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Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, ,
Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the 17th century * Coptic alphabet, th ...
: ⲕⲁϩⲓⲣⲏ) is the
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minusc ...
and
largest city The United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, ...
of
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a spanning the and the of . It is bordered by the to , the () and to , the to the east, to , and to . In the northeast, the , which is the northern arm of the R ...

Egypt
. The Cairo metropolitan area, with a population of 21.3 million, is the 2nd largest in Africa and in the
Arab world The Arab world ( ar, العالم العربي '), formally the Arab homeland ( '), also known as the Arab nation ( '), the Arabsphere, or the Arab states, consists of the 22 Member states of the Arab League, Arab countries which are members of ...
, and the 6th-largest in the world. Cairo is associated with
ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a that is characterized by , , a form of government, and systems of communication (such as ). Civilizations are intimately associated with additional char ...

ancient Egypt
, as the famous
Giza pyramid complex The Giza Pyramid Complex, also called the Giza Necropolis, is the site on the Giza Plateau in Greater Cairo, Egypt that includes the Great Pyramid of Giza, the Pyramid of Khafre, and the Pyramid of Menkaure, along with their associated pyramid co ...

Giza pyramid complex
and the ancient city of
Memphis Memphis is the name of: *Memphis, Egypt , alternate_name = , image = , alt = , caption = Ruins of the pillared hall of Ramesses IIat Mit Rahina , map_type = Egypt , map_alt = , map_size = , reli ...
are located in its geographical area. Located near the
Nile Delta The Nile Delta ( ar, دلتا النيل, or simply , ) is the delta Delta commonly refers to: * Delta (letter) (Δ or δ), a letter of the Greek alphabet * River delta, a landform at the mouth of a river * D (NATO phonetic alphabet: "Delta"), ...
, Cairo was founded in 969 AD during the
Fatimid dynasty The Fatimid Caliphate ( ar, الفاطميون, al-Fāṭimīyūn) was an Isma'ilism, Ismaili Shia caliphate of the 10th to the 12th centuries CE. Spanning a large area of North Africa, it spanned from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic ...

Fatimid dynasty
, but the land composing the present-day city was the site of Ancient National Capitals whose remnants remain visible in parts of
Old Cairo __NOTOC__ Old Cairo (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countr ...

Old Cairo
. Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life, and is titled "the city of a thousand
minaret Minaret (; fa, گل‌دسته ', az, minarə, tr, minare,"minaret."
''Online Etymology Dictionar ...

minaret
s" for its preponderance of
Islamic architecture Islamic architecture comprises the architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable. It is a sub-class of Style (visual arts), style i ...
. Cairo is considered a
World City A global city, also called a power city, world city, alpha city or world center, is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ...
with a "Beta +" classification according to
GaWC The Globalization and World Cities Research Network, commonly abbreviated to GaWC, is a think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for ...
. Today, the Egyptian capital has the oldest and largest
film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, ...

film
and
music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common elements such as (which governs and ), (and its associated concepts , , and ...
industries in the
Arab world The Arab world ( ar, العالم العربي '), formally the Arab homeland ( '), also known as the Arab nation ( '), the Arabsphere, or the Arab states, consists of the 22 Member states of the Arab League, Arab countries which are members of ...

Arab world
, as well as the world's second-oldest institution of higher learning,
Al-Azhar University Al-Azhar University ( ; ar, 1=جامعة الأزهر (الشريف), , "the (honorable) University of Al-Azhar") is a university in Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic: ⲕⲁϩⲓⲣⲏ) is the capital and larges ...
. Many international media, businesses, and organizations have regional headquarters in the city; the
Arab League The Arab League ( ar, الجامعة العربية, '), formally the League of Arab States ( ar, جامعة الدول العربية, '), is a regional organization in the Arab world, which is located in Africa and Western Asia. The Arab L ...

Arab League
has had its headquarters in Cairo for most of its existence. With a population of over 9 million. Adjusted census result, as Helwan governorate was created on 17 April 2008 from a.o. parts of the Cairo governorate. spread over 3 085 km², Cairo is by far the largest city in Egypt. An additional 9.5 million inhabitants live in close proximity to the city. Cairo, like many other megacities, suffers from high levels of pollution and traffic. The
Cairo Metro The Cairo Metro ( ar, مترو أنفاق القاهرة, Metro Anfāq al-Qāhirah, lit. "Cairo Tunnel Metro" or   ) is the rapid transit Rapid transit or mass rapid transit (MRT), also known as heavy rail, metro, subway, tube, U-B ...

Cairo Metro
is one of the only two
metro systems Rapid transit or mass rapid transit (MRT), also known as heavy rail, metro, subway, tube, U-Bahn, metropolitana or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas. Unlike buses or trams, rapid transit s ...
in Africa (
the other In Phenomenology (philosophy), phenomenology, the terms the Other and the Constitutive Other identify the other human being, in their differences from the Self, as being a cumulative, constituting factor in the self-image of a person; as acknowle ...

the other
being in
Algiers Algiers ( ; ar, الجزائر; Berber language, Berber: ''Dzayer;'' French language, French'': Alger'') is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Algeria. The city's population at the 2008 Census was 2,988,145Census 14 April 2008: Off ...

Algiers
,
Algeria ) , image_map = Algeria (centered orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Algiers , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , religion = , official_languages = , languages_type = Oth ...

Algeria
), and ranks amongst the fifteen busiest in the world, with over 1 billion annual passenger rides. The economy of Cairo was ranked first in the Middle East in 2005, and 43rd globally on ''
Foreign Policy ''Foreign Policy'' is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy. It produces content daily on its website, and in six print issues annually. ''Foreign Poli ...
'' 2010 Global Cities Index.


Etymology

Egyptians often refer to Cairo as ' (; arz, مَصر), the
Egyptian Arabic Egyptian Arabic, locally known as Colloquial Egyptian ( ar, العامية المصرية, ), or simply ''Masri'' (), is the spoken vernacular A vernacular or vernacular language refers to the language or dialect that is spoken by people tha ...
name for Egypt itself, emphasizing the city's importance for the country. Its official name ' ( ar, القاهرة) means "the Vanquisher" or "the Conqueror", supposedly due to the fact that the planet
Mars Mars is the fourth planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant that is massive enough to be Hydrostatic equilibrium, rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to ...

Mars
, ''an-Najm al-Qāhir'' ( ar, النجم القاهر, "the Conquering Star"), was rising at the time when the city was founded, possibly also in reference to the much awaited arrival of the
Fatimid The Fatimid Caliphate ( ar, ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْفَاطِمِيَّة , al-Ḫilāfa al-Fāṭimiyya) was an Ismaili Shia Ismāʿīlism ( ar, الإسماعيلية, ''al-ʾIsmāʿīlīyah''; fa, اسماعیلیان, ''E ...

Fatimid
Caliph
Al-Mu'izz Abu Tamim Ma'ad al-Muizz li-Din Allah ( ar, ابو تميم معد المعزّ لدين الله, Abū Tamīm Maʿad al-Muʿizz li-Dīn Allāh, Glorifier of the Religion of God; 26 September 932 – 19 December 975) was the fourth Fatimid Caliph ...
who reached Cairo in 973 from
Mahdia Mahdia ( ar, المهدية ') is a Tunisia ) , image_map = Tunisia location (orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = Location of Tunisia in northern Africa , image_map2 = , capital = Tunis , largest_city = capital , coordinates = ...

Mahdia
, the old Fatimid capital. The location of the ancient city of Heliopolis is the suburb of
Ain Shams Ain Shams (also spelled Ayn or Ein - ar, عين شمس, , cop, ⲱⲛ ⲡⲉⲧ ⲫⲣⲏ) is a suburb The Swedish suburbs of Husby/Kista/Akalla are built according to the typical city planning of the Million Programme. A suburb (or subu ...
( ar, عين شمس, "Eye of the Sun"). There are a few Coptic names of the city. (''di'')''Kashromi'' () is attested as early as
1211 Year 1211 ( MCCXI) was a common year starting on SaturdayA common year starting on Saturday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an additional day (or, in the c ...
and is a calque which means "man breaker" ("ⲕⲁϣ-" – to break, "ⲣⲱⲙⲓ" – man) which is akin to Arabic '. ''Lioui'' () or ''Elioui'' () is another name which is a corruption of Greek name of Heliopolis (). Some argue that ''Mistram'' () or ''Nistram'' () is another Coptic name for Cairo, although others think that it's rather a name of an Abbasid capital
Al-Askar Al-‘Askar ( ar, العسكر) was the capital of Egypt from 750–868, when Egypt was a province of the Abbasid Caliphate. History Background After the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 641, Fustat was established, just north of Coptic Cairo and the ...
. ⲕⲁϩⲓⲣⲏ is a popular modern rendering of an Arabic name (others being ⲭⲁⲓⲣⲟⲛ and ⲕⲁϩⲓⲣⲁ) which has a folk etymology "land of sun". Some argue that it was a name of an Egyptian settlement upon which Cairo was built, but it's rather doubtful as this name is not attested in any
Hieroglyphic Egyptian hieroglyphs () were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt, used for writing the Egyptian language. Hieroglyphs combined logographic, syllabary, syllabic and alphabetic elements, with a total of some 1,000 distinct characters.The ...
or Demotic source, although some researchers, like Paul Casanova, view it as a legitimate theory. Cairo is also referred to as ⲭⲏⲙⲓ, which means Egypt in Coptic, the same way it's referred to in Egyptian Arabic. Sometimes the city is informally referred to as ' by people from Alexandria (; arz, كايرو).


History


Initial settlements

The area around present-day Cairo, especially
Memphis Memphis is the name of: *Memphis, Egypt , alternate_name = , image = , alt = , caption = Ruins of the pillared hall of Ramesses IIat Mit Rahina , map_type = Egypt , map_alt = , map_size = , reli ...
, which was the old capital of Egypt, had long been a focal point of
Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a that is characterized by , , a form of government, and systems of communication (such as ). Civilizations are intimately associated with additional char ...

Ancient Egypt
due to its strategic location just upstream from the
Nile Delta The Nile Delta ( ar, دلتا النيل, or simply , ) is the delta Delta commonly refers to: * Delta (letter) (Δ or δ), a letter of the Greek alphabet * River delta, a landform at the mouth of a river * D (NATO phonetic alphabet: "Delta"), ...
. However, the origins of the modern city are generally traced back to a series of settlements in the first millennium. Around the turn of the 4th century, as Memphis was continuing to decline in importance, the
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...

Romans
established a fortress town along the east bank of the
Nile The Nile, , Bohairic , lg, Kiira , Nobiin Nobiin, or Mahas, is a Northern Nubian languages, Nubian language of the Nilo-Saharan languages, Nilo-Saharan language family. "Nobiin" is the genitive case, genitive form of ''Nòòbíí'' ("Nub ...

Nile
. This fortress, known as
Babylon ''Bābili(m)'' * sux, 𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠 * arc, 𐡁𐡁𐡋 ''Babil'' * grc-gre, Βαβυλών ''Babylṓn'' * he, בָּבֶל ''Bavel'' * peo, 𐎲𐎠𐎲𐎡𐎽𐎢 ''Bābiru'' * elx, 𒀸𒁀𒉿𒇷 ''Babili'' *Kassite The Kassites ...
, was the nucleus of the Roman and then the
Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survi ...

Byzantine
city and is the oldest structure in the city today. It is also situated at the nucleus of the
Coptic Orthodox Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts The Copts ( cop, ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ, translit=niremenkhemi; ar, الْقِبْط, ) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to North Africa who primarily inhabit the area of modern Egypt. Mos ...
community, which separated from the Roman and Byzantine churches in the late 4th century. Many of Cairo's oldest Coptic churches, including the , are located along the fortress walls in a section of the city known as
Coptic Cairo Coptic Cairo is a part of Old Cairo __NOTOC__ Old Cairo (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle Ea ...
. Following the Muslim conquest in AD 640, the conqueror
Amr ibn As Amr ibn al-As al-Sahmi ( ar, عَمْرِو بْنِ الْعَاصِ, ʿAmr ibn al-ʿĀṣ al-Sahmī; 664) was the Arab commander who led the Muslim conquest of Egypt and served as its governor in 640–646 and 658–664. The son of a wealthy Qu ...
settled to the north of the Babylon in an area that became known as
al-Fustat Fustat ( ar, الفسطاط ''al-Fusṭāṭ'', ), also Fostat, Al Fustat, Misr al-Fustat and Fustat-Misr, was the first capital of Egypt under Muslim rule. It was built by the Muslim general 'Amr ibn al-'As immediately after the Muslim conquest ...
. Originally a tented camp (''Fustat'' signifies "City of Tents") Fustat became a permanent settlement and the first capital of Islamic Egypt. In 750, following the overthrow of the
Umayyad caliphate The Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE; , ; ar, ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْأُمَوِيَّة, al-Khilāfah al-ʾUmawīyah) was the second of the four major caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under ...
by the
Abbasid The Abbasid Caliphate ( or ar, اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّةُ, ') was the third caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Islam Islam (;There ar ...
s, the new rulers created their own settlement to the northeast of Fustat which became their capital. This was known as
al-Askar Al-‘Askar ( ar, العسكر) was the capital of Egypt from 750–868, when Egypt was a province of the Abbasid Caliphate. History Background After the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 641, Fustat was established, just north of Coptic Cairo and the ...
(the city of sections, or
cantonment A cantonment (, , or ) is a military or police quarters. The word ''cantonment'', derived from the French word ''canton Canton may refer to: Administrative division terminology * Canton (administrative division), territorial/administrative d ...
s) as it was laid out like a military camp. A rebellion in 869 by
Ahmad ibn Tulun Ahmad ibn Tulun ( ar, أحمد بن طولون, translit=Aḥmad ibn Ṭūlūn; ca. 20 September 835 – 10 May 884) was the founder of the Tulunid The Tulunids (), were a mamluk List of Turkic dynasties and countries, dynasty of Turkic origin ...

Ahmad ibn Tulun
led to the abandonment of Al Askar and the building of another settlement, which became the seat of government. This was
al-Qatta'i Al-Qaṭāʾi ( ar, القطائـع) was the short-lived Tulunid capital of Egypt, founded by Ahmad ibn Tulun in the year 868 CE. Al-Qata'i was located immediately to the northeast of the previous capital, al-Askar, which in turn was adjacent ...
("the Quarters"), to the north of Fustat and closer to the river. Al Qatta'i was centred around a palace and ceremonial mosque, now known as the
Mosque of ibn Tulun The Mosque of Ibn Tulun ( ar, مسجد إبن طولون, Masjid Ibn Ṭūlūn) is located in Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic: ⲕⲁϩⲓⲣⲏ) is the capital and largest city of Egypt. The Cairo metropolitan a ...

Mosque of ibn Tulun
. In 905, the Abbasids re-asserted control of the country and their governor returned to Fustat, razing al-Qatta'i to the ground.


Foundation and expansion

In 969, the Fatimid empire ruled over Egypt with an army of Kutamas, and under the rule of Jawhar Al Saqili, a new fortified city northeast of
Fustat Fustat ( ar, الفسطاط ''al-Fusṭāṭ'', ), also Fostat, Al Fustat, Misr al-Fustat and Fustat-Misr, was the first capital of Egypt The current capital of Egypt is Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic: ⲕⲁϩ ...
was established. It took four years to build the city, initially known as al-Manṣūriyyah, which was to serve as the new capital of the caliphate. During that time, the construction of the
al-Azhar Mosque Al-Azhar Mosque ( ar, الجامع الأزهر, al-Jāmiʿ al-ʾAzhar, lit=The Resplendent Congregational Mosque), known simply in Egypt as al-Azhar, is an Egyptian mosque in Islamic Cairo. Al-Mu'izz li-Din Allah of the Fatimid Caliphate, Fatim ...

al-Azhar Mosque
was commissioned by order of the Caliph, which developed into the third-oldest university in the world. Cairo would eventually become a centre of learning, with the library of Cairo containing hundreds of thousands of books. When Caliph al-Mu'izz li Din Allah arrived from the old Fatimid capital of
Mahdia Mahdia ( ar, المهدية ') is a Tunisia ) , image_map = Tunisia location (orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = Location of Tunisia in northern Africa , image_map2 = , capital = Tunis , largest_city = capital , coordinates = ...

Mahdia
in
Tunisia ) , image_map = Tunisia location (orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = Location of Tunisia in northern Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous , after in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11. ...

Tunisia
in 973, he gave the city its present name, ''Qāhirat al-Mu'izz'' ("The Vanquisher of al-Mu'izz"). For nearly 200 years after Cairo was established, the administrative centre of Egypt remained in
Fustat Fustat ( ar, الفسطاط ''al-Fusṭāṭ'', ), also Fostat, Al Fustat, Misr al-Fustat and Fustat-Misr, was the first capital of Egypt The current capital of Egypt is Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic: ⲕⲁϩ ...
. However, in 1168 the Fatimid
vizier A vizier (; ar, وزير, wazīr; fa, وزیر, vazīr), or wazir, is a high-ranking political advisor or minister in the near east. The caliphs gave the title ''wazir'' to a minister formerly called ' (secretary), who was at first merely a ...
Shawar Shawar ibn Mujir al-Sa'di ( ar, شاور بن مجير السعدي, Shāwar ibn Mujīr al-Saʿdī; died 18 January 1169) was an Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233 The international standard are technical ...
set fire to Fustat to prevent its capture by
Amalric Amalric or Amalaric (also Americ, Almerich, Emeric, Emerick and other variations) is a personal name derived from the tribal name ''Amal'' (referring to the Gothic Amali) and ''ric'' (Gothic language, Gothic ''reiks'') meaning "ruler, prince". Eq ...
, the
Crusader Crusader or Crusaders may refer to: Military * Crusader, a participant in one of the Crusades * Convair NB-36H Crusader, an experimental nuclear-powered bomber * Crusader tank, a British cruiser tank of World War II * Crusaders (guerrilla), a Cr ...

Crusader
king of
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusał ...
. Egypt's capital was permanently moved to Cairo, which was eventually expanded to include the ruins of Fustat and the previous capitals of
al-Askar Al-‘Askar ( ar, العسكر) was the capital of Egypt from 750–868, when Egypt was a province of the Abbasid Caliphate. History Background After the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 641, Fustat was established, just north of Coptic Cairo and the ...
and
al-Qatta'i Al-Qaṭāʾi ( ar, القطائـع) was the short-lived Tulunid capital of Egypt, founded by Ahmad ibn Tulun in the year 868 CE. Al-Qata'i was located immediately to the northeast of the previous capital, al-Askar, which in turn was adjacent ...
. As al Qahira expanded these earlier settlements were encompassed, and have since become part of the city of Cairo as it expanded and spread; they are now collectively known as "
Old Cairo __NOTOC__ Old Cairo (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countr ...

Old Cairo
". While the Fustat fire successfully protected the city of Cairo, a continuing power struggle between Shawar,
King King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, queen, which title is also given to the queen consort, consort of a king. *In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contempora ...
Amalric I of Jerusalem Amalric ( la, Amalricus; french: Amaury; 113611 July 1174) was King of Jerusalem The King of Jerusalem was the supreme ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Crusader state founded by Christian princes in 1099 when the First Crusade took the c ...
, and the
Zengid#REDIRECT Zengid dynasty The Zengid or Zangid dynasty was a List of Muslim states and dynasties, Muslim dynasty of Oghuz Turks, Oghuz Turkic origin, which ruled parts of the Levant and Upper Mesopotamia on behalf of the Seljuk Empire. The dynasty w ...

Zengid
general
Shirkuh Asad ad-Dīn Shīrkūh bin Shādhī (; ar, أسد الدين شيركوه بن شاذي), also known as Shirkuh, Shêrkoh, or Şêrko (meaning "lion of the mountains" in Kurdish language, Kurdish) (died 22 February 1169) was a Kurds, Kurdish milit ...
led to the downfall of the Fatimid establishment. In 1169,
Saladin Al-Nasir Salah al-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub ( ku, سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی, Selahedînê Eyûbî; ar, الناصر صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب, an-Nāṣir Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; 11374 March 1193), better k ...

Saladin
was appointed as the new vizier of Egypt by the Fatimids and two years later he seized power from the family of the last Fatimid caliph, al-'Āḍid. As the first
Sultan of Egypt Sultan of Egypt was the status held by the rulers of Egypt Egypt ( ; ar, مِصر ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the North Africa, northeast corner of Africa and Western Asia, southwest corn ...
, Saladin established the
Ayyubid dynasty The Ayyubid dynasty ( ar, الأيوبيون '; Kurdish languages, Kurdish: ئەیووبیەکان Eyûbiyan) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurds, Kurdish origin, founded by Saladin and centered in Egypt in the Middle Ages, Egypt, ruling over t ...

Ayyubid dynasty
, based in Cairo, and aligned Egypt with the
Abbasids The Abbasid Caliphate ( or ar, اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّةُ, ') was the third caliphate A caliphate or khilāfah ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an institution or public office governing a territory under I ...

Abbasids
, who were based in
Baghdad Baghdad (; ar, بَغْدَاد ) is the capital of Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, ...

Baghdad
. During his reign, Saladin constructed the
Cairo Citadel The Citadel of Cairo or Citadel of Saladin ( ar, قلعة صلاح الدين, Qalaʿat Salāḥ ad-Dīn) is a medieval Islam, Islamic-era fortification in Cairo, Egypt, built by Saladin, Salah ad-Din (Saladin) and further developed by subsequent ...

Cairo Citadel
, which served as the seat of the Egyptian government until the mid-19th century. In 1250, slave soldiers, known as the
Mamluk Mamluk ( ar, مملوك, mamlūk (singular), , ''mamālīk'' (plural), translated as "one who is owned", meaning "", also as ''Mameluke'', ''mamluq'', ''mamluke'', ''mameluk'', ''mameluke'', ''mamaluke'', or ''marmeluke'') is a term most commo ...

Mamluk
s, seized control of Egypt and like many of their predecessors established Cairo as the capital of their new dynasty. Continuing a practice started by the Ayyubids, much of the land occupied by former Fatimid palaces was sold and replaced by newer buildings. Construction projects initiated by the Mamluks pushed the city outward while also bringing new infrastructure to the centre of the city. Meanwhile, Cairo flourished as a centre of Islamic scholarship and a crossroads on the
spice trade The spice trade involved historical civilizations in Asia Asia () is a landmass variously described as part of Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified b ...
route among the civilisations in
Afro-Eurasia Afro-Eurasia (or Afroeurasia, Field, Henry.The University of California African Expedition: I, Egypt, ''American Anthropologist,'' New Series Vol. 50, No. 3, Part 1 (Jul. - Sep., 1948), pp. 479-493. or Eurafrasia), nickname A nickname (al ...

Afro-Eurasia
. By 1340, Cairo had a population of close to half a million, making it the largest city west of
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...
. When the traveller
Ibn Battuta Ibn Battuta (; 24 February 13041368/1369); fully: ; Arabic: was a Berber Berber or Berbers may refer to: Culture * Berbers Berbers or ''Imazighen'' ( ber, translit=Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ, ⵎⵣⵗⵏ; singular: , ) are an e ...
first came to Cairo in 1326, he described it as the principal district of Egypt. When he passed through the area again on his return journey in 1348 the
Black Death The Black Death (also known as the Pestilence, the Great Mortality or the Plague) was a bubonic plague Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by the plague bacterium Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bact ...

Black Death
was ravaging most major cities. He cited reports of thousands of deaths per day in Cairo.


Ottoman rule

Although Cairo avoided
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
's stagnation during the
Late Middle Ages The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in musical com ...
, it could not escape the
Black Death The Black Death (also known as the Pestilence, the Great Mortality or the Plague) was a bubonic plague Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by the plague bacterium Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bact ...

Black Death
, which struck the city more than fifty times between 1348 and 1517. During its initial, and most deadly waves, approximately 200,000 people were killed by the plague, and, by the 15th century, Cairo's population had been reduced to between 150,000 and 300,000. The city's status was further diminished after
Vasco da Gama Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira Count of Vidigueira (in Portuguese ''Conde da Vidigueira'') was a Portuguese comital title of nobility awarded by King Manuel I of Portugal to Don (honorific), Dom Vasco da Gama, who discovered the marit ...

Vasco da Gama
discovered a sea route around the
Cape of Good Hope A cape is a sleeveless outer garment, which drapes the wearer's back, arms, and chest, and connects at the neck. History Capes were common in medieval Europe, especially when combined with a Hood (headgear), hood in the Chaperon (headgear), ...

Cape of Good Hope
between 1497 and 1499, thereby allowing spice traders to avoid Cairo. Cairo's political influence diminished significantly after the
Ottomans The Ottoman Turks or Osmanlı Turks ( tr, Osmanlı Türkleri), were the Turkic people The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethnic groups of Central Asia, Central, East Asia, East, North Asia, North and West Asia as well as parts of Europe an ...
supplanted
Mamluk Mamluk ( ar, مملوك, mamlūk (singular), , ''mamālīk'' (plural), translated as "one who is owned", meaning "", also as ''Mameluke'', ''mamluq'', ''mamluke'', ''mameluk'', ''mameluke'', ''mamaluke'', or ''marmeluke'') is a term most commo ...

Mamluk
power over
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a spanning the and the of . It is bordered by the to , the () and to , the to the east, to , and to . In the northeast, the , which is the northern arm of the R ...

Egypt
in 1517. Ruling from
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...

Constantinople
,
Sultan Sultan (; ar, سلطان ', ) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic abstract noun A noun () is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phone ...
Selim I Selim I ( ota, سليم الأول; tr, I. Selim; 10 October 1470 – 22 September 1520), known as Selim the Grim or Selim the Resolute ( tr, links=no, Yavuz Sultan Selim), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire fr ...

Selim I
relegated Egypt to a
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...
, with Cairo as its capital. For this reason, the history of Cairo during Ottoman times is often described as inconsequential, especially in comparison to other time periods. However, during the 16th and 17th centuries, Cairo remained an important economic and cultural centre. Although no longer on the spice route, the city facilitated the transportation of
Yemen ) , image_map = Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Sana'a Sanaa ( ar, صَنْعَاء, ' , Yemeni Arabic: ; Old South Arabian: 𐩮 ...

Yemen
i
coffee Coffee is a drink prepared from roasted s, the seeds of from certain s in the ' genus. From the coffee fruit, the seeds are separated to produce a stable, raw product: unroasted ''green coffee''. The seeds are then , a process which transfo ...

coffee
and
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
n
textile A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking bundle of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery, ...

textile
s, primarily to
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region ...
,
North Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in th ...

North Africa
, and the
Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rathe ...

Balkans
. Cairene merchants were instrumental in bringing goods to the barren
Hejaz The Hejaz (, also ; ar, ٱلْحِجَاز, al-Ḥijāz, lit=the Barrier, ) is a region in the west of Saudi Arabia. It includes the cities of Mecca, Medina, Jeddah, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia, Tabuk, Yanbu and Taif. It is also known as the "Western P ...

Hejaz
, especially during the annual
hajj The Hajj (; ar, حَجّ ' "wikt:pilgrimage, ''pilgrimage''"; sometimes also spelled Hadj, Hadji or Haj in English) is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city for Muslims. Hajj is a Far ...
to
Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah ( ) and commonly shortened to Makkah ( ),Quran 48:22 ' () is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city in Islam. It is inland ...

Mecca
. It was during this same period that al-Azhar University reached the predominance among Islamic schools that it continues to hold today; pilgrims on their way to hajj often attested to the superiority of the institution, which had become associated with Egypt's body of
Islamic scholars In Islam, the ''ulama'' (; ar, علماء ', singular ', "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ''ulema''; feminine: ''alimah'' ingularand ''aalimath'' lural are the guardians, transmitters, and interpreters of relig ...
. By the 16th century, Cairo also had high-rise
apartment buildings An apartment (American English), or flat (British English, Indian English), is a self-contained housing unit (a type of residential real estate) that occupies only part of a building, generally on a single story. There are many names for ...

apartment buildings
where the two lower floors were for commercial and storage purposes and the multiple stories above them were rented out to Leasehold estate, tenants. Under the Ottomans, Cairo expanded south and west from its nucleus around the Cairo Citadel, Citadel. The city was the second-largest in the empire, behind Constantinople, and, although migration was not the primary source of Cairo's growth, twenty percent of its population at the end of the 18th century consisted of religious minorities and foreigners from around the Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean. Still, when Napoleon I, Napoleon arrived in Cairo in 1798, the city's population was less than 300,000, forty percent lower than it was at the height of Mamluk—and Cairene—influence in the mid-14th century. The Campaign of Egypt, French occupation was short-lived as British Empire, British and Ottoman forces, including a sizeable Albanians, Albanian contingent, recaptured the country in 1801. Cairo itself Siege of Cairo, was besieged by a British and Ottoman force culminating with the French surrender on 22 June 1801. The British vacated Egypt two years later, leaving the Ottomans, the Albanians, and the long-weakened
Mamluk Mamluk ( ar, مملوك, mamlūk (singular), , ''mamālīk'' (plural), translated as "one who is owned", meaning "", also as ''Mameluke'', ''mamluq'', ''mamluke'', ''mameluk'', ''mameluke'', ''mamaluke'', or ''marmeluke'') is a term most commo ...

Mamluk
s jostling for control of the country. Continued civil war allowed an Albanian named Muhammad Ali of Egypt, Muhammad Ali Pasha to ascend to the role of commander and eventually, with the approval of the ulema, religious establishment, viceroy of Egypt in 1805.


Modern era

Until his death in 1848, Muhammad Ali of Egypt, Muhammad Ali Pasha instituted a number of social and economic reforms that earned him the title of founder of modern Egypt. However, while Muhammad Ali initiated the construction of public buildings in the city, those reforms had minimal effect on Cairo's landscape. Bigger changes came to Cairo under Isma'il Pasha (r. 1863–1879), who continued the modernisation processes started by his grandfather. Drawing inspiration from Paris, Isma'il envisioned a city of Tahrir Square, maidans and wide avenues; due to financial constraints, only some of them, in the area now composing Downtown Cairo, came to fruition. Isma'il also sought to modernize the city, which was merging with neighbouring settlements, by establishing a public works ministry, bringing natural gas, gas and lighting to the city, and opening a theatre and opera house. The immense debt resulting from Isma'il's projects provided a pretext for increasing European control, which culminated with the 1882 Anglo-Egyptian War, British invasion in 1882. The city's economic centre quickly moved west toward the
Nile The Nile, , Bohairic , lg, Kiira , Nobiin Nobiin, or Mahas, is a Northern Nubian languages, Nubian language of the Nilo-Saharan languages, Nilo-Saharan language family. "Nobiin" is the genitive case, genitive form of ''Nòòbíí'' ("Nub ...

Nile
, away from the historic Islamic Cairo section and toward the contemporary, European-style areas built by Isma'il. Europeans accounted for five percent of Cairo's population at the end of the 19th century, by which point they held most top governmental positions. In 1905 the Cairo Electric Railways & Heliopolis Oases Company, Heliopolis Oasis Company headed by the Belgians, Belgian industrialist Édouard Empain and by Boghos Nubar, son of the Egyptian Prime Minister Nubar Pasha built a suburb called Heliopolis, Cairo, Heliopolis ten kilometers from the center of Cairo. It represented the first large-scale attempt to promote its own architecture, known now as the Heliopolis style. The British occupation was intended to be temporary, but it lasted well into the 20th century. Nationalists staged Egyptian Revolution of 1919, large-scale demonstrations in Cairo in 1919, five years after Egypt had been declared a British protectorate. Nevertheless, this led to Egypt's Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence, independence in 1922.


1924 Cairo Quran

The King Fuad I Edition of the Qur’an was first published on 10 July 1924 in Cairo under the patronage of Fuad I of Egypt, King Fuad.Peter G. Riddell
Early Malay Qur'anic exegical activity
p. 164. Taken from ''Islam and the Malay-Indonesian World: Transmission and Responses''. London: C. Hurst & Co., 2001.
The goal of the government of the newly formed Kingdom of Egypt was not to delegitimize the other variant Quranic texts ("qira'at"), but to eliminate errors found in Qur’anic texts used in state schools. A committee of teachers chose to preserve a single one of the canonical qira’at "readings", namely that of the "Ḥafṣ" version,#GBRRCQ2008, Böwering, "Recent Research on the Construction of the Quran", 2008: p. 74 an 8th-century Kufic recitation. This edition has become the standard for modern printings of the Quran * For the history of compilation see ''Introduction'' by Tamara Sonn pp. 5–6 for much of the Islamic world. The publication has been called a "terrific success", and the edition has been described as one "now widely seen as the official text of the Qur’an", so popular among both Sunni and Shi'a that the common belief among less well-informed Muslims is "that the Qur’an has a single, unambiguous reading". Minor amendments were made later in 1924 and in 1936 - the "Faruq edition" in honour of then ruler, King Faruq.#GSRQSaIC2008, Reynolds, "Quranic studies and its controversies", 2008: p. 2


British occupation until 1956

British troops remained in the country until 1956. During this time, urban Cairo, spurred by new bridges and transport links, continued to expand to include the upscale neighbourhoods of Garden City (Cairo), Garden City, Zamalek, and Heliopolis (Cairo suburb), Heliopolis. Between 1882 and 1937, the population of Cairo more than tripled—from 347,000 to 1.3 million—and its area increased from . The city was devastated during the 1952 riots known as the Cairo Fire or Black Saturday, which saw the destruction of nearly 700 shops, movie theatres, casinos and hotels in downtown Cairo. The British departed Cairo following the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, but the city's rapid growth showed no signs of abating. Seeking to accommodate the increasing population, President of Egypt, President Gamal Abdel Nasser redeveloped Tahrir Square, Maidan Tahrir and the Nile Corniche, and improved the city's network of bridges and highways. Meanwhile, additional controls of the Nile fostered development within Gezira Island and along the city's waterfront. The metropolis began to encroach on the fertile
Nile Delta The Nile Delta ( ar, دلتا النيل, or simply , ) is the delta Delta commonly refers to: * Delta (letter) (Δ or δ), a letter of the Greek alphabet * River delta, a landform at the mouth of a river * D (NATO phonetic alphabet: "Delta"), ...
, prompting the government to build desert satellite towns and devise incentives for city-dwellers to move to them.


1960s

Cairo's population has doubled since the 1960s, reaching close to seven million (with an additional ten million in its urban area). Concurrently, Cairo has established itself as a political and economic hub for
North Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in th ...

North Africa
and the
Arab world The Arab world ( ar, العالم العربي '), formally the Arab homeland ( '), also known as the Arab nation ( '), the Arabsphere, or the Arab states, consists of the 22 Member states of the Arab League, Arab countries which are members of ...

Arab world
, with many multinational businesses and organisations, including the
Arab League The Arab League ( ar, الجامعة العربية, '), formally the League of Arab States ( ar, جامعة الدول العربية, '), is a regional organization in the Arab world, which is located in Africa and Western Asia. The Arab L ...

Arab League
, operating out of the city. In 1992, Cairo was hit by an 1992 Cairo earthquake, earthquake causing 545 deaths, injuring 6,512 and leaving around 50,000 people homeless.


2011 Egyptian revolution

Cairo's Tahrir Square was the focal point of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution against former president Hosni Mubarak. Over 2 million protesters were at Cairo's Tahrir square. More than 50,000 protesters first occupied the square on 25 January, during which the area's wireless services were reported to be impaired. In the following days Tahrir Square continued to be the primary destination for protests in Cairo as it took place following a popular uprising that began on Tuesday, 25 January 2011 and continued until June 2013. The uprising was mainly a campaign of non-violent civil resistance, which featured a series of demonstrations, marches, acts of civil disobedience, and labour strikes. Millions of protesters from a variety of socio-economic and religious backgrounds demanded the overthrow of the regime of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. Despite being predominantly peaceful in nature, the revolution was not without violent clashes between security forces and protesters, with at least 846 people killed and 6,000 injured. The uprising took place in Cairo, Alexandria, and in other cities in Egypt, following the Tunisian revolution that resulted in the overthrow of the long-time President of Tunisia, Tunisian president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali. On 11 February, following weeks of determined popular protest and pressure, Hosni Mubarak resigned from office.


Post-revolutionary Cairo

Under the rule of President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, el-Sisi, in March 2015 plans were announced for another yet-unnamed planned city to be built further east of the existing satellite city of New Cairo, intended to serve as the Proposed new capital of Egypt, new capital of Egypt.


Geography

Cairo is located in northern
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a spanning the and the of . It is bordered by the to , the () and to , the to the east, to , and to . In the northeast, the , which is the northern arm of the R ...

Egypt
, known as Lower Egypt, south of the Mediterranean Sea and west of the Gulf of Suez and Suez Canal. The city lies along the Nile, Nile River, immediately south of the point where the river leaves its desert-bound valley and branches into the low-lying
Nile Delta The Nile Delta ( ar, دلتا النيل, or simply , ) is the delta Delta commonly refers to: * Delta (letter) (Δ or δ), a letter of the Greek alphabet * River delta, a landform at the mouth of a river * D (NATO phonetic alphabet: "Delta"), ...
region. Although the Cairo metropolis extends away from the Nile in all directions, the city of Cairo resides only on the east bank of the river and two islands within it on a total area of . Geologically, Cairo lies on alluvium and sand dunes which date from the quaternary period. Until the mid-19th century, when the river was tamed by dams, levees, and other controls, the Nile in the vicinity of Cairo was highly susceptible to changes in course and surface level. Over the years, the Nile gradually shifted westward, providing the site between the eastern edge of the river and the Mokattam highlands on which the city now stands. The land on which Cairo was established in 969 (present-day Islamic Cairo) was located underwater just over three hundred years earlier, when
Fustat Fustat ( ar, الفسطاط ''al-Fusṭāṭ'', ), also Fostat, Al Fustat, Misr al-Fustat and Fustat-Misr, was the first capital of Egypt The current capital of Egypt is Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic: ⲕⲁϩ ...
was first built. Low periods of the Nile during the 11th century continued to add to the landscape of Cairo; a new island, known as ''Geziret al-Fil'', first appeared in 1174, but eventually became connected to the mainland. Today, the site of ''Geziret al-Fil'' is occupied by the Shubra district. The low periods created another island at the turn of the 14th century that now composes Zamalek and Gezira Island, Gezira. Land reclamation efforts by the
Mamluk Mamluk ( ar, مملوك, mamlūk (singular), , ''mamālīk'' (plural), translated as "one who is owned", meaning "", also as ''Mameluke'', ''mamluq'', ''mamluke'', ''mameluk'', ''mameluke'', ''mamaluke'', or ''marmeluke'') is a term most commo ...

Mamluk
s and
Ottomans The Ottoman Turks or Osmanlı Turks ( tr, Osmanlı Türkleri), were the Turkic people The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethnic groups of Central Asia, Central, East Asia, East, North Asia, North and West Asia as well as parts of Europe an ...
further contributed to expansion on the east bank of the river. Because of the Nile's movement, the newer parts of the city—Garden City (Cairo), Garden City, Downtown Cairo, and Zamalek—are located closest to the riverbank. The areas, which are home to most of Cairo's diplomatic mission, embassies, are surrounded on the north, east, and south by the older parts of the city.
Old Cairo __NOTOC__ Old Cairo (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countr ...

Old Cairo
, located south of the centre, holds the remnants of
Fustat Fustat ( ar, الفسطاط ''al-Fusṭāṭ'', ), also Fostat, Al Fustat, Misr al-Fustat and Fustat-Misr, was the first capital of Egypt The current capital of Egypt is Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic: ⲕⲁϩ ...
and the heart of Egypt's Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Coptic Christian community,
Coptic Cairo Coptic Cairo is a part of Old Cairo __NOTOC__ Old Cairo (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle Ea ...
. The Boulaq district, which lies in the northern part of the city, was born out of a major 16th-century port and is now a major industrial centre. The Cairo Citadel, Citadel is located east of the city centre around Islamic Cairo, which dates back to the
Fatimid The Fatimid Caliphate ( ar, ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْفَاطِمِيَّة , al-Ḫilāfa al-Fāṭimiyya) was an Ismaili Shia Ismāʿīlism ( ar, الإسماعيلية, ''al-ʾIsmāʿīlīyah''; fa, اسماعیلیان, ''E ...

Fatimid
era and the foundation of Cairo. While western Cairo is dominated by wide boulevards, open spaces, and modern architecture of European influence, the eastern half, having grown haphazardly over the centuries, is dominated by small lanes, crowded tenements, and
Islamic architecture Islamic architecture comprises the architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable. It is a sub-class of Style (visual arts), style i ...
. Northern and extreme eastern parts of Cairo, which include satellite towns, are among the most recent additions to the city, as they developed in the late-20th and early-21st centuries to accommodate the city's rapid growth. The western bank of the Nile is commonly included within the urban area of Cairo, but it composes the city of Giza and the Giza Governorate. Giza has also undergone significant expansion over recent years, and today the city, although still a suburb of Cairo, has a population of 2.7 million. The Cairo Governorate was just north of the Helwan Governorate from 2008 when some Cairo's southern districts, including Maadi and New Cairo, were split off and annexed into the new governorate, to 2011 when the Helwan Governorate was reincorporated into the Cairo Governorate. According to the World Health Organization, the level of air pollution in Cairo is nearly 12 times higher than the recommended safety level


Climate

In Cairo, and along the Nile River Valley, the climate is a hot desert climate (''BWh'' according to the Köppen climate classification system). Wind storms can be frequent, bringing Mineral dust, Saharan dust into the city, from March to May and the air often becomes uncomfortably dry. High temperatures in winter range from , while night-time lows drop to below , often to . In summer, the highs rarely surpass , and lows drop to about . Rainfall is sparse and only happens in the colder months, but sudden showers can cause severe flooding. The summer months have high humidity due to its coastal location. Snowfall is extremely rare; a small amount of graupel, widely believed to be snow, fell on Cairo's easternmost suburbs on 13 December 2013, the first time Cairo's area received this kind of precipitation in many decades. Dew points in the hottest months range from in June to in August.


Metropolitan area

The Greater Cairo is the largest metropolitan area in Africa. It consists of Cairo Governorate, parts of Giza Governorate, and parts of Qalyubia Governorate.


Satellite cities

6th of October City, west of Cairo, and New Cairo, east of Cairo, are major urban developments which have been built to accommodate additional growth and development of the Cairo area. New development includes several high-end residential developments.


Planned new capital

In March 2015, plans were announced for a yet-unnamed planned city to be built east of Cairo, in an undeveloped area of the Cairo Governorate, which would serve as the administrative and financial capital of Egypt.


Infrastructure


Health

Cairo, as well as neighbouring Giza, has been established as Egypt's main centre for medical treatment, and despite some exceptions, has the most advanced level of Health care, medical care in the country. Cairo's hospitals include the Joint Commission, JCI-accredited As-Salaam International Hospital—Corniche El Nile, Maadi (Egypt's largest private hospital with 350 beds), Ain Shams University Hospital, Dar Al Fouad, Nile Badrawi Hospital, 57357 Hospital, as well as Qasr El Eyni Hospital.


Education

Greater Cairo has long been the hub of education and educational services for Egypt and the region. Today, Greater Cairo is the centre for many government offices governing the Education in Egypt, Egyptian educational system, has the largest number of educational schools, and Egyptian universities, higher education institutes among other cities and governorates of Egypt. Some of the International Schools found in Cairo: Universities in Greater Cairo:


Transportation

Cairo has an extensive road network, rail system, Rapid transit, subway system and maritime services. Road transport is facilitated by personal vehicles, taxi cabs, privately owned public buses and Microbus#Van conversions, Cairo microbuses. Cairo, specifically Ramses Station, is the centre of almost the entire Egyptian transport network, transportation network. Cairo Metro, The subway system, officially called "Metro (مترو)", is a fast and efficient way of getting around Cairo. Metro network covers Helwan and other suburbs. It can get very crowded during rush hour. Two train cars (the fourth and fifth ones) are reserved for women only, although women may ride in any car they want. Trams in Greater Cairo and Cairo trolleybus are former modes of transportation but were closed. An extensive road network connects Cairo with other Egyptian cities and villages. There is a new Ring road, Ring Road that surrounds the outskirts of the city, with exits that reach outer Cairo districts. There are flyovers and bridges, such as the 6th October Bridge that, when the traffic is not heavy, allow fast Mode of transport, means of transportation from one side of the city to the other. Cairo traffic is known to be overwhelming and overcrowded. Traffic moves at a relatively fluid pace. Drivers tend to be aggressive, but are more courteous at junctions, taking turns going, with police aiding in Road traffic control, traffic control of some congested areas. In 2017 plans to construct Cairo Monorail, two monorail systems were announced, one linking 6th of October (city), 6th of October to suburban Giza, a distance of , and the other linking Nasr City to New Cairo, a distance of .


Other forms of transport

* Cairo International Airport * Ramses Station, Ramses Railway Station * Transport in Cairo, Cairo Transportation Authority Cairo Transportation Authority, CTA * Cairo Taxi/Yellow Cab *
Cairo Metro The Cairo Metro ( ar, مترو أنفاق القاهرة, Metro Anfāq al-Qāhirah, lit. "Cairo Tunnel Metro" or   ) is the rapid transit Rapid transit or mass rapid transit (MRT), also known as heavy rail, metro, subway, tube, U-B ...

Cairo Metro
* Cairo Nile Ferry


Sports

Association football, Football is the most popular sport in Egypt, and Cairo has a number of sporting teams that compete in national and regional leagues. The best known teams are Al Ahly SC, Al Ahly, Zamalek SC, El Zamalek and Al-Ismaily. The annual match between Al Ahly SC, Al Ahly and Zamalek SC, El Zamalek is one of the most watched sports events in Egypt as well as the African-Arab region. The teams form the major rivalry of Egyptian football, and are the first and the second champions in Africa and the
Arab world The Arab world ( ar, العالم العربي '), formally the Arab homeland ( '), also known as the Arab nation ( '), the Arabsphere, or the Arab states, consists of the 22 Member states of the Arab League, Arab countries which are members of ...

Arab world
. They play their home games at Cairo International Stadium or Naser Stadium, which is the second largest stadium in Egypt, as well as the largest in Cairo and one of the largest stadiums in the world. The Cairo International Stadium was built in 1960 and its multi-purpose sports complex that houses the main football stadium, an indoor stadium, several satellite fields that held several regional, continental and global games, including the All-Africa Games, African Games, U17 Football World Championship and was one of the stadiums scheduled that hosted the 2006 Africa Cup of Nations which was played in January 2006. Egypt later won the competition and went on to win the next edition in Ghana (2008) making the Egyptian and Ghanaian national teams the only teams to win the African Nations Cup Back to back which resulted in Egypt winning the title for a record number of six times in the history of African Continental Competition. This was followed by a third consecutive win in Angola 2010, making Egypt the only country with a record 3-consecutive and 7-total Continental Football Competition winner. This achievement had also placed the Egyptian football team as the #9 best team in the world's FIFA rankings. Cairo failed at the applicant stage when bidding for the 2008 Summer Olympics, which was hosted in Beijing, China. However, Cairo did host the 2007 Pan Arab Games. There are several other sports teams in the city that participate in several sports including el Gezira Sports club, Sporting Club, el Shams Club, el Seid Club, Heliopolis Club and several smaller clubs, but the biggest clubs in Egypt (not in area but in sports) are Al Ahly SC, Al Ahly and Zamalek, Al Zamalek. They have the two biggest football teams in Egypt. There are new sports clubs in the area of New Cairo (one hour far from Cairo's down town), these are Al Zohour sporting club, Wadi Degla sporting club and Platinum Club. Most of the sports federations of the country are also located in the city suburbs, including the Egyptian Football Association. The headquarters of the Confederation of African Football (CAF) was previously located in Cairo, before relocating to its new headquarters in 6th of October City, 6 October City, a small city away from Cairo's crowded districts. In October 2008, the Egyptian Rugby Federation was officially formed and granted membership into the International Rugby Board. Egypt is internationally known for the excellence of its squash players who excel in both professional and junior divisions. Egypt has seven players in the top ten of the PSA men's world rankings, and three in the women's top ten. Mohamed El Shorbagy held the world number one position for more than a year before being overtaken by compatriot Karim Abdel Gawad, who is number two behind Gregory Gaultier of France. Ramy Ashour and Amr Shabana are regarded as two of the most talented squash players in history. Shabana won the World Open title four times and Ashour twice, although his recent form has been hampered by injury. Egypt's Nour El Sherbini has won the Women's World Championship twice and has been women's world number one for 16 consecutive months. On 30 April 2016, she became the youngest woman to win the Women's World Championship which was held in Malaysia. In April 2017 she retained her title by winning the Women's World Championship which was held in the Egyptian resort of El Gouna.


Culture


Cultural tourism in Egypt


Cairo Opera House

President Mubarak inaugurated the new Cairo Opera House of the Egyptian National Cultural Centres on 10 October 1988, 17 years after the Royal Opera House had been destroyed by fire. The National Cultural Centre was built with the help of JICA, the Japan International Co-operation Agency and stands as a prominent feature for the Egypt–Japan relations, Japanese-Egyptian co-operation and the friendship between the two nations.


Khedivial Opera House

The Khedivial Opera House, or Royal Opera House, was the original opera house in Cairo. It was dedicated on 1 November 1869 and burned down on 28 October 1971. After the original opera house was destroyed, Cairo was without an opera house for nearly two decades until the opening of the new Cairo Opera House in 1988.


Cairo International Film Festival

Cairo held its first international film festival 16 August 1976, when the first Cairo International Film Festival was launched by the Egyptian Association of Film Writers and Critics, headed by Kamal El-Mallakh. The Association ran the festival for seven years until 1983. This achievement lead to the President of the Festival again contacting the FIAPF with the request that a competition should be included at the 1991 Festival. The request was granted. In 1998, the Festival took place under the presidency of one of Egypt's leading actors, Hussein Fahmy, who was appointed by the Ministry of Culture (Egypt), Minister of Culture, Farouk Hosny, Farouk Hosni, after the death of Saad El-Din Wahba. Four years later, the journalist and writer Cherif El-Shoubashy became president.


Cairo Geniza

The Cairo Geniza is an accumulation of almost 200,000 Jewish manuscripts that were found in the genizah of the Abraham ibn Ezra, Ben Ezra synagogue (built 882) of Fustat, Egypt (now Old Cairo), the Basatin cemetery east of Old Cairo, and a number of old documents that were bought in Cairo in the later 19th century. These documents were written from about 870 to 1880 AD and have been archived in various American and European libraries. The Taylor-Schechter collection in the University of Cambridge runs to 140,000 manuscripts, a further 40,000 manuscripts are at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America.


Food

The majority of Cairenes make food for themselves and make use of local produce markets. The restaurant scene includes traditional Middle Eastern cuisine as well as local staples such as ''kushari''. The city's most exclusive restaurants are typically concentrated in Zamalek and around the luxury hotels lining the shore of the Nile near the Garden City, Cairo, Garden City district. Influence from modern Western world, western society is also evident, with American chains such as McDonald's, Arby's, Pizza Hut, Subway (restaurant), Subway, and KFC, Kentucky Fried Chicken being easy to find in central areas.


Places of worship

Among the places of worship, they are predominantly Islam, Muslim mosques. There are also Christianity, Christian churches and temples: Coptic Orthodox Church, Coptic Catholic Church (Catholic Church), Evangelical Church of Egypt (Synod of the Nile) (World Communion of Reformed Churches).


Economy

Cairo accounts for 11% of Egypt's population and 22% of its economy (PPP). The majority of the nation's commerce is generated there, or passes through the city. The great majority of publishing, publishing houses and media outlets and nearly all Movie studio, film studios are there, as are half of the nation's hospital beds and universities. This has fuelled rapid construction in the city—one building in five is less than 15 years old. This growth until recently surged well ahead of Municipal services, city services. Homes, roads, electricity, telephone and sewer services were all in short supply. Analysts trying to grasp the magnitude of the change coined terms like "hyper-urbanization".


Cairo's automobile assembler and manufacturer

* Arab American Vehicles, Arab American Vehicles Company * Egyptian Light Transport Manufacturing Company (Egyptian NSU pedant) * Ghabbour Group (Fuso, Hyundai and Volvo) * Manufacturing Commercial Vehicles, MCV Corporate Group (a part of the Daimler AG) * Mod Car * Seoudi Group (Modern Motors: Nissan, BMW (formerly); El-Mashreq: Alfa Romeo and Fiat) * Speranza Motors, Speranza (former Daewoo Motors Egypt; Chery Automobile, Chery, GM Korea, Daewoo) * General Motors Egypt


Cityscape and landmarks


Tahrir Square

Tahrir Square was founded during the mid 19th century with the establishment of modern downtown Cairo. It was first named Ismailia Square, after the 19th-century ruler Khedive Ismail, who commissioned the new downtown district's 'Paris on the Nile' design. After the Egyptian Revolution of 1919 the square became widely known as Tahrir (Liberation) Square, though it was not officially renamed as such until after the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, 1952 Revolution which eliminated the monarchy. Several notable buildings surround the square including, the American University in Cairo's downtown campus, the Mogamma governmental administrative Building, the headquarters of the
Arab League The Arab League ( ar, الجامعة العربية, '), formally the League of Arab States ( ar, جامعة الدول العربية, '), is a regional organization in the Arab world, which is located in Africa and Western Asia. The Arab L ...

Arab League
, the Nile Ritz Carlton Hotel, and the Egyptian Museum. Being at the heart of Cairo, the square witnessed several major protests over the years. However, the most notable event in the square was being the focal point of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution against former president Hosni Mubarak.


Egyptian Museum

The Egyptian Museum, Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum, is home to the most extensive collection of
ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a that is characterized by , , a form of government, and systems of communication (such as ). Civilizations are intimately associated with additional char ...

ancient Egypt
ian antiquities in the world. It has 136,000 items on display, with many more hundreds of thousands in its basement storerooms. Among its most famous collections on display are the finds from the KV62, tomb of Tutankhamun.


Grand Egyptian Museum

Much of the collection of the Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, including the Tutankhamun collection, are slated to be moved to the new Grand Egyptian Museum, under construction in Giza and due to open by the end of 2020.


Cairo Tower

The Cairo Tower is a free-standing tower with a revolving restaurant at the top. It provides a bird's eye view of Cairo to the restaurant patrons. It stands in the Zamalek district on Gezira Island in the Nile River, in the city centre. At , it is higher than the Great Pyramid of Giza, which stands some to the southwest.


Old Cairo

This area of Cairo is so-named as it contains the remains of the ancient Roman Babylon Fortress, fortress of Babylon and also overlaps the original site of
Fustat Fustat ( ar, الفسطاط ''al-Fusṭāṭ'', ), also Fostat, Al Fustat, Misr al-Fustat and Fustat-Misr, was the first capital of Egypt The current capital of Egypt is Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic: ⲕⲁϩ ...
, the first Arab settlement in Egypt (7th century AD) and the predecessor of later Cairo. The area includes the
Coptic Cairo Coptic Cairo is a part of Old Cairo __NOTOC__ Old Cairo (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle Ea ...
, which holds a high concentration of old Christian churches such as the , the Church of St. George (Cairo), Greek Orthodox Church of St. George, and other Christian or Coptic buildings, most of which are located over the site of the ancient Roman fortress. It is also the location of the Coptic Museum, which showcases the history of Coptic art from Egypt history#Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt, Greco-Roman to History of Muslim Egypt, Islamic times, and of the Ben Ezra Synagogue, the oldest and best-known synagogue in Cairo, where the important collection of Cairo Geniza, Geniza documents were discovered in the 19th century. To the north of this Coptic enclave is the Mosque of Amr ibn al-As, Amr ibn al-'As Mosque, the first mosque in Egypt and the most important religious centre of what was formerly
Fustat Fustat ( ar, الفسطاط ''al-Fusṭāṭ'', ), also Fostat, Al Fustat, Misr al-Fustat and Fustat-Misr, was the first capital of Egypt The current capital of Egypt is Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic: ⲕⲁϩ ...
, founded in 642 AD right after the Arab conquest of Egypt, Arab conquest but rebuilt many times since.


Islamic Cairo

Cairo holds one of the greatest concentrations of historical monuments of
Islamic architecture Islamic architecture comprises the architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable. It is a sub-class of Style (visual arts), style i ...
in the world. The areas around the old Fatimid architecture#Cairo fortifications, walled city and around the Citadel of Cairo, Citadel are characterized by hundreds of mosques, tombs, madrasas, mansions, caravanserais, and fortifications dating from the Islamic era and are often referred to as "Islamic Cairo", especially in English travel literature. It is also the location of several important religious shrines such as the al-Hussein Mosque (whose shrine is believed to hold the head of Husayn ibn Ali), the Mausoleum of Imam al-Shafi'i (founder of the Shafi'i madhhab, one of the primary schools of thought in Sunni Islamic Fiqh, jurisprudence), the Mashhad of Sayyida Ruqayya, Tomb of Sayyida Ruqayya, the Al-Sayeda Nafeesah Mosque, Mosque of Sayyida Nafisa, and others. The first mosque in Egypt was the Mosque of Amr ibn al-As in what was formerly
Fustat Fustat ( ar, الفسطاط ''al-Fusṭāṭ'', ), also Fostat, Al Fustat, Misr al-Fustat and Fustat-Misr, was the first capital of Egypt The current capital of Egypt is Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic: ⲕⲁϩ ...
, the first Arab-Muslim settlement in the area. However, the Mosque of Ibn Tulun is the oldest mosque that still retains its original form and is a rare example of
Abbasid The Abbasid Caliphate ( or ar, اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّةُ, ') was the third caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Islam Islam (;There ar ...
architecture from the Islamic Golden Age, classical period of Islamic civilization. It was built in 876–879 AD in a style inspired by the Abbasid capital of Samarra in Iraq. It is one of the largest mosques in Cairo and is often cited as one of the most beautiful. Another Abbasid construction, the Nilometer on Rhoda Island, is the oldest original structure in Cairo, built in 862 AD. It was designed to measure the level of the
Nile The Nile, , Bohairic , lg, Kiira , Nobiin Nobiin, or Mahas, is a Northern Nubian languages, Nubian language of the Nilo-Saharan languages, Nilo-Saharan language family. "Nobiin" is the genitive case, genitive form of ''Nòòbíí'' ("Nub ...

Nile
, which was important for agricultural and administrative purposes. The settlement that was formally named Cairo (Arabic: ''al-Qahira'') was founded to the northeast of Fustat in 959 AD by the victorious Fatimid army. The Fatimids built it as a separate palatial city which contained Fatimid Great Palaces, their palaces and institutions of government. It was enclosed by a circuit of walls, which were rebuilt in stone in the late 11th century AD by the vizir Badr al-Jamali, Badr al-Gamali, parts of which survive today at Bab Zuwayla in the south and Bab al-Futuh and Bab al-Nasr (Cairo), Bab al-Nasr in the north. One of the most important and lasting institutions founded in the Fatimid period was the Al-Azhar Mosque, Mosque of al-Azhar, founded in 970 AD, which competes with the Qarawiyyin in Fes for the title of oldest university in the world. Today, al-Azhar University is the foremost Center of Islamic learning in the world and one of Egypt's largest universities with campuses across the country. The mosque itself retains significant Fatimid elements but has been added to and expanded in subsequent centuries, notably by the Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo), Mamluk sultans Qaitbay and Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri, al-Ghuri and by Abd al-Rahman Katkhuda in the 18th century. Other extant monuments from the Fatimid era include the large Al-Hakim Mosque, Mosque of al-Hakim, the Aqmar Mosque, Juyushi Mosque, Lulua Mosque, and the Al-Salih Tala'i Mosque, Mosque of Al-Salih Tala'i. The most prominent architectural heritage of medieval Cairo, however, dates from the Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo), Mamluk period, from 1250 to 1517 AD. The Mamluk sultans and elites were eager patrons of religious and scholarly life, commonly building religious or funerary complexes whose functions could include a mosque, madrasa, khanqah (for Sufis), a Sebil (fountain), sabil (water dispensary), and a mausoleum for themselves and their families. Among the best-known examples of Mamluk monuments in Cairo are the huge Mosque-Madrassa of Sultan Hassan, Mosque-Madrasa of Sultan Hasan, the Mosque of Amir al-Maridani, the Mosque of Sultan al-Muayyad, Mosque of Sultan al-Mu'ayyad (whose twin minarets were built above the gate of Bab Zuwayla), the Sultan Al-Ghuri Complex, Sultan Al-Ghuri complex, the Complex of Sultan al-Ashraf Qaytbay, funerary complex of Sultan Qaytbay in the City of the Dead (Cairo), Northern Cemetery, and the trio of monuments in the Bayn al-Qasrayn area comprising the Qalawun complex, complex of Sultan al-Mansur Qalawun, the Madrassa of Al-Nasir Muhammad, Madrasa of al-Nasir Muhammad, and the Madrasa of Sultan Barquq. Some mosques include spolia (often columns or Capital (architecture), capitals) from earlier buildings built by the Ancient Rome, Romans, Byzantine Empire, Byzantines, or Copts. The Mamluks, and the later
Ottomans The Ottoman Turks or Osmanlı Turks ( tr, Osmanlı Türkleri), were the Turkic people The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethnic groups of Central Asia, Central, East Asia, East, North Asia, North and West Asia as well as parts of Europe an ...
, also built ''wikala''s or caravanserais to house merchants and goods due to the important role of trade and commerce in Cairo's economy. The most famous example still intact today is the Wikala of Al-Ghuri, Wikala al-Ghuri, which nowadays also hosts regular performances by the Al-Tannoura Egyptian Heritage Dance Troupe. The famous Khan el-Khalili, Khan al-Khalili is a commercial hub which also integrated caravanserais (also known as ''khan''s).


Citadel of Cairo

The Citadel is a fortified enclosure begun by Saladin, Salah al-Din in 1176 AD on an outcrop of the Muqatam, Muqattam Hills as part of a large defensive system to protect both Cairo to the north and
Fustat Fustat ( ar, الفسطاط ''al-Fusṭāṭ'', ), also Fostat, Al Fustat, Misr al-Fustat and Fustat-Misr, was the first capital of Egypt The current capital of Egypt is Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic: ⲕⲁϩ ...
to the southwest. It was the centre of Egyptian government and residence of its rulers until 1874, when Isma'il Pasha, Khedive Isma'il moved to Abdeen Palace, 'Abdin Palace. It is still occupied by the military today, but is now open as a tourist attraction comprising, notably, the Egyptian National Military Museum, National Military Museum, the 14th century Al-Nasir Muhammad Mosque, Mosque of al-Nasir Muhammad, and the 19th century Mosque of Muhammad Ali which commands a dominant position on Cairo's skyline.


Khan el-Khalili

Khan el-Khalili is an ancient bazaar, or marketplace adjacent to the Al-Hussein Mosque. It dates back to 1385, when Amir Jarkas el-Khalili built a large caravanserai, or khan. (A caravanserai is a hotel for traders, and usually the focal point for any surrounding area.) This original carvanserai building was demolished by qansuh al-Ghuri, Sultan al-Ghuri, who rebuilt it as a new commercial complex in the early 16th century, forming the basis for the network of souqs existing today. Many medieval elements remain today, including the ornate
Mamluk Mamluk ( ar, مملوك, mamlūk (singular), , ''mamālīk'' (plural), translated as "one who is owned", meaning "", also as ''Mameluke'', ''mamluq'', ''mamluke'', ''mameluk'', ''mameluke'', ''mamaluke'', or ''marmeluke'') is a term most commo ...

Mamluk
-style gateways. Today, the Khan el-Khalili is a major tourist attraction and popular stop for tour groups.


Society

Today, Cairo is heavily urbanization, urbanized and most Cairenes now live in apartment buildings. Because of the influx of people into the city, lone standing houses are rare, and apartment buildings accommodate for the limited space and abundance of people. Single detached houses are symbolic of the wealthy. Formal education has also become very important. There are twelve years of standard formal education. Cairenes can take a standardized test similar to the SAT to be accepted to an institution of higher learning but most children do not finish school and opt to pick up a trade to enter the work force. Egypt still struggles with poverty, with almost half the population living on $2 or less a day.


Women's rights

The civil rights movement for women in Cairo and Egypt has been a long battle for years. Women are reported to face constant discrimination, sexual harassment, and abuse throughout Cairo. A 2013 United Nations, UN study found that over 99% of Women in Egypt, Egyptian women reported experiencing sexual harassment at some point in their lives. The problem has persisted in spite of new national laws since 2014 defining and criminalizing sexual harassment. The situation is so severe that in 2017 Cairo was named by one poll as the most dangerous megacity for women in the world. In 2020, the social media account "Assault Police" began to name and shame perpetrators of violence against women. The account was founded by student Nadeen Ashraf, who is credited for instigating an iteration of the Me Too movement, #MeToo movement in Egypt.


Pollution

The air pollution in Cairo is a matter of serious concern. Greater Cairo's volatile aromatic hydrocarbon levels are higher than many other similar cities. Air quality measurements in Cairo have also been recording dangerous levels of lead, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and suspended solids, suspended particulate matter concentrations due to decades of unregulated vehicle emissions control, vehicle emissions, urban industrial operations, and chaff and trash burning. There are over 4,500,000 cars on the streets of Cairo, 60% of which are over 10 years old, and therefore lack modern emission cutting features. Cairo has a very poor dispersion factor because of its lack of rain and its layout of tall buildings and narrow streets, which create a bowl effect. In recent years, a black cloud (as Egyptians refer to it) of smog has appeared over Cairo every autumn due to Inversion (meteorology), temperature inversion. Smog causes serious respiratory diseases and eye irritations for the city's citizens. Tourists who are not familiar with such high levels of pollution must take extra care. Cairo also has many unregistered lead and copper smelters which heavily pollute the city. The results of this has been a permanent haze over the city with particulate matter in the air reaching over three times normal levels. It is estimated that 10,000 to 25,000 people a year in Cairo die due to air pollution-related diseases. Lead has been shown to cause harm to the central nervous system and neurotoxicity particularly in children. In 1995, the first environmental acts were introduced and the situation has seen some improvement with 36 air monitoring stations and Emissions testing, emissions tests on cars. Twenty thousand buses have also been commissioned to the city to improve congestion levels, which are very high. The city also suffers from a high level of land pollution. Cairo produces 10,000 tons of waste material each day, 4,000 tons of which is not Waste collection, collected or Waste management, managed. This is a huge health hazard, and the Egyptian Government is looking for ways to combat this. The Cairo Cleaning and Beautification Agency was founded to collect and recycle the waste; they work with the Zabbaleen community that has been collecting and recycling Cairo's waste since the turn of the 20th century and live in an area known locally as Manshiyat naser. Both are working together to pick up as much waste as possible within the city limits, though it remains a pressing problem. Water pollution is also a serious problem in the city as the Sanitary sewer, sewer system tends to fail and overflow. On occasion, sewage has escaped onto the streets to create a health hazard. This problem is hoped to be solved by a new sewer system funded by the European Union, which could cope with the demand of the city. The dangerously high levels of Mercury (element), mercury in the city's water system has global health officials concerned over related health risks.


International relations

The Headquarters of the Arab League is located in Tahrir Square, near the downtown Cairo, downtown business district of Cairo.


Twin towns – sister cities

Cairo is sister city, twinned with: * Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates * Amman, Jordan *
Baghdad Baghdad (; ar, بَغْدَاد ) is the capital of Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, ...

Baghdad
, Iraq * Beijing, China * Damascus, Syria * East Jerusalem, Palestine * Istanbul, Turkey * Kairouan, Tunisia * Khartoum, Sudan * Muscat, Oman * Oran, Algeria * Province of Palermo, Palermo Province, Italy * Rabat, Morocco * Sanaa, Yemen * Seoul, South Korea * Stuttgart, Germany * Tashkent, Uzbekistan * Tbilisi, Georgia * Tokyo, Japan * Tripoli, Libya


Notable people

* Gamal Aziz, also known as Gamal Mohammed Abdelaziz, former president and chief operating officer of Wynn Resorts, and former CEO of MGM Resorts International, indicted as part of the 2019 college admissions bribery scandal * Abu Sa'id al-Afif, 15th-century Samaritan * Boutros Boutros-Ghali (1922–2016), former Secretary-General of the United Nations * Avi Cohen (1956–2010), Israeli international footballer * Dalida (1933–1987), Italian-Egyptian singer who lived most of her life in France, received 55 golden records and was the first singer to receive a Music recording sales certification, diamond disc * Mohamed ElBaradei (born 1942), former Director-general, Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Nobel Peace Prize, 2005 Nobel Peace Prize laureate * Dorothy Hodgkin (1910–1994), British chemist, credited with the development of protein crystallography, Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1964 * Yakub Kadri Karaosmanoğlu (1889–1974), Turkish novelist * Naguib Mahfouz (1911–2006), novelist, Nobel Prize in Literature in 1988 * Roland Moreno (1945–2012), French inventor, engineer, humorist and author who invented the smart card * Gaafar Nimeiry (1930–2009), President of Sudan * Ahmed Sabri (1889–1955), painter * Taco Hemingway (born 1990), Polish hip-hop artist * Naguib Sawiris (born 1954), 62nd richest person on Earth in 2007 billionaire, list of billionaires, reaching US$10.0 billion with his company Orascom Telecom Holding * Beatification, Blessed Maria Caterina Troiani (1813–1887), a mercy, charitable activist * Magdi Yacoub (born 1935), British-Egyptian cardiothoracic surgeon * Ahmed Zewail (1946–2016), American-Egyptian scientist in chemistry, won Nobel Prize in 1999 * Farouk El-Baz (born 1938), an Egyptian American space scientist who worked with NASA to assist in the planning of scientific exploration of the Moon, including the selection of landing sites for the Apollo missions and the training of astronauts in lunar observations and photography. *Gamal Abdel Nasser, Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was an Egyptian politician who served as the List of Presidents of Egypt, second President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970.


See also

* C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group * Charles Ayrout * Cultural tourism in Egypt * List of buildings in Cairo * List of cities and towns in Egypt * Outline of Cairo * Outline of Egypt


Notes


References


Works cited

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * English translation: * * * * * * *


Further reading

* * Artemis Cooper, ''Cairo in the War, 1939–1945'', Hamish Hamilton, 1989 / Penguin Book, 1995. (Pbk) * Max Rodenbeck, ''Cairo– the City Victorious'', Picador, 1998. (Hbk) (Pbk) * Wahba, Magdi (1990). ''Cairo Memories" in Studies in Arab History: The Antonius Lectures, 1978–87''. Edited by Derek Hopwood. London: Macmillan Press. * * Peter Theroux, ''Cairo: Clamorous heart of Egypt'' National Geographic (magazine), National Geographic Magazine April 1993 * Cynthia Myntti, ''Paris Along the Nile: Architecture in Cairo from the Belle Epoque'', American University in Cairo Press, 2003.
Cairo's belle époque architects 1900–1950
by Samir Raafat.
Antonine Selim Nahas
one of city's major belle époque (1900–1950) architects. * Nagib Mahfooz novels, all tell great stories about Cairo's deep conflicts. * * Jörg Armbruster, Suleman Taufiq (Eds.) ''مدينتي القاهرة (MYCAI – My Cairo Mein Kairo)'', text by different authors, photos by Barbara Armbruster and Hala Elkoussy, edition esefeld & traub, Stuttgart 2014, .


External links


Cairo City Government


*
Map of Cairo, 1914.
Eran Laor Cartographic Collection, The National Library of Israel.


Photos and videos


Cairo 360-degree full-screen images

Cairo Travel Photos
Pictures of Cairo published under Creative Commons License
Call to Cairo
Time-lapse film of Cairo cityscapes
Cairo, Egypt
– video by ''Global Post''
Photos of Cairo / Travel
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