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Cape Guardafui ( so, Gees Gardafuul, or Raas Caseyr, or Ras Asir, it, Capo Guardafui) is a headland in the autonomous
Puntland Puntland ( so, Puntland, ar, أرض البنط, it, Terra di Punt or ''Paese di Punt''), officially the Puntland State of Somalia ( so, Dowladda Federalkaa ee Puntland , ar, ولاية أرض البنط الصومالية), is a States and ...

Puntland
region in
Somalia Somalia,, Osmanya script: 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘𐒕𐒖; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe ''Federal Republic of Somalia'' is the country's name per Article 1 of thProvisional Constitutio ...

Somalia
. Coextensive with Puntland's Gardafuul administrative province, it forms the geographical apex of the
Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA), also known as the Somali Peninsula, is a large peninsula of East Africa.Robert Stock, ''Africa South of the Sahara, Second Edition: A Geographical Interpretation'', (The Guilford Press; 2004), p. 26 Located on the ea ...

Horn of Africa
. Its shore at 51°27'52"E is the second easternmost point on mainland Africa after
Ras Hafun Ras Hafun ( so, Ras Xaafuun, ar, رأس حـافـون, it, Capo Hafun), also known as Cape Hafun, is a promontory in the northeastern Bari, Somalia, Bari region of Somalia. Jutting out into the Guardafui Channel, it constitutes the East Africa, ...
. The offshore oceanic strait
Guardafui Channel The Guardafui Channel ( so, Marinka Gardafuul) is an oceanic strait off the tip of the Horn of Africa that lies between the Puntland region of Somalia and Socotra to the west of the Arabian Sea. It connects the Gulf of Aden to the north with the ...
(or ''Marinka Gardafuul'') is named after it.


Location

Cape Guardafui is located at , next to the Guardafui Channel. The
archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as ...

archipelago
of
Socotra Socotra or Soqotra (; ar, سُقُطْرَىٰ ), located between the Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Sea, is the largest of the four islands in the Socotra Archipelago. The territory is located near major shipping routes and is officially ...

Socotra
lies off the
cape A cape is a sleeveless outer garment Outerwear is clothing File:KangaSiyu1.jpg, A kanga (African garment), kanga, worn throughout the African Great Lakes region Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel and attire) are items worn on the bo ...
in the north of the Somali Sea. Fifteen leagues (45 miles) west of Guardafui is
Ras Filuk Ras Filuk ( so, Bolimoog, ar, رأس فيلوك), also known as Cape Elephant, is a headland in the northeastern Bari Bari ( , ; nap, label= Barese, Bare ; lat, Barium; grc, Βάριον, translit=Bárion) is the capital city of the Metropol ...

Ras Filuk
, a steep cliff jutting into the Gulf of Aden from flatland. The mountain is believed to correspond with the ancient ''Elephas Mons'' or ''Cape Elephant'' (''Ras Filuk'' in
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
) described by
Strabo Strabo''Strabo'' (meaning "squinty", as in strabismus Strabismus is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object. The eye that is focused on an object can alternate. The condition may be pre ...

Strabo
.


History

Referred to as '' Aromata promontorium'' (
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
: Αρώματον ἄκρον) by the ancient
Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has cer ...

Greeks
, Guardafui was described as early as the 1st century CE in the ''
Periplus of the Erythraean Sea The ''Periplus of the Erythraean Sea'' ( grc, Περίπλους τῆς Ἐρυθρᾶς Θαλάσσης, ', modern Greek '), also known by its Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A l ...
'', along with other flourishing commercial settlements on the northern Somali littoral. The name ''Guardafui'' originated during the late Middle Ages by sailors using the Mediterranean Lingua Franca: "guarda fui" in ancient Italian means "look and escape", as a reference to the danger of the cape. In the early 19th century,
Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, D ...
seamen barred entry to their ports along the coast, while engaging in trade with
Aden Aden ( , ; ar, عدن ' Yemeni Arabic, Yemeni: ) is a city, and since 2015, the temporary capital of Yemen, near the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of the strait Bab-el-Mandeb. Its population is approximately ...

Aden
and Mocha in adjacent
Yemen ) , image_map = Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Sana'a Sanaa ( ar, صَنْعَاء, ' , Yemeni Arabic: ; Old South Arabian: 𐩮 ...

Yemen
using their own vessels. Due to the frequency of shipwrecks in the treacherous seas near Cape Guardafui, the British signed an agreement with sultan
Osman Mahamuud Osman Mahamuud ( so, Cismaan Maxamuud, ar, عثمان محمود), also known as `Uthman III ibn Mahmud, was a Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl off ...
of the
Majeerteen Sultanate The Majeerteen Sultanate ( so, Suldanadda Majeerteen, lit=Boqortooyada Majerteen, ar, سلطنة مجرتين), also known as Majeerteenia and Migiurtinia, was a Somalis, Somali kingdom centered in the Horn of Africa. Ruled by Boqor Osman Maham ...
, which controlled much of the northeastern Somali seaboard during the 19th century. The agreement stipulated that the British would pay annual subsidies to protect shipwrecked British crews and guard wrecks against plunder. The agreement, however, remained unratified, as the British feared that doing so would "give other powers a precedent for making agreements with the Somalis, who seemed ready to enter into relations with all comers."
Sultan Sultan (; ar, سلطان ', ) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic abstract noun A noun () is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phone ...
Yusuf Ali Kenadid Yusuf Ali Kenadid ( so, Yuusuf Cali Keenadiid; 1837 - 28 september 1911) was a Somali Sultan. He was the founder of the Sultanate of Hobyo in the 1870s. Along with Sultan Mohamoud Ali Shire of the Warsangali Sultanate and King Osman Mahamuud o ...
of the
Sultanate of Hobyo This article includes a list of successive Muslim state , caption = , active = {{Collapsible list , title = 1999–present , 1 = 1999: Established under the name of Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad , 2 = October 2004: Joined al ...
, which also controlled a portion of the coast, later granted concessions to an Aden-based French hotel proprietor and a former
French Army The French Army, officially the Ground Army (french: Armée de Terre , ) to distinguish it from the French Air and Space Force The French Air and Space Force (AAE) (french: Armée de l'Air et de l'Espace, ) is the air File:Atmosphere gas ...
officer to construct a
lighthouse A lighthouse is a tower, building, or other type of structure designed to emit light from a system of lamps and lenses A lens is a transmissive optics, optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction. A simple ...

lighthouse
in Cape Guardafui. Capital for the project was raised by a firm in
Marseilles Marseille ( , , ; also spelled in English as Marseilles; oc, Marselha ) is the prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languag ...
, but the deal subsequently fell through.


Lighthouse "Francesco Crispi"

Britain ceded to Italy sovereignty over the disputed region where is located Cape Guardafui in 1894. Starting in 1899, the Italians undertook detailed studies and surveys to build a lighthouse and the first concrete project came out in 1904. Italy wanted the construction and maintenance costs of the future lighthouse to be shared by the maritime powers which would benefit most from the new lighthouse but Britain, which suspected that Italy also intended to build a coaling station that would compete with Aden, finally refused to contribute. Thus, it is only in the early 1920s that the authorities of
Italian Somaliland Italian Somaliland ( it, Somala italiana; ar, الصومال الإيطالي, Al-Sumal Al-Italiy; so, Dhulka Talyaaniga ee Soomaalida), was a protectorate of the Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state which ...

Italian Somaliland
finally made good on their promise to build a lighthouse. The first one, inaugurated in April 1924 as the Francesco Crispi Lighthouse, was a simple, functional metal-framed lighthouse built atop the headland. Simultaneously, a wireless station to monitor maritime traffic, which had been built in the nearby village of Tohen, was activated. A large-scale rebellion against Italian rule in that part of Italian Somaliland was underway at the time and troops guarding the new lighthouse and the wireless station repelled two attacks by several hundred rebels in November 1925 and January 1926. The lighthouse had suffered some damages during the attacks and this was one of the reasons that prompted the authorities to build a stronger, stone and reinforced concrete lighthouse, which was inaugurated in 1930. The striking new lighthouse was built in the shape of an Italian fascist "Fascio littorio". The lighthouse, which is no longer in use, still has the huge stone axe blade characteristic of
fascist symbolism Fascist symbolism is the use of certain images and symbols which are designed to represent aspects of fascism. These include national symbols of historical importance, goals, and political policies. The best-known is the swastika of Nazism. Comm ...
. A stone lighthouse and
radio station Radio broadcasting is transmission of audio Audio most commonly refers to sound In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is th ...

radio station
were eventually built in the headland, with the former named after
Francesco Crispi Francesco Crispi (4 October 1818 – 12 August 1901) was an Italian patriot and statesman. He was among the main protagonists of the Italian Risorgimento and a close friend and supporter of Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi, and one of th ...

Francesco Crispi
in 1930. The lighthouse has an original "Fascio littorio" exterior stone as a decoration, that is typical of
fascist architecture Fascist architecture is an architectural style developed by architects of fascist states in the early 20th century. The style gained popularity in the late 1920s with the rise of modernism along with the ultranationalism associated with fascist gov ...
promoted by . Italian authorities have requested a study to declare the lighthouse an "historical monument" of Somalia and a proposed World Heritage Site.


Economy

The main resources of the region are: 1)
frankincense Frankincense (also known as olibanum) is an aromatic In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or ...
– produces more than 1.5 million kg of various types – Maydi, Beeyo, Falaxfalax and sweet gum (Xankookib). 2) Fish production is high, more than 50,000 tons of fish every month. 3) Date palm, in the region there are 258,000 date palm trees that, if developed, can produce enough dates to the entirety of Somalia. 4) Coal deposit, high quantity and quality. 5) Oil and gas – In Bina, Toxin, Afkalahaye and Geesalay. 6) 26 Natural water springs – along the escarpment there are natural water springs, if developed can aid in the development of the region. Main projects: 1) International port at Guardafuul – from Alula to Olog and Damo. 2) International Airport 3) Developing main roads – Lafagoray, Gumayo, Dhabaqa and Hursale


Demography

Ras Asir holds resonance among Puntites and other Horn Africans because it represents the tip of the Horn of Africa peninsula and because it is the African region nearest to many rapidly developing economies in Asia. Many nomads that traverse here are also fisherman due to the abundance of fish off its shores. With the usage of binoculars, the vessels that traverse the
Guardafui Channel The Guardafui Channel ( so, Marinka Gardafuul) is an oceanic strait off the tip of the Horn of Africa that lies between the Puntland region of Somalia and Socotra to the west of the Arabian Sea. It connects the Gulf of Aden to the north with the ...
can sometimes be seen.


Geography

Six miles south of Ras Asir there are s with water streams called Wadi Tuhom. The offshore
Guardafui Channel The Guardafui Channel ( so, Marinka Gardafuul) is an oceanic strait off the tip of the Horn of Africa that lies between the Puntland region of Somalia and Socotra to the west of the Arabian Sea. It connects the Gulf of Aden to the north with the ...
connects the
Gulf of Aden The Gulf of Aden ( ar, خليج عدن, so, Gacanka Cadmeed 𐒅𐒖𐒐𐒕𐒌 𐒋𐒖𐒆𐒗𐒒) also known as the ''Gulf of Berbera Berbera (; so, Barbara, ar, بربرة) is the capital of the Sahil, Somaliland, Sahil region of Soma ...

Gulf of Aden
with the Somali Sea. A sighting of Ras Asir represents a milestone for passing vessels, due to a sharp westerly change in direction and a changing contrast between the hazardous currents to Ras Asir's east, and the comparatively calm seas to its north, especially during the south-west monsoon.Sailing directions for the Bay of Bengal: Point Calimere to Laem Pak Phra and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, p 105 On April 8, 2013, the Puntland government announced the creation of a new region coextensive with Cape Guardafui named ''Gardafuul''. Carved out of the
Bari Bari ( , ; nap, label= Barese, Bare ; lat, Barium; grc, Βάριον, translit=Bárion) is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Bari The Metropolitan City of Bari ( it, Città Metropolitana di Bari) is a Metropolitan cities of Italy, ...

Bari
region, it consists of five districts (Baargaal, Bareeda, Alula, Muranyo and Gumbax) and has its capital at
Alula The alula , or bastard wing, (plural ''alulae'') is a small projection on the anterior edge of the wing of modern birds and a few non-avian dinosaurs. The word is Latin and means "winglet"; it is the diminutive of ''ala'', meaning "wing". The alu ...
. It is the largest region in Puntland, it has the longest coast (Indian Ocean and Gulf of Aden).


See also

*
Maritime history of Somalia Maritime history of Somalia refers to the seafaring Seamanship is the art, knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts ( descriptive knowledge), skills (procedural knowledge), or ...
*
Geography of Somalia Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the Northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the ...


References

{{Authority control Guardafui Channel Guardafui Bari, Somalia