HOME

TheInfoList




The French National Centre for Scientific Research (french: link=no, Centre national de la recherche scientifique, CNRS) is the French state research organisation and is the largest
fundamental science Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, is a type of scientific research The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science s ...
agency in Europe. In 2016, it employed 31,637 staff, including 11,137 tenured researchers, 13,415 engineers and technical staff, and 7,085 contractual workers. It is headquartered in Paris and has administrative offices in
Brussels Brussels (french: Bruxelles or ; nl, Brussel ), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (french: link=no, Région de Bruxelles-Capitale; nl, link=no, Brusse ...

Brussels
, Beijing, Tokyo, Singapore, Washington, D.C.,
Bonn The Federal city The term federal city is a title for certain cities in Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official langua ...

Bonn
, Moscow,
Tunis Tunis ( ar, تونس ') is the and largest city of . The greater metropolitan area of Tunis, often referred to as "", has about 2,700,000 inhabitants. , it is the fourth-largest city in the region (after , and ) and the in the . Situated on ...

Tunis
,
Johannesburg Johannesburg (, also ; ; Zulu language, Zulu and xh, eGoli ), informally known as Jozi, Joburg, or "The City of Gold", is the largest city in South Africa, classified as a Megacity#List of megacities, megacity, and is List of urban areas by ...

Johannesburg
,
Santiago de Chile Santiago (, ; ), also known as Santiago de Chile, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more fo ...

Santiago de Chile
,
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...

Israel
, and
New Delhi New Delhi (, ''Naī Dillī'') is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majusc ...

New Delhi
. The CNRS was ranked No. 3 in 2015 and No. 4 in 2017 by the
Nature Index The Nature Index is a database, that tracks institutions and countries and their scientific output since its introduction in 2016. Each year, Nature Index ranks the leading institutions (which can be companies, universities, government agencies, res ...
, which measures the largest contributors to papers published in 82 leading journals. In May 2021, the CNRS ranked No. 2 in the Nature Index, before the
Max Planck Society The Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science (german: Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. V.; abbreviated MPG) is a formally independent non-governmental and non-profit association of German German(s) may refer t ...
and
Harvard University Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly t ...

Harvard University
.


Organization

The CNRS operates on the basis of research units, which are of two kinds: "proper units" (UPRs) are operated solely by the CNRS, and "joint units" (UMRs – ) are run in association with other institutions, such as
universities A university () is an of (or ) and which awards s in several . Universities typically offer both and programs in different schools or faculties of learning. The word ''university'' is derived from the ''universitas magistrorum et scholari ...
or
INSERM #REDIRECT Inserm#REDIRECT Inserm The Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (Inserm, ) is the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research. History and organisation Inserm was created in 1964 as a successor to ...

INSERM
. Members of joint research units may be either CNRS researchers or university employees ( ''maîtres de conférences'' or ''professeurs''). Each research unit has a numeric code attached and is typically headed by a university professor or a CNRS research director. A research unit may be subdivided into research groups ("équipes"). The CNRS also has support units, which may, for instance, supply administrative, computing, library, or engineering services. In 2016, the CNRS had 952 joint research units, 32 proper research units, 135 service units, and 36 international units. The CNRS is divided into 10 national institutes: * Institute of Chemistry (INC) * Institute of Ecology and Environment (INEE) * Institute of Physics (INP) * Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics (IN2P3) * Institute of Biological Sciences (INSB) * Institute for Humanities and Social Sciences (INSHS) * Institute for Computer Sciences (INS2I) * Institute for Engineering and Systems Sciences (INSIS) * Institute for Mathematical Sciences (INSMI) * Institute for Earth Sciences and Astronomy (INSU) The National Committee for Scientific Research, which is in charge of the recruitment and evaluation of researchers, is divided into 47 sections (e.g. section 41 is mathematics, section 7 is computer science and control, and so on). Research groups are affiliated with one primary institute and an optional secondary institute; the researchers themselves belong to one section. For administrative purposes, the CNRS is divided into 18 regional divisions (including four for the Paris region).


Employment

Researchers who are permanent employees of the CNRS are classified in two categories, each subdivided into two or three classes, and each class is divided into several pay grades. In principle, research directors tend to head research groups, but this is not a general rule (a research scientist can head a group or even a laboratory and some research directors do not head a group). Employees for support activities include research engineers, studies engineers, assistant engineers and technicians. Contrary to what the name would seem to imply, these can have administrative duties (e.g. a secretary can be "technician", an administrative manager of a laboratory an "assistant engineer"). All permanent support employees are recruited through annual nationwide competitive campaigns. Following a 1983 reform, the candidates selected have the status of civil servants and are part of the public service.


History

The CNRS was created on 19 October 1939 by decree of President
Albert Lebrun Albert François Lebrun (; 29 August 1871 – 6 March 1950) was a French politician, President of France The president of France, officially the President of the French Republic (french: Président de la République française), is the hea ...
. Since 1954, the centre has annually awarded gold, silver, and bronze medals to French scientists and junior researchers. In 1966, the organisation underwent structural changes, which resulted in the creation of two specialised institutes: the National Astronomy and Geophysics Institute in 1967 (which became the National Institute of Sciences of the Universe in 1985) and the
Institut national de physique nucléaire et de physique des particules The French National Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics (French language, French: ''Institut national de physique nucléaire et de physique des particules'', IN2P3) is the coordinating body for nuclear physics, nuclear and particle physics ...
(IN2P3; English: National Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics) in 1971.


Controversies

Despite ranking very high in multiple international rankings (e.g. No. 2 in May 2021 in the Nature Index, before the Max Plank Society and Harvard University), the performance of the CNRS has been questioned, with calls for wide-ranging reforms. In particular, the effectiveness of the recruitment, compensation, career management, and evaluation procedures have been under scrutiny. Governmental projects include the transformation of the CNRS into an organization allocating support to research projects on an ad hoc basis and the reallocation of CNRS researchers to universities. Another controversial plan advanced by the government involves breaking up the CNRS into six separate institutes. These modifications, which were again proposed in 2021 by ultraliberal "think tanks" such as the Institut Montaigne, have been massively rejected by French scientists, leading to multiple protests.


Leadership


Past presidents

* Claude Fréjacques (1981–1989) * René Pellat (1989–1992) *
Édouard Brézin Édouard Brézin (; born 1 December 1938 Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents as of 2018, ...
(1992–2000) * Gérard Mégie (2000–2004) * Bernard Meunier (2004–2006) *
Catherine Bréchignac Catherine Bréchignac (; born 12 June 1946) is a French physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an Branches of science, area of interest. In c ...
(2006–2010)


Past directors general

* Jean Coulomb (1957–1962) *
Pierre Jacquinot Pierre Jacquinot (18 January 1910 – 22 September 2002) was a France, French physicist. Jacquinot was a PhD student of Aimé Cotton. He was director of Laboratoire Aimé-Cotton during almost 20 years (1951-1962 and 1969-1978). From 1962 to 1969 ...

Pierre Jacquinot
(1962–1969) *
Hubert Curien Hubert Curien (30 October 1924 – 6 February 2005) was a French physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts scientific research The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical method of acqu ...

Hubert Curien
(1969–1973) * Robert Chabbal (1976–1980) * Pierre Papon (1982–1986) * François Kourilsky (1988–1994) * Guy Aubert (1994–1997) *
Catherine Bréchignac Catherine Bréchignac (; born 12 June 1946) is a French physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an Branches of science, area of interest. In c ...
(1997–2000) * Geneviève Berger (2000–2003) * Bernard Larrouturou (2003–2006) *
Arnold Migus Arnold may refer to: People * Arnold (given name), a masculine German, Dutch, Polish, and English given name * Arnold (surname), a German and English surname * Arnold Schwarzenegger (born 1947), Austrian-American actor, bodybuilder and politician ...
(2006–2010)


Past and current president director general (CEO)

Alain Fuchs Alain Fuchs (born 10 April 1953) is a Swiss-born French Doctor of Science and chemistry Professor, specialized in molecular simulation. He is also university administrator. He served as the president of Chimie ParisTech, Chimie ParisTech - PSL fr ...
was appointed president on 20 January 2010. His position combined the previous positions of president and director general. * 2010–2017:
Alain Fuchs Alain Fuchs (born 10 April 1953) is a Swiss-born French Doctor of Science and chemistry Professor, specialized in molecular simulation. He is also university administrator. He served as the president of Chimie ParisTech, Chimie ParisTech - PSL fr ...
* From 24 October 2017 to 24 January 2018 (interim):
Anne Peyroche Anne, alternatively spelled Ann, is a form of the Latin female given name Anna (name), Anna. This in turn is a representation of the Hebrew Hannah (given name), Hannah, which means 'favour' or 'grace.' Anne is sometimes used as a male name in th ...
* Since 24 January 2018:
Antoine Petit Antoine Petit (23 July 1722 – 21 October 1794) was a France, French physician, master of Joseph-Ignace Guillotin and Félix Vicq d'Azyr. Biography Antoine Petit, born in Orléans, was the son of a tailor. He received a disciplined education ...


See also

*
CNRS Gold medal The CNRS Gold Medal is the highest scientific research award in France. It is presented annually by the French National Centre for Scientific Research The French National Centre for Scientific Research (french: link=no, Centre national de la rec ...
*
Centre pour la communication scientifique directe The Centre pour la Communication Scientifique Directe (CCSD) is a French organization of the French National Centre for Scientific Research, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) devoted to the development of the open access repositori ...
*
Spanish National Research Council The Spanish National Research Council ( es, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, CSIC) is the largest public institution dedicated to research in Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = E ...
(CSIC), the Spanish counterpart to the CNRS


References


External links

*
Review of the history of the CNRS

CNRS Editions
* "The founding of CNRS" (1939), online and analysed on
BibNum
' lick 'à télécharger' for English version/small> {{Authority control 1939 establishments in France Publishing companies of France