HOME

TheInfoList




Thomas Wolsey (c. March 1473 – 29 November 1530) was an English statesman and Catholic
bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Moravian Chu ...

bishop
. When
Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 12 July 927, when it emerged fro ...

Henry VIII
became King of England in 1509, Wolsey became the king's
almoner Image:La retraite de l'aumônier ou Le bréviaire.jpg, , ''The portrait of the almoner'' or ''The breviary'' (1886) by Jules-Alexis Muenier. An almoner is a chaplain or church officer who originally was in charge of distributing money to the deserv ...
. Wolsey's affairs prospered, and by 1514 he had become the controlling figure in virtually all matters of state. He also held important ecclesiastical appointments. These included the
Archbishopric of York The Archbishop of York is a senior bishop in the Church of England, second only to the archbishop of Canterbury. The archbishop is the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of York and the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York, which covers the n ...
—the second most important role in the English church—and that of
papal legate 300px, A woodcut showing Henry II of England greeting the pope's legate. A papal legate or apostolic legate (from the ancient Roman In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Gr ...
. His appointment as a
cardinal Cardinal or The Cardinal may refer to: Christianity * Cardinal (Catholic Church), a senior official of the Catholic Church * Cardinal (Church of England), two members of the College of Minor Canons of St. Paul's Cathedral Navigation * Cardina ...
by
Pope Leo X Pope Leo X (born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, 11 December 14751 December 1521) was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521. Born into the prominent political and banking Medici family ...

Pope Leo X
in 1515 gave him precedence over all other English clergy. The highest political position Wolsey attained was
Lord Chancellor The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest-ranking among the in in the , nominally outranking the . The lord chancellor is appointed by the on the advice of the prime minister. Prior to their i ...
, the king's chief adviser (formally, as his successor and disciple
Thomas Cromwell Thomas Cromwell, (; 1485 – 28 July 1540) was an English lawyer and statesman who served as chief minister to King Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the King ...

Thomas Cromwell
was not). In that position, he enjoyed great freedom and was often depicted as an ''alter rex'' ("other king"). After failing to negotiate an annulment of Henry's marriage to
Catherine of Aragon Catherine of Aragon (; 16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536) was Queen of England as the first wife of King Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom o ...

Catherine of Aragon
, Wolsey fell out of favour and was stripped of his government titles. He retreated to York to fulfil his ecclesiastical duties as archbishop, a position he nominally held but had neglected during his years in government. He was recalled to London to answer to charges of treason—charges Henry commonly used against ministers who fell out of his favour—but died on the way from natural causes.


Early life

Thomas Wolsey was born about 1473, the son of Robert Wolsey of
Ipswich Ipswich () is a large port town and borough in Suffolk Suffolk () is a ceremonial Counties of England, county of England in East Anglia. It borders Norfolk to the north, Cambridgeshire to the west and Essex to the south. The North Sea lie ...

Ipswich
and his wife, Joan Daundy. Widespread traditions identify his father as a butcher; his modest origin became a topic of criticism later, when he amassed wealth and power that critics thought more befitting a member of the high
nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility has often been an Estates of the realm, estate of the realm that p ...
. Wolsey attended
Ipswich School Ipswich School is a Public school (United Kingdom), public school (English Independent school (United Kingdom), independent Day school, day and boarding school) for pupils aged 3 to 18 in Ipswich, Suffolk, England. North of the town centre, Ip ...

Ipswich School
and Magdalen College School before studying theology at
Magdalen College, Oxford Magdalen College ( ) is a constituent college A collegiate university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) educ ...

Magdalen College, Oxford
. On 10 March 1498 he was ordained as a priest in
Marlborough Marlborough may refer to: Places United Kingdom * Marlborough, Wiltshire, England ** Marlborough College, public school * Malborough, village in Devon, England * Marlborough School, Woodstock in Oxfordshire, England * The Marlborough Science Acade ...
, Wiltshire, and remained in Oxford, first as the Master of Magdalen College School, and soon the dean of divinity. From 1500 to 1509 Wolsey held a living as rector of St Mary's church, Limington, in
Somerset ( en, All The People of Somerset) , locator_map = , coordinates = , region = South West England South West England is one of nine official regions of England The regions, formerly known as the government office regions, are the ...

Somerset
. In 1502, he became a chaplain to Henry Deane, archbishop of Canterbury, who died the following year. He was then taken into the household of Sir Richard Nanfan, who made Wolsey executor of his estate. After Nanfan's death in 1507, Wolsey entered the service of King
Henry VIIHenry VII may refer to: * Henry VII of England (1457–1509), King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1485 until his death in 1509; the founder of the House of Tudor * Henry VII, Duke of Bavaria (died 1047), count of Luxembourg (as Henry II) from 1 ...
. Wolsey benefited from Henry VII's introduction of measures to curb the power of the nobility; the king was willing to favour those from more humble backgrounds. Henry VII appointed Wolsey
royal chaplain A royal chapel is a chapel associated with a monarch, a royal court, or in a royal palace. A royal chapel may also be a Chapel (music), body of clergy or musicians serving at a royal court or employed by a monarch. Commonwealth countries Both t ...
. In this position Wolsey served as secretary to
Richard Foxe Arms of Richard Foxe: ''Azure, a pelican in her piety on her nest proper'' with pelican often shown ''or'' Richard Foxe (sometimes Richard Fox) ( 1448 – 5 October 1528) was an English churchman, the founder of Corpus Christi College, ...
, who recognised Wolsey's ability, dedication, industry and willingness to take on tedious tasks. Wolsey's remarkable rise to power from humble origins attests to his intelligence, administrative ability, industriousness, ambition, and rapport with the king. In April 1508, Wolsey was sent to Scotland to discuss with
King James IV James IV (17 March 1473 – 9 September 1513) was King of Scotland The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. According to tradition, the first King of Scots was Kenneth I MacAlpin (Cináed mac Ailpín), who f ...

King James IV
rumours of the renewal of the
Auld Alliance The Auld Alliance ( Scots for "Old Alliance"; ; ) was an alliance made in 1295 between the kingdoms of Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Brit ...
. Wolsey's rise coincided with the accession in April 1509 of Henry VIII, whose character, policies and attitude to diplomacy differed significantly from his father's. In 1509 Henry appointed Wolsey to the post of almoner, a position that gave him a seat on the
Privy Council A privy council is a body that advises the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 "he head of state He or HE may refer to: ...
and an opportunity to attain greater prominence and establish personal rapport with the king. A factor in Wolsey's rise was the young Henry VIII's relative lack of interest in the details of government during his early years.


Rise to prominence

The primary counsellors Henry VIII inherited from his father were
Richard Foxe Arms of Richard Foxe: ''Azure, a pelican in her piety on her nest proper'' with pelican often shown ''or'' Richard Foxe (sometimes Richard Fox) ( 1448 – 5 October 1528) was an English churchman, the founder of Corpus Christi College, ...
( 1448–1528, Bishop of Winchester 1501–1528) and
William Warham William Warham (c. 1450 – 22 August 1532) was the Archbishop of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and th ...

William Warham
( 1450–1532, Archbishop of Canterbury 1503–1532). They were cautious and conservative, advising the king to act as a careful administrator like his father. Henry soon appointed to his Privy Council men more sympathetic to his own views and inclinations. Until 1511, Wolsey was adamantly antiwar, but when the king expressed his enthusiasm for an invasion of France, Wolsey adapted his views to the king's and gave persuasive speeches to the Privy Council in favour of war. Warham and Foxe, who did not share the king's enthusiasm for the French war, fell from power (1515/1516), and Wolsey took over as the king's most trusted advisor and administrator. When Warham resigned as
Lord Chancellor The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest-ranking among the in in the , nominally outranking the . The lord chancellor is appointed by the on the advice of the prime minister. Prior to their i ...
in 1515, probably under pressure from Wolsey and the king, Henry appointed Wolsey in his place. Wolsey made careful moves to destroy or neutralise other courtiers' influence. He helped cause the fall of
Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham (3 February 1478 – 17 May 1521) was an English nobleman. He was the son of Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, KG (4 September 1455 – 2 November ...
in 1521, and in 1527 he prosecuted Henry's close friend William Compton and Henry's ex-mistress
Anne Stafford, Countess of Huntingdon Anne Hastings, Countess of Huntingdon (''née'' Lady Anne Stafford) (c. 1483–1544) was an English noble. She was the daughter of Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, and Catherine Woodville, Duchess of Buckingham and Bedford, Lady Katherine ...
, for adultery. In the case of
Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk, 1st Viscount Lisle, His Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, PC (22 August 1545) was an English military leader and courtier. Through his third wife, Mary Tudor, Queen of France, Mary Tudor, he was br ...

Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk
, Wolsey adopted a different strategy, attempting to win Suffolk's favour by his actions after the duke secretly married Henry's sister Mary Tudor, Dowager Queen of France, much to the king's displeasure. Wolsey advised the king not to execute the newlyweds but to embrace them; whether this was out of care for the couple or because of the threat they posed to his own safety remains unclear. The bride, both as sister to Henry and as Dowager Queen of France, had high royal status that could have threatened Wolsey had she so chosen. Wolsey's rise to a position of great secular power paralleled his increasing status in the church. He became a
canon of Windsor Image:WindsorLowerBaileyJosephNash1848 edited.jpg, 300px, St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle, left, 1848. File:RogerLupton Died1540 MonumentalBrass EtonCollege.png, upRubbing of monumental brass in Eton College Chapel, of Roger Lupton (d.1540) wi ...
in 1511. In 1514 he was made
Bishop of Lincoln The Bishop of Lincoln is the ordinary Ordinary or The Ordinary often refer to: Music * Ordinary (EP), ''Ordinary'' (EP) (2015), by South Korean group Beast * Ordinary (Every Little Thing album), ''Ordinary'' (Every Little Thing album) (2011) * ...
and then Archbishop of York in the same year.
Pope Leo X Pope Leo X (born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, 11 December 14751 December 1521) was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521. Born into the prominent political and banking Medici family ...

Pope Leo X
made him a cardinal in 1515, with the titular church of St Cecilia in Trastevere. Following the success of the English campaign in France and the peace negotiations that followed, Wolsey's ecclesiastical career advanced further: in 1523 he became
Bishop of Durham The Bishop of Durham is the Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junc ...
, a post with wide political powers, and thus became known as Prince-Bishop of Durham.


Foreign policy


War with France

The Anglo-French War (1512–14) gave Wolsey a significant opportunity to demonstrate his talents in foreign policy. A convenient justification for going to war came in 1511 in the form of a plea for help from
Pope Julius II Pope Julius II ( it, Papa Giulio II; la, Iulius II; born Giuliano della Rovere; 5 December 144321 February 1513) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian c ...

Pope Julius II
, who was beginning to feel threatened by France. England formed an alliance with Julius, King
Ferdinand V of Spain Ferdinand II ( an, Ferrando; ca, Ferran; eu, Errando; es, Fernando; 10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516) was King of Aragon from 1479 to his death. As the husband of Queen Isabella I of Castile, he was King of Castile from 1474 to 1504 as Ferdi ...
, and
Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519) was King of the Romans from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. He was never crowned by the pope, as the journey to Rome was blocked by the Venetians. He was instead proclaimed ...

Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
against King
Louis XII of France Louis XII (27 June 14621 January 1515) was List of French monarchs, King of France from 1498 to 1515 and King of Naples from 1501 to 1504. The son of Charles, Duke of Orléans, and Maria of Cleves, he succeeded his 2nd cousin once removed and br ...
. The first English campaign against France proved unsuccessful, partly due to the unreliability of the alliance with Ferdinand. Henry learned from the mistakes of the campaign and in 1513, still with papal support, launched a joint attack on France with Maximilian, successfully capturing two French cities and causing the French to retreat. Wolsey's ability to keep a large number of troops supplied and equipped for the duration of the war proved a major factor in the English success. He also had a key role in negotiating the Anglo-French treaty of 7 August 1514, which secured a temporary peace between the two nations. Under this treaty, would marry Henry's young sister,
Mary Mary may refer to: People * Mary (name) Mary is a feminine Femininity (also called womanliness or girlishness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with women and girls. Although femininity is socially constru ...
. In addition England was able to keep the captured city of
Tournai Tournai or Tournay ( ; ; nl, Doornik ; pcd, Tornai; wa, Tornè ; la, Tornacum) is a city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , countr ...

Tournai
and secure an increase in the annual pension France paid. Meanwhile, a turnover of rulers in Europe threatened to diminish England's influence. With Henry's sister, Mary, married to Louis XII on 9 October 1514, an alliance was formed, but Louis was not in good health. Less than three months later, he died and was succeeded by the young and ambitious
Francis IFrancis I or Francis the First may refer to: * Francesco I Gonzaga (1366–1407) * Francis I, Duke of Brittany (1414–1450), reigned 1442–1450 * Francis I of France (1494–1547), reigned 1515–1547 * Francis I, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg (1510–15 ...
. Queen Mary had allegedly secured a promise from Henry that if Louis died, she could marry whomever she pleased. Following Louis's death, she secretly married Suffolk, with Francis I's assistance, which prevented another marriage alliance. As Mary was the only princess Henry could use to secure marriage alliances, this was a bitter blow. Wolsey then proposed an alliance with Spain and the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
against France.


Papal legate

The 1516 death of
Ferdinand II of Aragon Ferdinand II of Aragon ( an, Ferrando; ca, Ferran; eu, Errando; es, Fernando; 10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516), also called ''Ferdinand the Catholic'', was King of Aragon from 1479, King of Sicily (as Ferdinand II) from 1469, List of monar ...
, Henry VIII's father-in-law and England's closest ally, was a further blow. Ferdinand was succeeded by
Charles VCharles V may refer to: * Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, german: Karl V, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and offici ...

Charles V
, who immediately proposed peace with France. After Maximilian I's death in 1519, Charles was elected in his stead; thus Charles ruled a substantial portion of Europe and English influence became limited on the continent. But Wolsey managed to assert English influence by other means. In 1517,
Pope Leo X Pope Leo X (born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, 11 December 14751 December 1521) was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521. Born into the prominent political and banking Medici family ...

Pope Leo X
sought peace in Europe to form a crusade against the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
. In 1518 Wolsey was made
Papal Legate 300px, A woodcut showing Henry II of England greeting the pope's legate. A papal legate or apostolic legate (from the ancient Roman In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Gr ...
in England, enabling him to realise Leo's desire for peace by organising the Treaty of London. The treaty showed Wolsey as the arbiter of Europe, organising a massive peace summit involving 20 nations. This put England at the forefront of European diplomacy and drew her out of isolation, making her a desirable ally. This is well illustrated by the Anglo-French treaty signed two days afterwards. It was partly this peace treaty that caused conflict between France and Spain. In 1519, when Charles V ascended to the throne of the Holy Roman Emperor, King Francis I of France was infuriated. He had invested enormous sums in bribing the electorate to elect him emperor, and thus used the Treaty of London as a justification for the Habsburg-Valois conflict. Wolsey appeared to act as mediator between the two powers, both of which were vying for England's support.


Field of the Cloth of Gold

Another of Wolsey's diplomatic triumphs was the
Field of the Cloth of Gold The Field of the Cloth of Gold (french: Camp du Drap d'Or, ) was a summit meeting A summit meeting (or just summit) is an international meeting of Head of state, heads of state or Head of government, government, usually with considerable media e ...
in 1520. Wolsey organised much of this grandiose meeting between Francis I and Henry VIII, accompanied by 5,000 followers and involving court activities more than military discussion. Though it seemed to open the door to peaceful negotiations with France if the king wished, it was also a chance for a lavish display of English wealth and power before the rest of Europe, through flamboyant celebrations and events such as jousting, with the two kings competing, though not against each other. With France and Spain vying for England's allegiance, Wolsey could choose the ally that better suited his policies. Wolsey chose Charles mainly because England's economy would suffer from the loss of the lucrative cloth trade industry between England and the Netherlands had France been chosen instead. Under Wolsey's guidance, Europe's chief nations sought to outlaw war among Christian nations.
Garrett MattinglyGarrett Mattingly (May 6, 1900 – December 18, 1962) was a professor of European history at Columbia University who specialized in early modern diplomatic history. In 1960 he won a Pulitzer Prize for '' The Defeat of the Spanish Armada''. Early l ...
, who has studied the causes of wars in that era, found that treaties of non-aggression such as this one could never be stronger than their sponsors' armies. When those forces were about equal, the treaties typically widened the conflict. That is, diplomacy could sometimes postpone war, but could not prevent wars based on irreconcilable interests and ambitions. What was lacking, Mattingly concludes, was a neutral power whose judgements were generally accepted either by impartial justice or by overwhelming force.


Alliance with Spain

The Treaty of London is often regarded as Wolsey's finest moment, but it was abandoned within a year. Wolsey developed links with Charles in 1520 at the Field of the Cloth of Gold. At the Calais Conference Wolsey signed the Secret Treaty of Bruges (1521) with Charles V, stating that England would join Spain in a war against France if France refused to sign the peace treaty and ignored the Anglo-French treaty of 1518. Wolsey's relationship with Rome was also ambivalent. Despite his links to the papacy, Wolsey was strictly Henry's servant. Though the Treaty of London was an elaboration on Pope Leo's ambitions for European peace, it was seen in Rome as a vain attempt by England to assert her influence over Europe and steal some papal thunder. Furthermore, Wolsey's peace initiatives prevented a crusade to the
Holy Land The Holy Land (: , la, Terra Sancta; : or ) is an area roughly located between the and the Eastern Bank of the . Traditionally, it is synonymous both with the biblical and with the . The term "Holy Land" usually refers to a territory ro ...

Holy Land
, which was the catalyst for the Pope's desire for European peace. Cardinal
Lorenzo Campeggio Lorenzo Campeggio (7 November 1474 – 19 July 1539) was an Italian cardinal and politician. He was the last cardinal protector of England. Life Campeggio was born in Milan Milan (, , Milanese: ; it, Milano ) is a city in northern ...

Lorenzo Campeggio
, who represented the Pope at the Treaty of London, was kept waiting for many months in Calais before being allowed to cross the Channel and join the festivities in London in what may have been a display by Wolsey of his independence of Rome. An alternative hypothesis is that Campeggio was kept waiting until Wolsey received his legacy, thus asserting Wolsey's attachment to Rome. Though the English gain from the wars of 1522–23 was minimal, their contribution certainly aided Charles V in his defeat of the French, particularly in 1525 at the
Battle of Pavia The Battle of Pavia, fought on the morning of 24 February 1525, was the decisive engagement of the Italian War of 1521–1526 between the Kingdom of France and the Habsburg empire of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, Holy Roman Empero ...

Battle of Pavia
, where Charles's army captured Francis I. Henry then felt there was a realistic opportunity for him to seize the French crown, to which the kings of England had long laid claim. Parliament, however, refused to raise taxes. This led Wolsey to devise the Amicable Grant, which was met with even more hostility, and ultimately led to his downfall. In 1525, after Charles V had abandoned England as an ally, Wolsey began to negotiate with France, and the Treaty of the More was signed, during Francis I's captivity, with the Regent of France—his mother,
Louise of Savoy Louise of Savoy (11 September 1476 – 22 September 1531) was a French noble and regent, Duchess ''suo jure ''Suo jure'' is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. L ...

Louise of Savoy
. The closeness between England and Rome can be seen in the formulation of the
League of Cognac The War of the League of Cognac (1526–30) was fought between the Habsburg The House of Habsburg (; ; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; german: Haus Habsburg, es, Casa de Habsburgo, hu, Habsburg-család), also House of Austria (g ...
in 1526. Though England was not part of it, the League was organised in part by Wolsey with papal support. Wolsey's plan was that the League of Cognac, an alliance between France and some Italian states, would challenge Charles's
League of Cambrai League or The League may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media *''A League of Their Own'', a 1992 American sports comedy-drama film *''In League with Dragons'', a 2019 studio album by The Mountain Goats * ''League of Legends'', a 2009 video ga ...
. This was both a gesture of allegiance to Rome and an answer to growing concerns about Charles's dominance over Europe. The final blow to this policy came in 1529, when the French made peace with Charles. Meanwhile, the French also continued to honour the "
Auld Alliance The Auld Alliance ( Scots for "Old Alliance"; ; ) was an alliance made in 1295 between the kingdoms of Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Brit ...
" with Scotland, stirring up hostility on England's border. With peace between France and the Emperor, there was no-one to free the Pope from Charles, who had effectively held
Pope Clement VII Pope Clement VII (; ; born Giulio de' Medici; 26 May 1478 – 25 September 1534) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, l ...
captive since the
Sack of Rome (1527) The Sack of Rome, then part of the Papal States The Papal States ( ; it, Stato Pontificio), officially the State of the Church ( it, Stato della Chiesa, ; la, Status Ecclesiasticus; also '), were a series of territories in the Itali ...
. There was thus little hope of securing Henry VIII an annulment from his marriage to Charles's aunt
Catherine of Aragon Catherine of Aragon (; 16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536) was Queen of England as the first wife of King Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom o ...

Catherine of Aragon
. Since 1527, Wolsey's desire to secure an annulment for his master had dictated his foreign policy, and by 1529 none of his endeavours had succeeded.


Annulment

Henry's marriage to
Catherine of Aragon Catherine of Aragon (; 16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536) was Queen of England as the first wife of King Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom o ...

Catherine of Aragon
had produced no sons who survived infancy; the
Wars of the Roses The Wars of the Roses were a series of fifteenth-century English civil wars for control of the throne of England, fought between supporters of two rival cadet branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the House of Lancaster, represented by a ...
were still within living memory, leading to the fear of a power struggle after Henry's death. Henry felt the people would accept only a male sovereign, not his daughter
Mary Mary may refer to: People * Mary (name) Mary is a feminine Femininity (also called womanliness or girlishness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with women and girls. Although femininity is socially constru ...
. He believed God had cursed him for the sin of marrying the widow of his elder brother, and that the papal dispensation for that marriage was invalid because it was based upon the claim that Catherine was still a virgin after her first husband's death. Henry argued that Catherine's claim was not credible, and thus the dispensation must be withdrawn and the marriage annulled. His motivation has been attributed to his determination to have a son and heir, and to his desire for
Anne Boleyn Anne Boleyn (; 1501 – 19 May 1536) was Queen of England from 1533 to 1536 as the second wife of King Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of En ...

Anne Boleyn
, one of his wife's
maids-of-honour :''This article discusses the court title. For the ceremonial position in a wedding, see bridesmaid. For the 2008 movie see Made of Honor. For the traditional English dish, see Maids of honour tart.'' Maids of Honour are the junior attendants of a q ...
. Catherine had no further pregnancies after 1519; Henry began annulment proceedings in 1527. Catherine, however, maintained that she had been a virgin when she married Henry. Because she opposed annulment and a return to her previous status as Dowager Princess of Wales, the annulment request became a matter of international diplomacy, with Catherine's nephew Charles V pressuring Clement not to annul the marriage. Clement faced a dilemma: he would anger either Charles or Henry. He delayed his decision as long as possible, infuriating Henry and Anne Boleyn, who began to doubt Wolsey's loyalty to the Crown over the Church. Wolsey appealed to Clement for an annulment on three fronts. First, he tried to convince the Pope that the dispensation was void as the marriage clearly disobeyed instructions in the book of Leviticus. Second, Wolsey objected to the dispensation on technical grounds, claiming it was incorrectly worded. (Shortly afterwards, a correctly worded version was found in Spain.) Third, Wolsey wanted Clement to let the final decision be made in England, which, as papal legate, he would supervise. In 1528 Clement decided to allow two papal legates to decide the outcome in England: Wolsey and Campeggio. Wolsey was confident of the decision, but Campeggio took a long time to arrive, and when he finally did, he delayed proceedings so much that the case had to be suspended in July 1529, effectively sealing Wolsey's fate.


Domestic achievements

During his 14 years as chancellor, Wolsey had more power than any other Crown servant in English history. This led to his being hated by much of the nobility, who thought they should have the power. The king protected him from being attacked. Sara Nair James, a professor at
Mary Baldwin College Mary Baldwin University (MBU, formerly Mary Baldwin College) is a private university in Staunton, Virginia. It was founded in 1842 by Rufus William Bailey as Augusta Female Seminary. Today, Mary Baldwin University is home to the Mary Baldwin Coll ...
, says that in 1515–1529 Wolsey "would be the most powerful man in England except, possibly, for the king". As long as he was in the king's favour, Wolsey had great freedom in domestic matters, and had his hand in nearly every aspect of them. For much of the time, Henry VIII had complete confidence in him, and as Henry's interests inclined more towards foreign policy, he was willing to give Wolsey free rein in reforming the management of domestic affairs, for which Wolsey had grand plans. Historian John Guy explains Wolsey's methods: Operating with the king's firm support, and with special powers over the church given by the Pope as legate, Wolsey dominated civic affairs, administration, the law, the church, and foreign policy. He was amazingly energetic and far-reaching. He built a great fortune for himself and was a major benefactor of arts, humanities and education. He projected numerous reforms, with some success in areas such as finance, taxation, educational provision and justice. From the king's perspective, his greatest failure was an inability to get a divorce when Henry wanted a new wife to give him a son who would be the undisputed heir to the throne. Historians agree that Wolsey was a man dogged by other men's failures and his own ambition. In the end, abandoned by the king, Wolsey was charged with treason, but died of natural causes before he could be beheaded.


Taxation

Wolsey made significant changes to the taxation system, devising, with treasurer of the Chamber John Heron, the "Subsidy". This revolutionary form of tax was based upon accurate valuations of the taxpayer's wealth, where one shilling was taken per pound from the income. The old fixed tax of 15ths and 10ths meant that those who earned very little had to pay almost as much as the wealthy. With the new income tax the poorer members of society paid much less. This more progressive form of taxation enabled Wolsey to raise enough money for the king's foreign expeditions, bringing in over £300,000. He also raised considerable capital through other means, such as " benevolences", and enforced loans from the nobility, which yielded £200,000 in 1522.


Justice

As a legal administrator Wolsey reinvented the equity court, where the verdict was decided by the judge on the principle of "fairness". As an alternative to the Common Law courts, Wolsey re-established the position of the prerogative courts of the
Star Chamber The Star Chamber (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in r ...
and the
Court of Chancery The Court of Chancery was a court of equity A court of equity, equity court or chancery court is a court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal dispu ...

Court of Chancery
. The system in both courts concentrated on simple, inexpensive cases, and promised impartial justice. He also established the
Court of RequestsThe Court of Requests was a minor equity court in England and Wales England and Wales () is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom, parts of the United Kingdom. England and Wales forms the c ...
(although this court was only given this name later on) for the poor, where no fees were required. Wolsey's legal reforms were popular, and overflow courts were required to attend to all the cases. Many powerful men who had felt invincible under the law found themselves convicted; for example, in 1515, the
Earl of Northumberland The title of Earl of Northumberland has been created several times in the Peerage of England The Peerage of England comprises all peerage A peerage is a legal system historically comprising various hereditary title Hereditary titles, in ...
was sent to
Fleet Prison#REDIRECT Fleet Prison Fleet Prison was a notorious London prison by the side of the River Fleet. The prison was built in 1197, was rebuilt several times, and was in use until 1844. It was demolished in 1846. History The prison was built in ...
and in 1516 Lord Abergavenny was accused of illegal retaining. Wolsey also used his courts to tackle national controversies, such as the pressing issue of
enclosure Enclosure or Inclosure is a term, used in English landownership, that refers to the appropriation of "waste" or "common land Common land is land owned by a person or collectively by a number of persons, over which other persons have certai ...

enclosure
s. The countryside had been thrown into discord by the entrepreneurial actions of landlords enclosing areas of land and converting from arable farming to pastoral farming, requiring fewer workers. The Tudors valued stability, and the resulting mass urban migration represented a serious crisis. Wolsey conducted national enquires into enclosures in 1517, 1518 and 1527. In the course of his administration he used the court of Chancery to prosecute 264 landowners, including peers, bishops, knights, religious heads, and Oxford colleges. Enclosures were seen as directly linked to rural unemployment and depopulation, vagrancy, food shortages and, accordingly, inflation. This pattern repeated in many of Wolsey's other initiatives, particularly his quest to abolish enclosure. Despite spending significant time and effort investigating the state of the countryside and prosecuting numerous offenders, Wolsey freely surrendered his policy during the parliament of 1523 to ensure that Parliament passed his proposed taxes for Henry's war in France. Enclosures remained a problem for many years. Wolsey used the Star Chamber to enforce his 1518 policy of ''Just Price'', which attempted to regulate the price of meat in London and other major cities. Those found to be charging too much were prosecuted by the Chamber. After the bad harvest of 1527, Wolsey bought up surplus grain and sold it off cheaply to the needy. This greatly eased disorder and became common practice after a disappointing harvest.


Church reforms

In 1524 and 1527 Wolsey used his powers as papal legate to dissolve 30 decayed monasteries where monastic life had virtually ceased in practice, some in
Ipswich Ipswich () is a large port town and borough in Suffolk Suffolk () is a ceremonial Counties of England, county of England in East Anglia. It borders Norfolk to the north, Cambridgeshire to the west and Essex to the south. The North Sea lie ...

Ipswich
and
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...

Oxford
. He used the income to found a
grammar school A grammar school is one of several different types of school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students under the direction of teachers. Most coun ...
in Ipswich ( The King's School, Ipswich) and
Cardinal College Cardinal or The Cardinal may refer to: Christianity * Cardinal (Catholic Church), a senior official of the Catholic Church * Cardinal (Church of England), two members of the College of Minor Canons of St. Paul's Cathedral Navigation * Cardina ...

Cardinal College
in Oxford (in 1532, after Wolsey's fall, the king renamed it King Henry VIII's College; it is now known as
Christ Church Jesus; he, יֵשׁוּעַ, ''Yeshua, Yēšū́aʿ''; ar, عيسى, ʿĪsā ( 4 BC AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jews, Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figu ...

Christ Church
). In 1528 he began to limit the
benefit of clergy In English law, the benefit of clergy ( Law Latin: ''privilegium clericale'') was originally a provision by which clergy Clergy are formal leaders within established religions. Their roles and functions vary in different religious traditions, ...
. He also attempted, as legate, to force reform on monastic orders like the Augustinian canons. Wolsey died five years before Henry's
dissolution of the monasteries#REDIRECT Dissolution of the monasteries {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
began.


Relationships

Wolsey's power depended on maintaining good relations with Henry. He grew increasingly suspicious of the "minions"—young, influential members of the
Privy chamber A privy chamber was the private apartment of a royal residence in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The ...
—particularly after infiltrating one of his own men into the group. He attempted many times to disperse them from court, giving them jobs that took them to the Continent and far from Henry. After the Amicable Grant failed, the minions began to undermine him again. Consequently, Wolsey devised a grand plan of administrative reforms, incorporating the notorious Eltham ordinances of 1526. This reduced the members of the Privy Council from 12 to six, removing Henry's friends such as Sir William Compton and Nicholas Carew. One of Wolsey's greatest impediments was his lack of popularity amongst the nobles at court and in Parliament. Their dislikes and mistrusts partly stemmed from what they saw as Wolsey's excessive demands for money in the form of the Subsidy or benevolences. They also resented the Act of Resumption of 1486, by which Henry VII had resumed possession of all lands granted by the crown since 1455. These lands had passed onto his heir, Henry VIII. Many nobles resented the rise to power of a low-born man, whilst others simply disliked that he monopolised the court and concealed information from the Privy Council. When mass riots broke out in
East Anglia East Anglia is a geographical area in the East of England The East of England is one of the nine official regions of England. This region was created in 1994 and was adopted for statistics purposes from 1999. It includes the ceremonial ...
, which should have been under the control of the Dukes of
Norfolk Norfolk () is a rural and non-metropolitan county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambe ...
and
Suffolk Suffolk () is a ceremonial county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), W ...

Suffolk
, Henry was quick to denounce the Amicable Grant, and began to lose faith in Wolsey. During the relatively peaceful period in England after the War of the Roses, its population increased. With more demand for food and no additional supply, prices increased. Landowners were forced to enclose land and convert to pastoral farming, which brought in more profit. Wolsey's quest against enclosure was fruitless in terms of restoring economic stability. The same can be said for Wolsey's legal reforms. After he made justice accessible to all and encouraged more people to bring cases to court, the system was abused. The courts became overloaded with incoherent, tenuous cases, which would have been far too expensive to have rambled on in the Common Law courts. Wolsey eventually ordered all minor cases out of the Star Chamber in 1528. The result of this venture was further resentment by the nobility and the gentry.


Art patronage

From 1515, when he became cardinal, until his death, Wolsey used art and architecture to underpin his positions. He initiated a building campaign on a scale not only unprecedented for an English churchman and Lord Chancellor, but also exceeded by few English kings. In so doing, he brought Italian Renaissance ideas, classical embellishments, and architectural models into English architecture. Scholars generally cite Somerset House in London (1547–52) as the first classical building in England, built for Edward Seymour, the first Duke of Somerset and Lord Protector to King Edward VI. But Wolsey embraced Italian-inspired classicism nearly half a century before Seymour, though more theoretically than visually. Wolsey's subsequent disgrace over his failure to garner papal approval of an annulment of Henry VIII's marriage to Catherine of Aragon has clouded the fact that he was not only the first high-profile patron in England to seek out and promote Italian classicism in art, architecture, and magnificence, but also that his contributions endured. Among Wolsey's projects were lavish, classically inspired additions to York Palace in London, the Archbishop of York's residence. He supervised the grandiose temporary buildings at the Field of Cloth of Gold and renovated Hampton Court, which he later relinquished to the king. Wolsey's use of architecture as a symbol of power, along with his introduction of Italian classical ornamentation, set a trend continued by Henry VIII and others. Wolsey oversaw tombs for Henry's VIII's parents at Westminster Abbey and negotiated contracts for Henry VIII's tomb as well as one for himself. If these works had been completed as planned, they would be among Europe's largest, most elaborate, and grandest tombs. The college originally founded and planned by Wolsey and refounded by Henry VIII (
Christ Church Jesus; he, יֵשׁוּעַ, ''Yeshua, Yēšū́aʿ''; ar, عيسى, ʿĪsā ( 4 BC AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jews, Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figu ...

Christ Church
) remains the largest and grandest of all Oxford colleges.


Failures with the Church

As well as his State duties, Wolsey simultaneously attempted to exert his influence over the Church in England. As cardinal and, from 1524, lifetime papal legate, Wolsey continually vied for control over others in the Church. His principal rival was
William Warham William Warham (c. 1450 – 22 August 1532) was the Archbishop of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and th ...

William Warham
, the
Archbishop of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Cat ...
, who made it more difficult for Wolsey to follow through with his plans for reform. Despite making promises to reform the bishoprics of England and Ireland, and, in 1519, encouraging monasteries to embark on a programme of reform, he did nothing to bring about these changes.


Downfall and death

In spite of having many enemies, Wolsey retained Henry VIII's confidence until Henry decided to seek an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon so that he could marry Anne Boleyn. Wolsey's failure to secure the annulment directly caused his downfall and arrest. It was rumoured that Anne Boleyn and her faction convinced Henry that Wolsey was deliberately slowing proceedings; as a result, he was arrested in 1529, and the Pope decided that the official decision should be made in Rome, not England. In 1529 Wolsey was stripped of his government office and property, including his magnificently expanded residence of
Hampton Court Hampton Court Palace is a Grade I listed A listed building, or listed structure, is one that has been placed on one of the four statutory lists maintained by Historic England Historic England (officially the Historic Buildings and Monu ...

Hampton Court
, which Henry took to replace the
Palace of Westminster The Palace of Westminster serves as the meeting place for both the House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Towns ...

Palace of Westminster
as his own main London residence. Wolsey was permitted to remain Archbishop of York. He travelled to Yorkshire for the first time in his career, but at
Cawood Cawood (other names: ''Carwood'') is a large village (formerly a market town A market town is a European settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Euro ...
in
North Yorkshire North Yorkshire is the largest non-metropolitan county A non-metropolitan county, or colloquially, shire county, is a county-level entity in England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and ...

North Yorkshire
, he was accused of treason and ordered to London by
Henry Percy, 6th Earl of Northumberland Henry Percy, 6th Earl of Northumberland, Order of the Garter, KG (c. 1502 – 1537) was an English nobleman, active as a military officer in the north. He is now primarily remembered as the betrothed of Anne Boleyn, whom he was forced to give up ...
. In great distress, he set out for the capital with his personal chaplain,
Edmund Bonner Edmund Bonner (also Boner; c. 15005 September 1569) was Bishop of London The Bishop of London is the Ordinary (church officer), ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury. The diocese covers of 17 b ...
. He fell ill on the journey, and died at
Leicester Leicester is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routled ...

Leicester
on 29 November 1530, around the age of 57. Just before his death he reputedly spoke these words: In keeping with his practice of erecting magnificent buildings at Hampton Court, Westminster and Oxford, Wolsey had planned a magnificent tomb at Windsor by
Benedetto da Rovezzano Panel from the sarcophagus of St. John Gualbert, Museum of San Salvi, Florence. Benedetto Grazzini, best known as Benedetto da Rovezzano (1474 – c. 1552) was an Italian architect and sculptor who worked mainly in Florence Florence ...
and
Giovanni da MaianoGiovanni da Maiano II (c. 1486 – c. 1542) was an Italian sculptor employed by Henry VIII of England and Cardinal Wolsey to decorate their palaces. Maiano, from which village Giovanni took his name, is near Fiesole and Florence. He was the son o ...
, but he was buried in
Leicester Abbey The Abbey of Saint Mary de Pratis, more commonly known as Leicester Abbey, was an Augustinians, Augustinian religious house in the city of Leicester, in the East Midlands of England. The abbey was founded in the 12th century by the Robert de Be ...
(now Abbey Park) without a monument. Henry VIII contemplated using the impressive black sarcophagus for himself, but
Lord Nelson Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronté, (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805), also known simply as Admiral Nelson, was a British people, British flag officer in the Royal Navy. His inspirational leadershi ...
now lies in it, in the crypt of . Henry often receives credit for artistic patronage that properly belongs to Wolsey.


Mistress and issue

Wolsey lived in a "non-canonical" marriage for around a decade with a woman called Joan Larke of , Norfolk. The edict that priests, regardless of their functions or the character of their work, should remain celibate had not been wholeheartedly accepted in England. Wolsey subsequently had two children, both before he was made bishop: a son, Thomas Wynter (born circa 1510), and a daughter, Dorothy (born circa 1512), both of whom lived to adulthood. The son was sent to live with a family in Willesden and tutored in his early years by Maurice Birchinshaw. He later married and had children of his own. Dorothy was adopted by John Clansey, and was in due course placed in the convent at Shaftesbury Abbey. Following the
dissolution of the monasteries#REDIRECT Dissolution of the monasteries {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
under
Thomas Cromwell Thomas Cromwell, (; 1485 – 28 July 1540) was an English lawyer and statesman who served as chief minister to King Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the King ...

Thomas Cromwell
she was awarded a pension. Following his rapid promotion, Larke became a source of embarrassment to Wolsey, who arranged for her marriage to George Legh of Adlington, in Cheshire, circa 1519. He provided the dowry. Henry VIII had a mansion built for Legh at Cheshunt Great House.


Fictional portrayals

* Wolsey plays a major role in the early stages of ''the Autobiography of Henry VIII'' by Margaret George. * Wolsey is the primary antagonist of William Shakespeare's ''Henry VIII (play), Henry VIII'', which depicts him as an arrogant power-grabber. Henry Irving, Walter Hampden and John Gielgud were well known for their stage performances of the role, and Timothy West played him in the 1979 BBC Television Shakespeare production of that play. Henry Irving's reading of Wolsey's Farewell survives on a rare wax cylinder recording. * Wolsey is a minor but important character in Robert Bolt's play ''A Man for All Seasons''; he was played in the two film versions of the play by Orson Welles (A Man for All Seasons (1966 film), 1966) and John Gielgud (A Man for All Seasons (1988 film), 1988), respectively. * Wolsey was portrayed somewhat more sympathetically in the film ''Anne of the Thousand Days'' (1969), a performance that earned Anthony Quayle an Academy Award nomination. * Wolsey was played by John Baskcomb in ''The Six Wives of Henry VIII (BBC TV series), The Six Wives of Henry VIII'' (1970) and by John Bryans when the series was made into the film ''Henry VIII and His Six Wives'' (1972). * David Suchet plays Wolsey in the 2003 two-part television serial ''Henry VIII (TV serial), Henry VIII'' with Ray Winstone. * Terry Scott portrayed a comical Wolsey in ''Carry On Henry'' (1970). * William Griffis played Wolsey in the Broadway musical ''Rex (musical), Rex'' (1976), which starred Nicol Williamson as Henry. * In the Showtime series ''The Tudors'' (2007), Sam Neill plays Wolsey. This production interprets his death as suicide by cutthroat, covered up by the king and Cromwell out of residual affection for him. * Wolsey is one of the main characters in Hilary Mantel's novel ''Wolf Hall'' (2009), played by Paul Jesson in the RSC production and by Jonathan Pryce in the television serial. He is portrayed through Cromwell's eyes as a mentor and a ruthlessly loyal statesman. A desire to avenge Wolsey's downfall and ignominious death fuels many of Cromwell's actions through the latter half of ''Wolf Hall'' and its sequel ''Bring Up the Bodies'', which was incorporated into the stage and television adaptations. * In the TVE series ''Carlos, rey emperador'' (2015), he is portrayed by Blai Llopis. * Wolsey appears in ''The White Princess'', STARZ, Season 1, Episode 8 (2017), played by Mark Edel-Hunt. * Philip Cumbus portrays Wolsey in ''The Spanish Princess'', a sequel to ''The White Princess''.


Memorials

Before Wolsey was removed from power, he planned to make his home town of
Ipswich Ipswich () is a large port town and borough in Suffolk Suffolk () is a ceremonial Counties of England, county of England in East Anglia. It borders Norfolk to the north, Cambridgeshire to the west and Essex to the south. The North Sea lie ...

Ipswich
a seat of learning. He built a substantial college, which for two years, 1528–1530, was parent of the Queen Elizabeth School or
Ipswich School Ipswich School is a Public school (United Kingdom), public school (English Independent school (United Kingdom), independent Day school, day and boarding school) for pupils aged 3 to 18 in Ipswich, Suffolk, England. North of the town centre, Ip ...

Ipswich School
, which today flourishes on another site. All that remains of Wolsey's structure is the former waterside gate, figured by Francis Grose in his ''Antiquities'', which can still be seen on College Street. In 1930 Wolsey was commemorated in Ipswich with a substantial Pageant Play.He is far from forgotten in the town of Ipswich, an appeal having been launched in October 2009 to erect a statue there as a permanent commemoration. Arising from this project, a more-than-life-sized bronze statue to Cardinal Wolsey, shown seated facing south towards St Peter's Church (the former mediaeval Augustinian Priory Church of St Peter and St Paul, which Wolsey annexed as the chapel of his College of Ipswich), teaching from a book, with a familiar cat at his side, was unveiled from beneath a covering flag on 29 June 2011 near the site of the Wolsey home on St Nicholas Street, Ipswich. After a civic procession from the Tower Church, the image, created by sculptor David Annand, was dedicated by blessing in the name of the Holy Trinity by the Bishop of St Edmundsbury and Ipswich, and launched in the civic capacity by the Mayor of Ipswich, in the presence of a crowd of onlookers. A statue of Wolsey stands in Leicester's Abbey Park close to the site of his burial. It was donated by the Wolsey (clothing), Wolsey hosiery company, a major employer in the city and also named after the cardinal. The Wolsey Place shopping centre and Woking F.C.'s nickname The Cardinals commemorate the fact Wolsey was visiting Henry VIII at Woking Palace when the news arrived that he had been made a cardinal.


Other

Cardinal Wolsey's bust was used in the 1980s above the London Transport (brand), London Transport roundel on Buses in London, London's buses in west and south-west London as the symbol of the Cardinal bus district, which was named after him and his residence at Hampton Court.


Arms


References


Notes


Citations


Sources

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


Further reading

* Bernard, G. W. "The fall of Wolsey reconsidered." ''Journal of British Studies'' 35.3 (1996): 277–310. * George Cavendish (writer), Cavendish, George
''The Life and Death of Cardinal Wolsey'', 1611
(Cavendish was gentleman usher to Thomas Wolsey.) * Thomas Cocke, “'The Repository of Our English Kings': The Henry VII Chapel as Royal Mausoleum.” ''Architectural History'', Vol. 44, ''Essays in Architectural History Presented to John Newman.'' (2001), 212–220 * Ferguson, Charles W. ''Naked to Mine Enemies: The Life of Cardinal Wolsey''. (2 vol 1958).
online vol 1 online vol 2
* Jonathan Foyle, “A Reconstruction of Thomas Wolsey’s Great Hall at Hampton Court Palace,” ''Architectural History,'' vol. 45 (2002), 128–58. * Gunn, S. J. and P.G. Lindley. ''Cardinal Wolsey: Church, State & Art'' (1991) 329pp. * Steven Gunn, “Anglo-Florentine Contacts in the Age of Henry VIII,” in Cinzia Sicca and Louis Waldman, eds. The Anglo-Florentine Renaissance: Art for the Early Tudors (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012), 19–48. * Gwyn, Peter. "Wolsey's foreign policy: the conferences at Calais and Bruges reconsidered." ''Historical Journal'' 23.4 (1980): 755–772.* Sara Nair James, ''Art in England: the Saxons through the Tudors: 600–1600''. Oxford [UK]: Oxbow/Casemate Publishing, 2016. * P. G. Lindley, “Introduction” and “Playing Check-mate with Royal Majesty? Wolsey's Patronage of Italian Renaissance Sculpture,” in ''Cardinal Wolsey: Religion, State and Art,'' S. J.Gunn and P. G. Lindley eds., (Cambridge, 1991), 1–53 and 261–85. * Pollard, A. F. ''Wolsey''. (1929)
online
* Ridley, Jasper. ''Statesman and Saint: Cardinal Wolsey, Sir Thomas More and the Politics of Henry VIII''. Viking, 1983
online
* Schwartz-Leeper, Gavin. ''From Princes to Pages: The Literary Lives of Cardinal Wolsey, Tudor England's 'Other King'.'' Brill, 2016
online
* Tim Tatton-Brown, ''Lambeth Palace: A History of the Archbishops of Canterbury and their Houses'' (London: SPCK, 2000) * Williams, Robert Folkestone. ''Lives of the English Cardinals...'', 2006. * * Simon Thurley, “The Domestic Building Works of Cardinal Wolsey,” in ''Cardinal Wolsey: Religion, State and Art'', ed. S. J. Gunn and P. G. Lindley (Cambridge University Press, 1991), 76–102. * Simon Thurley, ''The Lost Palace of Whitehall'' (London: The Royal Institute of British Architects, 1998). * Neville Williams, ''The Tudors: A Royal History of England'', Antonia Fraser, ed (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000). * Neville Williams, ''Henry VIII and His Court'' (1971). * William E. Willkie, ''The Cardinal Protectors of England''. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1974)


External links

* * * {{DEFAULTSORT:Wolsey, Thomas 1473 births 1530 deaths 15th-century English people 16th-century English politicians 16th-century English cardinals Alumni of Magdalen College, Oxford Archbishops of York Bishops of Bath and Wells Bishops of Durham Bishops of Lincoln Bishops of Winchester Canons of Windsor Deans of Hereford Deans of Lincoln Deans of York British and English royal favourites Founders of English schools and colleges Lord Chancellors of England Male Shakespearean characters Masters of Magdalen College School, Oxford People educated at Ipswich School People educated at Magdalen College School, Oxford People associated with Christ Church, Oxford People from Ipswich Court of Henry VIII