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CAZy is a database of Carbohydrate-Active enZYmes (CAZymes). The database contains a classification and associated information about
enzyme Enzymes () are proteins that act as biological catalysts (biocatalysts). Catalysts accelerate chemical reactions. The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrate (chemistry), substrates, and the enzyme converts the substrates in ...

enzyme
s involved in the synthesis, metabolism, and recognition of complex
carbohydrate A carbohydrate () is a biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a ...
s, i.e.
disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrate is a disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar formed wh ...
s,
oligosaccharide An oligosaccharide (/ˌɑlɪgoʊˈsækəˌɹaɪd/; from the Greek ὀλίγος ''olígos'', "a few", and σάκχαρ ''sácchar'', "sugar") is a saccharide is a disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sug ...
s,
polysaccharide Polysaccharides (), or polycarbohydrates, are the most abundant carbohydrate A carbohydrate () is a biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallograp ...
s, and
glycoconjugate Glycoconjugates are the classification family for carbohydrate is a disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides are joined by glycosidic linkage. Like monosaccharides, d ...
s. Included in the database are families of
glycoside hydrolase Glycoside hydrolases (also called glycosidases or glycosyl hydrolases) catalyze that utilizes a low-temperature oxidation catalyst to convert carbon monoxide to less toxic carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical formula ) is a colorless ...
s,
glycosyltransferase Glycosyltransferases (GTFs, Gtfs) are enzymes (Enzyme Commission number, EC 2.4) that establish natural glycosidic linkages. They catalyze the transfer of saccharide Moiety (chemistry), moieties from an activated nucleotide sugar (also known as th ...
s, polysaccharide
lyase In biochemistry Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical process In a scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable e ...
s, carbohydrate
esterase An esterase is a hydrolase enzyme that splits esters into an acid and an alcohol in a chemical reaction with water (molecule), water called hydrolysis. A wide range of different esterases exist that differ in their Substrate (biochemistry), subst ...
s, and non-catalytic
carbohydrate-binding module In molecular biology, a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) is a protein domain found in carbohydrate-active enzymes (for example glycoside hydrolases). The majority of these domains have carbohydrate-binding activity. Some of thes ...
s. The CAZy database also includes a classification of Auxiliary Activity
redox Redox (reduction–oxidation, pronunciation: or ) is a type of chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter ...

redox
enzymes involved in the breakdown of
lignocellulose Lignocellulose refers to plant dry matter (biomass Biomass is plant or animal material used as fuel to produce electricity Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Stati ...
. CAZy was established in 1999 in order to provide online and constantly updated access to the
protein sequence Protein primary structure is the linear sequence of amino acid Amino acids are organic compound In , organic compounds are generally any s that contain - . Due to carbon's ability to (form chains with other carbon s), millions of organ ...
-based family classification of CAZymes, which was originally developed in early 1990s to classify the
glycoside hydrolase Glycoside hydrolases (also called glycosidases or glycosyl hydrolases) catalyze that utilizes a low-temperature oxidation catalyst to convert carbon monoxide to less toxic carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical formula ) is a colorless ...
s. New entries are added shortly after they appear in the daily releases of
GenBank The GenBank sequence database In the field of bioinformatics, a sequence database is a type of biological database that is composed of a large collection of computerized ("Digital data, digital") nucleic acid sequences, protein sequences, or othe ...
. The rapid evolution of high-throughput
DNA sequencing DNA sequencing is the process of determining the nucleic acid sequence A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of bases signified by a series of a set of five different letters that indicate the order of nucleotides Nucleotides are organic ...

DNA sequencing
has resulted in the continuing exponential growth of the CAZy database, which now covers hundreds of thousands of sequences.Current statistics are available on eac
Glycoside Hydrolase
an

section page.
CAZy continues to be curated and developed by the Glycogenomics group at AFMB, a research centre affiliated with the
French National Centre for Scientific Research The French National Centre for Scientific Research (french: link=no, Centre national de la recherche scientifique, CNRS) is the French state research organisation and is the largest fundamental science Basic research, also called pure research or ...
and
Aix-Marseille University Aix-Marseille University (AMU; french: Aix-Marseille Université; formally incorporated as ''Université d'Aix-Marseille'') is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information ...
. The CAZy database is coupled with
CAZypedia
', which was launched in 2007 as a research community-driven,
wiki A wiki ( ) is a hypertext Hypertext is text displayed on a or other with references () to other text that the reader can immediately access. Hypertext documents are interconnected by hyperlinks, which are typically activated b ...

wiki
-based encyclopedia of CAZymes.


Classification

CAZy identifies evolutionarily related families of glycosyl hydrolases using the classification introduced by Bernard Henrissat. These families are given a number to identify them, so for example
Glycosyl hydrolase family 1 Glycoside hydrolase family 1 is a family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social terri ...
contains enzymes that possess a TIM barrel fold. These families are clustered into 14 different clans that share structural similarity. CAZy contains 94 families of Glycosyl transferase enzymes, 22 families of polysaccharide lysases and 16 families of carbohydrate esterases.


References


External links

* * {{cite encyclopedia , url = http://www.cazypedia.org/ , title = CAZypedia , encyclopedia = The Encyclopedia of Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes Biological databases Protein classification