Calafat () is a city
in Dolj County
, southern Romania
, in the region of Oltenia
. It lies on the river Danube
, opposite the Bulgarian city of Vidin
, to which it is linked by the Calafat-Vidin Bridge
, opened in 2013. After the destruction of the bridges of late antiquity, for centuries Calafat was connected with the southern bank of the Danube by boat, and later on by ferryboat.
The city administers three villages: Basarabi, Ciupercenii Vechi and Golenți.
It was founded in the 14th century by Genoese colonists
. These colonists generally employed large numbers of workmen (''Calafatis'') in repairing ships. This industry gave the town its name.
In January 1854, during the Crimean War
, when Russia
n forces were headed up the Danube, Ahmed Pasha
, commanding the Turkish
forces at Calafat, made a surprise attack
on the temporary Russian garrison nearby Cetate
, which was under the command of Colonel Alexander Baumgarten. This diverted the initial Russian attack and allowed Ahmed Pasha to consolidate his forces in Calafat. On 28 January, the Russians under the command of General Iosif Romanovich Anrep
, reached Calafat and began the siege which lasted until May
. Riddled by disease and unable to take the town, Anrep withdrew.
Calafat was declared a municipiu
Calafat lies on the river corridor VII-Danube and the pan-European corridor
IV which starts in Germany and ends in Istanbul and Thessalonik
The city is at crossroads of DN56, DN56A, DN55A and E79. The city of Calafat and its neighbour, Vidin (Bulgaria), are linked by bridge over the Danube in the area called Bașcov (Danube Bridge 2
) built by the Spanish company FCC. The project of constructing a Danubian bridge in the area of Calafat-Vidin dates back to 1925. Road traffic between Vidin and Calafat were doubling every year, so it became necessary to construct a bridge with four lanes of road traffic, a railway line, a lane two meters wide for bikes and a pavement for pedestrians. The bridge has a total length of 1,971 m and its costs are estimated about US$200 million. It was officially opened on 14 June 2013.
Announcement of the Bulgarian president as published by Focus News Agency on 22 May 2013 (in Bulgarian), retrieved 31 May 2013
Calafat has several city newspapers. One of them is called ''Ziarul De Calafat'', which is also maintained online; another is ''Calafat Live''.
Twin towns — Sister cities
Calafat is town twinning|twinned
Category:Populated places on the Danube
Category:Populated places in Dolj County
Category:Localities in Oltenia
Category:Cities in Romania
Category:Port cities and towns in Romania
Category:Bulgaria–Romania border crossings
Category:Planned cities in Romania