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The Canadian Prairies (usually referred to as simply the Prairies in Canada) is a region in
Western Canada Western Canada, also referred to as the Western Provinces and more commonly known as the West, is a region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study ...
. It includes the Canadian portion of the
Great Plains The Great Plains (french: Grandes Plaines), sometimes simply "the Plains", is a broad expanse of in . It is located west of the and east of the , much of it covered in , and . It is the southern and main part of the , which also include the ...
and the Prairie Provinces, namely
Alberta ("Strong and free") , image_map = Alberta in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English , capital = Edmonton , largest_city = Calg ...

Alberta
,
Saskatchewan ("From Many Peoples Strength") , image_map = Saskatchewan in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English language, English , capital = Regina, S ...
, and
Manitoba Manitoba ( ) is a Provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada at the Centre of Canada, longitudinal centre of the country. It is Canada's Population of Canada by province and territory, fifth-most populous province, with a population o ...

Manitoba
. These provinces are partially covered by
grassland Grasslands are areas where the vegetation Vegetation is an assemblage of species and the they provide. It is a general term, without specific reference to particular , life forms, structure, extent, or any other specific or geographic ...

grassland
s,
plain In geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population i ...

plain
s, and
lowland Upland and lowland are conditional descriptions of a plain In geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Re ...
s, mostly in the southern regions. The northernmost reaches of the Canadian Prairies are less well known. They are marked by
forest A forest is an area of land dominated by tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a ...

forest
s and more variable
topography Topography is the study of the forms and features of land surface Relief map of Sierra Nevada, Spain Terrain or relief (also topographical Topography is the study of the forms and features of land surfaces. The topography of an ...
. If the region is defined to include areas only covered by prairie land, the corresponding region is known as the
Interior Plains 300px, The Interior Plains are highlighted in red. The Interior Plains are a vast physiographic region Physiographic regions of the world are a means of defining Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object ...
. Geographically, the Canadian prairies extend to northeastern
British Columbia ( en, Splendour without diminishment) , image_map = British Columbia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = None , Slogan = Beautiful British C ...

British Columbia
, but this province is not included in a political manner. The prairies in Canada are a
temperate grassland Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands is a terrestrial biome A biome is a collection of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in. They can be found over a range of continents. Biomes are d ...
and
shrubland Shrubland, scrubland, scrub, brush, or bush is a plant community A plant community is a collection or Association (ecology), association of plant species within a designated geographical unit, which forms a relatively uniform patch, distinguishab ...

shrubland
biome A biome is a collection of flora, plants and fauna, animals that have common characteristics for the natural environment, environment they exist in. They can be found over a range of continents. Biomes are distinct biological community (ecology ...
within the
prairie Wheatfield intersection in the Southern Saskatchewan prairies, Canada. Prairies are ecosystem An ecosystem is a community (ecology), community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment, interact ...
ecoregion An ecoregion (ecological region) or ecozone (ecological zone) is an and geographically defined area that is smaller than a , which in turn is smaller than a . Ecoregions cover relatively large areas of land or water, and contain characteristic ...
of Canada that consists of northern mixed grasslands in Alberta, Saskatchewan, southern Manitoba, as well as northern short grasslands in southeastern Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan. The
prairie Wheatfield intersection in the Southern Saskatchewan prairies, Canada. Prairies are ecosystem An ecosystem is a community (ecology), community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment, interact ...
ecozone of Canada includes the
northern tall grasslands The Northern tall grasslands is one of 867 terrestrial ecoregion An ecoregion (ecological region) or ecozone (ecological zone) is an ecology, ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smalle ...
in southern Manitoba and Aspen parkland, which covers central Alberta, central Saskatchewan, and southern Manitoba. The Prairie starts from north of
Edmonton Edmonton ( ) is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Alberta. Edmonton is on the North Saskatchewan River and is the centre of the Edmonton Metropolitan Region, which is surrounded by Central Albert ...

Edmonton
and it covers the three provinces in a southward-slanting line east to the Manitoba-
Minnesota Minnesota () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Minnesota
border. The prairie is the most dominant land cover in Alberta and the least in Manitoba, since
boreal forest Taiga (; rus, тайга́, p=tɐjˈɡa; relates to Mongolic languages, Mongolic and Turkic languages, Turkic languages), generally referred to in North America as a boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by pinophyta, conifero ...

boreal forest
covers a large area of Manitoba. Alberta has the most land classified as prairie, while Manitoba has the least, as the boreal forest begins more southerly in Manitoba than in Alberta.


Main climates

The core climate of the Canadian prairie region is defined as a semi-arid climate and is often based upon the
Köppen climate classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification Climate classification is a way of categorizing the world's s. A climate classification may correlate closely with a category, as climate is a major infl ...
system. This type of classification encompasses five main climate types, with several categoric subtypes based on the precipitation pattern of the
region In geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, planets. The ...

region
. The majority of the prairie provinces experience snowy, fully humid
continental climates Continental may refer to: Places * Continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as continents. Or ...
with cool summers, also known as class Dfc on the Köppen climate scale. The southernmost regions of the prairies tend to experience fully humid continental climates with warm summers, Dfb. A trifling section surrounding the Alberta-Saskatchewan border has been classified as Bsk, semi-cold and
arid climate The desert climate or arid climate (in the Köppen climate classification ''BWh'' and ''BWk''), is a climate which there is an excess of evaporation over precipitation. The typically bald, rocky, or sandy surfaces in desert climates hold little ...
. Precipitation events in the Canadian prairies are very important to study as these locations make up 80% of the country's
agricultural production Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentism, sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domestication, domesticated species created food ...
. On average, 454 mm of precipitation falls on the prairies each year. Out of the three prairie provinces, Saskatchewan obtains the least amount of precipitation annually (395 mm), with Manitoba receiving the most at 486 mm. Most rainfall typically happens in the summer months such as June and July. With the high humidity of the prairies, tornadoes are likely to occur—marking central
Saskatchewan ("From Many Peoples Strength") , image_map = Saskatchewan in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English language, English , capital = Regina, S ...
and southern
Manitoba Manitoba ( ) is a Provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada at the Centre of Canada, longitudinal centre of the country. It is Canada's Population of Canada by province and territory, fifth-most populous province, with a population o ...

Manitoba
as high probability areas. Approximately 72% of
tornadoes A tornado is a violently rotating column of air File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represents trace gases that together compose about 0.043391% of the atmosp ...
in Canada are seen across the prairies due to the capability of summer thunderstorm precipitation to mechanically mix with the air adjacent to the relatively flat surface of the region.


Physical geography

Although the Prairie Provinces region is named for the prairies located within Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, the physical geography of the three provinces is quite diverse, consisting of portions of the
Canadian Shield The Canadian Shield (french: Bouclier canadien ), also called the Laurentian Plateau, is a large area of exposed Precambrian The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pꞒ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of History of the Ea ...

Canadian Shield
, the Western Cordillera and the Canadian Interior Plains. The plains comprise both prairies and
forests A forest is an area of land dominated by trees. Hundreds of definitions of forest are used throughout the world, incorporating factors such as tree density, tree height, land use, legal standing and ecological function. The Food and Agricult ...
while, with the exception of
freshwater Fresh water or freshwater is any naturally occurring liquid or frozen water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in ...

freshwater
along the
Hudson Bay Hudson Bay ( iu, text=ᑲᖏᖅᓱᐊᓗᒃ ᐃᓗᐊ, translit=Kangiqsualuk ilua or iu, text=ᑕᓯᐅᔭᕐᔪᐊᖅ, translit=Tasiujarjuaq; french: baie d'Hudson), sometimes called Hudson's Bay (usually historically), is a large body of sal ...
, the shield is predominantly forested.


Prairies

Three main grassland types occur in the Canadian prairies:
tallgrass prairie The tallgrass prairie is an ecosystem An ecosystem is a community (ecology), community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment, interacting as a system. These Biotic component, biotic and abiotic ...
,
mixed grass prairie A mixed-grass prairie is an ecotone located between the tallgrass prairies and shortgrass prairies. The mixed-grass prairie is richer in ecological diversity than either the tall- or shortgrass prairie. The mixed-grass prairie occurs in the Centr ...
, and
fescue ''Festuca'' (fescue) is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, includi ...
prairie (or using the WWF terminology,
northern tall grasslands The Northern tall grasslands is one of 867 terrestrial ecoregion An ecoregion (ecological region) or ecozone (ecological zone) is an ecology, ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smalle ...
, northern mixed grasslands, and northern short grasslands). Each has a unique geographic distribution and characteristic mix of plant species. All but a fraction of one percent of the tallgrass prairie has been converted to cropland. What remains occurs on the plain centred in the
Red River Valley The Red River Valley is a region in central North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to ...
in Manitoba. Mixed prairie is more common and is part of the dry interior plains that extend from Canada south to the
U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state ...
of
Texas Texas (, ; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambigu ...

Texas
. More than half of the remaining native grassland in the Canadian prairies is mixed. Though widespread in southern Saskatchewan and southeastern Alberta, because of extensive cattle grazing, it is estimated that only 24% of the original mixed prairie grassland remains. Fescue prairie occurs in the moister regions, occupying the northern extent of the prairies in central and southwestern Alberta and west-central Saskatchewan. The southwestern Canadian prairies, supporting brown and
black Black is a color which results from the absence or complete absorption Absorption may refer to: Chemistry and biology *Absorption (chemistry), diffusion of particles of gas or liquid into liquid or solid materials *Absorption (skin), a rout ...
soil Soil is a mixture In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound, comp ...

soil
types, are
semi-arid A semi-arid climate, semi-desert climate, or steppe climate is the climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning ' ...
and highly prone to frequent and severe droughts. The zones around the cities of Regina and immediately east of
Calgary Calgary Calgary ( ) is a city in the western Canadian province The provinces and territories of Canada are sub-national divisions within the geographical areas of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America ...

Calgary
are also very dry. Most heavy precipitation quickly dissipates by the time it passes Cheadle on its way heading east. In an average year, southern Saskatchewan receives between of precipitation, with the majority falling between April and June. Frost from October to April (and sometimes even early May) limits the growing season for certain crops. The eastern section of the Canadian prairies in Manitoba is well watered with several large lakes such as
Lake Winnipeg Lake Winnipeg (french: Lac Winnipeg, oj, ᐑᓂᐸᑲᒥᐠᓴᑯ˙ᑯᐣ, italics=no, Weenipagamiksaguygun) is a very large, relatively shallow lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land ...
and several large rivers. The area also gets reasonable amounts of precipitation. The middle sections of Alberta and Saskatchewan are also wetter than the south and have better farmland, despite having a shorter frost-free season. The areas around
Edmonton Edmonton ( ) is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Alberta. Edmonton is on the North Saskatchewan River and is the centre of the Edmonton Metropolitan Region, which is surrounded by Central Albert ...

Edmonton
and
Saskatoon Saskatoon () is the largest city in the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Saskatchewan. It straddles a bend in the South Saskatchewan River in the central region of the province. It is located along the Trans-Canada Hig ...

Saskatoon
are especially notable as good farmland. Both lie in the northern area of the Palliser's Triangle, and are within
aspen parkland Aspen parkland refers to a very large area of transitional biome between prairie Wheatfield intersection in the Southern Saskatchewan prairies, Canada. Prairies are ecosystem An ecosystem is a community (ecology), community of living ...
a transitional prairie ecozone. Further north, the area becomes too cold for most agriculture besides
wild rice Wild rice (Ojibwe language, Ojibwe: ; also called Canada rice, Indian rice, or water oats) is any of four species of Poaceae, grasses that form the genus ''Zizania'', and the grain that can be harvested from them. The grain was historically ga ...
operations and sheep raising, and it is dominated by
boreal forest Taiga (; rus, тайга́, p=tɐjˈɡa; relates to Mongolic languages, Mongolic and Turkic languages, Turkic languages), generally referred to in North America as a boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by pinophyta, conifero ...

boreal forest
. The Peace Region in northwestern Alberta is an exception, however. It lies north of the 55th Parallel and is warm and dry enough to support extensive farming.
Aspen parkland Aspen parkland refers to a very large area of transitional biome between prairie Wheatfield intersection in the Southern Saskatchewan prairies, Canada. Prairies are ecosystem An ecosystem is a community (ecology), community of living ...
covers the area; The long daylight hours in this region during the summer are an asset despite having an even shorter growing season than central Alberta. In fact, agriculture plays a major economic role in the Peace Region.


Demographics

In the
Canada 2011 Census The 2011 Canadian Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territo ...
, the Canadian prairie provinces had a population of 5,886,906, consisting of 3,645,257 in Alberta, 1,208,268 in Manitoba, and 1,033,381 in Saskatchewan, up 8.9% from 5,406,908 in 2006. The three provinces have a combined area of , consisting of in Alberta, in Manitoba, and in Saskatchewan.


Growth

Some of the prairie region of Canada has seen rapid growth from a boom in
oil production The extraction of petroleum is the process by which usable petroleum Petroleum, also known as crude oil and oil, is a naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a ...

oil production
since the mid-20th century. According to StatsCanada, the prairie provinces had a population of 5,886,906 in 2011. In 2016, the population had grown by 14.6% to 6,748,280.


Economy

In the mid 20th century, the economy of the prairies exploded, due to the oil boom, and introduced a growth of jobs. The primary industries are agriculture and services.
Agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in sedentary behaviors su ...

Agriculture
consisting of livestock (cattle and sheep), cultivating crops (oats, canola, wheat, barley), and production of oil. Due to the production of oil, the service industry expanded in order to provide for the employees of the oil companies extracting the oil. In the 1950s-1970s, the explosion of
oil production The extraction of petroleum is the process by which usable petroleum Petroleum, also known as crude oil and oil, is a naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a ...
increased the worth of Alberta and allowing it to become the "nations richest province" and Canada one of the top petroleum exporters in the world. Edmonton and Calgary drew in a larger population with the increase in jobs in the energy field, which causes the jobs supporting this field to grow as well. It was through the steady economic growth that followed this explosion that the prairies region began to switch from an agriculture-based job sector to one with services included. In 2014, the global market for oil fell and led to a recession, impacting the economy dramatically. Alberta still has an oil dominant economy even as the traditional oil wells dry up, there are oil sands further north (i.e.
Fort McMurray Fort McMurray ( ) is an urban service area Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the culture of towns and cities. Urban may also refe ...
) that continue to provide jobs to extract, drill and refine the oil. Saskatchewan, in particular, in the early 20th century grew economically due to the Canadian agricultural boom and produce large crops of wheat. It is said to have a "one-crop economy" due to such dependency on this crop alone, but after 1945 the economy took another turn with technological advancements that allowed for the discovery of uranium, oil, and potash.


Culture and politics

The Prairies are distinguished from the rest of Canada by cultural and political traits. The oldest influence on Prairie culture are the
First Nations The First Nations (french: Premières Nations ) are groups of Canadian indigenous peoples, who are classified as distinct from the Inuit Inuit (; iu, ᐃᓄᐃᑦ 'the people', singular: Inuk, , dual: Inuuk, ) are a group of culturally s ...
, who have inhabited this region for millennia. This region has the highest proportion of Indigenous people in Canada, outside of the "
territories A territory is an administrative division, usually an area that is under the jurisdiction of a sovereign state. In most country, countries, a ''territory'' is an organized division of an area that is controlled by a country but is not formally d ...
." The first Europeans to see the Prairies were
fur traders The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur. Since the establishment of a world fur market in the early modern period, furs of boreal ecosystem, boreal, polar and cold temperate mammalian animals have ...
and explorers from eastern Canada (mainly present-day
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
) and
Great Britain Great Britain is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), ...

Great Britain
via
Hudson Bay Hudson Bay ( iu, text=ᑲᖏᖅᓱᐊᓗᒃ ᐃᓗᐊ, translit=Kangiqsualuk ilua or iu, text=ᑕᓯᐅᔭᕐᔪᐊᖅ, translit=Tasiujarjuaq; french: baie d'Hudson), sometimes called Hudson's Bay (usually historically), is a large body of sal ...
. They gave rise to the
Métis The Métis (; ) are Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to relating to specific countries), or au ...
,
working class The working class (or labouring class) comprises those engaged in manual-labour occupations or industrial work, who are remunerated via waged or salaried contracts. Working-class occupations (see also "Designation of workers by collar color ...
"children of the fur trade." During their settlement by Europeans, the prairies were settled in distinct ethnic
block settlement A block settlement (or bloc settlement) is a particular type of land distribution which allows settlers A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there, often to colonize the area. A settler w ...
s giving areas distinctively
Ukrainian Ukrainian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Ukraine * Something relating to Ukrainians an East Slavic people from Eastern Europe * Something relating to Demographics of Ukraine, in terms of demography: population of Ukraine * Somethi ...
,
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...
, French, or
Scandinavia Scandinavia; Sami Places * Sápmi, a cultural region in Northern Europe * Sami, Burkina Faso, a district of the Banwa Province * Sami District, Gambia * Sami, Cephalonia, a municipality in Greece * Sami (ancient city), in Elis, Greece * Sa ...

Scandinavia
n Canadian cultures. Some areas also developed cultures around their main economic activity. For example, southern Alberta is renowned for its
cowboy A cowboy is an animal herder A herder is a pastoral A pastoral lifestyle is that of shepherds herd A herd is a social group of certain animals of the same species, either wildness, wild or Domestication, domestic. The form of ...

cowboy
culture, which developed when real open range ranching was practised in the 1880s. Canada's first rodeo, the
Raymond Stampede The Raymond Stampede is an annual rodeo that is held in the town of Raymond, Alberta, Raymond, Alberta, Canada every 1 July. Famous for being Alberta's oldest rodeo, the Raymond Stampede is also known for being Canada's oldest professional rodeo, ...
, was established in 1902. These influences are also evident in the
music of Canada's Prairie Provinces The city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, is the musical centre of the Canadian Prairie Provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta, having produced artists like Neil Young, The Guess Who, Bachman–Turner Overdrive, Crash Test Dummies, and many others. ...
. This can be attributed partially to the massive influx of American settlers who began to migrate to Alberta (and to a lesser extent, Saskatchewan) in the late 1880s because of the lack of available land in the United States. The Prairie Provinces have given rise to the "prairie protest" movements, such as the
Winnipeg General Strike of 1919 The Winnipeg general strike of 1919 was one of the most famous and influential strikes in History of Canada, Canadian history. For six weeks, May 15 to June 26, more than 30,000 strikers brought economic activity to a standstill in Winnipeg, Winnip ...
, the first
general strike A general strike (or mass strike) is a strike action in which a substantial proportion of the total labour (economics), labour force in a city, region, or country participates. General strikes are characterised by the participation of workers ...
in Canadian history. These political movements (both of the left and right) tend to feed off of well established feelings of
Western alienation In Canadian politics, Western alienation is the notion that the Western provinces – British Columbia ( en, Splendour without diminishment) , image_map = British Columbia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , ...
, and each one represents a distinct challenge to the perceived elite. The Prairies continue to have a wide range of political representation. While the
Conservative Party of Canada The Conservative Party of Canada (french: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a federal Federal or foederal (archaic) may refer to: Politics General *Federal monarchy, a federation of monarchies *Federation, or ...
has widespread support throughout the region, the
New Democratic Party The New Democratic Party (NDP; french: Nouveau Parti démocratique, NPD) is a social democratic Social democracy is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in ...

New Democratic Party
holds seats at the provincial level in all three provinces, as well as holding seats at the federal level in Alberta and Manitoba. The
Liberal Party of Canada The Liberal Party of Canada (french: Parti libéral du Canada, region=CA) is the longest-serving and oldest active federal political party in Canada. The party has dominated federal politics of Canada The politics of Canada function within ...
presently hold four federal seats in Winnipeg, while the
Manitoba Liberal Party The Manitoba Liberal Party (french: Parti libéral du Manitoba) is a political party in Manitoba Manitoba ( ) is a at the of the country. It is Canada's , with a population of 1,278,365 as of 2016. The easternmost of the three , Manitoba covers ...
holds three seats in Manitoba.


See also

*
List of regions of Canada The list of regions of Canada is a summary of geographical areas on a hierarchy that ranges from national (groups of provinces and territories) at the top to local regions and sub-regions of provinces at the bottom. Administrative regions that rank ...
*
Dominion Land Survey The Dominion Land Survey (DLS; french: links=no, arpentage des terres fédérales, ATF) is the method used to divide most of Western Canada Western Canada, also referred to as the Western Provinces and more commonly known as the West, is a region ...
*
Natural Resources Acts The Natural Resources Acts were a series of Acts passed by the Parliament of Canada and the provinces of Alberta ("Strong and free") , image_map = Alberta in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates ...
* Terrestrial ecozone *
High Plains (United States) The High Plains are a subregion of the Great Plains, mainly in the Western United States, but also partly in the Midwestern United States, Midwest states of Nebraska, Kansas, and South Dakota, generally encompassing the western part of the Gr ...
*
Llano Estacado The Llano Estacado (), sometimes translated into English as the Staked Plains, is a region in the Southwestern United States The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultu ...
*
Shortgrass prairie The shortgrass prairie is an ecosystem located in the Great Plains of North America. The two most dominant grasses in the shortgrass prairie are blue grama (''Bouteloua gracilis'') and buffalograss (''Bouteloua dactyloides''), the two less dominan ...
*''
Corner Gas ''Corner Gas'' is a Television in Canada, Canadian television sitcom created by Brent Butt. The series ran for six seasons from 2004 to 2009. Re-runs still air on CTV Television Network, CTV, CTV2, CTV Comedy Channel, Much (TV channel), Much, M ...
'' – TV show featuring the sparseness of the plains as a major theme


References


Further reading


''Alberta Encyclopedia'' Online (2005)
* Archer, John H. ''Saskatchewan: A History'' (1980) * Barnhart, Gordon L., ed. ''Saskatchewan Premiers of the Twentieth Century''. (2004). 418 pp. * Bennett, John W. and Seena B. Kohl. ''Settling the Canadian-American West, 1890–1915: Pioneer Adaptation and Community Building. An Anthropological History''. (1995). 311 pp
online edition
* Danysk, Cecilia. ''Hired Hands: Labour and the Development of Prairie Agriculture, 1880–1930''. (1995). 231 pp. * Emery, George. ''The Methodist Church on the Prairies, 1896–1914''. McGill-Queen's U. Press, 2001. 259 pp.

1071 pp in print edition * Fairbanks, C. and S.B. Sundberg. ''Farm Women on the Prairie Frontier''. (1983) * * Hodgson, Heather, ed. ''Saskatchewan Writers: Lives Past and Present''. Regina: Canadian Plains Research Center, 2004. 247 pp. * Jones, David C. ''Empire of Dust: Settling and Abandoning the Prairie Dry Belt''. (1987) 316 pp. * Keahey, Deborah. ''Making It Home: Place in Canadian Prairie Literature''. (1998). 178 pp.
Kononenko, Natalie "Vernacular religion on the prairies: negotiating a place for the unquiet dead,"
Canadian Slavonic Papers 60, no. 1-2 (2018) * Langford, N. "Childbirth on the Canadian Prairies 1880-1930." ''Journal of Historical Sociology,'' 1995. Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 278–302. * Langford, Nanci Louise. "First Generation and Lasting Impressions: The Gendered Identities of Prairie Homestead Women." PhD dissertation U. of Alberta 1994. 229 pp. DAI 1995 56(4): 1544-A. DANN95214 Fulltext:
ProQuest Dissertations & Theses ProQuest LLC is an Ann Arbor, Michigan-based global information-content and technology company, founded in 1938 as University Microfilms by Eugene B. Power. ProQuest provides applications and products for libraries. ProQuest started as a produc ...
* Laycock, David. ''Populism and Democratic Thought in the Canadian Prairies, 1910 to 1945''. (1990). 369 pp. * Lorenz, Stacy L. "'A Lively Interest on the Prairies': Western Canada, the Mass Media, and a 'World of Sport' 1870-1939." ''Journal of Sport History'' 27.2 (2000): 195–227
online
* Melnyk, George. ''The Literary History of Alberta, Vol. 1: From Writing-on-Stone to World War Two''. U. of Alberta Press, 1998. 240 pp. * Morton, Arthur S. and Chester Martin, ''History of prairie settlement'' (1938) 511pp * Morton, W. L. ''Manitoba, a History'' University of Toronto Press, 195
online edition
* Norrie, K. H. "The Rate of Settlement of the Canadian Prairies, 1870–1911", ''Journal of Economic History'', Vol. 35, No. 2 (Jun., 1975), pp. 410–42
in JSTOR
statistical models * Palmer, Howard. ''The Settlement of the West'' (1977
online edition
* Pitsula, James M. "Disparate Duo" ''Beaver'' 2005 85(4): 14–24, a comparison of Saskatchewan and Alberta, Fulltext in
EBSCO EBSCO Industries is an American company founded in 1944 by Elton Bryson Stephens Sr. and headquartered in Birmingham Birmingham ( ) is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands (county), Wes ...
* Rollings-Magnusson, Sandra. "Canada's Most Wanted: Pioneer Women on the Western Prairies". ''Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology'' 2000 37(2): 223–238. Fulltext:
Ebsco EBSCO Industries is an American company founded in 1944 by Elton Bryson Stephens Sr. and headquartered in Birmingham Birmingham ( ) is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands (county), Wes ...
* Swyripa, Frances. ''Storied Landscapes: Ethno-Religious Identity and the Canadian Prairies'' (University of Manitoba Press, 2010) 296 pp. . * Thompson, John Herd. ''Forging the Prairie West'' (1998). * Wardhaugh, Robert A. ''Mackenzie King and the Prairie West'' (2000). 328 pp. * Waiser, Bill, and John Perret. ''Saskatchewan: A New History'' (2005).


Historiography

* Francis, R. Douglas. "In search of a prairie myth: A survey of the intellectual and cultural historiography of prairie Canada." ''Journal of Canadian Studies'' 24#3 (1989): 44
online
* * Wardhaugh, Robert A., ed. ''Toward Defining the Prairies: Region, Culture, and History''. (2001). 234 pp. * 310 pp.


External links

* * {{DEFAULTSORT:Canadian Prairies Great Plains Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands Grasslands of Canada Regions of Canada Prairies Geography of Alberta Geography of Saskatchewan Geography of Manitoba