A Buddhist temple or Buddhist monastery
, is the place of worship
, the followers of Buddhism
. They include the structures called vihara
in different regions and languages. Temples in Buddhism represent the pure land
or pure environment of a Buddha
. Traditional Buddhist temples are designed to inspire inner and outer peace.
Its architecture and structure varies from region to region. Usually, the temple consists not only of its buildings, but also the surrounding environment. The Buddhist temples are designed to symbolize five elements: fire, air, earth, water and wisdom
The design of temples in India was influenced by the idea of a place of worship as a representation of the universe. For Buddhist temple complexes one tall temple is often centrally located and surrounded by smaller temples and walls. This center surrounded by oceans, lesser mountains and a huge wall.
, Chaitya hall or Chaitya-griha refers to a shrine, sanctuary, temple or prayer hall in Indian religions
. The term is most common in Buddhism
, where it refers to a space with a stupa
and a rounded apse
at the end opposite the entrance, and a high roof with a rounded profile. Strictly speaking, the chaitya is the stupa itself, and the Indian buildings are chaitya halls, but this distinction is often not observed. Many of the early Chaitya were rock-cut
, as in Karla caves
Some of the earliest free-standing temples may have been of a circular type. Ashoka
also built the Mahabodhi Temple
in Bodh Gaya
circa 250 BCE, a circular structure, in order to protect the Bodhi tree
under which the Buddha
had found enlightenment. The Bairat Temple
is also a round structure, which can be seen through archaeological remains. Representations of this early temple structure are found on a 100 BCE relief
sculpted on the railing of the stupa at Bhārhut
, as well as in Sanchi
. From that period the Diamond throne
remains, an almost intact slab of sandstone
decorated with reliefs, which Ashoka had established at the foot of the Bodhi tree
[Buddhist Architecture, Huu Phuoc Le, Grafikol, 201]
[A Global History of Architecture, Francis D. K. Ching, Mark M. Jarzombek, Vikramaditya Prakash, John Wiley & Sons, 201]
/ref> These circular-type temples were also found in later rock-hewn caves such as Tulja Caves or Guntupalli.
[Buddhist Architecture, Huu Phuoc Le, Grafikol, 201]
File:Adoration_of_the_Diamond_Throne_and_the_Bodhi_Tree_Bharhut_relief.jpg|Ashoka's Mahabodhi Temple and Diamond throne in Bodh Gaya, built circa 250 BCE. Bharhut frieze.
File:Bodhi tree temple depicted in Sanchi Stupa 1 Southern gateway.jpg|Bodhi tree temple depicted in Sanchi, Stupa 1, Southern gateway.
File:Andhra pradesh, santuario a più piani, da ghantasala, 90-110 ca..JPG|Relief of a multi-storied temple, 2nd century CE, Ghantasala Stupa.
File:Tulja Lena Chaitya remains.jpg|Remains of the circular rock-hewn circular Chaitya with columns, Tulja Caves.
Buddhism is the second oldest religion in Indonesia after Hinduism, which arrived from India around the second century.
The history of Buddhism in Indonesia is closely related to the history of Hinduism, as a number of empires influenced by Indian culture were established around the same period. The oldest Buddhist archaeological site in Indonesia is arguably the Batujaya stupas complex in Karawang, West Java. The oldest relic in Batujaya was estimated to originate from the 2nd century, while the latest dated from the 12th century. Subsequently, significant numbers of Buddhist sites were found in Jambi, Palembang and Riau provinces in Sumatra, as well as in Central and East Java. The Indonesian archipelago has, over the centuries, witnessed the rise and fall of powerful Buddhist empires, such as the Sailendra dynasty, the Mataram and Srivijaya empires.
According to some Chinese source, a Chinese Buddhist monk I-tsing on his pilgrim journey to India, witnessed the powerful maritime empire of Srivijaya based on Sumatra in the 7th century. A number of Buddhist historical heritages can be found in Indonesia, including the 8th century Borobudur mandala monument and Sewu temple in Central Java, Batujaya in West Java, Muaro Jambi, Muara Takus and Bahal temple in Sumatra, and numerous of statues or inscriptions from the earlier history of Indonesian Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms.
During the era of Kediri, Singhasari and Majapahit empire, buddhism — identified as ''Dharma ri Kasogatan'' — was acknowledged as one of kingdom's official religions along with Hinduism. Although some of kings might favour Hinduism over another, nevertheless the harmony, toleration and even syncretism were promoted as manifested in Bhinneka Tunggal Ika national motto, coined from Kakawin Sutasoma, written by Mpu Tantular to promotes tolerance between Hindus (Shivaites) and Buddhists. The classical era of ancient Java also had produces some of the exquisite examples of Buddhist arts, such as the statue of Prajnaparamita and the statue of Buddha Vairochana and Boddhisttva Padmapani and Vajrapani in Mendut temple.
In contemporary Indonesian Buddhist perspective, ''Candi'' refers to a shrine, either ancient or new. Several contemporary ''viharas'' in Indonesia for example, contain the actual-size replica or reconstruction of famous Buddhist temples, such as the replica of Pawon and Plaosan's ''perwara'' (small) temples. In Buddhism, the role of a ''candi'' as a shrine is sometimes interchangeable with a stupa, a domed structure to store Buddhist relics or the ashes of cremated Buddhist priests, patrons or benefactors.
Japanese Buddhist temples typically include a Main Hall.
A distinctive feature is the chinjusha, a Shinto shrine devoted to the temple's kami. Buddhism co-existed with shintoism, but in the 8th century Buddhism became the state religion and Buddhist temples were built.
*Sri Maha Bodhi
*List of Buddhist temples
*Aniconism in Buddhism