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The Cannes Festival (; french: link=no, Festival de Cannes), until 2003 called the International Film Festival (') and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual
film festival A film festival is an organized, extended presentation of film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of ...

film festival
held in
Cannes Cannes ( , , ; oc, Canas) is a city located on the French Riviera The French Riviera (known in French language, French as the ; oc, Còsta d'Azur ; literal translation "Azure (color), Azure Coast") is the Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean ...

Cannes
, France, which previews new films of all genres, including documentaries, from all around the world. Founded in 1946, the invitation-only festival is held annually (usually in May) at the
Palais des Festivals et des Congrès The Palais des Festivals et des Congrès (''Palace of Festivals and Conferences'') is a Convention center, convention centre in Cannes, France, the venue for the Cannes Film Festival, the Cannes Lions International Festival of Creativity and the N ...
. On 1 July 2014, co-founder and former head of French pay-TV operator
Canal+ Canal+ (Canal Plus, , meaning 'Channel Plus'; sometimes abbreviated C+ or Canal) is a French premium television channel launched in 1984. It is 100% owned by the Canal+ Group Canals are waterways channels, or artificial waterways, for ...

Canal+
,
Pierre Lescure Pierre Lescure (born July 2, 1945), is a French journalist A journalist is an individual trained to collect/gather information in form of text, audio or pictures, processes them to a news-worth form and disseminates it to the public. The act or ...
, took over as President of the Festival, while Thierry Frémaux became the General Delegate. The board of directors also appointed Gilles Jacob as Honorary President of the Festival. It is one of the "
Big FiveBig Five may refer to: Animals * the Big five game, Big Five, large African wild animals said to be most difficult to hunt: lion, leopard, rhinoceros, elephant and Cape buffalo * Big Five animals of the Kaziranga National Park, Assam, India: Ind ...
" film festivals, alongside the
Venice Film Festival The Venice Film Festival or Venice International Film Festival ( it, Mostra Internazionale d'Arte Cinematografica della Biennale di Venezia, "International Exhibition of Cinematographic Art of the Venice Biennale") is the world's oldest film fest ...
in
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding it, whose territory largely coincides with the . Italy is located in the centre of th ...

Italy
, the
Berlin International Film Festival The Berlin International Film Festival (german: Internationale Filmfestspiele Berlin), usually called the Berlinale, is a film festival held annually in Berlin, Germany. Founded in West Berlin in 1951, the festival has been held every February si ...
in
Germany Germany (german: Deutschland, ), officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in . It is the in Europe after , and the most populous . Germany is situated between the and seas to the north, and the to the south; it covers an area of ...

Germany
, the
Toronto International Film Festival The Toronto International Film Festival (TIFF, often stylized as tiff) is one of the largest publicly attended film festival A film festival is an organized, extended presentation of film A film, also called a movie, motion picture ...
in
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of . Its extend from the to the and northward into the , covering , making it the world's . Its southern and western , stretching , is the world's longest bi-national land border. Canada's capital ...

Canada
and the
Sundance Film Festival The Sundance Film Festival (formerly Utah/US Film Festival, then US Film and Video Festival) is an annual film festival A film festival is an organized, extended presentation of film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or mov ...

Sundance Film Festival
in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It consists of 50 , a , five major , 326 , and some . At , it is the world's . The United States shares significan ...

United States
. The Big Five are internationally acclaimed for giving creators the artistic freedom to express themselves through film. In 1951,
FIAPF The FIAPF (Fédération Internationale des Associations de Producteurs de Films; en, International Federation of Film Producers Associations), created in 1933, is an composed with 36 member associations from 30 of the leading audiovisual produc ...
formally accredited the festival.


History


The early years

The Cannes Film Festival has its origins in 1938 when
Jean Zay Jean Zay (6 August 1904 – 20 June 1944) was a French politician. He served as Minister of National Education and Fine Arts from 1936 until 1939. He was imprisoned by the Vichy government from August 1940 until he was murdered in 1944. Early ...

Jean Zay
, the French Minister of National Education, on the proposal of high-ranking official and historian Philippe Erlanger and film journalist Robert Favre Le Bret decided to set up an international cinematographic festival. They found the support of the Americans and the British. Its creation can be largely attributed to the French desire to compete with the
Venice Film Festival The Venice Film Festival or Venice International Film Festival ( it, Mostra Internazionale d'Arte Cinematografica della Biennale di Venezia, "International Exhibition of Cinematographic Art of the Venice Biennale") is the world's oldest film fest ...
, which at the time was the only international film festival and had shown a lack of impartiality with its fascist bias during those years. The political interference seemed evident in the 1937 edition when
Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
meddled to ensure that French pacifist film ''
La Grande Illusion ''La Grande Illusion'' (also known as ''The Grand Illusion'') is a 1937 French war film directed by Jean Renoir, who co-wrote the screenplay with Charles Spaak. The story concerns class relationships among a small group of French officers who a ...
'' would not win. The last straw was in the 1938 event when Mussolini and
Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (; 20 April 188930 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the dictator , the Kingdom of Italy, Italian dictator from 1922 to 1943 and Adolf Hitler, the Nazi Germany, German dictator from 1933 to 1945 A di ...

Adolf Hitler
respectively overruled the jury's decision in order to award the '' Coppa Mussolini'' (Mussolini Cup) for the Best film to Italian war film ''
Luciano Serra, Pilot ''Luciano Serra, Pilot'' (Italian: ''Luciano Serra pilota'') is a 1938 Italian war drama film directed by Goffredo Alessandrini and starring Amedeo Nazzari, Germana Paolieri and Roberto Villa (actor), Roberto Villa. It was screened at the 6th Venic ...
'', produced under the supervision of Mussolini's son, and the ''Coppa Mussolini'' for the Best foreign film to '' Olympia'', a German
documentary film A documentary film or documentary is a non-fictional film, motion-picture intended to "document reality, primarily for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a Recorded history, historical record". Bill Nichols (film critic), Bi ...
about the Berlin
1936 Summer Olympics The 1936 Summer Olympics (German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * ...
produced in association with the Nazi Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda despite the fact that the regulations at that time prohibited awarding a documentary. Outraged by the decision and as a measure of protest, the French, British, and American jury members decided to withdrew from the festival with the intention of not returning. This snub encouraged the French to found a free festival. Thus, on May 31, 1939, the city of
Cannes Cannes ( , , ; oc, Canas) is a city located on the French Riviera The French Riviera (known in French language, French as the ; oc, Còsta d'Azur ; literal translation "Azure (color), Azure Coast") is the Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean ...

Cannes
was finally selected as the location for the festival over
Biarritz Biarritz ( , , , ; Basque Basque may refer to: * Basques The Basques ( or ; eu, euskaldunak ; es, vascos ; french: basques ) are a Southern European ethnic group, characterised by the Basque language, a Basque culture, common culture and ...

Biarritz
and the town hall along with the French government signed the International Film Festival's official birth certificate with the name of ''Le Festival International du Film''. The reason for deciding Cannes was because of its touristic appeal as a
French Riviera The French Riviera (known in French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country prima ...

French Riviera
resort town and also because the city hall offered to increase the municipality's financial participation, including the commitment of building a dedicated venue for the event. The first edition was planned to be held from 1 to 20 September 1939 in an auditorium at the Municipal Casino and
Louis Lumière Louis Jean Lumière (5 October 1864 Besançon – 6 June 1948, Bandol) was a French engineer and industrialist who played a key role in the development of photography and cinema. Early life and education Lumière was one of four children of ...

Louis Lumière
was going to be the honorary president. Its aim was "encouraging the development of all forms of cinematographic art and foster a spirit of collaboration between film-producing countries". Hollywood stars of the moment like
Gary Cooper Gary Cooper (born Frank James Cooper; May 7, 1901 – May 13, 1961) was an American actor known for his strong, silent, and understated acting style. He won the Academy Award for Best Actor The Academy Award for Best Actor is an award prese ...

Gary Cooper
,
Cary Grant Cary Grant (born Archibald Alec Leach; January 18, 1904November 29, 1986) was an English-American actor. Known for his transatlantic accent The Mid-Atlantic accent, or Transatlantic accent, is a cultivated Accent (sociolinguistics), accent o ...

Cary Grant
,
Tyrone Power Tyrone Edmund Power III (May 5, 1914 – November 15, 1958) was an American actor. From the 1930s to the 1950s, Power appeared in dozens of films, often in swashbuckler roles or romantic leads. His better-known films include ''The Mark of Zorro ...
, Douglas Fairbanks Jr.,
Mae West Mae West (born Mary Jane West; August 17, 1893 – November 22, 1980) was an American stage and film actress, playwright, screenwriter, singer, and sex symbol whose entertainment career spanned over seven decades. She was known for her breezy se ...
,
Norma Shearer Edith Norma Shearer (August 10, 1902June 12, 1983) was a Canadian-American actress who was active on film from 1919 through 1942. Shearer often played spunky, sexually liberated ingénues. She appeared in adaptations of Noël Coward, Eugene O' ...

Norma Shearer
,
Paul Muni Paul Muni (born Frederich Meshilem Meier Weisenfreund; September 22, 1895– August 25, 1967) was an Austro-Hungarian-born American stage and film actor who grew up in Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map ...
,
James Cagney James Francis Cagney Jr. (; July 17, 1899March 30, 1986) was an American actor and dancer. On stage and in film, Cagney was known for his consistently energetic performances, distinctive vocal style, and deadpan comic timing. He won acclaim and ...

James Cagney
,
Spencer Tracy Spencer Bonaventure Tracy (April 5, 1900 – June 10, 1967) was an American actor, known for his natural performing style and versatility. One of the major stars of Classical Hollywood cinema, Hollywood's Golden Age, Tracy won two consecut ...

Spencer Tracy
, and
George Raft George Raft (born George Ranft; September 26, 1901 – November 24, 1980) was an American film actor and dancer identified with portrayals of gangsters in crime melodramas of the 1930s and 1940s. A stylish leading man in dozens of movies, Raft is ...
arrived thanks to an
Ocean liner An ocean liner is a passenger ship primarily used as a form of transportation across seas or oceans. Liners may also carry cargo or mail, and may sometimes be used for other purposes (such as for pleasure cruises or as hospital ships). Cargo ves ...
chartered by the
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. (also known as Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Pictures or MGM) is an American media company, founded in 1924, that produces and distributes feature films and television programs. It is based in Beverly Hills, California ...
(MGM). On 31 August, the opening night gala took place with the private screening of the American film ''
The Hunchback of Notre Dame ''The Hunchback of Notre-Dame'' (french: Notre-Dame de Paris, translation=''Our Lady of Paris'', originally titled ''Notre-Dame de Paris. 1482'') is a French Gothic novel A novel is a relatively long work of narrative A narrative, story ...
'' starring
Charles Laughton Charles Laughton (1 July 1899 – 15 December 1962) was an English stage and film actor. Laughton was trained in London at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art The Royal Academy of Dramatic Art (RADA ) is a drama school in London, England ...

Charles Laughton
and
Maureen O'Hara Maureen O'Hara (born Maureen FitzSimons; 17 August 1920 – 24 October 2015) was an Irish actress and singer, who became successful in Hollywood Hollywood is a neighborhood in the Central Los Angeles, central region of Los Angeles, C ...
and directed by
William Dieterle William Dieterle (July 15, 1893 – December 9, 1972) was a German-born actor and film director who emigrated to the United States in 1930 to leave a worsening political situation. He worked in Hollywood primarily as a director for much of his ...
. The next day, on September 1, German troops
invaded Poland An invasion is a Offensive (military), military offensive in which large numbers of combatants of one geopolitics, geopolitical Legal entity, entity aggressively enter territory (country subdivision), territory owned by another such entity, gene ...
. As a result, the festival was postponed for 10 days and it would be resumed if the circumstances allowed it. However, the situation only worsened and on September 3, France and the United Kingdom declared the war against Germany which sparked the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved —including all of the great powers—forming two opposing s: the and the . In a total war directly involving m ...
. The French government ordered a general mobilization and this prevented the festival from continuing so it was finally cancelled. In 1946, the festival was relaunched and from 20 September to 5 October 1946, twenty-one countries presented their films at the First Cannes International Film Festival, which took place at the former Casino of Cannes. In 1947, amid serious problems of efficiency, the festival was held as the "Festival du film de Cannes", where films from sixteen countries were presented. The festival was not held in 1948 and 1950 due to budgetary problems. In 1949, the ''
Palais des Festivals Palais () may refer to: * Palace, ''Palais'' in French **Grand Palais, the Grand Palais des Champs-Elysées **Petit Palais, an art museum in Paris * Palais River in the French ''département'' of Deux-Sèvres * Dance hall, popularly a palais de da ...
'' was expressly constructed for the occasion on the seafront promenade of La Croisette, although its inaugural roof, while still unfinished, blew off during a storm. In 1951, the festival was moved to spring to avoid direct competition with the Venice Festival which was held in autumn.


1950s and 1960s

During the early 1950s, the festival attracted much tourism and press attention, with showbiz scandals and high-profile personalities' love affairs. At the same time, the artistic aspect of the festival started developing. Because of controversies over the selection of films, the Critics' Prize was created for the recognition of original films and daring filmmakers. In 1954, the Special Jury Prize was awarded for the first time. In 1955, the
Palme d'Or The Palme d'Or (; en, Golden Palm) is the highest prize awarded at the Cannes Film Festival The Cannes Festival (; french: link=no, Festival de Cannes), until 2003 called the International Film Festival (') and known in English as the Cann ...

Palme d'Or
was created, replacing the '' Grand Prix du Festival'' which had been given until that year. In 1957,
Dolores del Río Dolores del Río (; born María de los Dolores Asúnsolo y López-Negrete; 3 August 1904 – 11 April 1983) was a Mexican actress, dancer and singer. With a career spanning more than 50 years, she is regarded as the first major female Latin Ameri ...

Dolores del Río
was the first female member of the jury for the official selection. In 1959, the ''
Marché du Film The ''Marché du Film'' (lit. Film Market) is the business counterpart of the Cannes Film Festival The Cannes Festival (; french: link=no, Festival de Cannes), until 2003 called the International Film Festival (') and known in English as th ...
'' (Film Market) was founded, giving the festival a commercial character and facilitating exchanges between sellers and buyers in the film industry. Today it has become the first international platform for film commerce. Still, in the 1950s, some outstanding films, like '' Night and Fog'' in 1956 and '''' in 1959 were excluded from the competition for diplomatic concerns.
Jean Cocteau Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (, , ; 5 July 1889 – 11 October 1963) was a French poet, playwright, novelist, designer, filmmaker, visual artist and critic. He was one of the foremost creatives of the sur ...
, three times president of the jury in those years, is quoted to have said: "The Cannes Festival should be a no man's land in which politics has no place. It should be a simple meeting between friends." In 1962, the
International Critics' Week The International Critics' Week (french: Semaine de la Critique) was founded in 1962 and is organized by the French Syndicate of Cinema Critics. It was created following the showing of ''The Connection (1961 film), The Connection'' directed by Shir ...
was born, created by the
French Union of Film CriticsThe French Syndicate of Cinema Critics (french: Syndicat français de la critique de cinéma et des films de télévision) has awarded 4 prizes (":fr:Prix de la critique, Prix de la critique", ''critics prize''): the Prix Méliès annually since 1946 ...
as the first parallel section of the Cannes Film Festival. Its goal was to showcase first and second works by directors from all over the world, not succumbing to commercial tendencies. In 1965
Olivia de Havilland Dame Olivia Mary de Havilland (; July 1, 1916July 26, 2020) was a British-American actress. The major works of her cinematic career spanned from 1935 to 1988. She appeared in 49 feature films and was one of the leading actors of her time. At ...

Olivia de Havilland
was named the first female president of the jury, while the next year
Sophia Loren Sofia Villani Scicolone (; born 20 September 1934), known professionally as Sophia Loren (; ) is an Italian actress. She was named by the American Film Institute as the 21st AFI's 100 Years...100 Stars, greatest female star of Classical Hollywoo ...

Sophia Loren
became president. The 1968 festival was halted on 19 May. Some directors, such as
Carlos Saura Carlos Saura Atarés (born 4 January 1932) is a Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, ...

Carlos Saura
and
Miloš Forman Jan Tomáš "Miloš" Forman (; ; 18 February 1932 – 13 April 2018) was a Czech film director, screenwriter, actor, and professor who rose to fame in his native Czechoslovakia before emigrating to the United States in 1968. Forman was an import ...
, had withdrawn their films from the competition. On 18 May filmmaker
Louis Malle Louis Marie Malle (; 30 October 1932 – 23 November 1995) was a French film director, screenwriter and producer. His film '' Le Monde du silence'' won the Palme d'Or The Palme d'Or (; en, Golden Palm) is the highest prize awarded at the ...
along with a group of directors took over the large room of the ''Palais'' and interrupted the projections in solidarity with students and labour on strike throughout France, and in protest to the eviction of the then President of the Cinémathèque Française. The filmmakers achieved the reinstatement of the President, and they founded the Film Directors' Society (SRF) that same year. In 1969 the SRF, led by Pierre-Henri Deleau created the
Directors' Fortnight) , logo = Logo_quinzaine.png , image_size = 250px , location = Théâtre Croisette, J. W. Marriott, Cannes, France , founded = 1969 , language = French, English , website = The Directors' Fortnight (f ...
(''Quinzaine des Réalisateurs''), a new non-competitive section that programs a selection of films from around the world, distinguished by the independent judgment displayed in the choice of films.


1970s and 1980s

During the 1970s, important changes occurred in the Festival. In 1972, Robert Favre Le Bret was named the new president, and Maurice Bessy the General Delegate. He introduced important changes in the selection of the participating films, welcoming new techniques, and relieving the selection from diplomatic pressures, with films like ''MASH'', and later '' Chronicle of the Years of Fire'' marking this turn. In some cases, these changes helped directors like Tarkovski overcome problems of censorship in their own country. Also, until that time, the different countries chose the films that would represent them in the festival. Yet, in 1972, Bessy created a committee to select French films, and another for foreign films. In 1978, Gilles Jacob assumed the position of General Delegate, introducing the
Caméra d'Or The Caméra d'Or ("Golden Camera") is an award of the Cannes Film Festival The Cannes Festival (; french: link=no, Festival de Cannes), until 2003 called the International Film Festival (') and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, i ...
award, for the best first film of any of the main events, and the
Un Certain Regard () is a section of the Cannes Film Festival's official selection. It is run at the , parallel to the competition for the . This section was introduced in 1978 by Gilles Jacob. The name means "a certain glance" and the section presents 20 films ...
section, for the non-competitive categories. Other changes were the decrease of length of the festival down to thirteen days, thus reducing the number of selected films; also, until that point the Jury was composed by Film Academics, and Jacob started to introduce celebrities and professionals from the film industry. In 1983, a new, much bigger
Palais des Festivals et des Congrès The Palais des Festivals et des Congrès (''Palace of Festivals and Conferences'') is a Convention center, convention centre in Cannes, France, the venue for the Cannes Film Festival, the Cannes Lions International Festival of Creativity and the N ...
was built to host the festival, while the Directors' Fortnight remained in the old building. The new building was nicknamed "The Bunker", provoking much criticism, especially since it was hardly finished at the event and several technical problems occurred. In 1984 Pierre Viot replaced Robert Favre Le Bret as President of the Festival. In his term, the Festival started including films from more countries, like Philippines, China, Cuba, Australia, India, New Zealand and Argentina. In 1987, for the first time of the Festival, a red carpet was placed at the entrance of the Palais. In 1989, during the first Cinéma & liberté forum, hundred directors from many countries signed a declaration "against all forms of censorship still existing in the world".


1990s to present

In 1998, Gilles Jacob created the last section of the Official Selection: la , aiming to support the creation of works of cinema in the world and to contribute to the entry of the new scenario writers in the circle of the celebrities. The Cinéfondation was completed in 2000 with ''La Résidence'', where young directors could refine their writing and screenplays, and in 2005 ''L'Atelier'', which helps twenty directors per year with the funding of their films. Gilles Jacob was appointed Honorary President in 2000, and in 2002, the Festival officially adopted the name ''Festival de Cannes''. During the 2000s, the Festival started focusing more on the technological advances taking place in the film world, especially the digital techniques. In 2004 the restored historical films of the Festival were presented as ''Cannes Classics'', which included documentaries. In 2007 Thierry Frémaux became General Delegate. In 2009 he extended the Festival in Buenos Aires, as ''La Semana de Cine del Festival de Cannes'', and in 2010 he created the ''Cannes Court Métrage'' for the Short Film competition.


2020 edition

On March 20, 2020, organizers announced the postponement of the Cannes Film Festival 2020 due to the
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic A pandemic (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a c ...

COVID-19 pandemic
; the festival was later cancelled outright. Spike Lee, director of '' Do The Right Thing'' and ''
BlacKkKlansman ''BlacKkKlansman'' is a 2018 American biographical film, biographical black comedy crime film directed by Spike Lee and written by Charlie Wachtel, David Rabinowitz, Kevin Willmott and Lee, based on the 2014 memoir ''Black Klansman'' by Ron Stal ...
'', had been chosen to lead the jury panel. In 2019, the jury panel was led by , director of '' Birdman''.


Controversies

In recent years, a number of gender and sexual controversies has surrounded the Cannes Film Festival. These include "Heelgate" in which numerous female attendees of a red carpet premiere were stopped from entering in 2015 for wearing flat soled shoes instead of
high heels High heels are a type of shoe A shoe is an item of footwear intended to protect and comfort the human foot. Shoes are also used as an item of decoration and fashion. The design of shoes has varied enormously through time and from culture ...

high heels
. The incident caused numerous female celebrities to wear flat soled shoes or no shoes at all to other red carpet premiers in a show of solidarity and protest. A number of high-profile directors and producers have also been accused of sexual harassment and abuse at past festivals. As a result of the past sexual controversies and the
MeToo movement The Me Too (or #MeToo) movement, with variations of related local or international names, is a social movement against sexual abuse and sexual harassment where people publicize allegations of sex crimes. The phrase "Me Too" was initially us ...
that arose out of the Harvey Weinstein scandal, in 2018, Cannes Film Festival officials announced the creation of a telephone hotline during the festival in which victims could report incidents of sexual harassment and other crimes. The hotline is in collaboration with the French government. General Delegate Thierry Frémaux reportedly 'banned' selfies on the red carpet of the festival in 2015. In 2017, along with the 70th anniversary events of the Festival, the issue of changing the rules on theatrical screening caused controversy. In 2018, the enforcement of theatrical screening in France resulted in
Netflix Netflix, Inc. is an American subscription The subscription business model is a business model in which a customer must pay a recurring price at regular intervals for access to a product. The model was pioneered by publishers of books an ...

Netflix
withdrawing their films from the festival.


Festival team

The President of the Festival, who represents the Festival in front of financial partners, the public authorities and the media, is elected by the board of directors of the Festival, officially named the "French Association of the Film Festival". The Board is composed of authorities of the world of cinema, as well as of public authorities which subsidize the event. The President has a renewable 3-year mandate and appoints the members of his team, including the General Delegate, with the approval of the board of directors. Sometimes a President, after his last term, becomes the Honorary President of the Festival. The General Delegate is responsible for the coordination of the events. When Gilles Jacob passed from General Delegate to the position of the President, in 2001, two new positions were created to take over his former post, the General Director to oversee the smooth running of the event, and the Artistic Director, responsible for the selection of films. However, in 2007, the Artistic Director Thierry Frémaux, became again the General Delegate of the Festival. The general secretary is responsible for the reception of works and other practical matters.


Programmes

The Cannes Film Festival is organised in various sections: * The Official Selection – The main event of the festival. ** In Competition – The films competing for the
Palme d'Or The Palme d'Or (; en, Golden Palm) is the highest prize awarded at the Cannes Film Festival The Cannes Festival (; french: link=no, Festival de Cannes), until 2003 called the International Film Festival (') and known in English as the Cann ...

Palme d'Or
. They are projected in the ''Théâtre Lumière''. **
Un Certain Regard () is a section of the Cannes Film Festival's official selection. It is run at the , parallel to the competition for the . This section was introduced in 1978 by Gilles Jacob. The name means "a certain glance" and the section presents 20 films ...
– Films selected from cultures near and far; original and different works. They are projected at the ''Salle Debussy''. ** Out of Competition – These films are also projected in the ''Théâtre Lumière'' but do not compete for the main prize. ** Special Screenings – The selection committee chooses for these films an environment specially adapted to their particular identity. ** – About fifteen shorts and medium-length motion pictures from film schools over the world are presented at the ''Salle Buñuel''. ** Short Films – The shorts competing for the
Short Film Palme d'Or The Short Film Palme d'Or (french: Palme d'Or du court métrage) is the highest prize given to a short film at the Cannes Film Festival The Cannes Festival (; french: link=no, Festival de Cannes), until 2003 called the International Film Fes ...
are presented at Buñuel and Debussy theatres. There are approximately 10 films in this competition. ** Cannes Classics – It celebrates the heritage of film, aiming to highlight works of the past, presented with brand new or restored prints. ** Cinéma de la Plage – Screening of Cannes Classics and Out of Competition films for the mass public on Macé beach, preceded by a programme dedicated to film music. * Parallel Sections – These are alternative programmes dedicated to discovering other aspects of cinema. **
International Critics' Week The International Critics' Week (french: Semaine de la Critique) was founded in 1962 and is organized by the French Syndicate of Cinema Critics. It was created following the showing of ''The Connection (1961 film), The Connection'' directed by Shir ...
– Since 1962, it has focused on discovering new talents and showcasing first and second feature films by directors from all over the world. **
Directors' Fortnight) , logo = Logo_quinzaine.png , image_size = 250px , location = Théâtre Croisette, J. W. Marriott, Cannes, France , founded = 1969 , language = French, English , website = The Directors' Fortnight (f ...
– Since 1969, it has cast its lot with the avant-garde, even as it created a breeding ground where the Cannes Festival would regularly find its prestigious auteurs. ** ACID (Association for Independent Cinema and its Distribution) ** Tous les Cinémas du Monde – It showcases the vitality and diversity of cinema across the world. Each day, one country is invited to present a range of features and shorts in celebration of its unique culture, identity and recent film works. * Events **
Marché du Film The ''Marché du Film'' (lit. Film Market) is the business counterpart of the Cannes Film Festival The Cannes Festival (; french: link=no, Festival de Cannes), until 2003 called the International Film Festival (') and known in English as th ...
– The busiest film market in the world. ** Masterclasses – Given in public by world-renowned filmmakers. ** Tributes – Honors internationally renowned artists with the presentation of the Festival Trophee following the screening of one of their films. ** Producers Network – An opportunity to make international co-productions. ** Exhibitions – Each year, an artist, a body of work or a cinematographic theme becomes the focus of an exhibition that diversifies or illustrates the event's programme. ** 60th Anniversary – Events organised in 2007 dedicated to the 60th anniversary of the Festival.


Juries

Prior to the beginning of each event, the Festival's board of directors appoints the juries who hold sole responsibility for choosing which films will receive a Cannes award. Jurors are chosen from a wide range of international artists, based on their body of work and respect from their peers. The appointment of the President of the Jury is made following several annual management proposals made in the fall and submitted to the Festival's board of directors for validation. * Feature Films – An international jury composed of a President and various film or art personalities, who determine the prizes for the feature films in Competition. * Cinéfondation and Short Films – Composed of a President and four film personalities. It awards the Short Film Palme d'Or as well as the three best films of the Cinéfondation. * Un Certain Regard – Composed of a President, journalists, students in cinema, and industry professionals. It awards the Un Certain Regard Prize for best film and can, moreover, honour two other films. * Caméra d'Or – Composed of a President, as well as film directors, technicians, and French and international critics. They award the best film in any category. The jury meets annually at the historic Villa Domergue to select the winners.


Awards

The most prestigious award given at Cannes is the
Palme d'Or The Palme d'Or (; en, Golden Palm) is the highest prize awarded at the Cannes Film Festival The Cannes Festival (; french: link=no, Festival de Cannes), until 2003 called the International Film Festival (') and known in English as the Cann ...

Palme d'Or
("Golden Palm") for the best film. * Competition **
Palme d'Or The Palme d'Or (; en, Golden Palm) is the highest prize awarded at the Cannes Film Festival The Cannes Festival (; french: link=no, Festival de Cannes), until 2003 called the International Film Festival (') and known in English as the Cann ...

Palme d'Or
– Golden Palm ** Grand Prix – Grand Prize of the Festival ** Prix du Jury – Jury Prize **
Palme d'Or du court métrage The Short Film Palme d'Or (french: Palme d'Or du court métrage) is the highest prize given to a short film at the Cannes Film Festival. Since the creation of the Cinéfondation section in 1998, a common Official Jury awards the Short Film Palme d ...
– Best Short Film ** Prix d'interprétation féminine – Best Actress ** Prix d'interprétation masculine – Best Actor ** Prix de la mise en scène – Best Director ** Prix du scénario – Best Screenplay * Other Sections **
Prix Un Certain Regard Image:Un certain regard logo.png, 274px, ''Un Certain Regard'' logo () is a section of the Cannes Film Festival's official selection. It is run at the , parallel to the competition for the . This section was introduced in 1978 by Gilles Jacob. T ...
– Young talent, innovative and audacious works ** prizes – Student films **
Caméra d'Or The Caméra d'Or ("Golden Camera") is an award of the Cannes Film Festival The Cannes Festival (; french: link=no, Festival de Cannes), until 2003 called the International Film Festival (') and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, i ...
– It rewards the best first film of the Festival, choosing among the debutants' works among the Official Selection, the Directors' Fortnight and the International Critics' Week selections. * Given by Independent Entities **
FIPRESCI Prize The International Federation of Film Critics (FIPRESCI, short for Fédération Internationale de la PRESse CInématographique) is an association of national organizations of professional film critics and film journalists from around the world for ...
– The International Federation of Film Critics awards prizes to films from the main competition section, Un Certain Regard and parallel sections **
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Prizes ** Prix Vulcain – Awarded to a technical artist by the CST **
International Critics' Week The International Critics' Week (french: Semaine de la Critique) was founded in 1962 and is organized by the French Syndicate of Cinema Critics. It was created following the showing of ''The Connection (1961 film), The Connection'' directed by Shir ...
Prizes **
Prize of the Ecumenical Jury The Prize of the Ecumenical Jury (french: Prix du Jury Œcuménique) is an independent film award for feature length films shown at major international film festivals since 1973. The award was created by Christian film makers, film critics and oth ...
** François Chalais Prize ** L'Œil d'or – Best documentary film ** Trophée Chopard ** Palm Dog – Best canine performance **
Queer Palm The Queer Palm is an independently sponsored prize for selected LGBT-relevant films entered into the Cannes Film Festival. The award was founded in 2010 by journalist Franck Finance-Madureira. It is sponsored by Olivier Ducastel and Jacques Martin ...
– Best
LGBT ' is an initialism An acronym is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (li ...

LGBT
-related films ** Cannes Soundtrack Award ** Pierre Angénieux Excellens in Cinematography


Impact

The festival has become an important showcase for cinema of Europe, European films. Jill Forbes and Sarah Street argue in ''European Cinema: An Introduction'' (), that Cannes "became...extremely important for critical and commercial interests and for European attempts to sell films on the basis of their artistic quality" (page 20). Forbes and Street also point out that, along with other festivals such as the
Venice Film Festival The Venice Film Festival or Venice International Film Festival ( it, Mostra Internazionale d'Arte Cinematografica della Biennale di Venezia, "International Exhibition of Cinematographic Art of the Venice Biennale") is the world's oldest film fest ...
and
Berlin International Film Festival The Berlin International Film Festival (german: Internationale Filmfestspiele Berlin), usually called the Berlinale, is a film festival held annually in Berlin, Germany. Founded in West Berlin in 1951, the festival has been held every February si ...
, Cannes offers an opportunity to determine a particular country's image of its cinema and generally foster the notion that European cinema is "art" cinema. Additionally, given massive media exposure, the non-public festival is attended by many stars and is a popular venue for film producers to launch their new films and to attempt to sell their works to the distributors who come from all over the globe.


Cannes Film Festival in fiction

Though most of the media attention the festival receives is journalistic in nature, the festival has been explored from the standpoint of fiction by novelists over the years. J. G. Ballard's ''Super-Cannes'' is about the European elite who live in a closed society by the festival. Michael Grothaus’ ''Epiphany Jones'' is a social satire about the festival and film industry and explores sex trafficking that occurs during the festival. The book was named one of the best Hollywood novels of all time by ''Entertainment Weekly''. Iain Johnstone's ''Cannes: The Novel'' is a dystopian tale about terrorists holding the festival hostage. In addition to fictional works, the festival has been examined in contexts ranging from the cultural to the historical in a host of non-fiction books.


See also

*
Directors' Fortnight) , logo = Logo_quinzaine.png , image_size = 250px , location = Théâtre Croisette, J. W. Marriott, Cannes, France , founded = 1969 , language = French, English , website = The Directors' Fortnight (f ...
*
International Critics' Week The International Critics' Week (french: Semaine de la Critique) was founded in 1962 and is organized by the French Syndicate of Cinema Critics. It was created following the showing of ''The Connection (1961 film), The Connection'' directed by Shir ...
* List of Cannes Film Festival jury presidents * List of Cannes Film Festival juries (Feature films) *
Marché du Film The ''Marché du Film'' (lit. Film Market) is the business counterpart of the Cannes Film Festival The Cannes Festival (; french: link=no, Festival de Cannes), until 2003 called the International Film Festival (') and known in English as th ...


References


Further reading

* * * ;Books * * * *


Media


Footage from the 1946 Cannes Film Festival



External links


Cannes Film Festival official website

Cannes Film Festival
at the Internet Movie Database
The History of the Festival
at the official website
Festival de Cannes at the official website of tourism in France
2017
Cannes – A Festival Virgin's Guide
– Detailed festival history and information for attendees
Radio France Internationale coverage of the Cannes Film Festival
2017
Cannes Film Festival
unofficial blog
Cannes Film Festival: A Potted History
* {{Coord, 43, 33, 03.10, N, 7, 01, 02.10, E, source:fiwiki_region:FR_scale:3000_type:landmark, display=title Cannes Film Festival, 1939 establishments in France 1946 establishments in France Film festivals established in 1939 Awards established in 1946 Film festivals in France May events Tourist attractions in Alpes-Maritimes