practice from their status as leader of the party (or coalition of parties) holding a majority of seats in the ''
Bundestag The Bundestag (, "Federal Diet") is the Germany, German Federalism, federal parliament. It is the only body that is directly elected by the German people on the federal level. It can be compared to a lower house similar to the United States Hou ...
'' (federal parliament). With the exception of
Helmut Schmidt Helmut Heinrich Waldemar Schmidt (; 23 December 1918 – 10 November 2015) was a German politician and member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), who served as Chancellor of Germany, Chancellor of the West Germany, Federal Republic ...

Helmut Schmidt
and
Olaf Scholz Olaf Scholz (; born ) is a German politician serving as federal minister of Finance and vice chancellor under chancellor Angela Merkel Angela Dorothea Merkel ( Kasner; born 17 July 1954) is a German politician serving as the chancellor of ...

Olaf Scholz
, the chancellor has also been chairman of their own party. This was the case with Chancellor
Gerhard Schröder Gerhard Fritz Kurt Schröder (; born 7 April 1944) is a German politician who served as Chancellor of Germany The chancellor of Germany, officially the federal chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (german: Bundeskanzler(:wikt:-in#Ger ...

Gerhard Schröder
from 1999 until he resigned the chairmanship of the
SPD The Social Democratic Party of Germany (german: Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD; ) is a social democratic political party in Germany. It is one of the two major Major is a military rank of commissioned officer status, with ...
in 2004.


Role

Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , demonym = Germans, German , government_ ...

Germany
's 1949
constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...

constitution
, the
Basic Law In countries with uncodified constitution An uncodified constitution is a type of constitution where the fundamental rules often take the form of custom (law), customs, usage, precedent and a variety of statutes and legal instruments.Johari, J. ...
(''Grundgesetz''), invests the Federal Chancellor (''Bundeskanzler'') with central executive authority. Since the 1961 election, the two major parties (CDU/CSU and SPD) call their leading candidates for the federal election "chancellor-candidate" (''Kanzlerkandidat''), although this is not an official term and any party can nominate a Kanzlerkandidat (even if that party has no chance at all of leading or even becoming part of a government coalition). The Federal Government (''Bundesregierung'') consists of the Federal Chancellor and their
cabinet ministers A cabinet is a body of high-ranking State (polity), state officials, typically consisting of the Executive (government), executive branch's top leaders. Members of a cabinet are usually called cabinet Minister (government), ministers or secret ...
, called ''Bundesminister'' (Federal Ministers). The chancellor's authority emanates from the provisions of the Basic Law and from their status as leader of the
party 300px, '' Hip, Hip, Hurrah!'' (1888) by Peder Severin Krøyer, a painting portraying an artists' party in 19th century Denmark A party is a gathering of people who have been invited by a host A host is a person responsible for guests at a ...
(or coalition of parties) holding a majority of seats in the ''
Bundestag The Bundestag (, "Federal Diet") is the Germany, German Federalism, federal parliament. It is the only body that is directly elected by the German people on the federal level. It can be compared to a lower house similar to the United States Hou ...
'' ("Federal Diet", the lower house of the German Federal Parliament). With the exception of
Helmut Schmidt Helmut Heinrich Waldemar Schmidt (; 23 December 1918 – 10 November 2015) was a German politician and member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), who served as Chancellor of Germany, Chancellor of the West Germany, Federal Republic ...

Helmut Schmidt
,
Gerhard Schröder Gerhard Fritz Kurt Schröder (; born 7 April 1944) is a German politician who served as Chancellor of Germany The chancellor of Germany, officially the federal chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (german: Bundeskanzler(:wikt:-in#Ger ...

Gerhard Schröder
(from 2004 to 2005),
Angela Merkel Angela Dorothea Merkel ( Kasner; born 17 July 1954) is a German politician serving as the chancellor of Germany since 2005. She served as Leader of the Opposition (Germany), leader of the Opposition from 2002 to 2005 and as Christian Democratic ...
(since 2018) and
Olaf Scholz Olaf Scholz (; born ) is a German politician serving as federal minister of Finance and vice chancellor under chancellor Angela Merkel Angela Dorothea Merkel ( Kasner; born 17 July 1954) is a German politician serving as the chancellor of ...

Olaf Scholz
the chancellor has usually also been chairman of their own party. The first chancellor,
Konrad Adenauer Konrad Hermann Joseph Adenauer (; 5 January 1876 – 19 April 1967) was a German statesman who served as the first Chancellor Chancellor ( la, links=no, cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations. ...

Konrad Adenauer
, set many precedents that continue today and established the chancellorship as the clear focus of power in Germany. Under the provisions of the Basic Law giving him the power to set guidelines for all fields of policy, Adenauer arrogated nearly all major decisions to himself. He often treated his ministers as mere extensions of his authority rather than colleagues. While his successors have tended to be less domineering, the chancellor has acquired enough ex officio authority (in addition to his/her constitutional powers) that Germany is often described by constitutional law experts as a "chancellor democracy". The chancellor determines the composition of the Federal Cabinet. The
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
formally appoints and dismisses cabinet ministers, on the recommendation of the chancellor; no parliamentary approval is needed. According to the Basic Law, the chancellor may set the number of cabinet ministers and dictate their specific duties. Chancellor
Ludwig Erhard Ludwig Wilhelm Erhard (; 4 February 1897 – 5 May 1977) was a German politician affiliated with the Christian Democratic Union of Germany, CDU, and the second Chancellor of Germany (1949–), Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West G ...
had the largest cabinet, with 22 ministers, in the mid-1960s.
Helmut Kohl Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (; 3 April 1930 – 16 June 2017) was a German statesman and politician of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) who served as Chancellor of Germany The chancellor of Germany, officially the federal chancellor of th ...

Helmut Kohl
presided over 17 ministers at the start of his fourth term in 1994; the 2002 cabinet, the second of Chancellor
Gerhard Schröder Gerhard Fritz Kurt Schröder (; born 7 April 1944) is a German politician who served as Chancellor of Germany The chancellor of Germany, officially the federal chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (german: Bundeskanzler(:wikt:-in#Ger ...

Gerhard Schröder
, had 13 ministers, and the
Angela Merkel Angela Dorothea Merkel ( Kasner; born 17 July 1954) is a German politician serving as the chancellor of Germany since 2005. She served as Leader of the Opposition (Germany), leader of the Opposition from 2002 to 2005 and as Christian Democratic ...
cabinet as of 22 November 2005 had 15. Article 65 of the Basic Law sets forth three principles that define how the executive branch functions: *The "chancellor principle" makes the chancellor responsible for all government policies; this is also known as the ''Richtlinienkompetenz'' (roughly translated as "guideline setting competence"). Any formal policy guidelines issued by the chancellor are legally binding directives that cabinet ministers must implement. Cabinet ministers are expected to introduce specific policies at the ministerial level that reflect the chancellor's broader guidelines. *The "principle of ministerial autonomy" entrusts each minister with the freedom to supervise departmental operations and prepare legislative proposals without cabinet interference so long as the minister's policies are consistent with the chancellor's broader guidelines. *The "cabinet principle" calls for disagreements between federal ministers over jurisdictional or budgetary matters to be settled by the cabinet.


List of chancellors (1949–present)

Political party:


Living former chancellors

As of 2021, there are two living former chancellors of Germany. The most recent death of a former chancellor was that of
Helmut Kohl Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (; 3 April 1930 – 16 June 2017) was a German statesman and politician of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) who served as Chancellor of Germany The chancellor of Germany, officially the federal chancellor of th ...

Helmut Kohl
(1982–1998), on 16 June 2017.


Election mechanism

The chancellor is elected by the
Bundestag The Bundestag (, "Federal Diet") is the Germany, German Federalism, federal parliament. It is the only body that is directly elected by the German people on the federal level. It can be compared to a lower house similar to the United States Hou ...
and formally appointed by the
president of Germany The president of Germany, officially the Federal President of the Federal Republic of Germany (german: Bundespräsident der Bundesrepublik Deutschland),The official title within Germany is ', with ' being added in international correspondence; t ...
. A chancellor's election is necessary whenever the office of Chancellor has fallen vacant. This is the case if a newly elected Bundestag meets for the first time, or if the chancellor dies or resigns. The chancellor's election (in the first two voting phases) is one of the few cases in which a vote in the Bundestag requires a majority of all elected members, not just a majority of those assembled at the time, or the so-called ''Kanzlermehrheit'' ("chancellor majority"). As with other elections performed by the Bundestag, the chancellor is elected via secret ballot. The process begins with the President of Germany proposing a candidate to the Bundestag (A formality, as they are usually a candidate on which majority parties have agreed to beforehand), who is then voted upon without debate ("1st voting phase"). If this nominee is not elected, the parliamentary groups in the Bundestag may, during the following 14 days, propose their own nominees, who also have to be elected with the "chancellor-majority" ("2nd voting phase"). If no chancellor has been elected within this period, the Bundestag will hold one last ballot on the 15th day after the first ballot, to which (like in the 2nd voting phase) the parliamentary groups may put forward candidates ("3rd voting phase"): If any candidate reaches the "chancellor majority", the President of Germany is obliged to appoint them. If not, the president may either appoint as chancellor the candidate who received a plurality of votes (''de facto'' allowing formation of a minority government) or call new elections for the ''Bundestag'' within 60 days. Another possibility to vote a new chancellor into office is the
constructive vote of no confidenceThe constructive vote of no confidence (german: konstruktives Misstrauensvotum, es, moción de censura constructiva) is a variation on the motion of no confidence A motion of no confidence, vote of no confidence, or no confidence motion, sometimes ...
, which allows the Bundestag to replace a sitting chancellor, if it elects a new chancellor with the "chancellor-majority" (see below). As of 2021, all chancellors of the federal republic have been (re-)elected on proposal of the President and on the first ballot with the sole exception of
Helmut Kohl Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (; 3 April 1930 – 16 June 2017) was a German statesman and politician of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) who served as Chancellor of Germany The chancellor of Germany, officially the federal chancellor of th ...

Helmut Kohl
, who was elected to his first term via a constructive vote of no confidence against
Helmut Schmidt Helmut Heinrich Waldemar Schmidt (; 23 December 1918 – 10 November 2015) was a German politician and member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), who served as Chancellor of Germany, Chancellor of the West Germany, Federal Republic ...

Helmut Schmidt
.


Confidence

Unlike in other parliamentary legislatures, the Bundestag cannot remove the chancellor with a traditional
motion of no confidence A motion of no confidence, vote of no confidence, or no confidence motion, sometimes in the reverse as a motion of confidence or vote of confidence, is a statement or vote about whether a person in a position of responsibility (government, manage ...
. Instead, the removal of a chancellor is only possible if a majority of the ''Bundestag'' members agree on a successor, who is then immediately sworn in as new chancellor. This procedure is called "constructive motion of no confidence" (''konstruktives Misstrauensvotum'') and was created to avoid the situation that existed in the
Weimar Republic The Weimar Republic (german: Weimarer Republik ) was the German state from 1918 to 1933 when it functioned as a federal constitutional republic. The state was officially named the German Reich (german: Deutsches Reich, link=no, label=none), a ...
, when it was easier to gather a parliament majority willing to remove a government in office than to find a majority capable of supporting a new stable government. In order to garner legislative support in the ''Bundestag'', the chancellor can also ask for a
motion of confidence A motion of no confidence, vote of no confidence, or no confidence motion, sometimes in the reverse as a motion of confidence or vote of confidence, is a statement or vote about whether a person in a position of responsibility (government, manager ...
(''Vertrauensfrage'', literally "question of trust"), either combined with a legislative proposal or as a standalone vote. If such a vote fails, the chancellor may ask the president for the dissolution of the ''Bundestag''.


Vice chancellor

150px, Robert Habeck, Vice Chancellor of Germany The chancellor must appoint one of the cabinet ministers as
vice chancellor A chancellor is a leader of a college or university, usually either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system. In most Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is ...
. The vice chancellor may deputise for the chancellor, if they are absent or unable to perform their duties. Although the chancellor is theoretically free to choose any cabinet minister, in coalition governments the vice chancellor is usually the highest-ranking minister of the second biggest coalition party. If the chancellor's term in office ends or if they resign, the
Bundestag The Bundestag (, "Federal Diet") is the Germany, German Federalism, federal parliament. It is the only body that is directly elected by the German people on the federal level. It can be compared to a lower house similar to the United States Hou ...
has to elect a new chancellor. The
president of Germany The president of Germany, officially the Federal President of the Federal Republic of Germany (german: Bundespräsident der Bundesrepublik Deutschland),The official title within Germany is ', with ' being added in international correspondence; t ...
may ask the former chancellor to act as chancellor until a new office holder is elected, but if they are unwilling or unable to do so, the president may also appoint the vice chancellor as acting chancellor. This has happened once: On 7 May 1974 Chancellor
Willy Brandt Willy Brandt (; born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm; 18 December 1913 – 8 October 1992) was a German politician and statesman who was leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany The Social Democratic Party of Germany (german: Sozialdemokrat ...

Willy Brandt
resigned as a consequence of the Guillaume Affair, an espionage scandal. In his letter of resignation to President
Gustav Heinemann Gustav Walter Heinemann (, 23 July 1899 – 7 July 1976) was a German politician. He was Mayor of the city of Essen from 1946 to 1949, West German Minister of the Interior from 1949 to 1950, Minister of Justice from 1966 to 1969 and President o ...
he requested, to be not asked to remain in office in an acting capacity and instead to appoint the vice chancellor as acting chancellor. President Heinemann followed the request. Vice Chancellor
Walter Scheel Walter Scheel (; 8 July 1919 – 24 August 2016) was a German politician. A member of the Free Democratic Party (Germany), Free Democratic Party of Germany (FDP), he first served in government as Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Develo ...
was appointed acting chancellor and served for nine days until the election of
Helmut Schmidt Helmut Heinrich Waldemar Schmidt (; 23 December 1918 – 10 November 2015) was a German politician and member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), who served as Chancellor of Germany, Chancellor of the West Germany, Federal Republic ...

Helmut Schmidt
on 16 May 1974. Scheel not taken into account, only three persons,
Ludwig Erhard Ludwig Wilhelm Erhard (; 4 February 1897 – 5 May 1977) was a German politician affiliated with the Christian Democratic Union of Germany, CDU, and the second Chancellor of Germany (1949–), Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West G ...
,
Willy Brandt Willy Brandt (; born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm; 18 December 1913 – 8 October 1992) was a German politician and statesman who was leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany The Social Democratic Party of Germany (german: Sozialdemokrat ...

Willy Brandt
, and
Olaf Scholz Olaf Scholz (; born ) is a German politician serving as federal minister of Finance and vice chancellor under chancellor Angela Merkel Angela Dorothea Merkel ( Kasner; born 17 July 1954) is a German politician serving as the chancellor of ...

Olaf Scholz
have held both the office of Vice Chancellor and Chancellor of Germany. The current vice chancellor of Germany is
Robert Habeck Robert Habeck (; born 2 September 1969) is a Germany, German politician and writer, serving as Vice-Chancellor of Germany, Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Climate Action, Federal Minister for Economic Affairs and Climate Action and as a ...
, who also serves as Minister for Economic Affairs and Climate Protection in the Scholz cabinet.


List of vice chancellors (1949–present)


Official residence

Since 2001, the official seat of the chancellor is the Federal Chancellery in Berlin (''Bundeskanzleramt''). The former seat of the Federal Chancellery, the
Palais Schaumburg Palais Schaumburg is a neoclassical-style building in Bonn The Federal city of Bonn ( lat, Bonna) is a city on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of over 300,000. About south-southeas ...

Palais Schaumburg
in the former capital
Bonn The Federal city The term federal city is a title for certain cities in Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language ...

Bonn
, now serves as a secondary official seat. The chancellor's country retreat is
Schloss Meseberg Schloss Meseberg is a Baroque palace 65 kilometres north of Berlin in the state of Brandenburg, Germany which is the retreat of the Chancellor of Germany (1949–), Chancellor of Germany and the official state guest house of the German Federal Gover ...

Schloss Meseberg
in the state of
Brandenburg Brandenburg (, also , ; nds, Brannenborg; dsb, Bramborska ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ...

Brandenburg
. The private lodging of the chancellors at Bonn has previously been the ''Chancellor's bungalow'' built by Ludwig Erhard in the park of Palais Schaumburg, while his predecessor Konrad Adenauer used to live in his private house near Bonn. Under Adenauer, the government had also acquired a villa in
DahlemDahlem can refer to: *Dahlem (Berlin), a district of Berlin, part of the borough Steglitz-Zehlendorf *Dahlem, North Rhine-Westphalia, a municipality in western Germany *Dahlem, Rhineland-Palatinate, a municipality in south-western Germany *Dahlem, L ...
in 1962, a suburban district of southwestern Berlin, as a ''pied-a-terre'' of the chancellors in West-Berlin. Gerhard Schröder lived there between 1999 and 2001. Since 2004 it has however served as a private residence for the Presidents of Germany. Angela Merkel preferred to live with her husband in her private apartment downtown.


Style of address

The correct style of address in German is ''Herr Bundeskanzler'' (male) or ''Frau Bundeskanzlerin'' (female). In international correspondence, the chancellor is referred to as "His/Her Excellency the Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany" (''"Seine/Ihre Exzellenz der Bundeskanzler/die Bundeskanzlerin der Bundesrepublik Deutschland"'').


Salary

Holding the third-highest state office available within Germany, the chancellor of Germany receives €220,000 per annum and a €22,000 bonus, i.e. one and two thirds of Salary Grade B11 (according to § 11 (1) a of the Federal Law on MinistersBundesministergesetz, BGBl. 1971 I p. 1166 and attachment IV to the Federal Law on Salaries of OfficersBundesbesoldungsgesetz, BGBl. 2002 I p. 3020)''Gesetz über die Rechtsverhältnisse der Mitglieder der Bundesregierung – § 11.''
gesetze-im-internet.de


See also

* List of chancellors of Germany *
List of chancellors of Germany by time in office This is a list of chancellors of Germany by time in office from 1867 to 2021, including the Federal Republic of Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capita ...
*
Prime minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpar ...
* Religious affiliations of chancellors of Germany


Notes


References


Further reading


Books

* Klein, Herbert, ed. 1993. ''The German Chancellors''. Berlin: Edition. * Padgett, Stephen, ed. 1994. ''The Development of the German Chancellorship: Adenauer to Kohl''. London: Hurst.


Articles

* Harlen, Christine M. 2002. "The Leadership Styles of the German Chancellors: From Schmidt to Schröder." ''Politics and Policy'' 30 (2 (June)): 347–371. * Helms, Ludger. 2001. "The Changing Chancellorship: Resources and Constraints Revisited." ''German Politics'' 10 (2): 155–168. * Mayntz, Renate. 1980. "Executive Leadership in Germany: Dispersion of Power or 'Kanzler Demokratie'?" ''In presidents and Prime Ministers'', ed. R. Rose and E. N. Suleiman. Washington, D.C: American Enterprise Institute. pp. 139–71. * Smith, Gordon. 1991. "The Resources of a German Chancellor." ''West European Politics'' 14 (2): 48–61.


External links

* * {{DEFAULTSORT:Chancellor Of Germany Germany, Chancellor 1867 establishments in Germany 1949 establishments in Germany