HOME

TheInfoList




''Cedrus'', common English name cedar, is a genus of
conifer Conifers are a group of conifer cone, cone-bearing Spermatophyte, seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the phylum, division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Coniferae. The division contains a single ex ...
ous
tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only wood plants with se ...

tree
s in the plant family
Pinaceae The Pinaceae, pine family, are conifer Conifers are a group of conifer cone, cone-bearing Spermatophyte, seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the phylum, division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Con ...

Pinaceae
(subfamily Abietoideae). They are
native Native may refer to: People * Jus soli, citizenship by right of birth * Indigenous peoples, peoples with a set of specific rights based on their historical ties to a particular territory ** Native Americans (disambiguation) In arts and entertain ...

native
to the mountains of the western
Himalayas The Himalayas, or Himalaya (; Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Ind ...

Himalayas
and the
Mediterranean region In biogeography Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geography, geographic space and through evolutionary history of life, geological time. Organisms and biological community (ecology), communities ofte ...

Mediterranean region
, occurring at altitudes of 1,500–3,200 m in the Himalayas and 1,000–2,200 m in the Mediterranean.Farjon, A. (1990). ''Pinaceae. Drawings and Descriptions of the Genera''. Koeltz Scientific Books .


Description

''Cedrus'' trees can grow up to 30–40 m (occasionally 60 m) tall with spicy-resinous scented
wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. ...

wood
, thick ridged or square-cracked
bark Bark may refer to: * Bark (botany), an outer layer of a woody plant * Bark (sound), a vocalization of some animals Places * Bark, Germany * Bark, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland Arts, entertainment, and media * ''Bark'' (Jefferson Airp ...
, and broad, level branches. The shoots are dimorphic and are made up of long shoots, which form the framework of the branches, and short shoots, which carry most of the leaves. The
leaves A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant plant stem, stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. The leaves, stem, flower and fruit together form the shoot system. Leaves are ...

leaves
are
evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Anc ...

evergreen
and needle-like, 8–60 mm long, arranged in an open spiral
phyllotaxis In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancie ...
on long shoots, and in dense spiral clusters of 15–45 together on short shoots; they vary from bright grass-green to dark green to strongly glaucous pale blue-green, depending on the thickness of the white wax layer which protects the leaves from desiccation. The seed cones are barrel-shaped, 6–12 cm long and 3–8 cm broad, green maturing grey-brown, and, as in
''Abies''
''Abies''
, disintegrate at maturity to release the winged
seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was released to generally positi ...

seed
s. The seeds are 10–15 mm long, with a 20–30 mm wing; as in ''Abies'', the seeds have two or three resin blisters, containing an unpleasant-tasting
resin In polymer chemistry and materials science, resin is a solid or highly Viscosity, viscous substance of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers. Resins are usually mixtures of organic compounds. This article focus ...

resin
, thought to be a defence against
squirrel Squirrels are members of the family (biology), family Sciuridae, a family that includes small or medium-size rodents. The squirrel family includes tree squirrels, ground squirrels, chipmunks, marmots (including groundhogs), flying squirrels, ...

squirrel
predation. Cone maturation takes one year, with pollination in autumn and the seeds maturing the same time a year later. The
pollen Pollen is a powdery substance consisting of pollen grains which are Sporophyte, microsporophytes of spermatophyta, seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells). Pollen grains have a hard coat made of sporopollenin that protects the ga ...

pollen
cones are slender ovoid, 3–8 cm long, produced in late summer, and shedding pollen in autumn.Frankis, M. & Lauria, F. (1994). The maturation and dispersal of cedar cones and seeds. ''International Dendrology Society Yearbook'' 1993: 43–46.


Taxonomy

Cedars share a very similar cone structure with the
fir Firs (''Abies'') are a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including ...

fir
s (''Abies'') and were traditionally thought to be most closely related to them, but molecular evidence supports a basal position in the family.Liston A., D.S. Gernandt, T.F. Vining, C.S. Campbell, D. Piñero. 2003. "Molecular Phylogeny of Pinaceae and Pinus". In Mill, R. R. (ed.): ''Proceedings of the 4th Conifer Congress. Acta Hort'' 615: pp. 107-114.Wang, X.-Q., Tank, D. C. and Sang, T. (2000): "Phylogeny and Divergence Times in Pinaceae: Evidence from Three Genomes". ''Molecular Biology and Evolution'' 17:773-781. Availabl
online


Taxa

The five
taxa In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanism ...
of ''Cedrus'' are assigned according to
taxonomic Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a specific classification scheme. Originally used only about biological ...
opinion to between one and four species:Farjon, A. (2008). ''A Natural History of Conifers''. Timber Press . The oldest known fossil of ''Cedrus'' is ''Cedrus penzhinaensis'' known from fossil wood found in Early
Cretaceous The Cretaceous ( ) is a geological period A geological period is one of the several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place. These periods form elements of a hierarchy of division ...

Cretaceous
(
Albian The Albian is both an age of the geologic timescale The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological datingChronological dating, or simply dating, is the process of attributing to an object or event a date in the past, allowing suc ...
) sediments of
Kamchatka The Kamchatka Peninsula (, ''Poluostrov Kamchatka'', ) is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it e ...

Kamchatka
, Russia.


Ecology

Cedars are adapted to mountainous climates; in the Mediterranean, they receive winter precipitation, mainly as snow, and summer drought, while in the western Himalaya, they receive primarily summer monsoon rainfall and occasional winter snowfall . While some naturalized ''Cedrus'' species grow in the Americas, none are native. Cedars are used as food plants by the
larva A larva (plural larvae ) is a distinct juvenile form many animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that f ...
e of some
Lepidoptera Lepidoptera ( ; ) is an order Order or ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is associated with other qualities such as cleanliness Cleanliness is both the abstract state of being clean and free from germs, dirt, trash, or ...

Lepidoptera
species including
pine processionary The pine processionary (''Thaumetopoea pityocampa'') is a moth of the subfamily Thaumetopoeinae in the family Notodontidae. The species was Species description, first described by Michael Denis and Ignaz Schiffermüller in 1775. Sometimes placed ...
and
turnip moth ''Agrotis segetum'', sometimes known as the turnip moth, is a moth Moths are a paraphyletic group of insects that includes all members of the Order (biology), order Lepidoptera that are not Butterfly, butterflies, with moths making up the vas ...
(recorded on deodar cedar).


Use

Cedars are very popular
ornamental tree plant Ornamental plants are plants that are grown for decorative purposes in gardens and landscape design projects, as houseplants, cut flowers and specimen display. The cultivation of ornamental plants comes under floriculture, which is a major ...

ornamental tree
s, and are often cultivated in
temperate In geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its populati ...
climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a la ...

climate
s where winter temperatures do not fall below circa −25 °C. The Turkish cedar is slightly hardier, to −30 °C or just below. Extensive mortality of planted specimens can occur in severe winters when temperatures fall lower.Ødum, S. (1985). "Report on frost damage to trees in Denmark after the severe 1981/82 and 1984/85 winters". Hørsholm Arboretum, Denmark. Locales with successful longaeval cultivation include the Mediterranean region, western Europe north to the
British Isles The British Isles are a group of islands in the North Atlantic off the north-western coast of continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

British Isles
, southern
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
and
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engl ...

New Zealand
, and southern and western
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
. Cedar wood and cedarwood oil are natural repellents to moths, hence cedar is a popular lining for cedar chests and closets in which
woolen Woolen (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English is th ...
s are stored. This specific use of cedar is mentioned in ''
The Iliad The ''Iliad'' (; grc, Ἰλιάς, ', ; sometimes referred to as the ''Song of Ilion'' or ''Song of Ilium'') is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer. Usually considered to have been written down cir ...
'', Book 24, referring to the cedar-roofed or lined storage chamber where Priam went to fetch treasures to be used as ransom. The ancients made cedarwood oil from
Lebanon cedar ''Cedrus libani'', the cedar of Lebanon or Lebanese cedar (), is a species of tree in the pine family Pinaceae, native species, native to the mountains of the Eastern Mediterranean basin. It is a large evergreen conifer that has great religious a ...
, a true cedar of the genus ''Cedrus'', However, the species used for modern cedar chests and closets in North America is ''
Juniperus virginiana ''Juniperus virginiana'', known as red cedar, eastern redcedar, Virginian juniper, eastern juniper, red juniper, pencil cedar, and aromatic cedar, is a species of juniper Junipers are coniferous trees and shrubs in the genus ''Juniperus'' of t ...

Juniperus virginiana
'', and cedarwood oil is now typically derived from various
junipers Junipers are coniferous trees and shrubs in the genus ''Juniperus'' of the cypress family Cupressaceae. Depending on taxonomic viewpoint, between 50 and 67 species of junipers are widely distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere, from the A ...

junipers
and (of the family ''
Cupressaceae Cupressaceae is a conifer Conifers are a group of conifer cone, cone-bearing Spermatophyte, seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the phylum, division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Coniferae. The ...

Cupressaceae
''). Cedar is also commonly used to make because it can absorb moisture and deodorize. Many species of cedar are suitable for training as
bonsai Bonsai ( ja, 盆栽, , tray planting, ) is a Japanese version of the original traditional Chinese art ' or ''penzai''. Unlike ''penjing'', which utilizes traditional techniques to produce entire natural sceneries in small pots that mimic the ...

bonsai
. They work well for many styles, including formal and informal upright, slanting, and cascading.


Nomenclature

Some authorities consider ''Cedrus'' the only "true cedars" and discourage use of the name for other genera without an additional qualifier, such as "white-cedar".Kelsey, H. P., & Dayton, W. A. (1942). ''Standardized Plant Names'', second edition. American Joint Committee on Horticultural Nomenclature. Horace McFarland Company, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Nevertheless, the name "cedar" has been applied (since about 1700) to other trees, such as
Thuja plicata ''Thuja plicata'', commonly called western red cedar or Pacific red cedar, giant arborvitae or western arborvitae, or just cedar, giant cedar, or shinglewood, is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification ...
, commonly called "western red cedar", and ''
Juniperus virginiana ''Juniperus virginiana'', known as red cedar, eastern redcedar, Virginian juniper, eastern juniper, red juniper, pencil cedar, and aromatic cedar, is a species of juniper Junipers are coniferous trees and shrubs in the genus ''Juniperus'' of t ...

Juniperus virginiana
'', commonly called "red cedar" or "eastern redcedar". In some cases, the botanical name alludes to this usage, such as the genus ''
Calocedrus ''Calocedrus'', the incense cedar (alternatively spelled incense-cedar), is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles t ...

Calocedrus
'', meaning "beautiful cedar" (also known as "incense cedar"). Several species of genera ''
Calocedrus ''Calocedrus'', the incense cedar (alternatively spelled incense-cedar), is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles t ...

Calocedrus
'', ''
Thuja ''Thuja'' ( ) is a genus of conifer Conifers are a group of cone-bearing seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Coniferae. The division contains a sing ...

Thuja
'', and ''
Chamaecyparis ''Chamaecyparis'', common names cypress or false cypress (to distinguish it from related cypresses), is a genus of Pinophyta, conifers in the cypress family (biology), family Cupressaceae, native plant, native to eastern Asia (Japan and Taiwan) an ...
'' in the
Pacific Northwest The Pacific Northwest (PNW) is a geographic region in western North America bounded by its coastal waters of the Pacific Ocean to the west and, loosely, by the Rocky Mountains to the east. Though no official boundary exists, the most common co ...
having similarly aromatic wood are referred to as "false cedars" .


Etymology

Both the Latin word ''cedrus'' and the generic name ''cedrus'' are derived from
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
κέδρος ''kédros''. Ancient Greek and Latin used the same word, ''kédros'' and ''cedrus'', respectively, for different species of plants now classified in the genera ''Cedrus'' and ''Juniperus'' (
juniper Junipers are conifer Conifers are a group of conifer cone, cone-bearing Spermatophyte, seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the phylum, division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Coniferae. The divi ...

juniper
). Species of both genera are native to the area where Greek language and culture originated, though as the word ''kédros'' does not seem to be derived from any of the languages of the
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...

Middle East
, it has been suggested the word may originally have applied to Greek species of juniper and was later adopted for species now classified in the genus ''Cedrus'' because of the similarity of their aromatic woods.Meiggs, R. 1982. Trees and Timber in the Ancient Mediterranean World. The name was similarly applied to
citron The citron (''Citrus medica'') is a large fragrant citrus fruit with a thick Peel (fruit), rind. It is one of the original citrus fruits from which all other citrus types developed through natural hybrid speciation or artificial Hybrid (biolog ...

citron
and the word
citrus ''Citrus'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circums ...

citrus
is derived from the same root.Andrews, A. C. 1961. Acclimatization of citrus fruits in the Mediterranean region. ''Agricultural History'' 35: 35–46. However, as a loan word in English, cedar had become fixed to its
biblical The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, ''tà biblía'', "the books") is a collection of religious texts or scriptures sacred to Christians, Jews, Samaritans, Rastafari and others. It appears in the form of an anthology, a compilat ...

biblical
sense of ''Cedrus'' by the time of its first recorded usage in AD 1000.''
Oxford English Dictionary The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal historical dictionary A historical dictionary or dictionary on historical principles is a dictionary which deals not only with the latterday meanings of words but also the historica ...
''.


See also

*
List of plants known as cedar Cedar is part of the English common name of many trees and other plants, particularly those of the genus ''Cedrus''. Some botanical authorities consider ''Cedrus'' the only Cedrus#Nomenclature, "true cedars". Many other species with similarly arom ...
*
Cedars of God The Cedars of God ( ar, أرز الربّ ''Arz al-Rabb'' "Cedars of God"), located in the Kadisha Valley of Bsharre, Lebanon, are one of the last vestiges of the extensive forests of the Cedrus libani, Lebanon cedar that anciently thrived across ...

Cedars of God
in the Kadisha Valley of
Bsharri Bsharri ( ar, بشرّي ''Bšarrī''; syr, ܒܫܪܝ; also Romanized ''Becharre'', ''Bcharre'', ''Bsharre'', (''Bcharre El Arez بشرّي الارز'') is a town at an altitude of about to . It is located in the Bsharri District of the Nort ...

Bsharri
,
Lebanon Lebanon ( , ar, لُبْنَان, translit=lubnān, ), officially the Republic of Lebanon or the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part ...

Lebanon


References


External links


Cedar of Meudon
A tree in Meudon near Paris, France that has fascinated people through time {{Authority control Conifer genera Ornamental trees Plants used in bonsai Wood