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Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minusc ...
and largest city of
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of . Sharing the bulk of the with to the west, the country is also bordered by and to the north, to the ...

Argentina
. The city is located on the western shore of the
Río de la Plata The Río de la Plata (, "river of silver"), called River Plate in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in H ...

Río de la Plata
, on
South America's
South America's
southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the former was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre", named after the Madonna of Bonaria in
Sardinia Sardinia ( ; it, Sardegna ; sc, Sardigna or ) is the island in the , after , and one of the of Italy. It is located west of the , north of and immediately south of the French island of . It is one of the five Italian regions with some ...

Sardinia
, Italy. The city of Buenos Aires is neither part of
Buenos Aires Province Buenos Aires (), officially the Buenos Aires Province (''Provincia de Buenos Aires'' ), is the largest and most populous Provinces of Argentina, Argentine province. It takes its name from the city of Buenos Aires, the capital of the country, whic ...

Buenos Aires Province
nor the Province's capital; rather, it is an
autonomous The federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российской Федерации, subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects o ...
district. In 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province. The
city limits City limits or city boundaries refer to the defined boundary or border of a city. The area within the city limit can be called the city proper. Town limit/boundary and village limit/boundary apply to towns and villages. Similarly, corporate limi ...
were enlarged to include the towns of Belgrano and
Flores Flores island () is one of the Lesser Sunda Islands The Lesser Sunda Islands ( id, Kepulauan Nusa Tenggara "southeastern archipelago" or "lesser sunda archipelago") are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island ...
; both are now neighborhoods of the city. The 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city
autonomy The federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российской Федерации, subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects o ...
, hence its formal name of Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (). Its citizens first elected a
Chief of Government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region, or other government who often presides over a cabinet (gover ...
in 1996; previously, the Mayor was directly appointed by the
President of Argentina The president of Argentina ( es, Presidente de Argentina), officially known as the president of the Argentine Nation ( es, Presidente de la Nación Argentina), is both head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public per ...
. The
Greater Buenos Aires Greater Buenos Aires ( es, Gran Buenos Aires, GBA), also known as the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area ( es, Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires, AMBA), refers to the urban agglomeration comprising the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires Buenos Ai ...
conurbation, which also includes several
Buenos Aires Province Buenos Aires (), officially the Buenos Aires Province (''Provincia de Buenos Aires'' ), is the largest and most populous Provinces of Argentina, Argentine province. It takes its name from the city of Buenos Aires, the capital of the country, whic ...

Buenos Aires Province
districts A district is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic na ...
, constitutes the fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the
Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North North is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions. It is the opposite of south and is perpendicular to East and West. ''North'' ...

Americas
, with a population of around 15.6 million. Buenos Aires'
quality of life Quality of life (QOL) is defined by the World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United N ...

quality of life
was ranked 91st in the world in 2018, being one of the best in
Latin America Latin America is the portion of the Americas comprising countries and regions where Romance languages—languages that derived from Latin—such as Spanish language in the Americas, Spanish, American Portuguese, Portuguese, and French language, Fr ...

Latin America
. In 2012, it was the most visited city in South America, and the second-most visited city of Latin America. It is known for its preserved
eclectic Eclectic may refer to: Music * Eclectic (Eric Johnson and Mike Stern album), ''Eclectic'' (Eric Johnson and Mike Stern album), 2014 * Eclectic (Big Country album), ''Eclectic'' (Big Country album), 1996 * Eclectic Method, name of an audio-visual ...
European
architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Architecture (Latin ''archi ...
and rich
cultural life
cultural life
. Buenos Aires held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 and was the site of two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup. Most recently, Buenos Aires hosted the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics and the 2018 G20 summit. Buenos Aires is a
multicultural The term multiculturalism has a range of meanings within the contexts of sociology, political philosophy, and colloquial use. In sociology and in everyday usage, it is a synonym for "Pluralism (political theory), ethnic pluralism", with the two ...

multicultural
city that is home to multiple ethnic and religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
, contributing to its culture as well as to the dialect spoken in the city and in some other parts of the country. This is because since the 19th century, the city, and the country in general, has been a major recipient of millions of immigrants from all over the world, making it a
melting pot The melting pot is a monocultural metaphor for a heterogeneous Homogeneity and heterogeneity are concepts often used in the sciences Science (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languag ...

melting pot
where several ethnic groups live together. Thus, Buenos Aires is considered one of the most diverse cities of
the Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North North is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions. It is the opposite of south and is perpendicular to East and West. ''North'' ...
.


Etymology

It is recorded under the Aragonese's archives that Catalan missionaries and Jesuits arriving in
Cagliari Cagliari (, also , , ; sc, Casteddu ; lat, Caralis) is an Comune, Italian municipality and the capital of the island of Sardinia, an Regions of Italy#Autonomous regions with special statute, autonomous region of Italy. Cagliari's Sardinian na ...

Cagliari
(
Sardinia Sardinia ( ; it, Sardegna ; sc, Sardigna or ) is the island in the , after , and one of the of Italy. It is located west of the , north of and immediately south of the French island of . It is one of the five Italian regions with some ...

Sardinia
) under the Crown of Aragon, after its capture from the
Pisa Pisa ( , or ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public ser ...

Pisa
ns in 1324 established their headquarters on top of a hill that overlooked the city. The hill was known to them as ''Bonaira'' (or ''Bonaria'' in
Sardinian language Sardinian or Sard ( / , or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin is ...
), as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city (the castle area), which is adjacent to
swampland A swamp is a forested wetland.Keddy, P.A. 2010. Wetland Ecology: Principles and Conservation (2nd edition). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 497 p. Swamps are considered to be transition zones because both land and water play a role in c ...
. During the Cagliari's siege, the Catalans built a
sanctuary violates Cassandra Cassandra or Kassandra (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divid ...
to the
Virgin Mary According to the gospels Gospel originally meant the Christian message, but in the 2nd century it came to be used also for the books in which the message was set out; in this sense a gospel can be defined as a loose-knit, episodic narrat ...

Virgin Mary
on top of the hill. In 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the
Mercedarians The Royal, Celestial and Military Order of Our Lady of Mercy and the Redemption of the Captives ( la, Ordo Beatae Mariae de Mercede Redemptionis Captivorum, abbreviated O. de M.), also known as the Mercedarians, is a Catholic mendicant order estab ...
, who built an
abbey An abbey is a type of monastery A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in Cenobitic monasticism, communities or alone (hermits). A mo ...

abbey
that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , on the south by , and on the east by the . The Sea has played a central role in the . Although the Mediterrane ...
. The statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors, especially
Andalusia Andalusia (, ; es, Andalucía ) is the southernmost autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma ast, comunidá autónoma , alt_name ...
ns, venerated this image and frequently invoked the "Fair Winds" to aid them in their
navigation Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.Bowditch, 2003:799. The field of navigation includes four general categories: land navigation, ...

navigation
and prevent
shipwreck A shipwreck is the remains of a ship that has wrecked, which are found either beached on land or sunken to the bottom of a body of water. Shipwrecking may be deliberate or accidental. In January 1999, Angela Croome estimated that there have ...

shipwreck
s. A sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be later erected in
Seville Seville (; es, Sevilla, Castilian Spanish , Andalusian Spanish (with yeísmo) ) is the capital and largest city of the Spain, Spanish autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville. It is situate ...

Seville
. In the first foundation of Buenos Aires, Spanish sailors arrived thankfully in the
Río de la Plata The Río de la Plata (, "river of silver"), called River Plate in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in H ...

Río de la Plata
by the blessings of the "Santa Maria de los Buenos Aires", the "Holy Virgin Mary of the Good Winds" who was said to have given them the good winds to reach the coast of what is today the modern city of Buenos Aires.
Pedro de Mendoza Pedro de Mendoza () (c. 1499 – June 23, 1537) was a Spanish ''conquistador'', soldier and explorer, and the first ''adelantado'' of Governorate of New Andalusia, New Andalusia. Setting sail Pedro de Mendoza was born in Guadix, Guadix, Grenada ...
called the city "Holy Mary of the Fair Winds", a name suggested by the chaplain of Mendoza's expedition – a devotee of the Virgin of Buen Ayre – after the ''Madonna'' of Bonaria from
Sardinia Sardinia ( ; it, Sardegna ; sc, Sardigna or ) is the island in the , after , and one of the of Italy. It is located west of the , north of and immediately south of the French island of . It is one of the five Italian regions with some ...

Sardinia
(which is still to this day the patroness of the
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...
island). Mendoza's settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, and was abandoned in 1541. For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, who is said to have exclaimed: ''How fair are the winds of this land!'', as he arrived. But in 1882, after conducting extensive research in Spanish archives, Argentine merchant
Eduardo Madero Eduardo Madero (1823 — 1894) was an Argentine merchant, banker and developer. Life and times Eduardo Madero was born in Buenos Aires, in 1823, to a family of farmers. A nephew of publisher Florencio Varela (writer), Florencio Varela, his uncle's ...

Eduardo Madero
ultimately concluded that the name was indeed closely linked with the devotion of the sailors to Our Lady of Buen Ayre. A second (and permanent) settlement was established in 1580 by
Juan de Garay Juan de Garay (1528–1583) was a Spanish conquistador. Garay's birthplace is disputed. Some say it was in the Castile city of Junta de Villalba de Losa, while others argue he was born in the area of Orduña (Basque Country). There's no bi ...
, who sailed down the
Paraná River The Paraná River ( es, Río Paraná, links=no , pt, Rio Paraná, gn, Ysyry Parana) is a river in south Central South America, running through Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina for some ."Parana River". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia B ...

Paraná River
from
Asunción Asunción (, , ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller l ...

Asunción
(now the capital of Paraguay). Garay preserved the name originally chosen by Mendoza, calling the city ''Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire'' ("City of the Most Holy Trinity and Port of Saint Mary of the Fair Winds"). The short form that eventually became the city's name, "Buenos Aires", became commonly used during the 17th century. The usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires in Spanish is Bs.As. It is common as well to refer to it as "B.A." or "BA". When referring specifically to the autonomous city, it is very common to colloquially call it "Capital" in Spanish. Since the autonomy obtained in 1994, it has been called "CABA" (per ''Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires'', Autonomous City of Buenos Aires). While "BA" is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more often use the single word abbreviation "Baires."


History


Colonial times

Santiago de Liniers, 1st Count of Buenos Aires. left, Royal Fort of Don Juan Baltasar de Austria In 1516, navigator and explorer Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the
Río de la Plata The Río de la Plata (, "river of silver"), called River Plate in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in H ...

Río de la Plata
. His expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native
Charrúa The Charrúa were an Amerindian, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous People or Indigenous Nation of the Southern Cone in present-day Uruguay and the adjacent areas in Argentina (Entre Ríos Province, Entre Ríos) and Brazil (Rio Grande ...

Charrúa
tribe in what is now
Uruguay Uruguay (; ; pt, Uruguai), officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay ( es, República Oriental del Uruguay), is a country in South America. It shares borders with Argentina to its west and southwest and Brazil to its north and northeast; whi ...

Uruguay
. The city of Buenos Aires was first established as ''Ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre'' (literally "City of Our Lady Saint Mary of the Fair Winds") after Our Lady of Bonaria (Patroness Saint of
Sardinia Sardinia ( ; it, Sardegna ; sc, Sardigna or ) is the island in the , after , and one of the of Italy. It is located west of the , north of and immediately south of the French island of . It is one of the five Italian regions with some ...

Sardinia
) on 2 February 1536 by a Spanish expedition led by
Pedro de Mendoza Pedro de Mendoza () (c. 1499 – June 23, 1537) was a Spanish ''conquistador'', soldier and explorer, and the first ''adelantado'' of Governorate of New Andalusia, New Andalusia. Setting sail Pedro de Mendoza was born in Guadix, Guadix, Grenada ...
. The settlement founded by Mendoza was located in what is today the
San Telmo San Telmo ("Saint Pedro González Telmo") is the oldest '' barrio'' (neighborhood) of Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is loca ...

San Telmo
district of Buenos Aires, south of the
city center A city centre is the commercial, cultural and often the historical, political, and geographic heart of a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and ...
. More attacks by the indigenous people forced the settlers away, and in 1542, the site was thusly abandoned. A second (and permanent) settlement was established on 11 June 1580 by
Juan de Garay Juan de Garay (1528–1583) was a Spanish conquistador. Garay's birthplace is disputed. Some say it was in the Castile city of Junta de Villalba de Losa, while others argue he was born in the area of Orduña (Basque Country). There's no bi ...
, who arrived by sailing down the
Paraná River The Paraná River ( es, Río Paraná, links=no , pt, Rio Paraná, gn, Ysyry Parana) is a river in south Central South America, running through Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina for some ."Parana River". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia B ...

Paraná River
from
Asunción Asunción (, , ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller l ...

Asunción
(now the capital of Paraguay). He dubbed the settlement "Santísima Trinidad" and its port became "Puerto de Santa María de los Buenos Aires." From its earliest days, Buenos Aires depended primarily on trade. During most of the 17th century, Spanish ships were menaced by pirates, so they developed a complex system where ships with military protection were dispatched to Central America in a convoy from Seville (the only port allowed to trade with the colonies) to
Lima, Peru Lima ( ; ) is the capital and the largest city of Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , other_symbol ...

Lima, Peru
, and from it to the inner cities of the viceroyalty. Because of this, products took a very long time to arrive in Buenos Aires, and the taxes generated by the transport made them prohibitive. This scheme frustrated the traders of Buenos Aires, and a thriving informal yet accepted by the authorities contraband industry developed inside the colonies and with the Portuguese. This also instilled a deep resentment among ''
porteño A Porteño (feminine: ''Porteña'') is an inhabitant of the city of Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western ...

porteño
s'' towards the Spanish authorities. Sensing these feelings,
Charles III of Spain it, Carlo Sebastiano di Borbone e Farnese , house = BourbonBourbon may refer to: Food and drink * Bourbon whiskey, an American whiskey made using a corn-based mash * Bourbon barrel aged beer, a type of beer aged in bourbon barrels * ...

Charles III of Spain
progressively eased the trade restrictions before finally declaring Buenos Aires an open port in the late 18th century. The capture of Portobelo, Panama by British forces also fueled the need to foster commerce via the Atlantic route, to the detriment of Lima-based trade. One of his rulings was to split a region from the Viceroyalty of Perú and create instead the
Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata The Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata ( es, Virreinato del Río de la Plata, meaning "River of the Silver", also called "Viceroyalty A viceroyalty was an entity headed by a viceroy. It dates back to the Spanish colonization of the Americas ...
, with Buenos Aires as the capital. However, Charles's placating actions did not have the desired effect, and the ''porteños'', some of them versed in the ideology of the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its ...

French Revolution
, instead became even more convinced of the need for independence from Spain.


War of Independence

During the
British invasions of the Río de la Plata The British invasions of the River Plate were a series of unsuccessful British attempts to seize control of areas in the Spanish colonial Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata The Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata ( es, Virreinato del Río ...
, British forces attacked Buenos Aires twice. In 1806 the British successfully invaded Buenos Aires, but an army from
Montevideo Montevideo () is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Uruguay, largest city of Uruguay. According to the 2011 census, the city proper has a population of 1,319,108 (about one-third of the country's total population) in an area of . ...

Montevideo
led by
Santiago de Liniers Santiago Antonio María de Liniers y Bremond, 1st Count of Buenos Aires, KOM, Order of Malta, OM (July 25, 1753 – August 26, 1810) was a French People, French officer in the Spain, Spanish military service, and a viceroy of the Spanish colonie ...

Santiago de Liniers
defeated them. In the brief period of British rule, the viceroy Rafael Sobremonte managed to escape to Córdoba and designated this city as capital. Buenos Aires became the capital again after its recapture by Argentine forces, but Sobremonte could not resume his duties as viceroy. Santiago de Liniers, chosen as new viceroy, prepared the city against a possible new British attack and repelled a second invasion by Britain in 1807. The militarization generated in society changed the balance of power favorably for the criollos (in contrast to peninsulars), as well as the development of the
Peninsular War The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was the military conflict War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or paramilitary groups such as Mercenary, mercenaries, Insurgency, insurg ...

Peninsular War
in Spain. An attempt by the peninsular merchant Martín de Álzaga to remove Liniers and replace him with a
Junta Junta may refer to: Government and military * Junta (governing body), referring to various military governments and other governing bodies ** Military junta, one form of junta * Junta (Habsburg), an administrative body that ruled in personal union ...
was defeated by the criollo armies. However, by 1810 it would be those same armies who would support a new revolutionary attempt, successfully removing the new viceroy . This is known as the
May Revolution The May Revolution ( es, link=no, Revolución de Mayo) was a week-long series of events that took place from May 18 to 25, 1810, in Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the capital ...
, which is now celebrated as a national holiday. This event started the
Argentine War of Independence The Argentine War of Independence was fought from 1810 to 1818 by Argentine patriotic forces under Manuel Belgrano, Juan José Castelli and José de San Martín against Royalist (Spanish American Revolution), royalist forces loyal to the Spani ...
, and many armies left Buenos Aires to fight the diverse strongholds of royalist resistance, with varying levels of success. The government was held first by two Juntas of many members, then by two
triumvirate A triumvirate ( la, triumvirātus) or a triarchy is a political regime ruled or dominated by three powerful individuals known as triumvirs ( la, triumviri). The arrangement can be formal or informal. Though the three are notionally equal, this ...

triumvirate
s, and finally by a unipersonal office, the Supreme Director. Formal independence from Spain was declared in 1816, at the
Congress of Tucumán The Congress of Tucumán was the representative assembly, initially meeting in San Miguel de Tucumán San Miguel de Tucumán (; usually called simply Tucumán) is the capital of the Tucumán Province, located in northern Argentina from Buenos ...
. Buenos Aires managed to endure the whole
Spanish American wars of independence The Spanish American wars of independence (25 September 1808 – 29 September 1833 es, Guerras de independencia hispanoamericanas) were numerous wars in Spanish America with the aim of political independence against Spanish rule during the earl ...
without falling again under royalist rule. Historically, Buenos Aires has been Argentina's main venue of
liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an adherent of a Liberal Party Arts, entertainment and media *''El Liberal'', a Spanish newspaper published betw ...

liberal
, free-trading, and foreign ideas. In contrast, many of the provinces, especially those to the city's northwest, advocated a more
nationalistic Nationalism is an idea and movement that promotes the interests of a particular nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, a shared territo ...
and
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic
approach to political and social issues. In fact, much of the internal tension in Argentina's history, starting with the centralist-federalist conflicts of the 19th century, can be traced back to these contrasting views. In the months immediately following said "May Revolution", Buenos Aires sent a number of military envoys to the provinces with the intention of obtaining their approval. Instead, the enterprise fueled tensions between the capital and the provinces; in fact, many of these missions ended in violent clashes. In the 19th century the city was
blockade A blockade is an effort to cut off Contraband, supplies, Materiel, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally. A blockade is not an embargo or International sanctions, sanctions, which are legal b ...
d twice by naval forces: by the French from 1838 to 1840, and later by an
Anglo-French Anglo-French is a term used in contexts involving France and the United Kingdom (UK). Strictly, the designation "wiktionary:Anglo-, Anglo-" refers specifically to England, not the UK as a whole, but it is understood to refer to the UK and not only E ...
expedition from 1845 to 1848. Both blockades failed to bring the Argentine government to the negotiating table, and the foreign powers eventually desisted from their demands.


19th and 20th century

During most of the 19th century, the political status of the city remained a sensitive subject. It was already the capital of
Buenos Aires Province Buenos Aires (), officially the Buenos Aires Province (''Provincia de Buenos Aires'' ), is the largest and most populous Provinces of Argentina, Argentine province. It takes its name from the city of Buenos Aires, the capital of the country, whic ...

Buenos Aires Province
, and between 1853 and 1860 it was the capital of the seceded
State of Buenos Aires The State of Buenos Aires ( es, Estado de Buenos Ayres) was a secessionist republic resulting from the overthrow of the Argentine Confederation government in the Province of Buenos Aires on September 11, 1852. The State of Buenos Aires was never ...
. The issue was fought out more than once on the battlefield, until the matter was finally settled in 1880 when the city was federalized and became the seat of government, with its mayor appointed by the president. The
Casa Rosada The ''Casa Rosada'' (, eng, Pink House) is the official residence, executive mansion and office of the President of Argentina. The palatial mansion is known officially as ''Casa de Gobierno'' ("House of Government" or "Government House"). Normally ...

Casa Rosada
became the seat of the
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
. Health conditions in poor areas were appalling, with high rates of tuberculosis. Contemporaneous public health physicians and politicians typically blamed both the poor themselves and their ramshackle tenement houses (conventillos) for the spread of the dreaded disease. People ignored public-health campaigns to limit the spread of contagious diseases, such as the prohibition of spitting on the streets, the strict guidelines to care for infants and young children, and quarantines that separated families from ill loved ones. In addition to the wealth generated by
customs duties Customs is an authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social science that uses ...
and Argentine foreign trade in general, as well as the existence of fertile
pampas The Pampas (from the qu, pampa, meaning "plain") are fertile South America South America is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any str ...

pampas
, railroad development in the second half of the 19th century increased the economic power of Buenos Aires as raw materials flowed into its factories. A leading destination for immigrants from Europe, particularly Italy and Spain, from 1880 to 1930, Buenos Aires became a multicultural city that ranked itself alongside the major European capitals. During this time, the
Colón TheaterColón may refer to: Places ;Argentina * Colón, Entre Ríos * Colón Department, Córdoba * Colón Department, Entre Ríos * Colón, Buenos Aires ;Colombia * Colón, Nariño * Colón, Putumayo * Colón Department (Colombia) ;Costa Rica * ...

Colón Theater
became one of the world's top opera venues, and the city became the regional capital of
radio Radio is the technology of signaling and telecommunication, communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves of frequency between 30 hertz (Hz) and 300 gigahertz (GHz). They are generated by an electronic device ...
,
television Television, sometimes shortened to TV or telly, is a telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylindrical A cylinder (from Gre ...
,
cinema Cinema may refer to: Film * Cinematography Cinematography (from ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It ...
, and
theater Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art The performing arts are arts such as music, dance, and drama which are performed for an audience. It is different from visual arts The visual arts are art forms such as pain ...

theater
. The city's main avenues were built during those years, and the dawn of the 20th century saw the construction of South America's tallest buildings and its first
underground Underground most commonly refers to: * Subterranea (geography), the regions beneath the surface of the Earth Underground may also refer to: Places * The Underground (Boston), a music club in the Allston neighborhood of Boston * The Underground (S ...
system. A second construction boom, from 1945 to 1980, reshaped downtown and much of the city. Buenos Aires also attracted migrants from Argentina's provinces and neighboring countries.
Shanty town A shanty town or squatter area is a settlement of improvised buildings known as shanties or shacks, typically made of materials such as mud and wood. A typical shanty town is squatted and in the beginning lacks adequate infrastructure, including p ...

Shanty town
s ('' villas miseria'') started growing around the city's industrial areas during the 1930s, leading to pervasive social problems and social contrasts with the largely upwardly-mobile Buenos Aires population. These laborers became the political base of
Peronism Peronism, also called justicialism,. The Justicialist Party The Justicialist Party ( es, Partido Justicialista, ; abbr. PJ) is a major political party in Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, Repúblic ...
, which emerged in Buenos Aires during the pivotal demonstration of 17 October 1945, at the
Plaza de Mayo The Plaza de Mayo (; en, May Square) is a city square and main foundational site of Buenos Aires, Argentina. It was formed in 1884 after the demolition of the Recova building, unifying the city's Plaza Mayor, Buenos Aires, Plaza Mayor and Plaza ...

Plaza de Mayo
.''Guía visual de Buenos Aires centro histórico'', ''Clarín'' Viajes, 2001. Industrial workers of the Greater Buenos Aires industrial belt have been Peronism's main support base ever since, and Plaza de Mayo became the site for demonstrations and many of the country's political events; on 16 June 1955, however, a splinter faction of the Navy bombed the Plaza de Mayo area, killing 364 civilians (see ''
Bombing of Plaza de Mayo The Bombing of Plaza de Mayo was a massacre A massacre refers to the killing of multiple individuals and is usually considered to be morally unacceptable, especially when perpetrated by a group of political actors against defenseless victims ...
''). This was the only time the city was attacked from the air, and the event was followed by a military uprising which deposed President Perón, three months later (see ''
Revolución Libertadora ''Revolución Libertadora'' (; ''Liberating Revolution'') was the coup d'état A coup d'état (; French for "blow of state") or coup is the removal and seizure of a government and its powers. Typically, it is an illegal, unconstitutional ...
''). In the 1970s the city suffered from the fighting between left-wing revolutionary movements (
Montoneros Montoneros ( es, link=no, Movimiento Peronista Montonero-MPM) was an Argentine left-wing peronist guerrilla organization, active during the 1960s and 1970s. The name is an allusion to the 19th-century cavalry militias called Montoneras, who f ...
, ERP and F.A.R.) and the
right-wing Right-wing politics is generally defined by support of the view that certain social order The term social order can be used in two senses: In the first sense, it refers to a particular system of social structures and institution Instit ...
paramilitary group Triple A, supported by Isabel Perón, who became president of Argentina in 1974 after Juan Perón's death. The
March 1976 coup March is the third month of the year and named after Mars in both the Julian and Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the calendar used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII as a minor mod ...
, led by General
Jorge Videla Jorge Rafael Videla Redondo (; ; 2 August 1925 – 17 May 2013) was a General Commander of the Army, member of military junta and dictator of Argentina from 1976 to 1981. He came to power in ''a coup d'état'' that deposed Isabel Martínez ...
, only escalated this conflict; the "
Dirty War The Dirty War ( es, Guerra sucia) is the name used by the military junta A military junta () is a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. ...
" resulted in 30,000 ''
desaparecidos A forced disappearance (or enforced disappearance) occurs when a person is secretly abducted or imprisoned by a State (polity), state or political organization, or by a third party with the authorization, support, or acquiescence of a state or ...
'' (people kidnapped and killed by the military during the years of the junta).''We are Millions: Neo-liberalism and new forms of political action in Argentina'', Marcela Lópéz Levy, Latin America Bureau, London, 2004. The silent marches of their mothers (
Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo The Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo is an Argentine human rights Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, 13 December 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosop ...
) are a well-known image of Argentines' suffering during those times. The
dictatorship A dictatorship is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a month ...
's appointed mayor,
Osvaldo Cacciatore Osvaldo Cacciatore (1924–2007) was an Argentine Air Force brigadier and Mayor of Buenos Aires during the National Reorganization Process military dictatorship. Early life Osvaldo Andrés Cacciatore was born in Buenos Aires in 1924. He enrolled a ...
, also drew up plans for a network of freeways intended to relieve the city's acute traffic gridlock. The plan, however, called for a seemingly indiscriminate razing of residential areas and, though only three of the eight planned were put up at the time, they were mostly obtrusive raised freeways that continue to blight a number of formerly comfortable neighborhoods to this day. The city was visited by Pope John Paul II twice, firstly in 1982 and again in 1987; on these occasions gathered some of the largest crowds in the city's history. The return of democracy in 1983 coincided with a cultural revival, and the 1990s saw an economic revival, particularly in the construction and financial sectors. On 17 March 1992, a bomb 1992 Israeli Embassy attack in Buenos Aires, exploded in the Israeli Embassy, killing 29 and injuring 242. Another explosion, on 18 July 1994, 1994 AMIA bombing, destroyed a building housing several Jewish organizations, killing 85 and injuring many more, these incidents marked the beginning of Middle Eastern terrorism to South America. Following a Pact of Olivos, 1993 agreement, the Constitution of Argentina, Argentine Constitution was amended to give Buenos Aires autonomy and rescinding, among other things, the president's right to appoint the city's mayor (as had been the case since 1880). On 30 June 1996, voters in Buenos Aires chose their first elected mayor (''List of mayors and chiefs of government of Buenos Aires, Jefe de Gobierno'').


21st century

In 1996, following the 1994 amendment of the Argentine Constitution, 1994 reform of the Argentine Constitution, the city held its first mayoral elections under the new statutes, with the mayor's title formally changed to "Head of Government". The winner was Fernando de la Rúa, who would later become President of Argentina from 1999 to 2001. De la Rúa's successor, Aníbal Ibarra, won two popular elections, but was impeachment, impeached (and ultimately deposed on 6 March 2006) as a result of the fire at the República Cromañón nightclub fire, República Cromagnon nightclub. In the meantime, Jorge Telerman, who had been the acting mayor, was invested with the office. In the 2007 elections, Mauricio Macri of the Republican Proposal (PRO) party won the Ballotage in Argentina, second-round of voting over Daniel Filmus of the Frente para la Victoria (FPV) party, taking office on 9 December 2007. In 2011, the elections went to a second round with 60.96 percent of the vote for PRO, compared to 39.04 percent for FPV, thus ensuring Macri's reelection as mayor of the city with María Eugenia Vidal as deputy mayor. The 2015 elections were the first to use an electronic voting system in the city, similar to the one used in Salta Province. In these elections held on 5 July 2015, Macri stepped down as mayor and pursue his Argentine general election, 2015, presidential bid and Horacio Rodríguez Larreta took his place as the mayoral candidate for PRO. In the first round of voting, FPV's Mariano Recalde obtained 21.78% of the vote, while Martín Lousteau of the ECO party obtained 25.59% and Larreta obtained 45.55%, meaning that the elections went to a second round since PRO was unable to secure the majority required for victory. The second round was held on 19 July 2015 and Larreta obtained 51.6% of the vote, followed closely by Lousteau with 48.4%, thus, PRO won the elections for a third term with Larreta as mayor and Diego Santilli as deputy. In these elections, PRO was stronger in wealthier northern Buenos Aires, while ECO was stronger in the southern, poorer neighborhoods of the city. File:Puente de la mujer - panoramio (1).jpg, ''Puente de la Mujer'' was designed by Santiago Calatrava. File:Obelisco - Buenos Aires (8556495538).jpg, View of 9 de Julio Avenue with the ''Obelisk of Buenos Aires, Obelisco'' File:Puerto Madero, Buenos Aires (40689219792).jpg, ''Puerto Madero'' one of the main financial centers of Buenos Aires


Geography

The city of Buenos Aires lies in the pampa, pampa region, with the exception of some areas such as the Buenos Aires Ecological Reserve, the Boca Juniors, Boca Juniors (soccer club)'s "sports city", Aeroparque Jorge Newbery, Jorge Newbery Airport, the Puerto Madero neighborhood and the main port itself; these were all built on reclaimed land along the coasts of the Río de la Plata, Rio de la Plata (the world's widest river). The region was formerly crossed by different creek (stream), streams and lagoons, some of which were refilled and others tubed. Among the most important streams are the Maldonado, Vega, Medrano, Cildañez and White. In 1908, as floods were damaging the city's infrastructure, many streams were channeled and rectified; furthermore, starting in 1919, most streams were enclosed. Most notably, the Maldonado was tubed in 1954; it currently runs below Juan B. Justo Avenue.


Climate

Under the Köppen climate classification, Buenos Aires has a humid subtropical climate (''Cfa'') with four distinct seasons. As a result of maritime influences from the adjoining Atlantic Ocean, the climate is temperate with extreme temperatures being rare. Because the city is located in an area where the Pampero (wind), Pampero and Sudestada winds pass by, the weather is variable due to these contrasting air masses. Summers are hot and humid. The warmest month is January, with a daily average of . Heat waves are common during summers. However, most heat waves are of short duration (less than a week) and are followed by the passage of the cold, dry Pampero wind which brings violent and intense thunderstorms followed by cooler temperatures. The highest temperature ever recorded was on 29 January 1957. Winters are cool with mild temperatures during the day and chilly nights. Highs during the season average while lows average . Relative humidity averages in the upper 70s%, which means the city is noted for moderate-to-heavy fogs during autumn and winter. July is the coolest month, with an average temperature of . Cold spells originating from Antarctica occur almost every year, and can persist for several days. Occasionally, warm air masses from the north bring warmer temperatures. The lowest temperature ever recorded in central Buenos Aires (Buenos Aires Central Observatory) was on 9 July 1918. Snow is very rare in the city: the July 2007 Argentine winter storm, last snowfall occurred on 9 July 2007 when, during the coldest winter in Argentina in almost 30 years, severe snowfalls and blizzards hit the country. It was the first major snowfall in the city in 89 years. Spring and autumn are characterized by changeable weather conditions. Cold air from the south can bring cooler temperatures while hot humid air from the north bring hot temperatures. The city receives of precipitation per year. Because of its geomorphology along with an inadequate drainage network, the city is highly vulnerable to flooding during periods of heavy rainfall.


Government and politics


Government structure

The Executive is held by the List of mayors and chiefs of government of Buenos Aires, Chief of Government ( es, link=no, Jefe de Gobierno), elected for a four-year term together with a Deputy Chief of Government, who presides over the 60-member Buenos Aires City Legislature. Each member of the Buenos Aires City Legislature, Legislature is elected for a four-year term; half of the legislature is renewed every two years. Elections use the D'Hondt method of proportional representation. The Judicial branch is composed of the Supreme Court of Justice (Tribunal Superior de Justicia), the Magistrate's Council (Consejo de la Magistratura), the Public Ministry, and other City Courts. Article 61 of the 1996 Constitution of the City of Buenos Aires states that "''Suffrage is free, equal, secret, universal, compulsory and non-accumulative. Resident aliens enjoy this same right, with its corresponding obligations, on equal terms with Argentine citizens registered in the district, under the terms established by law''." Legally, the city has less autonomy than the Provinces of Argentina, Provinces. In June 1996, shortly before the City's first Executive elections were held, the Argentine National Congress issued the National Law 24.588 (known as Antonio Cafiero, Ley Cafiero, after the Argentine Senate, Senator who advanced the project) by which the authority over the 25,000-strong Argentine Federal Police and the responsibility over the federal institutions residing at the City (e.g., Supreme Court of Argentina, National Supreme Court of Justice buildings) would not be transferred from the Government of Argentina, National Government to the Autonomous City Government until a new consensus could be reached at the National Congress. Furthermore, it declared that the Port of Buenos Aires, along with some other places, would remain under constituted federal authorities. , the deployment of the Metropolitan Police (Buenos Aires), Metropolitan Police of Buenos Aires is ongoing. Beginning in 2007, the city has embarked on a new decentralization scheme, creating new Barrios and Communes of Buenos Aires, Communes (''comunas'') which are to be managed by elected committees of seven members each. Buenos Aires is represented in the Argentine Senate by three senators (, Federico Pinedo, Marta Varela and Fernando Solanas, Pino Solanas). The people of Buenos Aires also elect 25 national deputies to the Argentine Chamber of Deputies. File:Panorama Casa Gobierno Argentina.JPG,
Casa Rosada The ''Casa Rosada'' (, eng, Pink House) is the official residence, executive mansion and office of the President of Argentina. The palatial mansion is known officially as ''Casa de Gobierno'' ("House of Government" or "Government House"). Normally ...

Casa Rosada
, workplace of the
President of Argentina The president of Argentina ( es, Presidente de Argentina), officially known as the president of the Argentine Nation ( es, Presidente de la Nación Argentina), is both head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public per ...
is located in the Neighbourhoods of Buenos Aires, neighborhood of Monserrat, Buenos Aires, Monserrat File:Palacio de justicia.JPG, The Palace of Justice of the Argentine Nation is in the Neighbourhoods of Buenos Aires, neighborhood of San Nicolás, Buenos Aires, San Nicolás File:Buenos Aires City Hall (5463295642).jpg, The Buenos Aires City Hall in the right corner of entrance to the Avenida de Mayo


Demographics

The population in 1825 was over 81,000 people.


Census data

In the census of 2010 there were 2,891,082 people residing in the city. The population of Greater Buenos Aires was 13,147,638 according to 2010 census data. The population density in Buenos Aires proper was 13,680 inhabitants per square kilometer (34,800 per mi2), but only about 2,400 per km2 (6,100 per mi2) in the suburbs. The population of Buenos Aires proper has hovered around 3 million since 1947, due to low birth rates and a slow migration to the suburbs. The surrounding districts have, however, expanded over fivefold (to around 10 million) since then. The National Institute of Statistics and Census of Argentina, 2001 census showed a relatively aged population: with 17% under the age of fifteen and 22% over sixty, the people of Buenos Aires have an age structure similar to those in most European cities. They are older than Argentines as a whole (of whom 28% were under 15, and 14% over 60). Two-thirds of the city's residents live in apartment buildings and 30% in single-family homes; 4% live in sub-standard housing. Measured in terms of income, the city's poverty threshold, poverty rate was 8.4% in 2007 and, including the metro area, 20.6%. Other studies estimate that 4 million people in the metropolitan Buenos Aires area live in poverty. The city's resident labor force of 1.2 million in 2001 was mostly employed in the services sector, particularly social services (25%), commerce and tourism (20%) and business and financial services (17%); despite the city's role as Argentina's capital, public administration employed only 6%. Manufacturing still employed 10%. Largest groups of foreign born people :


Districts

The city is divided into ''Barrios and Communes of Buenos Aires, barrios'' (neighborhoods) for administrative purposes, a division originally based on Catholic ''parroquias'' (parishes).Government of Buenos Aires
. Retrieved 7 August 2006.
A common expression is that of the ''Cien barrios porteños'' ("One hundred ''porteño'' neighborhoods"), referring to a composition made popular in the 1940s by tango singer Alberto Castillo (performer), Alberto Castillo; however, Buenos Aires only consists of 48 official ''barrios''. There are several subdivisions of these districts, some with a long history and others that are the product of a real estate invention. A notable example is Palermo, Buenos Aires, Palermo – the city's largest district – which has been subdivided into various ''barrios'', including Palermo Soho, Palermo Hollywood, Las Cañitas and Palermo viejo, among others. A newer scheme has divided the city into 15 ''comunas'' (communes).


Population origin

The majority of ''
porteño A Porteño (feminine: ''Porteña'') is an inhabitant of the city of Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western ...

porteño
s'' have Great European immigration wave to Argentina, European origins, mostly from the Italian regions of Italy, regions of Calabria, Liguria, Piedmont, Lombardy, Sicily and Campania and from the
Andalusia Andalusia (, ; es, Andalucía ) is the southernmost autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma ast, comunidá autónoma , alt_name ...
n, Galicia (Spain), Galician, Asturias, Asturian, and Basque Country (autonomous community), Basque Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain, regions of Spain. Unrestricted waves of European immigrants to Argentina starting in the mid-19th century significantly increased the country's population, even causing the number of porteños to triple between 1887 and 1915 from 500,000 to 1.5 million. Other significant European origins include Slovak, German Argentines, German, Irish Argentine, Irish, Norwegian, Polish Argentine, Polish, French Argentine, French, Portuguese, Swedish, Greek Argentine, Greek, Czech, Albanians in South America, Albanian, Croatian, Dutch, Russian, Serbian, English Argentines, English, Hungarian and Bulgarian. In the 1980s and 1990s, there was a small wave of immigration from Romania and Ukraine. There is a minority of '' criollo'' citizens, dating back to the Spanish colonial days. The ''Criollo'' and Spanish-aboriginal (mestizo) population in the city has increased mostly as a result of immigration from the inner provinces and from other countries such as neighboring Bolivia, Paraguay, Chile and Peru, since the second half of the 20th century. The Jews, Jewish community in
Greater Buenos Aires Greater Buenos Aires ( es, Gran Buenos Aires, GBA), also known as the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area ( es, Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires, AMBA), refers to the urban agglomeration comprising the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires Buenos Ai ...
numbers around 250,000, and is the largest in the country. The city is also eighth largest in the world in terms of Jewish population. Most are of Northern, Western, Central, and Eastern European Ashkenazi Jews, Ashkenazi origin, primarily Swedish, Dutch, Polish, German, and Russian Jews, Russian Jews, with a significant Sephardi Jews, Sephardic minority, mostly made up of Syrian Jews and Lebanese Jews. Important Lebanese Argentine, Lebanese, Georgians, Georgian, Syrian Argentine, Syrian and Armenian Argentine, Armenian communities have had a significant presence in commerce and civic life since the beginning of the 20th century. Most Asian Argentine, East Asian immigration in Buenos Aires comes from China. Chinese immigration is the fourth largest in Argentina, with the vast majority of them living in Buenos Aires and its metropolitan area. In the 1980s, most of them were from Taiwan, but since the 1990s the majority of Chinese immigrants come from the Mainland Chinese province of Fujian, Fukien (Fujian). The mainland Chinese who came from Fukien mainly installed supermarkets throughout the city and the suburbs; these supermarkets are so common that, in average, there is one every two and a half blocks and are simply referred to as ''el chino'' ("the Chinese"). Japanese Argentine, Japanese immigrants are mostly from the Okinawa Prefecture. They started the dry cleaning business in Argentina, an activity that is considered idiosyncratic to the Japanese immigrants in Buenos Aires. Koreans in Argentina, Korean Immigration occurred after the division of Korea; they mainly settled in
Flores Flores island () is one of the Lesser Sunda Islands The Lesser Sunda Islands ( id, Kepulauan Nusa Tenggara "southeastern archipelago" or "lesser sunda archipelago") are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island ...
and Balvanera#Origin of name and alternative names, Once. In the , 2.1% of the population or 61,876 persons declared to be Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous or first-generation descendants of Indigenous people in Buenos Aires (not including the 24 adjacent Partidos of Buenos Aires, Partidos that make up
Greater Buenos Aires Greater Buenos Aires ( es, Gran Buenos Aires, GBA), also known as the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area ( es, Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires, AMBA), refers to the urban agglomeration comprising the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires Buenos Ai ...
). Amongst the 61,876 persons who are of indigenous origin, 15.9% are Quechua people, 15.9% are Guaraní people, Guaraní, 15.5% are Aymara people, Aymara and 11% are Mapuche. Within the 24 adjacent Partidos, 186,640 persons or 1.9% of the total population declared themselves to be Indigenous. Amongst the 186,640 persons who are of indigenous origin, 21.2% are Guaraní, 19% are Toba people, Toba, 11.3% are Mapuche, 10.5% are Quechua and 7.6% are Diaguita. In the city, 15,764 people identified themselves as Afro-Argentine in the 2010 Census.


Religion

At the beginning of the twentieth century, Buenos Aires was the second largest
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic
city in the world after Paris. Christianity is still the most prevalently practiced religion in Buenos Aires (~71.4%), a 2019 National Scientific and Technical Research Council, CONICET survey on religious beliefs and attitudes found that the inhabitants of the Greater Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area (''Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires'', AMBA) were 56.4%
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic
, 26.2% Irreligion, non-religious and 15% Evangelical; making it the region of the country with the highest proportion of irreligious people. A previous CONICET survey from 2008 had found that 69.1% were Catholic, 18% "indifferent", 9.1% Evangelical, 1.4% Jehovah's Witnesses or Mormons and 2.3% adherents to other religions. The comparison between both surveys reveals that the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area is the region in which the decline of Catholicism was most pronounced during the last decade. Buenos Aires is also home to the Jewish population by country, largest Jewish community in Latin America and the second largest in the Western Hemisphere after the United States. The Jewish community of Buenos Aires has historically been characterized by its high level of assimilation, organization and influence in the cultural history of the city. Buenos Aires is the seat of a Roman Catholic metropolitan bishop, metropolitan archbishop (the Catholic primate (bishop), ''primate'' of Argentina), currently Archbishop Mario Poli. His predecessor, Cardinal Jorge Bergoglio, was elected to the Papacy as Pope Francis on 13 March 2013. There are Protestant, Orthodox Christianity, Orthodox, Eastern Catholic, Buddhism, Buddhist and various other religious minorities as well. File:Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral (5463291506).jpg, The Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral, Metropolitan Cathedral is the main
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic
church architecture, church in the city. [File:Armenian Catholic Church in Buenos Aires.jpg, Armenian Catholic (Eastern Catholic) cathedral church File:Sinagoga israelita.JPG, Templo Libertad is a Jews, Jewish synagogue. Argentina's Jewish population is the largest in Latin America. File:Catedral San Juan Bautista (Buenos Aires).JPG, Anglican Cathedral of St. John the Baptist, is the oldest non-Catholic church building in Latin America. File:OrtodoxaRusa001.JPG, Cathedral of the Most Holy Trinity, Buenos Aires, Russian Orthodox church in
San Telmo San Telmo ("Saint Pedro González Telmo") is the oldest '' barrio'' (neighborhood) of Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is loca ...

San Telmo
. File:CatedralOrtodoxaAntioquenaSanJorge-Argentina.JPG, St. George Antiochian Orthodox Cathedral, Buenos Aires, St. George Antiochian Orthodox Cathedral.


Urban problems

Villas miserias are a type of slum whose size ranges from small groups of precarious houses to large communities with thousands of residents. In rural areas, the houses in the villas miserias might be made of mud and wood. Villas miseria are found around and inside the large cities of Buenos Aires, Rosario, Córdoba and Mendoza, among others Buenos Aires has below of green space per person, which is 90% less than New York, 85% less than Madrid and 80% less than Paris. The World Health Organization (WHO), in its concern for public health, produced a document stating that every city should have a minimum of of green space per person; an optimal amount of space per person would range from 10 to .


Economy

Buenos Aires is the financial, industrial, and commercial hub of Argentina. The economy in the city proper alone, measured by Gross Geographic Product (adjusted for purchasing power), totaled US$84.7 billion (US$34,200 per capita) in 2011 and amounts to nearly a quarter of Argentina's as a whole. Metro Buenos Aires, according to one well-quoted study, constitutes the 13th largest economy among the world's cities. The Buenos Aires Human Development Index (0.867 in 2018) is likewise high by international standards.


Port

The port of Buenos Aires is one of the busiest in South America, as navigable rivers by way of the Rio de la Plata connect the port to northeastern Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay. As a result, it serves as the distribution hub for said vast area of the South American continent. The Port of Buenos Aires handles over annually, and Dock Sud, just south of the city proper, handles another . Tax collection related to the port has caused many political problems in the past, including a 2008 Argentine government conflict with the agricultural sector, conflict in 2008 that led to protests and a strike in the agricultural sector after the government raised export tariffs.


Services

The city's services sector is diversified and well-developed by international standards, and accounts for 76 percent of its economy (compared to 59% for all of Argentina's). Advertising, in particular, plays a prominent role in the export of services at home and abroad. The financial and real-estate services sector is the largest, however, and contributes to 31 percent of the city's economy. Finance (about a third of this) in Buenos Aires is especially important to Argentina's banking system, accounting for nearly half the nation's bank deposits and lending. Nearly 300 hotels and another 300 hostels and bed & breakfasts are Tourism in Buenos Aires, licensed for tourism, and nearly half the rooms available were in four-star establishments or higher.


Manufacturing

Manufacturing is, nevertheless, still prominent in the city's economy (16 percent) and, concentrated mainly in the southern part of the city. It benefits as much from high local purchasing power and a large local supply of skilled labor as it does from its relationship to massive agriculture and industry just outside the city limits. Construction activity in Buenos Aires has historically been among the most accurate indicators of national economic fortunes, and since 2006 around of construction has been authorized annually. Meat, dairy, grain, tobacco, wool and leather products are processed or manufactured in the Greater Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires metro area. Other leading industries are automobile manufacturing, oil refining, metalworking, machine building and the production of textiles, chemicals, clothing and beverages.


Government finances

The city's budget, per Mayor Macri's 2011 proposal, included US$6 billion in revenues and US$6.3 billion in expenditures. The city relies on local income and capital gains taxes for 61 percent of its revenues, while federal revenue sharing contributes 11 percent, property taxes, 9 percent, and vehicle taxes, 6 percent. Other revenues include user fees, fines and gambling duties. The city devotes 26 percent of its budget to education, 22 percent for health, 17 percent for public services and infrastructure, 16 percent for social welfare and culture, 12 percent in administrative costs and 4 percent for law enforcement. Buenos Aires maintains low debt levels and its service requires less than 3 percent of the budget.


Culture

As Buenos Aires is strongly influenced by Culture of Europe, European culture, the city is sometimes referred to as the "Paris of South America". With its scores of theaters and productions, the city has the busiest live theater industry in Latin America. In fact, every weekend, there are about 300 active Theater (structure), theaters with plays, a number that places the city as 1st worldwide, more than either London, New York or Paris, cultural Meccas in themselves. The number of cultural festivals with more than 10 sites and 5 years of existence also places the city as 2nd worldwide, after Edinburgh.
La Nacion, 2014.
The Néstor Kirchner Cultural Centre, Centro Cultural Kirchner (Kirchner Cultural Center), located in Buenos Aires, is the largest cultural center of
Latin America Latin America is the portion of the Americas comprising countries and regions where Romance languages—languages that derived from Latin—such as Spanish language in the Americas, Spanish, American Portuguese, Portuguese, and French language, Fr ...

Latin America
, and the third worldwide. Buenos Aires is the home of the Teatro Colón, an internationally rated opera house.''Time Out Guide: Buenos Aires'', Cathy Runciman & Leticia Saharrea (eds), Penguin Books, London, 2001. There are several orchestra, symphony orchestras and choral societies. The city has numerous museums related to arts and crafts, history, fine arts, modern arts, decorative arts, popular arts, sacred art, theater and popular music, as well as the preserved homes of noted art collectors, writers, composers and artists. The city is home to hundreds of bookstores, public libraries and cultural associations (it is sometimes called "the city of books"), as well as the largest concentration of active Theater (structure), theaters in Latin America. It has a Buenos Aires Zoo, zoo and Buenos Aires Botanical Garden, botanical garden, a large number of landscaped parks and squares, as well as churches and places of worship of many denominations, many of which are architecturally noteworthy. The city has been a member of the Creative Cities Network, UNESCO Creative Cities Network after it was named "City of Design" in 2005.


''Porteño'' identity

The identity of ''
porteño A Porteño (feminine: ''Porteña'') is an inhabitant of the city of Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western ...

porteño
s'' has a rich and complex history, and has been the subject of much analysis and scrutiny. The great European immigration wave to Argentina, great European immigration wave of the early 20th century was integral to "the growing primacy of Buenos Aires and the accompanying urban identity", and established the division between urban and rural Argentina more deeply.Lewis Nouwen, 2013. p.121 Immigrants "brought new traditions and cultural markers to the city," which were "then reimagined in the ''porteño'' context, with new layers of meanings because of the new location."Lewis Nouwen, 2013. p.122 The List of heads of state of Argentina, heads of state's attempt to populate the country and reframe the national identity resulted in the concentration of immigrants in the city and its suburbs, who generated a culture that is a "product of their conflicts of Racial integration, integration, their difficulties to live and their communication puzzles."Rojas-Mix, 1991. p. 57 In response to the immigration wave, during the 1920s and 1930s a nationalist trend within the Argentine intellectual elite glorified the gaucho figure as an exemplary archetype of Argentine culture; its synthesis with the European traditions conformed the new urban identity of Buenos Aires.Rojas-Mix, 1991. p. 60 The complexity of Buenos Aires' integration and identity formation issues increased when immigrants realized that their European culture could help them gain a greater social status.Rojas-Mix, 1991. p. 61 As the rural population moved to the industrialized city from the 1930s onwards, they reaffirmed their European roots, adopting endogamy and founding private schools, newspapers in foreign languages, and associations that promoted adherence to their countries of origin. ''Porteños'' are generally characterized as Night owl (person), night owls, cultured, talkative, uninhibited, sensitive, nostalgic, observant and arrogant. Argentines outside Buenos Aires often stereotype its inhabitants as egotist people, a feature that people from the Americas and westerners in general commonly attribute to the entire Argentine population and use as the subject of numerous jokes. Writing for BBC Mundo Cristina Pérez felt that "the idea of the [Argentines'] vastly developed ego finds strong evidence in lunfardo dictionaries," in words such as "''engrupido''" (meaning "vain" or "conceited") and "''compadrito''" (meaning both "brave" and "braggart"), the latter being an archetypal figure of tango. Paradoxically, ''porteños'' are also described as highly self-critical, something that has been called "the other side of the ego coin." Writers consider the existence of these Human behavior, behaviors the consequence of the European immigration and prosperity that the city experienced during the early 20th century, which generated a feeling of superiority in parts of the population.


Art

Buenos Aires has a thriving arts culture, with "a huge inventory of museums, ranging from obscure to world-class." The ''barrios'' of Palermo, Buenos Aires, Palermo and Recoleta, Buenos Aires, Recoleta are the city's traditional bastions in the diffusion of art, although in recent years there has been a tendency of appearance of exhibition venues in other districts such as Puerto Madero or La Boca, Buenos Aires, La Boca; renowned venues include MALBA, the Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes (Buenos Aires), National Museum of Fine Arts, Fundación Proa, Faena Arts Center, and the Usina del Arte. Other popular institutions are the Buenos Aires Museum of Modern Art, the Quinquela Martín Museum, the Evita Museum, the Fernández Blanco Museum, the José Hernández Museum, and the Palais de Glace, among others. A traditional event that occurs once a year is ''La Noche de los Museos'' ("Night of the Museums"), when the city's museums, universities, and artistic spaces open their doors for free until early morning; it usually takes place in November. The first major artistic movements in Argentina coincided with the first signs of political liberty in the country, such as the 1913 sanction of the secret ballot and universal male suffrage, the Hipólito Yrigoyen, first president to be popularly elected (1916), and the cultural revolution that involved the University Reform of 1918. In this context, in which there continued to be influence from the Paris School (Modigliani, Chagall, Soutine, Klee), three main groups arose. Buenos Aires has been the birthplace of several artists and Art movement, movements of national and international relevance, and has become a central motif in Argentine artistic production, especially since the 20th century. Examples include: the Paris Group – so named for being influenced by the School of Paris – constituted by Antonio Berni, Aquiles Badi, Lino Enea Spilimbergo, Raquel Forner and Alfredo Bigatti, among others; and the La Boca artists – including Benito Quinquela Martín and Alfredo Lazzari, among others – who mostly came from Italy or were of Italian descent, and usually painted scenes from working-class port neighborhoods. During the 1960s, the Torcuato di Tella Institute – located in Florida Street – became a leading local center for pop art, performance art, installation art, conceptual art, and experimental theater; this generation of artists included Marta Minujín, Dalila Puzzovio, David Lamelas and Clorindo Testa. Buenos Aires has also become a prominent center of contemporary street art; its welcoming attitude has made it one of the world's top capitals of such expression. The city's turbulent modern political history has "bred an intense sense of expression in ''porteños''," and urban art has been used to depict these stories and as a means of protest. However, not all of its street art concerns politics, it is also used as a symbol of democracy and freedom of expression. Murals and graffiti are so common that they are considered "an everyday occurrence," and have become part of the urban landscape of ''barrios'' such as Palermo, Villa Urquiza, Coghlan, Buenos Aires, Coghlan and San Telmo, Buenos Aires, San Telmo. This has to do with the legality of such activities —provided that the building owner has consented—, and the receptiveness of local authorities, who even subsidize various works. The abundance of places for urban artists to create their work, and the relatively lax rules for street art, have attracted international artists such as Blu (artist), Blu, Jef Aérosol, Aryz, ROA (artist), ROA, and Ron English (artist), Ron English. Guided tours to see murals and graffiti around the city have been growing steadily. File:Malba - Milla Museos.jpg, MALBA File:Centro Cultural Recoleta-Recoleta Cultural Center.jpg, Centro Cultural Recoleta, Recoleta Cultural Center File:ID 208 Palacio Errazuriz 0858.jpg, National Museum of Decorative Arts, Buenos Aires, Museum of Decorative Arts File:Faena Arts Center in Puerto Madero.jpg, Faena Arts Center


Literature

Buenos Aires has long been considered an intellectual and literary capital of
Latin America Latin America is the portion of the Americas comprising countries and regions where Romance languages—languages that derived from Latin—such as Spanish language in the Americas, Spanish, American Portuguese, Portuguese, and French language, Fr ...

Latin America
and the Spanish-speaking world. Despite its short urban history, Buenos Aires has an abundant literary production; its mythical-literary network "has grown at the same rate at which the streets of the city earned its shores to the pampas and buildings stretched its shadow on the curb." During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, culture boomed along with the economy and the city emerged as a literary capital and the seat of South America's most powerful publishing industry, and "even if the economic path grew rocky, ordinary Argentines embraced and stuck to the habit of reading." By the 1930s, Buenos Aires was the undisputed literary capital of the Spanish-speaking world, with Victoria Ocampo founding the highly influential ''Sur (magazine), Sur'' magazine—which dominated Spanish-language literature for thirty years— and the arrival of prominent Spanish writers and editors who were escaping the Spanish Civil War, civil war. Buenos Aires is one of the most prolific book publishers in Latin America and has more bookstores per capita than any other major city in the world. Buenos Aires has at least 734 bookstores—roughly 25 bookshops for every 100,000 inhabitants—far above other world cities like London, Paris, Madrid, Moscow and New York. The city also has a thriving market for secondhand books, ranking third in terms of secondhand bookshops per inhabitant, most of them congregated along Avenida Corrientes. Buenos Aires' book market has been described as "catholic in taste, immune to fads or fashion", with "wide and varied demand." The popularity of reading among ''porteños'' has been variously linked to the wave of mass immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and to the city's "obsession" with psychoanalysis. The Buenos Aires International Book Fair has been a major event in the city since the first fair in 1975, having been described as "perhaps the most important and largest annual literary event in the Spanish-speaking world," and "the most important cultural event in Latin America". In its 2019 edition, the Book Fair was attended by 1.8 million people.


Language

Buenos Aires' dialect of Spanish, which is known as ''Rioplatense Spanish'', is distinguished by its use of ''voseo'', ''yeísmo'', and aspiration of ''s'' in various contexts. It is heavily influenced by the dialects of Spanish spoken in
Andalusia Andalusia (, ; es, Andalucía ) is the southernmost autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma ast, comunidá autónoma , alt_name ...
and Murcia, and shares its features with that of other cities like Rosario, Santa Fe, Rosario and
Montevideo Montevideo () is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Uruguay, largest city of Uruguay. According to the 2011 census, the city proper has a population of 1,319,108 (about one-third of the country's total population) in an area of . ...

Montevideo
, Uruguay. In the early 20th century, Argentina absorbed millions of immigrants, many of them Italians, who spoke mostly in their local dialects (mainly Neapolitan, Sicilian language, Sicilian and Genoese language, Genoese). Their adoption of Spanish was gradual, creating a pidgin of Italian dialects and Spanish that was called ''cocoliche''. Its usage declined around the 1950s. A phonetic study conducted by the Laboratory for Sensory Investigations of National Scientific and Technical Research Council, CONICET and the University of Toronto showed that the prosody (linguistics), prosody of ''
porteño A Porteño (feminine: ''Porteña'') is an inhabitant of the city of Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western ...

porteño
'' is closer to the Neapolitan language of Italy than to any other spoken language. Many Spanish immigrants were from Galicia (Spain), Galicia, and Spaniards are still generically referred to in Argentina as ''gallegos'' (Galician people, Galicians). Galician language, cuisine and culture had a major presence in the city for most of the 20th century. In recent years, descendants of Galician immigrants have led a mini-boom in Celtic music (which also highlighted the Y Wladfa, Welsh traditions of Patagonia). Yiddish language, Yiddish was commonly heard in Buenos Aires, especially in the Balvanera garment district and in Villa Crespo until the 1960s. Most of the newer immigrants learn Spanish quickly and assimilate into city life. The ''Lunfardo'' argot originated within the prison population, and in time spread to all ''porteños''. Lunfardo uses words from Italian dialects, from Brazilian Portuguese, from African and Caribbean languages and even from English. Lunfardo employs humorous tricks such as inverting the syllables within a word (vesre). Today, Lunfardo is mostly heard in tango lyrics; the slang of the younger generations has been evolving away from it. Buenos Aires was also the first city to host a Mundo Lingo event on 7 July 2011, which have been after replicated in up to 15 cities in 13 countries.


Music

According to the ''Harvard Dictionary of Music'', "Argentina has one of the richest art music traditions and perhaps the most active contemporary musical life" in South America. Buenos Aires boasts of several professional orchestras, including the Argentine National Symphony Orchestra, the Ensamble Musical de Buenos Aires and the Camerata Bariloche; as well as various conservatories that offer professional music education, like the Conservatorio Nacional Superior de Música (Argentina), Conservatorio Nacional Superior de Música. As a result of the growth and commercial prosperity of the city in the late 18th century, theater became a vital force in Argentine musical life, offering Italian and French operas and Spanish zarzuelas. Italian music was very influential during the 19th century and the early 20th century, in part because of immigration, but operas and salon music were also composed by Argentines, including Francisco Hargreaves and Juan Gutiérrez. A nationalist trend that drew from Argentine traditions, literature and folk music was an important force during the 19th century, including composers Alberto Williams, Julián Aguirre, Arturo Berutti and Felipe Boero. In the 1930s, composers such as Juan Carlos Paz and Alberto Ginastera "began to espouse a cosmopolitan and modernist style, influenced by twelve-tone techniques and serialism"; while avant-garde music thrived by the 1960s, with the Rockefeller Foundation financing the Centro Interamericano de Altos Estudios Musicales, which brought internationally famous composers to work and teach in Buenos Aires, also establishing an electronic music studio. The Río de la Plata is known for being the birthplace of Tango (dance), tango, which is considered an emblem of Buenos Aires. The city considers itself the Tango World Capital, and as such hosts many related events, the most important being World tango dance tournament, an annual festival and world tournament. The most important exponent of the genre is Carlos Gardel, followed by Aníbal Troilo; other important composers include Alfredo Gobbi, Ástor Piazzolla, Osvaldo Pugliese, Mariano Mores, Juan D'Arienzo and Juan Carlos Cobián. Tango music experienced a period of splendor during the 1940s, while in the 1960s and 1970s nuevo tango appeared, incorporating elements of classical and jazz music. A contemporary trend is neotango (also known as electrotango), with exponents such as Bajofondo and Gotan Project. On 30 September 2009, UNESCO's Intergovernmental Committee of Intangible Heritage declared tango part of the world's cultural heritage, making Argentina eligible to receive financial assistance in safeguarding tango for future generations. The city hosts several music festivals every year. A popular genre is electronic dance music, with festivals including Creamfields BA, SAMC, Moonpark, and a local edition of Ultra Music Festival. Other well-known events include the Buenos Aires Jazz Festival, Personal Fest, Quilmes Rock and Pepsi Music Festival, Pepsi Music. Some music festivals are held in
Greater Buenos Aires Greater Buenos Aires ( es, Gran Buenos Aires, GBA), also known as the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area ( es, Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires, AMBA), refers to the urban agglomeration comprising the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires Buenos Ai ...
, like Lollapalooza, which takes place at the Hipódromo de San Isidro in San Isidro, Buenos Aires, San Isidro.


Cinema

Cinema of Argentina, Argentine cinema history began in Buenos Aires with the first film exhibition on 18 July 1896 at the Teatro Odeón. With his 1897 film, ''La bandera Argentina'', Eugène Py became one of the first filmmakers of the country; the film features a waving Argentine flag located at Plaza de Mayo. In the early 20th century, the first movie theaters of the country opened in Buenos Aires, and newsreels appeared, most notably ''El Viaje de Campos Salles a Buenos Aires''. The real industry emerged with the advent of sound films, the first one being ''Muñequitas porteñas'' (1931). The newly founded Argentina Sono Film released ''¡Tango!'' in 1933, the first integral sound production in the country. During the 1930s and the 1940s (commonly referred as the "Golden Age" of Argentine cinema), many films revolved around the city of Buenos Aires and tango culture, reflected in titles such as ''La vida es un tango'', ''El alma del bandoneón'', ''Goodbye Buenos Aires, Adiós Buenos Aires'', ''El Cantor de Buenos Aires'' and ''Buenos Aires Sings, Buenos Aires canta''. Cinema of Argentina, Argentine films were exported across Latin America, specially Libertad Lamarque's melodramas, and the comedies of Luis Sandrini and Niní Marshall. The popularity of local cinema in the Spanish-speaking world played a key role in the massification of tango music. Carlos Gardel, an iconic figure of tango and Buenos Aires, became an international star by starring in several films during that era. In response to large studio productions, the "Generation of the 60s" appeared, a group of filmmakers that produced the first Modernism, modernist films in Argentina during that early years of that decade. These included Manuel Antín, Lautaro Murúa and René Mugica, among others. During the second half of the decade, films of social protest were presented in clandestine exhibitions, the work of Grupo Cine Liberación and Grupo Cine de la Base, who advocated what they called "Third Cinema". At that time, the country was under a military dictatorship after the coup d'état known as Argentine Revolution. One of the most notable films of these movement is ''The Hour of the Furnaces, La hora de los hornos'' (1968) by Fernando Solanas. During the period of democracy between 1973 and 1975, the local cinema experienced critical and commercial success, with titles including ''Juan Moreira (1973 film), Juan Moreira'' (1973), ''La Patagonia rebelde'' (1974), ''La Raulito'' (1975), and ''The Truce (1974 film), La tregua'' (1974) – which became the first Argentine film nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. However, because of censorship and a new military government, Argentine cinema stalled until the return of democracy in the 1980s. This generation – known as "Argentine Cinema in Liberty and Democracy" – were mostly young or postponed filmmakers, and gained international notoriety. ''Camila (film), Camila'' (1984) by María Luisa Bemberg was nominated for the Best Foreign Film at the Academy Awards, and Luis Puenzo's ''La historia oficial'' (1985) was the first Argentine film to receive the award. Located in Buenos Aires is the Pablo Ducrós Hicken Museum of Cinema, the only one in the country dedicated to Argentine cinema and a pioneer of its kind in Latin America. Every year, the city hosts the Buenos Aires International Festival of Independent Cinema (BAFICI), which, in its 2015 edition, featured 412 films from 37 countries, and an attendance of 380 thousand people. Buenos Aires also hosts various other festivals and film cycles, like the Buenos Aires Rojo Sangre, devoted to horror.


Media

Buenos Aires is home to five Argentine television networks: America, Channel 7 (Argentina), Television Pública Argentina, Channel 9 (Argentina), El Nueve, Telefe, and Channel 13 (Argentina), El Trece. Four of them are located in Buenos Aires, and the studios of America is located in La Plata.


Fashion

Buenos Aires' inhabitants have been historically characterized as "fashion-conscious". National designers display their collections annually at the Buenos Aires Fashion Week (BAFWEEK) and related events. Inevitably being a season behind, it fails to receive much international attention. Nevertheless, the city remains an important regional fashion capital. According to Global Language Monitor, the city is the 20th leading fashion capital in the world, ranking second in
Latin America Latin America is the portion of the Americas comprising countries and regions where Romance languages—languages that derived from Latin—such as Spanish language in the Americas, Spanish, American Portuguese, Portuguese, and French language, Fr ...

Latin America
after Rio de Janeiro. In 2005, Buenos Aires was appointed as the first UNESCO City of Design, and received this title once again in 2007. Since 2015, the Buenos Aires International Fashion Film Festival Buenos Aires (BAIFFF) takes place, sponsored by the city and Mercedes-Benz. The government of the city also organizes La Ciudad de Moda ("The City of Fashion"), an annual event that serves as a platform for emerging creators and attempts to boost the sector by providing management tools. The fashionable neighborhood of Palermo, particularly the area known as Palermo Soho, Soho, is where the latest fashion and design trends are presented. The "''sub-barrio''" of Palermo Viejo is also a popular port of call for fashion in the city. An increasing number of young, independent designers are also setting up their own shops in Bohemian San Telmo, known for its wide variety of markets and antique shops. Recoleta, on the other hand, is the epicenter of branches of exclusive and upscale fashion houses. In particular, Avenida Alvear is home to the most exclusive representatives of haute couture in the city.


Cityscape


Architecture

Buenos Aires architecture is characterized by its eclectic nature, with elements resembling Paris and Madrid. There is a mix, due to Immigration in Argentina, immigration, of Spanish colonial architecture, Colonial, Art Deco, Art Nouveau, Neo-Gothic, and House of Bourbon, French Bourbon styles. Italian and French influences increased after the Argentine Declaration of Independence, declaration of independence at the beginning of the 19th century, though the academic style persisted until the first decades of the 20th century. Attempts at renovation took place during the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, when European influences penetrated into the country, reflected by several buildings of Buenos Aires such as the Iglesia Santa Felicitas by Ernesto Bunge; the Palace of Justice, the Argentine National Congress, National Congress, all of them by Vittorio Meano, and the Teatro Colón, by Francesco Tamburini and Vittorio Meano. The simplicity of the ''Río de la Plata, Rioplatense'' baroque, baroque style can be clearly seen in Buenos Aires through the works of Italian architects such as André Blanqui and Antonio Masella, in the churches of Saint Ignatius Church (Buenos Aires), San Ignacio, Our Lady of the Pillar, Nuestra Señora del Pilar, the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral, Cathedral and the Buenos Aires Cabildo, Cabildo. In 1912, the Basilica del Santisimo Sacramento was opened to the public; its construction was funded by the generous donation of Argentine philanthropist Mercedes Castellanos de Anchorena, a member of Argentina's most prominent family. The church is an excellent example of French neo-classicism. With extremely high-grade decorations in its interior, the magnificent Mutin-Cavaillé coll organ (the biggest ever installed in an Argentine church with more than four-thousand tubes and four manuals) presided the nave. The altar is full of marble, and was the biggest ever built in South America at that time. In 1919, the construction of Palacio Barolo began. This was South America's tallest building at the time, and was the first Argentine skyscraper built with concrete (1919–1923). The building was equipped with 9 elevators, plus a -high lobby hall with paintings in the ceiling and Latin phrases embossed in golden bronze letters. A 300,000-candela beacon was installed at the top (110 m), making the building visible even from Uruguay. In 2009, the Barolo Palace went under an exhaustive restoration, and the beacon was made operational again. In 1936, the -tall Kavanagh building was inaugurated. The Kavanagh building, with its 12 elevators (provided by Otis) and the world's first central air conditioning system (provided by the North American company "Carrier"), is still an architectural landmark in Buenos Aires. The architecture of the second half of the 19th century continued to reproduce French neoclassical architecture, neoclassic models, such as the headquarters of the Banco de la Nación Argentina built by Alejandro Bustillo, and the Museo Hispanoamericano de Buenos Aires of Martín Noel. However, since the 1930s, the influence of Le Corbusier and European rationalism consolidated in a group of young architects from the National University of Tucumán, University of Tucumán, among whom Amancio Williams stands out. The construction of skyscrapers proliferated in Buenos Aires until the 1950s. Newer modern high-technology buildings by Argentine architects in the last years of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st include the Le Parc Tower by Mario Álvarez, the Torre Fortabat by Sánchez Elía and the Repsol-YPF tower by César Pelli.


Education


Primary education

Primary education comprise grades 1–7. Most primary schools in the city still adhere to the traditional seven-year primary school, but kids can do grades 1–6 if their high schools lasts 6 years, such as ORT Argentina.


Secondary education

Secondary education in Argentina is called ''Polimodal'' ("polymodal", that is, having multiple modes), since it allows the student to choose their orientation. Polimodal is usually 3 years of schooling, although some schools have a fourth year. Before entering the first year of polimodal, students choose an orientation from the following five specializations: ''Humanities and Social Sciences'', ''Economics and Management of Organizations'','' Art and Design'', ''Health and Sport'' and ''Biology and Natural Sciences''. Nevertheless, in Buenos Aires, secondary education consists of 5 years ranging from 1st year to 5th year as opposed to primary education's 1st to 7th grade. Most schools do not require students to choose their orientation, as they study the basics such as art, biology, math, history, and technology, but there are schools that do, regardless of if they are oriented to a certain profession or they have orientations to choose from when they reach a specific year. Some high schools depend on the University of Buenos Aires, and these require an admission course when students are taking the last year of high school. These high schools are Instituto Libre de Segunda Enseñanza, ILSE, CNBA, Escuela Superior de Comercio Carlos Pellegrini and Escuela de Educación Técnica Profesional en Producción Agropecuaria y Agroalimentaria (School of Professional Technique Education in Agricultural and Agrifood Production). The last two do have a specific orientation. In December 2006 the Argentine Chamber of Deputies, Chamber of Deputies of the Argentine National Congress, Argentine Congress passed a new National Education Law restoring the old system of primary followed by secondary education, making secondary education obligatory and a right, and increasing the length of compulsory education to 13 years. The government vowed to put the law in effect gradually, starting in 2007.


University education

There are many public university, public universities in Argentina, as well as a number of private university, private universities. The University of Buenos Aires, one of the top learning institutions in South America, has produced five Nobel Prize winners and provides taxpayer-funded education for students from all around the globe. Buenos Aires is a major center for psychoanalysis, particularly the Jacques Lacan, Lacanian school. Buenos Aires is home to several private universities of different quality, such as: Universidad Argentina de la Empresa, Instituto Tecnológico de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires Institute of Technology, University of CEMA, CEMA University, Favaloro University, Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina, University of Belgrano, University of Palermo (Buenos Aires), University of Palermo, Universidad del Salvador, University of Salvador, Interamerican Open University, Universidad Abierta Interamericana, Universidad Argentina John F. Kennedy, Universidad de Ciencias Empresariales y Sociales, Universidad del Museo Social Argentino, Austral University (Argentina), Universidad Austral, Universidad CAECE and Torcuato di Tella University.


Tourism

According to the World Travel & Tourism Council, tourism has been growing in the Argentine capital since 2002. In a survey by the travel and tourism publication Travel + Leisure Magazine in 2008, visitors voted Buenos Aires the second most desirable city to visit after Florence, Italy. In 2008, an estimated 2.5 million visitors visited the city. Visitors have many options for travel such as going to a tango show, an estancia in the Buenos Aires Province, Province of Buenos Aires, or enjoying the traditional asado. New tourist circuits have recently evolved, devoted to Argentines such as Carlos Gardel, Eva Perón or Jorge Luis Borges. Before 2011, due to the Argentine peso's favorable exchange rate, its shopping centers such as Alto Palermo, Paseo Alcorta, Patio Bullrich, Abasto de Buenos Aires and Galerías Pacífico were frequently visited by tourists. Nowadays, the exchange rate has hampered tourism and shopping in particular. In fact, notable consumer brands such as Burberry and Louis Vuitton have abandoned the country due to the exchange rate and import restrictions. The city also plays host to musical festivals, some of the largest of which are Quilmes Rock, Creamfields BA, Ultra Music Festival (Buenos Aires) and the Buenos Aires Jazz Festival. The most popular tourist sites are found in the historic core of the city, specifically, in the Montserrat, Buenos Aires, Montserrat and
San Telmo San Telmo ("Saint Pedro González Telmo") is the oldest '' barrio'' (neighborhood) of Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is loca ...

San Telmo
neighborhoods. Buenos Aires was conceived around the
Plaza de Mayo The Plaza de Mayo (; en, May Square) is a city square and main foundational site of Buenos Aires, Argentina. It was formed in 1884 after the demolition of the Recova building, unifying the city's Plaza Mayor, Buenos Aires, Plaza Mayor and Plaza ...

Plaza de Mayo
, the colony's administrative center. To the east of the square is the ''
Casa Rosada The ''Casa Rosada'' (, eng, Pink House) is the official residence, executive mansion and office of the President of Argentina. The palatial mansion is known officially as ''Casa de Gobierno'' ("House of Government" or "Government House"). Normally ...

Casa Rosada
'', the official seat of the executive branch of the government of Argentina. To the north, the ''Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral, Catedral Metropolitana'' which has stood in the same location since colonial times, and the Banco de la Nación Argentina building, a parcel of land originally owned by
Juan de Garay Juan de Garay (1528–1583) was a Spanish conquistador. Garay's birthplace is disputed. Some say it was in the Castile city of Junta de Villalba de Losa, while others argue he was born in the area of Orduña (Basque Country). There's no bi ...
. Other important colonial institutions were Buenos Aires Cabildo, Cabildo, to the west, which was renovated during the construction of Avenida de Mayo and Julio A. Roca. To the south is the ''Congreso de la Nación'' (National Congress), which currently houses the ''Academia Nacional de la Historia'' (National Academy of History). Lastly, to the northwest, is City Hall.


Parks

Buenos Aires has over 250 parks and green spaces, the largest concentration of which are on the city's eastern side in the neighborhoods of Puerto Madero, Recoleta, Palermo and Belgrano. Some of the most important are: *Parque Tres de Febrero was designed by urbanist Jordán Czeslaw Wysocki and architect Julio Dormal. The park was inaugurated on 11 November 1875. The subsequent dramatic economic growth of Buenos Aires helped to lead to its transfer to the municipal domain in 1888, whereby French Argentine urbanist Carlos Thays was commissioned to expand and further beautify the park, between 1892 and 1912. Thays designed the Buenos Aires Zoo, Zoological Gardens, the Buenos Aires Botanical Gardens, Botanical Gardens, the adjoining Plaza Italia and the Rose Garden. *Buenos Aires Botanical Garden, Botanical Gardens, designed by French architect and landscape designer Carlos Thays, the garden was inaugurated on 7 September 1898. Thays and his family lived in an England, English style mansion, located within the gardens, between 1892 and 1898, when he served as director of parks and walks in the city. The mansion, built in 1881, is currently the main building of the complex. *Buenos Aires Japanese Gardens Is the largest of its type in the World, outside Japan. Completed in 1967, the gardens were inaugurated on occasion of a State visit to Argentina by Crown Prince Akihito and Princess Empress Michiko, Michiko of Japan. *
Plaza de Mayo The Plaza de Mayo (; en, May Square) is a city square and main foundational site of Buenos Aires, Argentina. It was formed in 1884 after the demolition of the Recova building, unifying the city's Plaza Mayor, Buenos Aires, Plaza Mayor and Plaza ...

Plaza de Mayo
Since being the scene of
May Revolution The May Revolution ( es, link=no, Revolución de Mayo) was a week-long series of events that took place from May 18 to 25, 1810, in Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the capital ...
of 1810 that led to Argentinian independence, the plaza has been a hub of political life in Argentina. *Plaza San Martín (Buenos Aires), Plaza San Martín is a park located in the city's neighborhood of Retiro, Buenos Aires, Retiro. Situated at the northern end of pedestrianized Florida Street, the park is bounded by Avenida del Libertador, Libertador Ave. (N), Maipú St. (W), Santa Fe Avenue (S), and Leandro Alem Av. (E). File:Plaza Congreso summer.jpg, Congressional Plaza File:Buenos Aires Botanical Gardens, 15th. Jan. 2011 - Flickr - PhillipC (1).jpg, Buenos Aires Botanical Garden File:Plaza de Mayo en Primavera.jpg,
Plaza de Mayo The Plaza de Mayo (; en, May Square) is a city square and main foundational site of Buenos Aires, Argentina. It was formed in 1884 after the demolition of the Recova building, unifying the city's Plaza Mayor, Buenos Aires, Plaza Mayor and Plaza ...

Plaza de Mayo
File:Lago del rosedal palermo chico.jpg, Parque Tres de Febrero


Theaters

Buenos Aires has over 280 Theater (structure), theaters, more than any other city in the world. Because of this, Buenos Aires is declared the "World's Capital of Theater". They show everything from musicals to ballet, comedy to circuses. Some of them are: *Teatro Colón is ranked the third best opera house in the world by National Geographic, and is acoustically considered to be amongst the five best concert venues in the world. It is bounded by the wide 9 de Julio Avenue (technically Cerrito Street), Arturo Toscanini Street, Tucumán Street, as well as Libertad Street at its main entrance. It is in the heart of the city on a site once occupied by Ferrocarril Oeste de Buenos Aires, Ferrocarril Oeste's ''Plaza Parque'' station. *Cervantes Theatre (Buenos Aires), Cervantes Theater( Teatro Nacional Cervantes), located on Córdoba Avenue and two blocks north of Buenos Aires' renowned opera house, the Colón Theater, the Cervantes houses three performance halls, of which the María Guerrero Salon serves as its main hall. Its 456 m2 (4,900 ft2) stage features a 12 m (39 ft) rotating circular platform and can be extended by a further 2.7 m (9 ft). The Guerrero Salon can seat 860 spectators, including 512 in the galleries. A secondary hall, the Orestes Caviglia Salon, can seat 150 and is mostly reserved for chamber music concerts. The Luisa Vehíl Salon is a multipurpose room known for its extensive gold leaf decor. *Teatro Gran Rex opened on 8 July 1937 as the largest cinema in South America of its time; it is an Art Deco-style theater. *Avenida Theatre, Teatro Avenida (Avenida Theater) was inaugurated on Buenos Aires' central Avenida de Mayo in 1908 with a production of Spanish literature, Spanish dramatist Lope de Vega's ''Justice Without Revenge''. The production was directed by María Guerrero, a Spanish Argentine theater director who popularized classical drama in Argentina during the late 19th century and would establish the important Cervantes Theater (Teatro Nacional Cervantes) in 1921.


LGBT tourism

Buenos Aires has become a recipient of LGBT tourism, due to the existence of some gay-friendly sites and the LGBT_rights_in_Argentina#Same-sex_marriage_legalization, legalization of same-sex marriage on 15 July 2010, making it the first country in
Latin America Latin America is the portion of the Americas comprising countries and regions where Romance languages—languages that derived from Latin—such as Spanish language in the Americas, Spanish, American Portuguese, Portuguese, and French language, Fr ...

Latin America
, the second in the
Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North North is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions. It is the opposite of south and is perpendicular to East and West. ''North'' ...

Americas
, and the tenth in the world to do so. Its ''Gender Identity Law'', passed in 2012, made Argentina the "only country that allows people to change their gender identities without facing barriers such as Hormone replacement therapy (transgender), hormone therapy, Sex reassignment surgery, surgery or psychiatric diagnosis that labels them as having an abnormality". In 2015, the World Health Organization cited Argentina as an exemplary country for providing transgender rights. Despite these legal advances, however, homophobia continues to be a hotly contested social issue in the city and the country.


Hotels

Buenos Aires has various types of accommodation ranging from luxurious five star hotels in the city center to budget hotels located in suburban neighborhoods. Nonetheless, the city's transportation system allows easy and inexpensive access to the city. There were, , 23 five-star, 61 four-star, 59 three-star and 87 two or one-star hotels, as well as 25 boutique hotels and 39 apart-hotels; another 298 hostels, bed & breakfasts, vacation rentals and other non-hotel establishments were registered in the city. In all, nearly 27,000 rooms were available for tourism in Buenos Aires, of which about 12,000 belonged to four-star, five-star, or boutique hotels. Establishments of a higher category typically enjoy the city's highest occupation rates. The majority of the hotels are located in the central part of the city, in close proximity to most main tourist attractions.


Landmarks

*Buenos Aires Cabildo, Cabildo was used as the seat of government during the Spanish colonization of the Americas, colonial times of the Viceroyalty of the River Plate. The original building was finished in 1610 but was soon found to be too small and had to be expanded. Over the years many changes have been made. In 1940, the architect Mario Buschiazzo reconstructed the colonial features of the Cabildo using various original documents. *Kavanagh building is located at 1065 Florida Street, Florida St. in the barrios of Buenos Aires, barrio of Retiro, Buenos Aires, Retiro, overlooking Plaza San Martín (Buenos Aires), Plaza San Martín. It was constructed in the 1930s in the Rationalist style, by the architects Gregorio Sánchez, Ernesto Lagos and Luis María de la Torre and was finished in 1936. The building's features include austere lines, lack of external ornamentation, and large prismatic volumes. It was declared a List of National Historic Monuments of Argentina, national historical monument in 1999, and is one of the most impressive architectural masterpieces of Buenos Aires. Standing at a height of 120 m, it still retains its impact against the modern skyline of the city. In 1939 its façade received an award from the American Institute of Architects. *Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral, Metropolitan Cathedral is the main Catholic church in Buenos Aires. Overlooking the Plaza de Mayo of the city center, it is located on the corner of San Martín and Rivadavia streets in the neighborhood of San Nicolás, Buenos Aires, San Nicolás. It is the mother church of the Archdiocese of Buenos Aires. *National Library of the Argentine Republic, National Library is the largest library in Argentina and one of the most important in the
Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North North is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions. It is the opposite of south and is perpendicular to East and West. ''North'' ...

Americas
. *Obelisk of Buenos Aires, The Obelisk was built in May 1936 to commemorate the 400th anniversary of the first founding of the city. It is located in the center of the ''Plaza de la República (Buenos Aires), Plaza de la República'' (Republic Square), the spot where the Flag of Argentina, Argentine flag was flown for the first time in Buenos Aires, at the intersection of 9 de Julio Avenue, Nueve de Julio and Corrientes avenues. Its total height is and its base area is . It was designed by architect Alberto Prebisch, and its construction took barely four weeks. *Palacio de Aguas Corrientes (perhaps the world's most ornate water pumping station) File:Buenos Aires - Las Nereidas.jpg, ''Las Nereidas'' font by Lola Mora File:Kavanagh building.jpg, Kavanagh building File:Buenos Aires - Recoleta - Entrada Cementerio.jpg, La Recoleta Cemetery File:Aguas Corrientes-2011-TM.jpg, Palacio de Aguas Corrientes


Transport


Airports

The Ministro Pistarini International Airport, commonly known as ''Ezeiza Airport'', is located in the suburb of Ezeiza Partido, Ezeiza, in Buenos Aires Province, approximately 22 km south of the city. This airport handles most international air traffic to and from Argentina as well as some domestic flights. The Aeroparque Jorge Newbery airport, located in the Palermo district of the city next to the riverbank, is the only within the city limits and serves primarily domestic traffic within Argentina and some regional flights to neighboring South American countries. Other minor airports near the city are El Palomar Airport, which is located 18 km west of the city and handles some scheduled domestic flights to a number of destinations in Argentina, and the smaller San Fernando Airport (Argentina), San Fernando Airport which serves only general aviation.


Local roads and personal transport

Buenos Aires is based on a square, rectangular grid plan, grid pattern, save for natural barriers or the relatively rare developments explicitly designed otherwise (most notably, the Parque Chas neighborhood). The rectangular grid provides for -long square (geometry), square blocks named ''manzanas'' . Pedestrian zones in the central business district such as Florida Street are partially Pedestrian zone, car-free and always bustling, access provided by bus and the Line C (Buenos Aires Underground), Underground (subte) Line C. Buenos Aires, for the most part, is a very walkable city and the majority of residents in Buenos Aires use public transport. Two diagonal Avenue Road, avenues alleviate traffic and provide better access to
Plaza de Mayo The Plaza de Mayo (; en, May Square) is a city square and main foundational site of Buenos Aires, Argentina. It was formed in 1884 after the demolition of the Recova building, unifying the city's Plaza Mayor, Buenos Aires, Plaza Mayor and Plaza ...

Plaza de Mayo
and the city center in general; most avenues running into and out of it are one-way and feature six or more lanes, with computer-controlled green waves to speed up traffic outside of peak times. The city's principal avenues include the -wide July 9 Avenue, the over -long Rivadavia Avenue, and Corrientes Avenue, the main thoroughfare of culture and entertainment. In the 1940s and 1950s, the construction of the General Paz Avenue beltway that surrounds the city along its border with
Buenos Aires Province Buenos Aires (), officially the Buenos Aires Province (''Provincia de Buenos Aires'' ), is the largest and most populous Provinces of Argentina, Argentine province. It takes its name from the city of Buenos Aires, the capital of the country, whic ...

Buenos Aires Province
, and the freeways leading to the new Ministro Pistarini International Airport, international airport and to the northern suburbs, heralded a new era for Buenos Aires traffic. Encouraged by pro-automaker policies that were pursued towards the end of the Perón (1955) and Arturo Frondizi, Frondizi administrations (1958–62) in particular, auto sales nationally grew from an average of 30,000 during the 1920–57 era to around 250,000 in the 1970s and over 600,000 in 2008. Today, over 1.8 million vehicles (nearly one-fifth of Argentina's total) are registered in Buenos Aires. Toll motorways opened in the late 1970s by mayor
Osvaldo Cacciatore Osvaldo Cacciatore (1924–2007) was an Argentine Air Force brigadier and Mayor of Buenos Aires during the National Reorganization Process military dictatorship. Early life Osvaldo Andrés Cacciatore was born in Buenos Aires in 1924. He enrolled a ...
, now used by over a million vehicles daily, provide convenient access to the city center. Cacciatore likewise had financial district streets (roughly in area) closed to private cars during daytime. Most major avenues are, however, gridlocked at peak hours. Following the Economic history of Argentina, economic mini-boom of the 1990s, record numbers started commuting by car and congestion increased, as did the time-honored Culture of Argentina, Argentine custom of taking weekends off in the countryside.


Local public transport


Commuter rail

The Buenos Aires commuter rail system has seven lines: *Belgrano Norte Line *Belgrano Sur Line *Roca Line *San Martín Line *Sarmiento Line *Mitre Line *Urquiza Line The Rail transport in Argentina#Commuter networks, Buenos Aires commuter network system is very extensive: every day more than 1.3 million people commuting, commute to the Argentine capital. These suburban trains operate between 4 am and 1 am. The Buenos Aires commuter rail network also connects the city with long-distance rail services to Rosario, Santa Fe, Rosario and Córdoba, among other metropolitan areas. The city center is home to four principal Rail terminal, terminals for both long distance and Commuter rail, local passenger services: Constitución railway station, Constitucion, Retiro railway station, Retiro, Federico Lacroze railway station, Federico Lacroze and Once railway station, Once. In addition, Buenos Aires Belgrano Sur Line railway station, Buenos Aires station serves as a minor terminus. Commuter rail in the city is mostly operated by the state-owned Trenes Argentinos, though the Urquiza Line and Belgrano Norte Line are operated by private companies Metrovías and Ferrovías respectively. All services had been operated by Ferrocarriles Argentinos until the company's Railway privatisation in Argentina, privatization in 1993, and were then operated by a series of private companies until the lines were put back under state control following a series of high-profile accidents. Since 2013, there has been a series of large investments on the network, with all lines (with the exception of the Urquiza Line) receiving new rolling stock, along with widespread infrastructure improvements, track replacement, electrification work, refurbishments of stations and building entirely new stations. Similarly, almost all level crossings have been replaced by underpasses and overpasses in the city, with plans to replace all of them in the near future. One of the most major projects under way is the electrification of the remaining segments of the Roca Line – the most widely used in the network – and also moving the entire section of the Sarmiento Line which runs through the heart of the city's underground to allow for better frequencies on the line and reduce congestion above ground. There are also three other major projects on the table. The first would elevate a large segment of the San Martín Line which runs through the city center and electrify the line, while the second would see the electrification and extension of the Belgrano Sur Line to Constitución railway station, Constitucion station in the city center. If these two projects are completed, then the Belgrano Norte Line would be the only diesel line to run through the city. The third and most ambitious is to build a series of tunnels between three of the city's railway terminals with a large underground central station underneath the Obelisco de Buenos Aires, Obelisk, connecting all the commuter railway lines in a network dubbed the Red de Expresos Regionales.


Cycling

In December 2010, the city government launched a Bicycle sharing system, bicycle sharing program with bicycles free for hire by users upon registration. Located in mostly central areas, there are 31 rental stations throughout the city providing over 850 bicycles to be picked up and dropped off at any station within an hour. , the city has constructed of Segregated cycle facilities, protected bicycle lanes and has plans to construct another . In 2015, the stations were automated and the service became 24 hours through use of a smart card or mobile phone application.


Underground

The Buenos Aires Underground (locally known as ''subte'', from ''"subterráneo"'' meaning underground or subway), is a high-yield system providing access to various parts of the city. Opened in 1913, it is the oldest Rapid transit, underground system in the Southern Hemisphere and oldest in the Spanish-speaking world. The system has six underground lines and one overground line, named by letters (A to E, and H) and there are List of Buenos Aires Underground stations, 100 stations, and of route, including the Premetro (Buenos Aires), Premetro line. An expansion program is underway to extend existing Rail transport, lines into the outer neighborhoods and add a new north-south line. Route length is expected to reach by 2011. Line A (Buenos Aires Underground), Line A is the oldest one (service opened to public in 1913) and stations kept the "belle-époque" decoration, while the original rolling stock from 1913, affectionately known as ''La Brugeoise cars (Buenos Aires Underground), Las Brujas'' were retired from the line in 2013. Daily ridership on weekdays is 1.7 million and on the increase. Fares remain relatively cheap, although the city government raised fares by over 125% in January 2012. A single journey, with unlimited interchanges between lines, costs AR$19, which is roughly US$0.28 as of May 2020. The most recent expansions to the network were the addition of numerous stations to the network in 2013: San José de Flores (Buenos Aires Underground), San José de Flores and San Pedrito (Buenos Aires Underground), San Pedrito to Line A (Buenos Aires Underground), Line A, Echeverría (Buenos Aires Underground), Echeverría and Juan Manuel de Rosas (Buenos Aires Underground), Juan Manuel de Rosas to Line B (Buenos Aires Underground), Line B and Hospitales (Buenos Aires Underground), Hospitales to Line H (Buenos Aires Underground), Line H. Current works include the completion of Line H northwards and addition of three new stations to Line E (Buenos Aires Underground), Line E in the city center. The construction of Line F (Buenos Aires Underground), Line F is due to commence in 2015, while two other lines are planned for construction in the future.


Tramways

Buenos Aires had an extensive Tram, street railway (tram) system with over of track, which was dismantled during the 1960s after the advent of bus transportation, but surface rail transport has made a small comeback in some parts of the city. The PreMetro E2 (Buenos Aires), PreMetro or Line E2 is a light rail line that connects with Line E (Buenos Aires Underground), Underground Line E at Plaza de los Virreyes station and runs to General Savio and Centro Cívico. It is operated by Metrovías. The official inauguration took place on 27 August 1987. A -long modern tramway, the Tranvía del Este, opened in 2007 in the Puerto Madero district, using two tramcars on temporary loan. However, plans to extend the line and acquire a fleet of trams did not come to fruition, and declining patronage (transport), patronage led to the line's closure in October 2012.''Tramways & Urban Transit'', January 2013, p. 29. UK: LRTA Publishing. A heritage streetcar maintained by tram fans operates on weekends, near the Primera Junta (Buenos Aires Underground), Primera Junta line A Underground station in the neighborhood of Caballito, Buenos Aires, Caballito.


Buses

There are over 150 city bus lines called ''Colectivos'', each one managed by an individual company. These compete with each other, and attract exceptionally high use with virtually no public financial support. Their frequency makes them equal to the underground systems of other cities, but buses cover a far wider area than the underground system. Colectivos in Buenos Aires do not have a fixed timetable, but run from four to several per hour, depending on the bus line and time of the day. With inexpensive tickets and extensive routes, usually no further than four blocks from commuters' residences, the colectivo is the most popular mode of transport around the city. Buenos Aires has recently opened a bus rapid transit system, the Metrobus (Buenos Aires), Metrobus. The system uses modular median stations that serve both directions of travel, which enable pre-paid, multiple-door, level boarding. The first line, opened on 31 May 2011, runs across the Juan B. Justo Ave has 21 stations. The system now has 4 lines with 113 stations on its network, while numerous other lines are under construction and planned.


Taxis

A fleet of 40,000 black-and-yellow taxis ply the :Streets in Buenos Aires, streets at all hours. License controls are not enforced rigorously. There have been reports of organized crime controlling the access of taxis to the city airports and other major destinations. Taxi drivers are known for trying to take advantage of tourists. Radio-link companies provide reliable and safe service; many such companies provide incentives for frequent users. Low-fare limo services, known as ''remises'', have become popular in recent years.


Ferries

Buenos Aires is also served by a ferry, ferry system operated by the company Buquebus that connects the port of Buenos Aires with the main cities of Uruguay, (Colonia del Sacramento, Montevideo and Punta del Este). More than 2.2 million people per year travel between Argentina and Uruguay with Buquebus. One of these ships is a catamaran, which can reach a top speed of about .


Public Transportation statistics

According to data released by Moovit in July 2017, the average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Buenos Aires, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 79 min. 23% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 14 min, while 20 percent of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 8.9 km, while 21% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.


Security

The ''Guardia Urbana de Buenos Aires'' (Buenos Aires Urban Guard) was a specialized civilian force of the city of Buenos Aires,
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of . Sharing the bulk of the with to the west, the country is also bordered by and to the north, to the ...

Argentina
, that used to deal with different urban conflicts with the objective of developing actions of prevention, dissuasion and mediation, promoting effective behaviors that guarantee the security and the integrity of public order and social coexistence. The unit continuously assisted the personnel of the Policía Federal Argentina, Argentine Federal Police, especially in emergency situations, events of massive concurrence, and protection of tourist attraction, tourist establishments. Urban Guard officials did not carry any weapons in the performing of their duties. Their basic tools were a HT radio transmitter and a whistle. , the Guardia Urbana was removed. The Buenos Aires Metropolitan Police was the police force under the authority of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. The force was created in 2010 and was composed of 1,850 officers. In 2016, the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Police and part of the Argentine Federal Police were merged to create the new Buenos Aires City Police force. The Buenos Aires City Police force began operations on 1 January 2017. Security in the city is now the responsibility of the Buenos Aires City Police. The police is headed by the Chief of Police who is appointed by the head of the executive branch of the city of Buenos Aires. There are four major departments: * Public Security * Investigations and Research * Scientific and Technical * Administration Geographically, the force is divided into 56 stations throughout the city. All police station employees are civilians. The Buenos Aires City Police force is composed of over 25,000 officers.


Sports


Basketball

In 1912, the practice of basketball in Argentina was started by the ''Asociación Cristiana de Jóvenes (YMCA)'' of Buenos Aires, when Canadian Professor Paul Phillip was in charge of teaching basketball at the YMCA of Paseo Colón Avenue. The first basketball clubs in Argentina, Hindú Club, Hindú and Club Atlético Independiente, Independiente, were located at the YMCAs of the
Greater Buenos Aires Greater Buenos Aires ( es, Gran Buenos Aires, GBA), also known as the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area ( es, Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires, AMBA), refers to the urban agglomeration comprising the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires Buenos Ai ...
metropolitan area. By 1912 the first basketball games were held by YMCA headquarters in Buenos Aires. Nowadays, the Argentine Basketball Confederation is headquartered in Buenos Aires.


Boxing

Argentina has been the home of world champions in professional boxing. Carlos Monzon was a hall of fame World Middleweight champion, and the current undisputed linear Middleweight champion Sergio Martínez (boxer), Sergio Martinez hails from Argentina. Omar Narváez (boxer), Omar Narvaez, Lucas Matthysse, Carolina Duer, and Marcos Maidana are five modern-day world champions as well.


Horse racing

Argentines' love for horses can be experienced in several ways: horse racing at the ''Hipódromo Argentino de Palermo'' race track, racetrack, polo in the ''Campo Argentino de Polo'' (located just across Libertador Avenue from the ''Hipódromo''), and pato, a kind of basketball played on horseback that was declared the national game in 1953. Polo was brought to the country in the second half of the 19th century by English immigrants.


Rugby

The first rugby union match in Argentina was played in 1873 in the Buenos Aires Cricket Club Ground, located in the neighborhood of Palermo, Buenos Aires, Palermo, where the Galileo Galilei planetarium is located today. Rugby enjoys widespread popularity in Buenos Aires, most especially in the north of the city, which boasts more than eighty rugby clubs. The city is home to the Argentine Super Rugby franchise, the Jaguares (Super Rugby), Jaguares. The Argentina national rugby union team competes in Buenos Aires in international matches such as the The Rugby Championship, Rugby Championship.


Soccer

Soccer is a popular pastime among many of the city's citizens, as Buenos Aires, featuring no fewer than 24 professional teams, has the highest concentration of teams of any city in the world.50 sporting things you must do before you die
, ''The Observer''Royal Madrid, 4 April 2004
with many of its teams playing in the major league. The Superclásico, best-known rivalry is the one between Boca Juniors and Club Atlético River Plate, River Plate, the match is better known as Superclásico. Watching a match between these two teams was deemed one of the "50 sporting things you must do before you die" by ''The Observer''. Other major clubs include Club Atlético San Lorenzo de Almagro, San Lorenzo de Almagro, Club Atlético Huracán, Club Atlético Vélez Sarsfield, Vélez Sarsfield, Chacarita Juniors, Club Ferro Carril Oeste, Club Atlético Nueva Chicago, Nueva Chicago and Asociación Atlética Argentinos Juniors. Diego Maradona, born in Lanús Partido, a county south of Buenos Aires, is widely hailed as one of the sport's greatest players of all time. Maradona started his career with Argentinos Juniors and went on to play for Boca Juniors, the Argentina national football team, national soccer team and others (most notably FC Barcelona in Spain and S.S.C. Napoli, SSC Napoli in Italy).


Tennis

Buenos Aires native Guillermo Vilas (who was raised in Mar del Plata) and Gabriela Sabatini were great tennis players of the 1970s and 1980s and popularized tennis Nationwide in Argentina. Vilas won the ATP Buenos Aires numerous times in the 1970s. Other popular sports in Buenos Aires are golf, basketball, rugby union, rugby and field hockey.


Events and venues

Buenos Aires has been a candidate city for the Summer Olympic Games on three occasions: for the 1956 Summer Olympics, 1956 Games, which were lost by a single vote to Melbourne; for the 1968 Summer Olympics, held in Mexico City; and in 2004 Summer Olympics, 2004, when the games were awarded to Athens. However, Buenos Aires hosted the first 1951 Pan American Games, Pan American Games (1951) and was also host city to several World Championship events: the 1950 FIBA World Championship, 1950 and 1990 FIBA World Championship, 1990 FIBA World Championship, Basketball World Championships, the 1982 and 2002 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Championship, Men's Volleyball World Championships and, most remembered, the 1978 FIFA World Cup, won by Argentina national football team, Argentina on 25 June 1978, when it defeated the Netherlands national football team, Netherlands at the Estadio Monumental 3–1. In September 2013, the city hosted the 125th IOC Session, 125th IOC Session, Tokyo was elected the host city of the 2020 Summer Olympics and Thomas Bach was new IOC President. Buenos Aires Buenos Aires bid for the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics, bid to host the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics. On 4 July 2013, the IOC elected Buenos Aires as the host city. Buenos Aires hosted the 2006 South American Games too. Juan Manuel Fangio won five List of Formula One World Drivers' Champions, Formula One World Driver's Championships, and was only outstripped by Michael Schumacher and Lewis Hamilton, with seven Championships. The Buenos Aires Autódromo Juan y Oscar Gálvez, Oscar Gálvez car-racing track hosted 20 Formula One events as the Argentine Grand Prix, between 1953 and 1998; it was discontinued on financial grounds. The track features various local categories on most weekends. The 2009 Dakar Rally, 2009, 2010 Dakar Rally, 2010, 2011 Dakar Rally, 2011, 2015 Dakar Rally, 2015 Dakar Rally started and ended in the city.


Notable people

Notable people originally from Buenos Aires: File:Norma Aleandro.jpg, Norma Aleandro, actress, screenwriter, and theater director File:Martha argerich photo.jpg, Martha Argerich, classical concert pianist. File:Foto - Daniel Barenboim en el Colon.jpg, Daniel Barenboim, pianist and conductor File:Jorge Luis Borges.jpg, Jorge Luis Borges, writer File:Fernando Caldeiro.jpg, Fernando Caldeiro, Argentine NASA astronaut File:Di stefano argentina.jpg, Alfredo Di Stéfano, soccer player and coach File:Franciscus in 2015.jpg, Pope Francis File:Gardel.jpg, Carlos Gardel, singer-songwriter, raised in Buenos Aires File:QueenMaximaCaribbeanTour..jpg, Queen Máxima of the Netherlands File:Ricardo-Montaner.jpg, Ricardo Montaner, singer File:Lalo schifrin (cropped) (2).jpg, Lalo Schifrin, musician and composer File:Luis Scola by Brenda Staples Photography.jpg, Luis Scola, basketball player


Honorary citizens

People awarded the honorary citizenship of Buenos Aires are:


International relations


World rankings

Buenos Aires is classified as an Global city, Alpha – World City, according to the Loughborough University group's (GaWC) 2020 ranking. It is ranked 22nd in the 2010 ranking of global cities by the American journal ''Foreign Policy'', in conjunction with consulting firm A.T. Kearney and the Chicago Council on Global Affairs. (See "Global city" for the top 30 in the list.)


Twin towns and sister cities

Buenos Aires is twin towns and sister cities, twinned with the following cities: * Athens, Greece ''(since 1992)'' * Beijing, China ''(since 1993)'' * Belgrade, Serbia ''(since 1990)'' * Berlin, Germany ''(since 19 May 1994)'' * Bilbao, Spain ''(since 1992)'' * Brasília, Brazil ''(since 1986)'' * Cairo, Egypt ''(since 1992)'' * Cádiz, Spain ''(since 1975)'' * Calabria, Italy (region) ''(since 1987)'' * Guadix, Spain ''(since 1987)'' * Kyiv, Ukraine ''(since 1993)'' * Miami, Miami, Florida, United States ''(since 1978)'' * Moscow, Russia ''(since 1990)'' * Naples, Italy ''(since 1990)'' * Osaka, Japan ''(since 1990)'' * Oviedo, Spain ''(since 1983)'' * Prague, Czech Republic ''(since 1992)'' * Rotterdam, Netherlands ''(since 1990)'' * São Paulo, Brazil ''(since 2007)'' * Seoul, South Korea ''(since 1992)'' *
Seville Seville (; es, Sevilla, Castilian Spanish , Andalusian Spanish (with yeísmo) ) is the capital and largest city of the Spain, Spanish autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville. It is situate ...

Seville
, Spain ''(since 1974)'' * Tel Aviv, Israel ''(since 1976)'' * Toulouse, France ''(since 1990)'' * Vigo, Spain ''(since 1992)'' * Warsaw, Poland ''(since 1992)'' * Yerevan, Armenia ''(since 2000)'' * Zagreb, Croatia ''(since 1998)''


Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities

Buenos Aires is part of the Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities from 12 October 1982 establishing brotherly relations with the following cities: * Andorra la Vella, Andorra *
Asunción Asunción (, , ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller l ...

Asunción
, Paraguay * Bogotá, Colombia * Caracas, Venezuela * Guatemala City, Guatemala * Havana, Cuba * La Paz, Bolivia * Lima, Peru * Lisbon, Portugal * Madrid, Spain * Managua, Nicaragua * Mexico City, Mexico *
Montevideo Montevideo () is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Uruguay, largest city of Uruguay. According to the 2011 census, the city proper has a population of 1,319,108 (about one-third of the country's total population) in an area of . ...

Montevideo
, Uruguay * Panama City, Panama * Quito, Ecuador * Rio de Janeiro, Brazil * San Jose (Costa Rica), San José, Costa Rica * San Juan (Puerto Rico), San Juan, Puerto Rico, United States * San Salvador, El Salvador * Santiago, Chile * Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic * Tegucigalpa, Honduras


Partner cities

* Beirut, Lebanon * Budapest, Hungary * Hanoi, Vietnam * Lisbon, Portugal * Lugano, Switzerland * Ottawa, Canada * Paris, France * Rome, Italy * Saint Petersburg, Russia * Santiago de Compostela, Spain


See also

*C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group *Cicerones de Buenos Aires *Largest cities in the Americas *List of mayors and chiefs of government of Buenos Aires *List of twin towns and sister cities in Argentina#Buenos Aires, List of twin towns and sister cities of Buenos Aires *OPENCities *Outline of Argentina


Notes


References


Citations


Sources

* Patricia Moglia, Fabián Sislián and Mónica Alabart, ''Pensar la historia Argentina desde una historia de América Latina'', Buenos Aires:Plus Ultra * * * * *


Further reading

* Adelman, Jeremy. ''Republic of capital: Buenos Aires and the legal transformation of the Atlantic world'' (Stanford University Press, 1999) * Baily, Samuel L. "The Adjustment of Italian Immigrants in Buenos Aires and New York, 1870–1914." ''American Historical Review'' (1983): 281–305
in JSTOR
* Bao, Sandra, and Bridget Gleeson. ''Lonely Planet Buenos Aires'' (Travel Guide) (2011) * Benson, Andrew. ''The Rough Guide to Buenos Aires'' (2011) * ''Buenos Aires Travel Guide 2014: Essential Tourist Information, Maps & Photos'' (2014) * Emerson, Charles. ''1913: In Search of the World Before the Great War'' (2013) compares Buenos Aires to 20 major world cities; pp 252–66. * Keeling, David J. ''Buenos Aires: Global dreams, local crises'' (Wiley, 1996) * Moya, Jose C. ''Cousins and strangers: Spanish immigrants in Buenos Aires, 1850–1930'' (University of California Press, 1998) * Mulhall, Michael George, and Edward T. Mulhall. ''Handbook of the River Plate: Comprising Buenos Ayres, the Upper Provinces, Banda Oriental, Paraguay'' (2 vol. 1869
online
* Scobie, James R. ''Buenos Aires: plaza to suburb, 1870–1910'' (Oxford University Press, 1974) * Socolow, Susan Migden. ''The Merchants of Buenos Aires, 1778–1810: Family and Commerce'' (Cambridge University Press, 1978) * Sofer, Eugene F. ''From Pale to Pampa: A social history of the Jews of Buenos Aires'' (Holmes & Meier, 1982)


External links


Official government website

OPENCities Monitor participant

Population estimates''Encyclopædia Britannica''
2009-10-31) * {{Authority control Buenos Aires, Articles containing video clips Autonomous cities Capital districts and territories Capitals in South America Populated places established in 1580 Port settlements in Argentina Provinces of Argentina