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The Burj Khalifa ( ar, برج خليفة, ; pronounced , literally "Khalifa Tower" in English), known as the Burj Dubai prior to its inauguration in 2010, is a skyscraper in
Dubai Dubai ( ; ar, دبي, translit=Dubayy , ) is the most populous city in the United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country i ...

Dubai
,
United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregio ...

United Arab Emirates
. With a total height of 829.8 m (2,722 ft, just over half a mile) and a roof height (excluding antenna, but including a 244 m spire) of , the Burj Khalifa has been the
tallest structure The tallest structure in the world is the Burj Khalifa skyscraper at . Listed are guyed masts (such as telecommunication masts), self-supporting towers (such as the CN Tower), skyscrapers (such as the Willis Tower), oil platforms, electricity t ...
and
building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. Buildings come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and functions, and have been adapted throughout history for a ...
in the world since its
topping out In building construction Construction is a general term meaning the art and science to form Physical object, objects, systems, or organizations,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ''Oxford English Dictionary'' Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4 ...
in 2009 (preceded by
Taipei 101 Taipei 101 (; stylized as TAIPEI 101), formerly known as the Taipei World Financial Center, is a skyscraper A skyscraper is a tall continuously habitable building having multiple floors. Modern sources currently define skyscrapers as bei ...

Taipei 101
). Construction of the Burj Khalifa began in 2004, with the exterior completed five years later in 2009. The primary structure is
reinforced concrete Reinforced concrete (RC), also called reinforced cement concrete (RCC), is a composite material in which concrete's relatively low ultimate tensile strength, tensile strength and ductility are compensated for by the inclusion of reinforcement h ...
. The building was opened in 2010 as part of a new development called
Downtown Dubai Downtown Dubai, previously known as Downtown Burj Dubai, is a large-scale, mixed-use complex which was developed in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. It is the home of some of the city's largest landmarks including Burj Khalifa, The Dubai Mall, and The ...

Downtown Dubai
. It is designed to be the centrepiece of large-scale, mixed-use development. The decision to construct the building is based on the government's decision to diversify from an oil-based economy, and for Dubai to gain international recognition. The building was originally named ''Burj Dubai'' but was renamed in honour of the ruler of
Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi (, ; ar, أَبُو ظَبْيٍ ' ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more fo ...

Abu Dhabi
and president of the United Arab Emirates,
Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan ( ar, خليفة بن زايد بن سلطان آل نهيان; born 7 September 1948; referred to as Sheikh Khalifa) is the current de jure president of the United Arab Emirates, the emir of Abu D ...
; Abu Dhabi and the UAE government lent Dubai money to pay its debts. The building broke numerous height records, including its designation as the tallest building in the world. Burj Khalifa was designed by
Adrian Smith Adrian Frederick "H" Smith (born 27 February 1957) is an English guitarist, best known as a member of British Heavy metal music, heavy metal band Iron Maiden, for whom he writes songs and performs live backing vocals on some tracks. Smith grew u ...
, of
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM) is a global architectural, urban planning and engineering firm. It was founded in 1936 by Louis Skidmore and Nathaniel A. Owings, Nathaniel Owings in Chicago, Illinois. In 1939, they were joined by engineer John ...
, whose firm designed the
Willis Tower The Willis Tower (formerly known as and commonly referred to as the Sears Tower) is a 108-story Story or stories may refer to: Common uses * Story, a narrative (an account of imaginary or real people and events) ** Short story, a piece of pr ...

Willis Tower
and
One World Trade Center One World Trade Center (also known as One World Trade, One WTC, and formerly Freedom Tower) is the main building of the rebuilt World Trade Center (2001–present), World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan, New York City. One WTC is the ...

One World Trade Center
.
Hyder Consulting Hyder Consulting was a multi-national advisory and design consultancy with particular specialisation in the transport, property, utilities and environmental sectors. The firm employed approximately 4,200 people across the UK, Europe, Germany, Middl ...
was chosen to be the supervising engineer with NORR Group Consultants International Limited chosen to supervise the architecture of the project. The design is derived from the Islamic architecture of the region, such as in the
Great Mosque of Samarra , native_name_lang = ara , image = Samara_spiralovity_minaret_rijen1973.jpg , image_upright = 1.4 , alt = , caption = The spiral minaret of the mosque , map_type ...

Great Mosque of Samarra
. The Y-shaped tripartite floor geometry is designed to optimize residential and hotel space. A buttressed central core and wings are used to support the height of the building. Although this design was derived from Tower Palace III, the Burj Khalifa's central core houses all vertical transportation with the exception of egress stairs within each of the wings. The structure also features a cladding system which is designed to withstand Dubai's hot summer temperatures. It contains a total of 57 elevators and 8 escalators. At a certain point in the architectural and engineering process, the original Emaar developers experienced financial problems, and required more money and economic funding. Sheikh Khalifa, the ruler of the United Arab Emirates, granted monetary aid and funding, hence resulting in the changing of the name to "Burj Khalifa". The concept of profitability derived from building high density developments and malls around the landmark have proven successful. Its surrounding malls, hotels and condominiums in Downtown Dubai have generated the most revenue from the project as a whole, while the Burj Khalifa itself made little or no profit. Critical reception to Burj Khalifa has been generally positive, and the building has received many awards. However, there were numerous complaints concerning migrant workers from
South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia cov ...

South Asia
who were the primary building labour force. These centered on low wages and the practice of confiscating passports until duties were complete. Several suicides were reported.


Development

Construction began in January 2004, with the exterior of the structure completed on 1 October 2009. The building officially opened on 4 January 2010 and is part of the
Downtown Dubai Downtown Dubai, previously known as Downtown Burj Dubai, is a large-scale, mixed-use complex which was developed in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. It is the home of some of the city's largest landmarks including Burj Khalifa, The Dubai Mall, and The ...

Downtown Dubai
development at the 'First Interchange' along
Sheikh Zayed Road 220px, Skyscrapers on Sheikh Zayed Road in May 2006 E 11 ( ar, شارع ﺇ ١١) is a highway in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The longest road in the Emirates, it stretches from Al-Silah in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi and ends in Ras al-Khai ...

Sheikh Zayed Road
, near Dubai's main business district. The tower's architecture and engineering were performed by
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM) is a global architectural, urban planning and engineering firm. It was founded in 1936 by Louis Skidmore and Nathaniel A. Owings, Nathaniel Owings in Chicago, Illinois. In 1939, they were joined by engineer John ...
of
Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive map of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name ...

Chicago
, with
Adrian Smith Adrian Frederick "H" Smith (born 27 February 1957) is an English guitarist, best known as a member of British Heavy metal music, heavy metal band Iron Maiden, for whom he writes songs and performs live backing vocals on some tracks. Smith grew u ...
as chief architect, and Bill Baker as chief structural engineer. The primary contractor was
Samsung C&T Samsung C&T Corporation (Construction & Trading Corporation) (formerly Samsung Corporation) (Korean Korean may refer to: People and culture * Koreans, an ethnic group originating in the Korean Peninsula * Korean cuisine * Korean culture * Kore ...
of
South Korea South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korea, Korean Peninsula and sharing a Korean Demilitarized Zone, land border with North Korea. Its western border is for ...

South Korea
.


Conception

Burj Khalifa was designed to be the centerpiece of a large-scale, mixed-use development to include 30,000 homes , nine hotels (including The Address Downtown Dubai), of parkland, at least 19 residential skyscrapers, the
Dubai Mall The Dubai Mall ( ar, دبي مول "Dubai Mall") is a shopping mall in Dubai Dubai ( ; ar, دبي, translit=Dubayy , ) is the most populous city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the capital of the Emirate of Dubai.The Government and Pol ...

Dubai Mall
, and the artificial Burj Khalifa Lake. The decision to build Burj Khalifa was reportedly based on the government's decision to diversify from an oil-based economy to one that is service and tourism based. According to officials, it was necessary for projects like Burj Khalifa to be built in order to garner more international recognition, and hence investment. "He (Sheikh
Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum ( ar, محمد بن راشد آل مكتوم, links=no; ; born 15 July 1949) is the Vice President and Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), its Minister of Defence, as well as the Ruler of the ...

Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum
) wanted to put Dubai on the map with something really sensational," said Jacqui Josephson, a tourism and VIP delegations executive at
Nakheel Properties Nakheel ( ar, نَـخٍـيْـل, palms or palm trees) is a property developer based in Dubai Dubai ( ; ar, دبي, translit=Dubayy , ) is the most populous city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the capital of the Emirate of Dubai.Th ...
. The tower was known as Burj Dubai ("Dubai Tower") until its official opening in January 2010. It was renamed in honour of the ruler of
Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi (, ; ar, أَبُو ظَبْيٍ ' ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more fo ...
,
Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan ( ar, خليفة بن زايد بن سلطان آل نهيان; born 7 September 1948; referred to as Sheikh Khalifa) is the current de jure president of the United Arab Emirates, the emir of Abu D ...
; Abu Dhabi and the federal government of UAE lent Dubai tens of billions of US dollars so that Dubai could pay its debts – Dubai borrowed at least $80 billion for construction projects. In the 2000s, Dubai started diversifying its economy but it suffered from an economic crisis in 2007–2010, leaving large-scale projects already in construction abandoned.


Records

The Burj Khalifa set several world records, including: *Tallest existing structure: (previously
KVLY-TV mast The KVLY-TV mast (formerly the KTHI-TV mast) is a television Television (TV), sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in color, and in t ...

KVLY-TV mast
 – ) * Tallest structure ever built: (previously Warsaw radio mast – ) * Tallest freestanding structure: (previously
CN Tower The CN Tower (french: Tour CN) is a concrete Concrete is a composed of fine and coarse bonded together with a fluid (cement paste) that hardens (cures) over time. Concrete is the second-most-used substance in the world after wa ...

CN Tower
 – ) * Tallest skyscraper (to top of
spire A spire is a tall, slender, pointed structure on top of a roof or tower, especially at the summit of church steeple In architecture File:Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (ad ...

spire
): (previously
Taipei 101 Taipei 101 (; stylized as TAIPEI 101), formerly known as the Taipei World Financial Center, is a skyscraper A skyscraper is a tall continuously habitable building having multiple floors. Modern sources currently define skyscrapers as bei ...

Taipei 101
 – ) * Tallest skyscraper to top of antenna: (previously the  – ) * Building with most floors: 163 (previously
World Trade Center World Trade Centers are sites recognized by the World Trade Centers Association The World Trade Centers Association (WTCA) was founded in 1968 following the establishment of the first World Trade Center in New Orleans. WTCA is a not-for-profit, n ...
 – 110) * World's highest
elevator An elevator (North American English North American English (NAmE, NAE) is the most generalized variety (linguistics), variety of the English language as spoken in the United States and Canada. Because of their related histories and ...

elevator
installation (situated inside a rod at the very top of the building) * World's longest travel distance elevators: 504 m (1,654 ft) * Highest vertical
concrete pump Image:Concrete pumper.jpg, 400px, Because it is a fluid, concrete can be pumped to where it is needed. Here, a concrete transport truck is feeding concrete to a concrete pumper, which is pumping it to where a slab is being poured. A concrete pump ...
ing (for a building): *
World's tallest structure The world's tallest artificial structure is the Burj Khalifa in Dubai (of the United Arab Emirates). The building gained the official title of "List of tallest buildings in the world, tallest building in the world" and the tallest self-support ...
that includes residential space * World's highest installation of an
aluminium Aluminium (aluminum in and ) is a with the  Al and  13. Aluminium has a density lower than those of other common , at approximately one third that of . It has a great affinity towards , and of on the surface when exposed to air ...

aluminium
and glass façade: * World's highest
nightclub A nightclub (music club, discothèque, disco club, or simply ''club'') is an entertainment venue during night Night (also described as night time, night-time, or nighttime, unconventionally spelled as ''nite'') is the period of ambie ...
: 144th floor * World's highest
restaurant A restaurant is a business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit." ...

restaurant
(''At.mosphere''): 122nd floor at (previously ''360'', at a height of in CN Tower) * World's highest
New Year New Year is the time Time is the continued of and that occurs in an apparently succession from the , through the , into the . It is a component quantity of various s used to events, to compare the duration of events or the interva ...

New Year
display of
fireworks Fireworks are a class of low explosive An explosive (or explosive material) is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion An explosion is a rapid expansion in volume associat ...

fireworks
. * World's largest light and sound show staged on a single building.


History of height increases

There are unconfirmed reports of several planned height increases since its inception. Originally proposed as a virtual clone of the Grollo Tower proposal for Melbourne, Australia's , the tower was redesigned by
Skidmore, Owings and Merrill Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM) is a global architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and t ...
. Marshall Strabala, a Skidmore, Owings and Merrill architect who worked on the project until 2006, said in late 2008 that Burj Khalifa was designed to be tall. The architect who designed it, Adrian Smith, felt that the uppermost section of the building did not culminate elegantly with the rest of the structure, so he sought and received approval to increase its height. It was stated that this change did not add any floors, which fit with Smith's attempts to make the crown more slender. The building opened on 4 January 2010.


Architecture and design

The tower was designed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM), which also designed the
Willis Tower The Willis Tower (formerly known as and commonly referred to as the Sears Tower) is a 108-story Story or stories may refer to: Common uses * Story, a narrative (an account of imaginary or real people and events) ** Short story, a piece of pr ...

Willis Tower
(formerly the Sears Tower) in
Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive map of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name ...

Chicago
and the
One World Trade Center One World Trade Center (also known as One World Trade, One WTC, and formerly Freedom Tower) is the main building of the rebuilt World Trade Center (2001–present), World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan, New York City. One WTC is the ...

One World Trade Center
in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
. Burj Khalifa uses the bundled
tube Tube or tubes may refer to: * ''Tube'' (2003 film), a 2003 Korean film * ''The Tube'' (TV series), a music related TV series by Channel 4 in the United Kingdom *"Tubes" (Peter Dale), performer on the Soccer AM ''Soccer AM'' is a British footbal ...
design of the
Willis Tower The Willis Tower (formerly known as and commonly referred to as the Sears Tower) is a 108-story Story or stories may refer to: Common uses * Story, a narrative (an account of imaginary or real people and events) ** Short story, a piece of pr ...

Willis Tower
, invented by
Fazlur Rahman Khan Fazlur Rahman Khan ( bn, ফজলুর রহমান খান, ''Fozlur Rôhman Khan''; 3 April 1929 – 27 March 1982) was a Bangladeshi Bangladeshis ( bn, বাংলাদেশি ; formerly known as Bangalees) are the citizens ...
. Due to its tubular system, proportionally only half the amount of steel was used in the construction, compared to the
Empire State Building The Empire State Building is a 102-story Art Deco Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before . Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furnit ...

Empire State Building
. Khan's contributions to the design of tall buildings have had a profound impact on architecture and engineering. It would be difficult to find any worldwide practices in the design of tall buildings that have not been directly or indirectly influenced by his work. The design is reminiscent of
Frank Lloyd Wright Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was an American architect, designer, writer, and educator. He designed more than 1,000 structures over a creative period of 70 years. Wright believed in designing in harmony with humanity and t ...

Frank Lloyd Wright
's vision for , a mile-high skyscraper designed for Chicago, as well as Chicago's
Lake Point Tower Lake Point Tower is a high-rise residential building located on a promontory of the Lake Michigan Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is the second-largest of the Great Lakes by volume () and the third-largest by ...

Lake Point Tower
. When
Adrian Smith Adrian Frederick "H" Smith (born 27 February 1957) is an English guitarist, best known as a member of British Heavy metal music, heavy metal band Iron Maiden, for whom he writes songs and performs live backing vocals on some tracks. Smith grew u ...
was conceiving the project at SOM, he looked out his office window toward Lake Point Tower's curved three wing layout, "There's the prototype", he said. According to Strabala, Burj Khalifa was designed based on the 73 floor Tower Palace Three, an all-residential building in
Seoul Seoul (, like ''soul''; ko, 서울 ; ), officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppe ...

Seoul
. In its early planning, Burj Khalifa was intended to be entirely residential. Subsequent to the original design by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill, Emaar Properties chose Hyder Consulting to be the supervising engineer and NORR Group Consultants International Ltd to supervise the architecture of the project. Hyder was selected for their expertise in structural and MEP (mechanical, electrical and plumbing) engineering. Hyder Consulting's role was to supervise construction, certify the architect's design, and be the engineer and architect of record to the UAE authorities. NORR's role was the supervision of all architectural components including on-site supervision during construction and design of a 6-story addition to the office annex building for architectural documentation. NORR was also responsible for the architectural integration drawings for the Armani Hotel included in the Tower. Emaar Properties also engaged GHD, an international multidisciplinary consulting firm, to act as an independent verification and testing authority for concrete and steelwork. The design is derived from Islamic architecture. As the tower rises from the flat desert base, there are 27 setbacks in a spiral pattern, decreasing the cross section of the tower as going upward and creating convenient outdoor terraces. These setbacks are arranged and aligned in a way that minimizes vibration wind loading from eddy currents and vortices. At the top, the central core emerges and is sculpted to form a finishing spire. At its tallest point, the tower sways a total of . The spire of Burj Khalifa is composed of more than of structural steel. The central pinnacle pipe weighs and has a height of . The spire also houses communications equipment. This 244-metre spire is widely considered vanity height, since very little of its space is usable. Without the spire, Burj Khalifa would be 585 meters tall. This was reported in a
Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) is an international body in the field of tall buildings and sustainable Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing way across various domains of life. In the 21st c ...
study, which notes that the empty spire "could be a skyscraper on its own". Such a skyscraper, if located in Europe, would be the 11th tallest building on that continent. In 2009 architects announced that more than 1,000 pieces of art would adorn the interiors of Burj Khalifa, while the residential lobby of Burj Khalifa would display the work of
Jaume Plensa Jaume Plensa (; born 1955) is a Spanish artist and sculptor. Biography Plensa was born in Barcelona, Catalonia and studied art there, in the "Llotja" School and in the Escola Superior de Belles Arts de Sant Jordi. Works Plensa's works includ ...

Jaume Plensa
. The cladding system consists of of more than 26,000 reflective glass panels and aluminium and textured
stainless steel Stainless steel is a group of ferrous alloys that contain a minimum of approximately 11% chromium Chromium is a chemical element upright=1.0, 500px, The chemical elements ordered by link=Periodic table In chemistry Chemistr ...
spandrel A spandrel is a roughly triangular space, usually found in pairs, between the top of an arch and a rectangular frame; between the tops of two adjacent arches or one of the four spaces between a circle within a square. They are frequently fill ...

spandrel
panels with vertical tubular fins. The
architectural glass Architectural glass is glass that is used as a building material Building material is material used for construction Construction is a general term meaning the art and science to form Physical object, objects, systems, or organizations," ...
provides solar and thermal performance as well as an anti-glare shield for the intense desert sun, extreme desert temperatures and strong winds. The glass covers more than in area. The Burj's typical curtain wall panels measure 4'6" wide by 10'8" high and weigh about 800 pounds each, with wider panels near the buildings edges and taller ones near the top. The exterior temperature at the top of the building is thought to be 6 °C (11 °F) cooler than at its base. A 304-room Armani Hotel, the first of four by
Armani Giorgio Armani S.p.A. (), commonly known as Armani, is an Italian luxury fashion house Fashion design is the Art (skill), art of applying design, aesthetics, clothing construction and natural beauty to clothing and its Fashion accessory, acces ...

Armani
, occupies 15 of the lower 39 floors. The hotel was supposed to open on 18 March 2010, but after several delays, it finally opened to the public on 27 April 2010. The corporate suites and offices were also supposed to open from March onwards, yet the hotel and observation deck remained the only parts of the building which were open in April 2010. The sky lobbies on the 43rd and 76th floors house swimming pools. Floors through to 108 have 900 private residential
apartment An apartment (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United S ...

apartment
s (which, according to the developer, sold out within eight hours of being on the market). An outdoor zero-entry swimming pool is located on the 76th floor of the tower. Corporate offices and suites fill most of the remaining floors, except for the 122nd, 123rd and 124th, where the ''At.mosphere'' restaurant, sky lobby and an indoor and outdoor observation deck are located respectively. In January 2010, it was planned that Burj Khalifa would receive its first residents from February 2010. The building has 57 elevators and 8 escalators. The elevators have a capacity of 12 to 14 people per cabin, the fastest rising and descending at up to for double-deck elevators. However, the world's fastest single-deck elevator still belongs to
Taipei 101 Taipei 101 (; stylized as TAIPEI 101), formerly known as the Taipei World Financial Center, is a skyscraper A skyscraper is a tall continuously habitable building having multiple floors. Modern sources currently define skyscrapers as bei ...

Taipei 101
at . Engineers had considered installing the world's first triple-deck elevators, but the final design called for
double-deck elevator 300px, Double-deck elevators at Midland Square, Nagoya, Japan">Nagoya.html" ;"title="Midland Square, Nagoya">Midland Square, Nagoya, Japan A double-deck elevator or double-deck lift is an elevator where one cab is stacked on top of another. This ...
s. The double-deck elevators are equipped with entertainment features such as LCD displays to serve visitors during their travel to the observation deck. The building has 2,909 stairs from the ground floor to the 160th floor.


Plumbing systems

The Burj Khalifa's water system supplies an average of of water per day through of pipes. An additional of piping serves the fire emergency system, and supplies chilled water for the air conditioning system. The waste water system uses gravity to discharge water from plumbing fixtures, floor drains, mechanical equipment and storm water, to the city municipal sewer.


Air conditioning

The air conditioning system draws air from the upper floors where the air is cooler and cleaner than on the ground. At peak cooling times, the tower's cooling is , equivalent to that provided by of melting ice in one day. Water is collected via a condensate collection system and is used to irrigate the nearby park.


Window cleaning

To wash the 24,348 windows, totaling of glass, the building has three horizontal tracks which each holding a bucket machine. Above level 109, and up to tier 27, traditional cradles from
davit file:Davits 2 (PSF).png, Boat suspended from radial davits; the boat is mechanically lowered file:Brosen lifeboats scandinavia.jpg, Gravity multi-pivot on cruiseferry ''MS Scandinavia (2003), Scandinavia'' file:Bossoir a gravité.jpg, Gravity Roller ...
s are used. The top of the building is cleaned by a crew that uses ropes to descend from the top to gain access. Under normal conditions, when all building maintenance units are operational, it takes 36 workers three to four months to clean the entire exterior. Unmanned machines clean the top 27 additional tiers and the glass spire. The cleaning system was developed in
Melbourne Melbourne ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Melbourne
, Australia, by CoxGomyl, a manufacturer of
building maintenance unit , at a cost of A$8 million.


Features


The Dubai Fountain

Outside, WET Enterprises designed a fountain system at a cost of Dh 800 million (US$217 million). Illuminated by 6,600 lights and 50 coloured projectors, it is long and shoots water into the air, accompanied by a range of classical to contemporary Arabic and other music. It is the world's second largest choreographed fountain. On 26 October 2008, Emaar announced that based on results of a naming contest the fountain would be called the Dubai Fountain.


Observation deck

An outdoor
observation deck An observation deck, observation platform, or viewing platform is an elevated sightseeing at the archaeological site of Chichén Itza. in Vienna. Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring (d ...

observation deck
, named ''At the Top'', opened on 5 January 2010 on the 124th floor. At , it was the highest outdoor observation deck in the world when it opened. Although it was surpassed in December 2011 by ''Cloud Top 488'' on the
Canton Tower The Canton Tower (), formally Guangzhou TV Astronomical and Sightseeing Tower (), is a -tall multipurpose observation tower A tower is a tall structure, taller than it is wide, often by a significant factor. Towers are distinguished from ...

Canton Tower
, Guangzhou at , Burj Khalifa opened the 148th floor SKY level at , once again giving it the highest observation deck in the world on 15 October 2014, until the
Shanghai Tower Shanghai Tower () is a 128-story, megatall skyscraper in Lujiazui, Pudong, Shanghai.
Shanghai Tower
opened in June 2016 with an observation deck at a height of 561 metres. The 124th floor observation deck also features the electronic telescope, an
augmented reality Augmented reality (AR) is an interactive experience of a real-world environment where the objects that reside in the real world are enhanced by computer-generated perceptual information, sometimes across multiple sensory modalities, including ...
device developed by Gsmprjct° of
Montréal Montreal ( ; officially Montréal, ) is the List of the largest municipalities in Canada by population, second-most populous city in Canada and List of towns in Quebec, most populous city in the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian pro ...

Montréal
, which allows visitors to view the surrounding landscape in real-time, and to view previously saved images such as those taken at different times of day or under different weather conditions. To reduce the daily rush of sightseers, management allows visitors to purchase tickets in advance for a specific date and time, at a 75% discount on tickets purchased on the spot. On 8 February 2010, the observation deck was closed to the public for two months after power-supply problems caused an elevator to become stuck between floors, trapping a group of tourists for 45 minutes. When the tide is low and visibility is high, people can see the shores of Iran from the top of the skyscraper.


Burj Khalifa park

Burj Khalifa is surrounded by an park designed by landscape architects SWA Group. Like the tower, the park's design was based on the flower of the '' Hymenocallis'', a desert plant. At the centre of the park is the water room, which is a series of pools and water jet fountains. Benches and signs incorporate images of Burj Khalifa and the ''Hymenocallis'' flower. The plants are watered by water collected from the building's cooling system. The system provides annually. WET Enterprises, who also developed the
Dubai Fountain The Dubai Fountain is a choreographed fountain system located on the 12 hectare (30 acre) manmade Burj Khalifa Lake, at the center of the Downtown Dubai development in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. It was designed by WET (Water Entertainment Technol ...

Dubai Fountain
, developed the park's six water features.


Floor plans


Ramadan observance

On the higher floors, the sun can still be seen for several minutes after it has set at ground level. This has led Dubai clerics to rule that those living above the 80th floor should wait 2 additional minutes to break their
Ramadan , type = islam , longtype = Islam, Religious , image = Ramadan montage.jpg , caption=From top, left to right: A crescent moon over Sarıçam, Turkey, marking the beginning of the Islamic month of Ramadan. Ramadan Quran reading in Bandar Torkaman, I ...

Ramadan
fast, and those living above the 150th floor, 3 minutes.


Construction and structure

The tower was constructed by Samsung C&T from
South Korea South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korea, Korean Peninsula and sharing a Korean Demilitarized Zone, land border with North Korea. Its western border is for ...

South Korea
, which also did work on the
Petronas Twin Towers The Petronas Towers, also known as the Petronas Twin Towers ( Malay: ''Menara Petronas'', or ''Menara Berkembar Petronas),'' are twin skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. According to the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH)'s ...

Petronas Twin Towers
and
Taipei 101 Taipei 101 (; stylized as TAIPEI 101), formerly known as the Taipei World Financial Center, is a skyscraper A skyscraper is a tall continuously habitable building having multiple floors. Modern sources currently define skyscrapers as bei ...

Taipei 101
. Samsung C&T built the tower in a joint venture with BESIX from Belgium and Arabtec from the UAE.
Turner Turner may refer to: People and fictional characters * Turner (surname), a common surname, including a list of people and fictional characters with the name * Turner (given name), a list of people with the given name *One who uses a lathe for turni ...
was the project manager on the main construction contract.
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Pe ...

Hong Kong
-based Far East Aluminum combined to provide the exterior cladding for Burj Khalifa. The contractor and the engineer of record was
Hyder Consulting Hyder Consulting was a multi-national advisory and design consultancy with particular specialisation in the transport, property, utilities and environmental sectors. The firm employed approximately 4,200 people across the UK, Europe, Germany, Middl ...
. Under UAE law, the contractor and the engineer of record is
jointly and severally liable Where two or more persons are liable in respect of the same liability, in most common law legal systems they may either be: * jointly liable, or * severally liable, or * jointly and severally liable. Joint liability If parties have joint liabili ...
for the performance of Burj Khalifa. The primary structure is reinforced concrete.
Putzmeister Putzmeister is a German manufacturer of concrete pump Image:Concrete pumper.jpg, 400px, Because it is a fluid, concrete can be pumped to where it is needed. Here, a concrete transport truck is feeding concrete to a concrete pumper, which is pumpin ...
created a new, super high-pressure trailer
concrete pump Image:Concrete pumper.jpg, 400px, Because it is a fluid, concrete can be pumped to where it is needed. Here, a concrete transport truck is feeding concrete to a concrete pumper, which is pumping it to where a slab is being poured. A concrete pump ...
, the BSA 14000 SHP-D, for this project. Burj Khalifa's construction used of concrete and of steel
rebar Rebar (short for reinforcing bar), known when massed as reinforcing steel or reinforcement steel, is a steel Steel is an alloy An alloy is an admixture of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', ...
, and construction took 22 million man-hours. In May 2008 Putzmeister pumped concrete with more than 21 MPA ultimate compressive strength of gravel to surpass the 600 meters weight of the effective area of each column from the foundation to the next fourth level, and the rest was by metal columns ''jacketed'' or ''covered'' with concrete to a then world record delivery height of , the 156th floor. Three
tower crane A crane is a type of machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular machine that uses Power (physics), power to apply Force, fo ...

tower crane
s were used during construction of the uppermost levels, each capable of lifting a 25-tonne load. The remaining structure above was constructed of lighter steel. In 2003, 33 test holes were drilled to study the strength of the
bedrock Bedrock in geology Geology (from the γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is a branch of concerned with both the liquid and , the of which it is composed, and the processes by which they cha ...

bedrock
underlying the structure. ''"Weak to very weak sandstone and siltstone"'' was found, just metres below the surface. Samples were taken from test holes drilled to a depth of 140 metres, finding weak to very weak rock all the way. The study described the site as part of a ''"seismically active area"''. Another challenging element was the shamal which often creates sandstorms. Over of concrete, weighing more than were used to construct the concrete and steel foundation, which features 192 piles; each pile is 1.5 metre in diameter by 43 m in length, buried more than deep. The foundation was designed to support the total building weight of approximately . This weight was then divided by the compressive strength of concrete of which is 30 MPa which yielded a 450 sq.meters of vertical normal effective area, which then yielded to a 12 meters by 12 meters dimensions. A
cathodic protection Cathodic protection (CP; ) is a technique used to control the corrosion Corrosion is a natural process that converts a refined metal into a more chemically stable form such as oxide An oxide () is a chemical compound A chemical com ...
system is under the concrete to neutralize the sulphate and chloride-rich groundwater and prevent corrosion. The Burj Khalifa is highly compartmentalised. Pressurized, air-conditioned refuge floors are located every 13 floors (in floors G, 13, 26, 39, 52 etc.) where people can shelter on their long walk down to safety in case of an emergency or fire. Special mixes of concrete were made to withstand the extreme pressures of the massive building weight; as is typical with reinforced concrete construction, each batch of concrete was tested to ensure it could withstand certain pressures. CTLGroup, working for Skidmore, Owings and Merrill, conducted the creep and shrinkage testing critical for the structural analysis of the building. The consistency of the concrete used in the project was essential. It was difficult to create a concrete that could withstand both the thousands of tonnes bearing down on it and
Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf ( fa, خلیج فارس, translit=xalij-e fârs, lit=Gulf of , ) is a in . The body of water is an extension of the () through the and lies between to the northeast and the to the southwest.United Nations Group of Exper ...
temperatures that can reach . To combat this problem, the concrete was not poured during the day. Instead, during the summer months, ice was added to the mixture and it was poured at night when the air was cooler and the humidity was higher. Cooler concrete cures more evenly and is therefore less likely to set too quickly and crack. Any significant cracks could have put the entire project in jeopardy.


Milestones

* January 2004: Excavation commences. * February 2004: Piling starts. * 21 September 2004: Emaar contractors begin construction. * March 2005: Structure of Burj Khalifa starts rising. * June 2006: Level 50 is reached. * February 2007: Surpasses the
Sears Tower The Willis Tower (formerly known as and commonly referred to as the Sears Tower) is a 108-story Story or stories may refer to: Common uses * Story, a narrative (an account of imaginary or real people and events) ** Short story, a piece of pr ...

Sears Tower
as the building with the most floors. * 13 May 2007: Sets record for vertical
concrete pump Image:Concrete pumper.jpg, 400px, Because it is a fluid, concrete can be pumped to where it is needed. Here, a concrete transport truck is feeding concrete to a concrete pumper, which is pumping it to where a slab is being poured. A concrete pump ...
ing on any building at , surpassing the to which concrete was pumped during the construction of
Taipei 101 Taipei 101 (; stylized as TAIPEI 101), formerly known as the Taipei World Financial Center, is a skyscraper A skyscraper is a tall continuously habitable building having multiple floors. Modern sources currently define skyscrapers as bei ...

Taipei 101
, while Burj Khalifa reached the 130th floor. * 21 July 2007: Surpasses Taipei 101, whose height of made it the world's tallest building, and level 141 reached. * 12 August 2007: Surpasses the Sears Tower antenna, which stands . * 12 September 2007: At , becomes the world's tallest freestanding structure, surpassing the
CN Tower The CN Tower (french: Tour CN) is a concrete Concrete is a composed of fine and coarse bonded together with a fluid (cement paste) that hardens (cures) over time. Concrete is the second-most-used substance in the world after wa ...

CN Tower
in
Toronto Toronto (, ) is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario. With a recorded population of 2,731,571 in 2016 in 2016, it is the List of the largest municipalities in Canada by population, most p ...

Toronto
, and level 150 reached. * 7 April 2008: At , surpasses the
KVLY-TV Mast The KVLY-TV mast (formerly the KTHI-TV mast) is a television Television (TV), sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in color, and in t ...

KVLY-TV Mast
to become the tallest man-made structure, level 160 reached. * 17 June 2008: Emaar announces that Burj Khalifa's height is over and that its final height will not be given until it is completed in September 2009. * 1 September 2008: Height tops , making it the tallest man-made structure ever built, surpassing the previous record-holder, the Warsaw Radio Mast in Konstantynów, Poland. * 17 January 2009:
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at . * 1 October 2009: Emaar announces that the exterior of the building is completed. * 4 January 2010: Burj Khalifa's official launch ceremony is held and Burj Khalifa is opened. Burj Dubai renamed Burj Khalifa in honour of the President of the UAE and ruler of Abu Dhabi,
Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed al Nahyan Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan ( ar, خليفة بن زايد بن سلطان آل نهيان; born 7 September 1948; referred to as Sheikh Khalifa) is the current de jure president of the United Arab Emirates, the emir of Abu D ...
. * 10 March 2010:
Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) is an international body in the field of tall buildings and sustainable Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing way across various domains of life. In the 21st c ...
certifies Burj Khalifa as world's tallest building.


Real estate values

In March 2009, , chairman of the project's developer,
Emaar Properties Emaar Properties is an Emirati multinational real estate development Real estate development, or property development, is a business process, encompassing activities that range from the renovation and re-lease A lease is a contractual arr ...
, said office space pricing at Burj Khalifa reached US$4,000 per sq ft (over US$43,000 per m²) and the Armani Residences, also in Burj Khalifa, sold for US$3,500 per sq ft (over US$37,500 per m²). He estimated the total cost for the project to be about US$1.5 billion. The project's completion coincided with the
financial crisis of 2007–2008 The financial crisis of 2007–2008, or global financial crisis (GFC), was a severe worldwide economic crisis An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution and ...
, and with vast overbuilding in the country, leading to high vacancies and foreclosures. With Dubai mired in debt from its huge ambitions, the government was forced to seek multibillion dollar bailouts from its oil-rich neighbor
Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi (, ; ar, أَبُو ظَبْيٍ ' ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more fo ...

Abu Dhabi
. Subsequently, in a surprise move at its opening ceremony, the tower was renamed Burj Khalifa, said to honour the UAE President
Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan ( ar, خليفة بن زايد بن سلطان آل نهيان; born 7 September 1948; referred to as Sheikh Khalifa) is the current de jure president of the United Arab Emirates, the emir of Abu D ...
for his crucial support. Because of the slumping demand in Dubai's property market, the rents in the Burj Khalifa plummeted 40% some ten months after its opening. Out of 900 apartments in the tower, 825 were still empty at that time. However, over the next two and a half years, overseas investors steadily began to purchase the available apartments and office space. By October 2012, Emaar reported that around 80% of the apartments were occupied.


Official launch ceremony

The ceremony was broadcast live on a giant screen on Burj Park Island and on smaller screens elsewhere. Hundreds of media outlets from around the world reported live from the scene. In addition to the media presence, 6,000 guests were expected. The opening was held on 4 January 2010. The ceremony featured a display of 10,000 fireworks, light beams projected on and around the tower, and further sound, light and water effects. The celebratory lighting was designed by UK lighting designers Speirs and Major Associates. Using the 868 powerful
stroboscope A stroboscope, also known as a strobe, is an instrument used to make a cyclically moving object appear to be slow-moving, or stationary. It consists of either a rotating disk with slots or holes or a lamp such as a flashtube A flashtube, ...
lights that are integrated into the façade and spire of the tower, different lighting sequences were choreographed, together with more than 50 different combinations of other effects.


Incidents


Fatalities

Within 17 months of the building's official opening, a man described as "an Asian in his mid-30s", who worked at one of the companies in the tower, died by suicide on 10 May 2011 by jumping from the 147th floor. He fell 39 floors, landing on a deck on the 108th floor. Dubai police confirmed the act as a suicide, reporting that "
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hey
also came to know that the man decided to commit suicide as his company refused to grant leave." On 18 May 2015, Dubai police disputed a report that a Portuguese national who was in Dubai on a tourist visa fell to her death from Burj Khalifa's "At the Top SKY" observation deck on the 148th floor, and said that this incident took place in Jumeirah Lakes Towers. A Dubai coroner's report stated her body was found on the third floor of the Burj Khalifa. Emails obtained under the Freedom of Information act from Portugal's embassy in the UAE also confirmed that she had committed suicide from the 148th floor of the Burj Khalifa.


Labour controversy

The Burj Khalifa was built primarily by workers from South Asia and East Asia. This is generally because the current generation of UAE locals prefer governmental jobs and do not have an attitude favouring private sector employment. On 17 June 2008, there were about 7,500 skilled workers employed at the construction site. Press reports indicated in 2006 that skilled
carpenters Carpentry is a skilled trade A tradesman, skilled tradesman, or tradie refers to a skilled worker who specializes in a particular occupation that requires work experience, on-the-job training, and often formal vocational education ...

carpenters
at the site earned £4.34 a day, and labourers earned £2.84. According to a BBC investigation and a
Human Rights Watch Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization A non-governmental organization, or simply an NGO, is an that is, generally, formed independent from . They are typically s, and many of them are active in or t ...
report, the workers were housed in abysmal conditions, and worked long hours for low pay. During construction, only one construction-related death was reported. However, workplace injuries and fatalities in the UAE are "poorly documented", according to Human Rights Watch. In March 2006 about 2,500 workers, upset over buses that were delayed for the end of their shifts, protested and triggered a riot, damaging cars, offices, computers and construction equipment. A Dubai Interior Ministry official said the rioters caused almost £500,000 in damage. Most of the workers involved in the riot returned the following day but refused to work.


Other uses


BASE jumping

The building has been used by several experienced BASE jumpers for authorised and unauthorised BASE jumping: * In May 2008, Hervé Le Gallou and David McDonnell, dressed as engineers, entered Burj Khalifa (around at the time), and jumped off a balcony situated several floors below the 160th floor. * On 8 January 2010, with permission of the authorities, Nasr Al Niyadi and Omar Al Hegelan, from the Emirates Aviation Society, broke the world record for the highest BASE jump from a building after they leapt from a crane-suspended platform attached to the 160th floor at . The two men descended the vertical drop at a speed of up to , with enough time to open their parachutes 10 seconds into the 90-second jump. * On 21 April 2014, with permission of the authorities and support from several sponsors, highly experienced French BASE jumpers Vince Reffet and Fred Fugen broke the Guinness world record for the highest BASE jump from a building after they leapt from a specially designed platform, built at the very top of the pinnacle, at .


Climbing

On 28 March 2011, scaled the outside of Burj Khalifa. The climb to the top of the spire took six hours. To comply with UAE safety laws, Robert, who usually climbs in
free solo ''Free Solo'' is a 2018 American documentary film directed by Elizabeth Chai Vasarhelyi and Jimmy Chin that profiles rock climber Alex Honnold on his quest to perform a free solo climbing, free solo climb of El Capitan in Yosemite National Park i ...
style, used a rope and harness.


Awards

In June 2010, Burj Khalifa was the recipient of the 2010 "Best Tall Building Middle East & Africa" award by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. On 28 September 2010 Burj Khalifa won the award for best project of the year at the Middle East Architect Awards 2010. Awards Chair Gordon Gill, of
Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture Adrian is a form of the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power o ...
, said: Burj Khalifa was also the recipient of the following awards.


See also

*
List of buildings in Dubai This is a list of buildings in Dubai. Dubai has a rich collection of buildings and structures of various architectural styles. Many modern interpretations of Islamic architecture can be found here due to a boom in construction and architectural in ...
*
List of buildings with 100 floors or more This is a list of buildings A building, or edifice, is a structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elemen ...
* List of development projects in Dubai *
List of tallest buildings and structures The world's tallest man-made structure is the Burj Khalifa The Burj Khalifa ( ar, برج خليفة, ; pronounced , literally "Khalifa Tower" in English), known as the Burj Dubai prior to its inauguration in 2010, is a skyscraper in Duba ...
*
List of tallest freestanding structures This is a list of tallest freestanding structures in the world past and present. To be freestanding a structure must not be supported by Guy-wire, guy wires, the sea or other types of support. It therefore does not include guyed masts, partially ...
*
List of tallest buildings in Dubai Dubai Dubai ( ; ar, دبي, translit=Dubayy , ) is the most populous city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the capital of the Emirate of Dubai.The Government and Politics of the Middle East and North Africa. D Long, B Reich. p.157 Esta ...
*
List of tallest buildings in the United Arab Emirates This list of tallest buildings in the United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country in Western Asia. It is located at the e ...
*
List of tallest buildings This list of tallest buildings includes skyscraper A skyscraper is a tall continuously habitable building having multiple floors. Modern sources currently define skyscrapers as being at least 100 metres or 150 metres in height, though th ...
*
List of tallest structures The tallest structure in the world is the Burj Khalifa skyscraper at . Listed are guyed masts (such as telecommunication masts), self-supporting towers (such as the CN Tower), skyscrapers (such as the Willis Tower), oil platforms, electrici ...
* Jeddah Tower


References


External links

* *  (597 KB) (''Structure'' magazine, June 2006) *  (620 KB) (Irwin et al., November 2006) * BBC reports
Burj Khalifa opening
with video and links
Maintaining the world's tallest building
* {{Authority control Articles containing video clips High-tech architecture Hotel buildings completed in 2009 Islamic architecture Neo-futurism architecture Office buildings completed in 2009 Postmodern architecture in Dubai Residential buildings completed in 2009 Residential skyscrapers in Dubai Skidmore, Owings & Merrill buildings Skyscraper hotels in Dubai Skyscraper office buildings in Dubai