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In
economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a bran ...

economics
, the word cargo refers in particular to
goods In economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant ...

goods
or
produce Produce is a generalized term for many farm-produced crops, including fruits and vegetables (grains, oats, etc. are also sometimes considered ''produce''). More specifically, the term ''produce'' often implies that the products are wikt:fresh, fr ...

produce
being conveyed—generally for
commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Television advertisement * (adjective for:) commerce, a system of voluntary exchange of products and se ...

commercial
gain—by water, air or land. "Freight" is the money paid to carry cargo. ''Cargo'' was originally a shipload. Cargo now covers all types of freight, including that carried by
rail Rail or rails may refer to: Rail transport *Rail transport and related matters *Rail (rail transport) or railway lines, the running surface of a railway Film *Rails (film), ''Rails'' (film), a 1929 Italian film by Mario Camerini *Rail (1967 fil ...
,
van A van is a type of road vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo. Vehicles include wagons, bicycles, motor vehicles (motorcycles, cars, trucks, buses), railed vehicles (trains, trams), watercraf ...

van
,
truck A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle A motor vehicle, also known as motorized vehicle or automotive vehicle, is a self-propelled vehicle, commonly wheeled, that does not operate on Track (rail transport), rails (such as trains or trams) ...

truck
, or
intermodal container An intermodal container, often called a shipping container, is a large standardized shipping container A shipping container is a with strength suitable to withstand shipment, storage, and handling. Shipping containers range from large reusa ...
. The term cargo is also used in case of goods in the cold-chain, because the perishable
inventory Inventory () or stock () refers to the goods and materials that a holds for the ultimate goal of resale, production or utilisation. is a discipline primarily about specifying the shape and placement of stocked goods. It is required at differen ...
is always in transit towards a final end-use, even when it is held in
cold storage Cold storage may refer to: Arts and entertainment * CoLD SToRAGE, an alias of the musician Tim Wright (born 1967) * Cold Storage (1951 film), ''Cold Storage'' (1951 film), a 1951 animated short film starring Disney's Pluto * ''The Walking Dead: Co ...

cold storage
or other similar climate-controlled facility. The term freight is commonly used to describe the movements of flows of goods being transported by any
mode of transport Mode of transport is a term used to distinguish between different ways of transportation or transporting people or goods. The different modes of transport are aviation, air, ship transport, water, and land transport, which includes rail transport, ...
ation. Multi-modal container units, designed as reusable carriers to facilitate unit load handling of the goods contained, are also referred to as cargo, specially by shipping lines and logistics operators. Similarly, aircraft ULD boxes are also documented as cargo, with associated packing list of the items contained within. When empty containers are shipped each unit is documented as a cargo and when goods are stored within, the contents are termed as containerised cargo.


Description

Transportation types: Cargo can travel via many different modalities:


Marine

Seaport A port is a maritime Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps, a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps * Maritime Region, a region in Togo * Maritime Southeast Asia * The Maritimes, the Canadian provinces of ...

Seaport
terminals handle a wide range of maritime cargo. #
Break bulk cargo In shipping Freight transport is the physical process of transport Transport (commonly used in the U.K.), or transportation (used in the U.S.), is the Motion, movement of humans, animals and cargo, goods from one location to another. In ...
is typically material stacked on
pallet A pallet () (also called a skid) is a flat transport structure, which supports goods in a stable fashion while being lifted by a forklift A forklift (also called lift truck, jitney, fork truck, fork hoist, and forklift truck) is a powe ...
s and lifted into and out of the hold of a vessel by cranes on the dock or aboard the ship itself. The volume of break bulk cargo has declined dramatically worldwide as
containerization Containerization is a system of intermodal freight transport . Intermodal freight transport involves the transportation of cargo, freight in an intermodal container An intermodal container, often called a shipping container, is a lar ...

containerization
has grown. One way to secure break bulk and freight in
intermodal container An intermodal container, often called a shipping container, is a large standardized shipping container A shipping container is a with strength suitable to withstand shipment, storage, and handling. Shipping containers range from large reusa ...
s is by using
Dunnage Bags Dunnage bags, also known as airbags, and inflatable bags, are used to secure and stabilize cargo In economics, the word cargo refers in particular to goods or produce being conveyed—generally for Commerce, commercial gain—by water, a ...
. #
Bulk cargo Bulk cargo is commodity cargo that is transported packaging, unpackaged in large quantities. Description It refers to material in either liquid or granular, particulate form, as a mass of relatively small solids, such as petroleum/crude oi ...
, such as
salt Salt is a mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure fo ...

salt
,
oil An oil is any nonpolar In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound ...

oil
,
tallow Tallow is a rendering (industrial), rendered form of beef or mutton fat, primarily made up of triglycerides. In industry, tallow is not strictly defined as beef or mutton fat. In this context, tallow is animal fat that conforms to certain techni ...

tallow
, and
scrap metal Scrap consists of recyclable materials left over from product manufacturing and consumption, such as parts of vehicles, building supplies, and surplus materials. Unlike waste, scrap has monetary value, especially recovered metals, and non-metal ...

scrap metal
, is usually defined as commodities that are neither on pallets nor in containers. Bulk cargoes are not handled as individual pieces, the way heavy-lift and project cargoes are.
Alumina Aluminium oxide is a of and with the 23. It is the most commonly occurring of several , and specifically identified as aluminium(III) oxide. It is commonly called alumina and may also be called aloxide, aloxite, or alundum depending on part ...

Alumina
,
grain A grain is a small, hard, dry seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album ...

grain
,
gypsum Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral The sulfate minerals are a class of mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with ...

gypsum
, logs, and wood chips, for instance, are bulk cargoes. Bulk cargo is classified as
liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics Fluid mechanics is the branch of physics concerned with the mechanics Mechanics (Ancient Greek, Greek: ) is the area of physics concerned with the motions of physical objects, ...

liquid
or dry. #
Container Cargo
Container Cargo
: Containers are the largest and fastest growing cargo category at most ports worldwide. Containerized cargo includes everything from
auto part This is a list of automotive parts, mostly for vehicles using internal combustion engines which are manufactured components of automobile A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of ''cars'' s ...

auto part
s,
machinery A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular machine A molecular machine, nanite, or nanomachine is a molecular component that produc ...

machinery
and manufacturing components to
shoe A shoe is an item of footwear intended to protect and comfort the Foot, human foot. Shoes are also used as an item of decoration and fashion. The design of shoes has varied enormously through time and from culture to culture, with form origin ...

shoe
s and
toy A toy is an item that is used primarily by children though may also be marketed to adults under certain circumstances. Playing with toys can be an enjoyable means of training young children for life experiences. Different materials like wood, ...

toy
s to frozen
meat Meat is animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume organic material, Cellular respiratio ...

meat
and
seafood Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans, prominently including fish Fish are , , -bearing animals that lack with . Included in this definition are the living , s, and and as well as various extinct related groups. ...

seafood
. #
Neo-bulk cargoIn the ocean shipping trade, neo-bulk cargo is a type of cargo that is a subcategory of general cargo, alongside the other subcategories of break-bulk cargo and containerization, containerized cargo. (Gerhardt Muller, erstwhile professor at the Unit ...
comprises individual units that are counted as they are loaded and unloaded, in contrast to bulk cargo that is not counted, but that are not containerized. #
Project cargoProject cargo is a term used to broadly describe the national or international transportation of large, heavy, high value or a critical (to the project they are intended for) pieces of equipment. Also commonly referred to as ''Heavy lift''. Descri ...
and the heavy lift cargo include items like manufacturing equipment, air conditioners, factory components, generators,
wind turbine A wind turbine is a device that converts Religious conversion is the adoption of a set of beliefs identified with one particular religious denomination A religious denomination is a subgroup within a religion Religion is a social s ...

wind turbine
s, military equipment, and almost any other oversized or overweight cargo which is too big or too heavy to fit into a container. # Roll-on/roll-off Cargo:
Automobiles A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle Electric bicycles parked in Yangzhou's main street, Wenchang Lu. They are a very common way of transport in this city, in some areas almost outnumbering regular bicycles A motor vehicle, also k ...

Automobiles
are handled at many ports and are usually carried on specialized
roll-on/roll-off Roll-on/roll-off (RORO or ro-ro) ship A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep Sea lane, waterways, carrying goods or passengers, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, re ...
ships. # Please also see:
List of cargo types Primary maritime cargo types References {{Container shipping companies Intermodal containers Economic globalization ...


Air

Air cargo, commonly known as ''air freight'', is collected by firms from shippers and delivered to customers. Aircraft were first used for carrying mail as cargo in 1911. Eventually manufacturers started designing aircraft for other types of freight as well. There are many commercial aircraft suitable for carrying cargo such as the
Boeing 747 The Boeing 747 is a large, long–range wide-body airliner A wide-body aircraft, also known as a twin-aisle aircraft, is an airliner An airliner is a type of aircraft for transporting passengers and air cargo. Such aircraft are most ...

Boeing 747
and the bigger
An‑124
An‑124
, which was purposely built for easy conversion into a
cargo aircraft A cargo aircraft (also known as freight aircraft, freighter, airlifter or cargo jet) is a fixed-wing aircraft A fixed-wing aircraft is a heavier-than-air flying machine Early flying machines include all forms of aircraft studied or c ...

cargo aircraft
. Such large aircraft employ quick-loading containers known as
unit load device A unit load device (ULD) is a Intermodal container, container used to load luggage, freight, and mail on wide-body aircraft A wide-body aircraft, also known as a twin-aisle aircraft, is an airliner An airliner is a type of aircraft for tra ...
s (ULDs), much like containerized cargo ships. The ULDs are located in the front section of the aircraft. Most nations own and utilize large numbers of military cargo aircraft such as the
C‑17 Globemaster III
C‑17 Globemaster III
for logistical needs. Popular commercial aircraft transformed to a cargo aircraft such as
Saab 340A The Saab 340 is a Swedish twin-engine turboprop A turboprop engine is a turbine engine A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of continuous Continuity or continuous may refer to: Mathematics * Continuity (mathemati ...
is designed for high revenue and profitability in short / medium haul operations.


Rail

Trains are capable of transporting a large number of containers that come from shipping ports. Trains are also used for the transportation of water, cement, grain, steel, wood and coal. They are used because they can carry a large amount and generally have a direct route to the destination. Under the right circumstances, freight transport by rail is more economic and energy efficient than by road, especially when carried in bulk or over long distances. The main disadvantage of rail freight is its lack of flexibility. For this reason, rail has lost much of the freight business to road transport. Rail freight is often subject to
transshipment Transshipment or transhipment is the shipment of Cargo, goods or Intermodal container, containers to an intermediate destination, then to another destination. One possible reason for transshipment is to change the means of transport during the ...
costs, since it must be transferred from one mode of transportation to another. Practices such as containerization aim at minimizing these costs. When transporting point-to-point bulk loads such as cement or grain, with specialised bulk handling facilities at the rail sidings, rail mode of transport remains the most convenient and preferred option. Many governments are currently trying to encourage shippers to use trains more often because of the environmental benefits.


Road

Many firms, like
Parcelforce Parcelforce Worldwide is a courier A courier is a company, an employee of that company or a person who delivers a message, package or letter from one place or person to another place or person. Duties and functions Couriers are distinguishe ...
,
FedEx FedEx Corporation, formerly Federal Express Corporation and later FDX Corporation, is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational f ...

FedEx
and R+L Carriers transport all types of cargo by road. Delivering everything from letters to
houses A house is a single-unit residential building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. Buildings come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and functi ...
to
cargo containers near Nuneaton, England File:NYK Virgo (8154929586).jpg, An ocean containership close to Cuxhaven, Germany Containerization is a system of intermodal freight transport using intermodal containers (also called shipping containers and Internati ...

cargo containers
, these firms offer fast, sometimes same-day,
delivery Delivery may refer to: *Delivery (commerce), of goods, e.g.: **Pizza delivery **Milk delivery Film and television *Delivering (film), ''Delivering'' (film), a 1993 short film by Todd Field *Delivery (film), ''Delivery'' (film), a 2005 animated sho ...
. A good example of road cargo is food, as
supermarket A supermarket is a self-service Retail#Types of outlets, shop offering a wide variety of food, Drink, beverages and Household goods, household products, organized into sections. This kind of store is larger and has a wider selection than earli ...

supermarket
s require deliveries daily to replenish their shelves with goods. Retailers and manufacturers of all kinds rely upon
delivery truck Delivery is the process of transporting goods from a source location to a predefined destination. Cargo (physical goods) is primarily delivered via roads and Rail transport, railroads on land, shipping lanes on the sea, and airline networks i ...

delivery truck
s, be they full size semi trucks or smaller delivery vans. These smaller road haulage companies constantly strive for the best routes and prices to ship out their products. Indeed, the level of commercial freight transported by smaller businesses is often a good barometer of healthy
economic development In the economic An economy (; ) is an area of the production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act o ...
as it is these types of vehicles that move and transport literally anything, including couriers transporting parcel and mail. You can see the different types and weights of vehicles that are used to move cargo around .


Less-than-truckload freight

Less than truckload (LTL) cargo is the first category of freight shipment, which represents the majority of freight shipments and the majority of business-to-business (B2B) shipments. LTL shipments are also often referred to as ''motor freight'' and the carriers involved are referred to as ''motor carriers''. LTL shipments range from , being less than the majority of times. The average single piece of LTL freight is and the size of a standard pallet. Long freight and/or large freight are subject to extreme length and cubic capacity surcharges. Trailers used in LTL can range from . The standard for city deliveries is usually . In tight and residential environments the trailer is used the most. The shipments are usually palletized, stretch hrinkwrapped and packaged for a mixed-freight environment. Unlike express or parcel, LTL shippers must provide their own packaging, as carriers do not provide any packaging supplies or assistance. However, circumstances may require crating or other substantial packaging.


Air freight

Air freight shipments are very similar to LTL shipments in terms of size and packaging requirements. However, air freight or air cargo shipments typically need to move at much faster speeds than per hour. Air shipments may be booked directly with the carriers, through brokers or with
online marketplace An online marketplace (or online e-commerce marketplace) is a type of e-commerce E-commerce (electronic commerce) is the activity of electronically The field of electronics is a branch of physics and electrical engineering that deals with the ...
services. While shipments move faster than standard LTL, air shipments don't always actually move by air. In the US, there are certain restrictions on shipments moving via air freight on passenger aircraft. Shippers in the US must be approved and be "known" in the Known Shipper Management System before their shipments can be tendered on passenger aircraft.


Truckload freight

In the United States, shipments larger than about are typically classified as truckload (TL) freight. This is because it is more efficient and economical for a large shipment to have exclusive use of one larger trailer rather than share space on a smaller LTL trailer. By the
Federal Bridge Gross Weight Formula truck. The shorter truck causes more wear and tear because all of its weight is concentrated in a smaller area. The Federal Bridge Gross Weight Formula, also known as Bridge Formula B or the Federal Bridge Formula, is a mathematical formula in u ...
the total weight of a loaded truck (tractor and trailer, 5-axle rig) cannot exceed in the United States. In ordinary circumstances, long-haul equipment will weigh about , leaving about of freight capacity. Similarly a load is limited to the space available in the trailer, normally or long, wide, high and high over all. While express, parcel and LTL shipments are always intermingled with other shipments on a single piece of equipment and are typically reloaded across multiple pieces of equipment during their transport, TL shipments usually travel as the only shipment on a trailer. In fact, TL shipments usually deliver on exactly the same trailer as they are picked up on.


Shipment categories

* the type of item being carried. For example, a kettle could fit into the category 'household goods'. * how large the shipment is, in terms of both item size and quantity. * how long the item for delivery will be in transit. * ''Household goods (HHG)'' include furniture, art and similar items. * ''Express:'' Very small business or personal items like envelopes are considered ''overnight express'' or ''express letter shipments''. These shipments are rarely over a few kilograms or pounds and almost always travel in the carrier's own
packaging Packaging is the science Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is a disco ...

packaging
. Express shipments almost always travel some distance by air. An envelope may go coast to coast in the United States overnight or it may take several days, depending on the service options and prices chosen by the shipper. * ''Parcel:'' Larger items like small boxes are considered ''parcels'' or ''ground shipments''. These shipments are rarely over , with no single piece of the shipment weighing more than about . Parcel shipments are always boxed, sometimes in the shipper's packaging and sometimes in carrier-provided packaging. Service levels are again variable but most ground shipments will move about per day. Depending on the origin of the package, it can travel from coast to coast in the United States in about four days. Parcel shipments rarely travel by air and typically move via road and rail. Parcels represent the majority of business-to-consumer (B2C) shipments. * ''Freight:'' Beyond HHG, express, and parcel shipments, movements are termed ''freight shipments''.


Shipping costs

Often, an LTL shipper may realize savings by utilizing a freight broker, online marketplace or other intermediary, instead of contracting directly with a trucking company. Brokers can shop the marketplace and obtain lower rates than most smaller shippers can obtain directly. In the LTL marketplace, intermediaries typically receive 50% to 80% discounts from published rates, where a small shipper may only be offered a 5% to 30% discount by the carrier. Intermediaries are licensed by the DOT and have requirements to provide proof of insurance. Truckload (TL) carriers usually charge a rate per kilometre or mile. The rate varies depending on the distance, geographic location of the delivery, items being shipped, equipment type required, and service times required. TL shipments usually receive a variety of surcharges very similar to those described for LTL shipments above. In the TL market, there are thousands more small carriers than in the LTL market. Therefore, the use of transportation intermediaries or brokers is extremely common. Another cost-saving method is facilitating pickups or deliveries at the carrier's terminals. By doing this, shippers avoid any accessorial fees that might normally be charged for liftgate, residential pickup/
delivery Delivery may refer to: *Delivery (commerce), of goods, e.g.: **Pizza delivery **Milk delivery Film and television *Delivering (film), ''Delivering'' (film), a 1993 short film by Todd Field *Delivery (film), ''Delivery'' (film), a 2005 animated sho ...
, inside pickup/delivery, or notifications/appointments. Carriers or intermediaries can provide shippers with the address and phone number for the closest shipping terminal to the origin and/or destination. Shipping experts optimize their service and costs by sampling rates from several carriers, brokers and online marketplaces. When obtaining rates from different providers, shippers may find a wide range in the pricing offered. If a shipper in the United States uses a broker,
freight forwarder A freight forwarder, forwarder, or forwarding agent, is a person or company that organizes shipments for individuals or corporations A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as ...
or other transportation intermediary, it is common for the shipper to receive a copy of the carrier's Federal Operating Authority. Freight brokers and intermediaries are also required by Federal Law to be licensed by the
Federal Highway Administration The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a division of the United States Department of Transportation that specializes in highway transportation. The agency's major activities are grouped into two programs, the Federal-aid Highway Program a ...
. Experienced shippers avoid unlicensed brokers and forwarders because if brokers are working outside the law by not having a Federal Operating License, the shipper has no protection in the event of a problem. Also, shippers normally ask for a copy of the broker's insurance certificate and any specific insurance that applies to the shipment. Overall, shipping costs have fallen over the past decades. A further drop in shipping costs in the future might be realized through the application of improved
3D printing 3D printing, or additive manufacturing, is the construction of a three-dimensional object from a CAD Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computers (or ) to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design. Th ...
technologies. 


Security concerns

Governments are very concerned with the shipment of cargo, as it may bring security risks to a country. Therefore, many governments have enacted rules and regulations, administered by a
customs Customs is an authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social science that u ...

customs
agency, to the handling of cargo to minimize risks of
terrorism Terrorism, in its broadest sense, is the use of intentional violence to achieve political aims. The term is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime Peace is a concept of societal friendship and harmony in the ...
and other crime. Governments are particularly concerned with cargo entering through a country's borders. The United States has been one of the leaders in securing cargo. They see cargo as a concern to
national security National security or national defence is the security Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential Potential generally refers to a currently unrealized ability. The term is used in a wide variety of fields, from physics ...
. After the terrorist attacks of September 11th, the security of this magnitude of cargo has become highlighted on the over 6 million cargo containers enter the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
ports each year. The latest US Government response to this threat is the CSI: Container Security Initiative. CSI is a program intended to help increase security for containerised cargo shipped to the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
from around the world. Europe is also focusing on this issue, with a number of EU-funded projects underway.


Stabilization

There are many different ways and materials available to stabilize and secure cargo in various modes of transport. Conventional
load securing Load securing, also known as cargo securing, is the securing of cargo for transportation. According to the European Commission Transportation Department “it has been estimated that up to 25% of accidents involving trucks can be attributable to in ...
methods and materials such as steel
strapping Strapping, also known as bundling and banding, is the process of applying a strap to an item to combine, stabilize, hold, reinforce, or fasten it. The strap may also be referred to as ''strapping''. Strapping is most commonly used in the packagin ...
and plastic/wood blocking & bracing have been used for decades and are still widely used. Present load securing methods offer several other options including polyester strapping and lashing, synthetic webbings and dunnage bags, also known as air bags or inflatable bags. Practical advise on stabilization is given in the International Guidelines on Safe Load Securing for Road Transport.International Guidelines on Safe Load Securing for Road Transport
Image:Stabilizing_capabilities_Cordstrap_dunnage_bags.jpg, Application in container Image:Lashing_and_dunnage_bag_application.JPG, Polyester strapping and dunnage bag Image:Lashing_application_flat_rack.jpg, Polyester lashing Image:Amphorae stacking.jpg,
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the Three-age sys ...
amphora An amphora (; grc, ἀμφορεύς, ''amphoreús''; English plural: amphorae or amphoras) is a type of container with a pointed bottom and characteristic shape and size which fit tightly (and therefore safely) against each other in storag ...
e from shipwrecks near
Bodrum Bodrum () is a district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by the local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or County, counties, sever ...

Bodrum
, Turkey, with rack and roping device illustrating how they might have been kept from shifting


See also

*
Cargo airline Cargo airlines (or air freight carriers, and derivatives of these names) are airline An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passenger A passenger (also abbreviated as pax) is a person who travels in a ...
* Cargo sampling * Cargo scanning * Counter-to-counter package *
Delivery Delivery may refer to: *Delivery (commerce), of goods, e.g.: **Pizza delivery **Milk delivery Film and television *Delivering (film), ''Delivering'' (film), a 1993 short film by Todd Field *Delivery (film), ''Delivery'' (film), a 2005 animated sho ...
*
DAT Solutions DAT Solutions, LLC, often referred to as DAT Freight & Analytics, and originally known as Dial-a-Truck, is a US-based freight exchange service ("load board") and provider of transportation information serving North America. Freight exchange servi ...
(a.k.a. Dial-a-truck) *
Freight company Freight companies are companies that specialize in the moving (or "Freight forwarding, forwarding") of freight, or cargo, from one place to another. These companies are divided into several variant sections. For example, international freight forwa ...
* Freight Transport Association *
Goods In economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant ...
*
Goods train In economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant ...
*
List of cargo types Primary maritime cargo types References {{Container shipping companies Intermodal containers Economic globalization ...
*
Products Product may refer to: Business * Product (business), an item that serves as a solution to a specific consumer problem. * Product (project management), a deliverable or set of deliverables that contribute to a business solution Mathematics * Produc ...
*
Standard Carrier Alpha Codes The Standard Carrier Alpha Code (SCAC) is a privately controlled US code used to identify vessel operating common carriers (VOCC). It is typically two to four letters long. The National Motor Freight Traffic Association developed the SCAC code in ...
*
Document automationDocument automation (also known as document assembly or document management) is the design of systems and workflows that assist in the creation of electronic documents. These include logic-based systems that use segments of pre-existing text and/or ...
in management


References


Reference bibliography

**


External links

* * * {{Portal bar, Aviation, Trains, Transport, Space exploration/Featured/December 2006 , Underwater diving Freight transport Transport law Goods (economics)