EtymologyThe most common theory of the origin of the name ''Brussels'' is that it derives from the , or , meaning "marsh" ( / ) and "home" ( / / ) or "home in the marsh". Saint Vindicianus, the Bishop of , made the first recorded reference to the place in 695, when it was still a . The names of all the municipalities in the are also of origin, except for , which is .
PronunciationIn , is pronounced (the ''x'' is pronounced , like in , and the final ''s'' is silent) and in Dutch, is pronounced . Inhabitants of Brussels are known in French as (pronounced ) and in Dutch as (pronounced ). In the of Brussels (known as ''Brussels'', and also sometimes called ),Jeanine Treffers-Daller, ''Mixing Two Languages: French-Dutch Contact in a Comparative Perspective'' (Walter de Gruyter, 1994), 25. they are called ''Brusseleers'' or ''Brusseleirs''. Originally, the written ''x'' noted the group . In the pronunciation as well as in Dutch, the ''k'' eventually disappeared and ''z'' became ''s'', as reflected in the current Dutch spelling, whereas in the more conservative French form, the spelling remained. The pronunciation in French only dates from the 18th century, but this modification did not affect the traditional Brussels usage. In , the pronunciations and (for ) are often heard, but are rather rare in Belgium.Alain Lerond, ''Dictionnaire de la prononciation'' (1980), Larousse, pp. 477.
Early historyThe history of Brussels is closely linked to that of . Traces of human settlement go back to the , with vestiges and place-names related to the civilisation of s, s and (''Plattesteen'' in the and ''Tomberg'' in , for example). During , the region was home to occupation, as attested by archaeological evidence discovered on the current site of Tour & Taxis. Following the decline of the , it was incorporated into the . The origin of the settlement which was to become Brussels lies in ' construction of a chapel on an island in the river around 580. The official founding of Brussels is usually situated around 979, when Duke Charles of Lower Lotharingia transferred the relics of Saint from (located in today's province of ) to Saint Gaugericus' chapel. Charles would construct the first permanent fortification in the city, doing so on that same island.
Middle Ages, Count of Leuven, gained the County of Brussels around 1000, by marrying Charles' daughter. Because of its location on the shores of the Senne, on an important trade route between and , and , Brussels became a commercial centre specialised in the textile trade. The town grew quite rapidly and extended towards the upper town (''Treurenberg'', '' '' and ''Sablon''/''Zavel'' areas), where there was a smaller risk of floods. As it grew to a population of around 30,000, the surrounding marshes were drained to allow for further expansion. Around this time, work began on what is now the Cathedral of St. Michael and St. Gudula (1225), replacing an older church. In 1183, the Counts of Leuven became . Brabant, unlike the county of Flanders, was not fief of the king of France but was incorporated into the . In the early 13th century, the first were built, and after this, the city grew significantly. To let the city expand, a second set of walls was erected between 1356 and 1383. Traces of these walls can still be seen, although the '' small ring'', a series of roadways bounding the historic city centre, follows their former course.
Early modernIn the 15th century, the marriage between heiress and , , produced a new Duke of Brabant of the (namely , their son). In 1477, the Burgundian duke perished in the . Through the marriage of his daughter (who was born in Brussels) to Holy Roman Emperor , the fell under sovereignty. Brabant was integrated into this composite state, and Brussels flourished as the Princely Capital of the prosperous , also known as the . After the death of Mary in 1482, her son succeeded as Duke of Burgundy and Brabant. Philip died in 1506, and he was succeeded by his son who then also became (crowned in the Cathedral of St. Michael and St. Gudula) and even Holy Roman Emperor at the death of his grandfather in 1519. Charles was now the ruler of a "on which the sun never sets" with Brussels serving as his main capital. It was in that Charles V was declared of age in 1515, and it was there in 1555 that he abdicated all of his possessions and passed the to . This impressive palace, famous all over Europe, had greatly expanded since it had first become the seat of the Dukes of Brabant, but it was destroyed by fire in 1731. In the 17th century, Brussels was a centre for the industry. In 1695, during the , King of France sent troops to bombard Brussels with artillery. Together with the resulting fire, it was the most destructive event in the entire history of Brussels. The was destroyed, along with 4,000 buildings—a third of all the buildings in the city. The reconstruction of Pentagon (Brussels), the city centre, effected during subsequent years, profoundly changed its appearance and left numerous traces still visible today. Following the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, Spanish sovereignty over the Southern Netherlands was transferred to the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg. This event started the era of the Austrian Netherlands. Brussels Siege of Brussels, was captured by France in 1746, during the War of the Austrian Succession, but was handed back to Austria three years later. It remained with Austria until 1795, when the Southern Netherlands were captured and annexed by France, and the city became the capital of the Dyle (department), department of the Dyle. The French rule ended in 1815, with the defeat of Napoleon on the Battle of Waterloo, battlefield of Waterloo, located south of today's Brussels-Capital Region. With the Congress of Vienna, the Southern Netherlands joined the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, under William I of the Netherlands, William I of Orange. The former Dyle department became the province of South Brabant, with Brussels as its capital.
Late modernIn 1830, the Belgian revolution began in Brussels, after a performance of Daniel-Francois-Esprit Auber, Auber's opera ''La Muette de Portici'' at the La Monnaie, Royal Theatre of La Monnaie. The city became the capital and seat of government of the new nation. South Brabant was renamed simply Province of Brabant, Brabant, with Brussels as its administrative centre. On 21 July 1831, Leopold I of Belgium, Leopold I, the first Monarchy of Belgium, King of the Belgians, ascended the throne, undertaking the destruction of the city walls and the construction of many buildings. Following independence, Brussels underwent many more changes. It became a financial centre, thanks to the dozens of companies launched by the ''Société Générale de Belgique''. The Industrial Revolution and the building of the Brussels-Charleroi Canal brought prosperity to the city through commerce and manufacturing. The Free University of Brussels (1834–1969), Free University of Brussels was established in 1834 and Saint-Louis University, Brussels, Saint-Louis University in 1858. In 1835, the History of rail transport in Belgium, first passenger railway built outside England linked the municipality of Sint-Jans-Molenbeek, Molenbeek with Mechelen. During the 19th century, the population of Brussels grew considerably; from about 80,000 to more than 625,000 people for the city and its surroundings. The had become a serious health hazard, and from 1867 to 1871, under the tenure of the mayor of the City of Brussels, city's then-mayor, Jules Anspach, its entire course through the urban area was covering of the Senne, completely covered over. This allowed urban renewal and the construction of modern buildings of ''Georges-Eugène Haussmann, hausmannien'' style along Central Boulevards of Brussels, central boulevards, characteristic of downtown Brussels today. Buildings such as the Brussels Stock Exchange (1873), the Palais de Justice, Brussels, Palace of Justice (1883) and Saint Mary's Royal Church (1885) date from this period. This development continued throughout the reign of Leopold II of Belgium, King Leopold II. The Brussels International Exposition (1897), International Exposition of 1897 contributed to the promotion of the infrastructure. Among other things, the (today's Royal Museum for Central Africa), in the suburb of Tervuren, was connected to the capital by the construction of an Avenue de Tervueren, 11-km long grand alley.
20th centuryDuring the 20th century, the city hosted various fairs and conferences, including the Solvay Conference on Physics and on Chemistry, and three world fairs: the Brussels International 1910, Brussels International Exposition of 1910, the Brussels International Exposition (1935), Brussels International Exposition of 1935 and the 1958 Brussels World's Fair (Expo '58). During World War I, Brussels was an German occupation of Belgium during World War I, occupied city, but German troops did not cause much damage. During World War II, it was again German occupation of Belgium during World War II, occupied by German forces, and spared major damage, before it was liberated by the British Guards Armoured Division on 3 September 1944. The Brussels Airport, in the suburb of Zaventem, dates from the occupation. After the war, Brussels underwent extensive modernisation. The construction of the North–South connection, linking the main railway stations in the city, was completed in 1952, while the first Brussels premetro, ''premetro'' (underground tram) was finished in 1969, and the first line of the Brussels Metro, metro was opened in 1976. Starting from the early 1960s, Brussels became the ''de facto'' capital of what would become the , and many modern offices were built. Development was allowed to proceed with little regard to the aesthetics of newer buildings, and numerous architectural landmarks were demolished to make way for newer buildings that often clashed with their surroundings, giving name to the process of ''Brusselization, Brusselisation''.
ContemporaryThe Brussels-Capital Region was formed on 18 June 1989, after a constitutional reform in 1988. It is one of the three Communities, regions and language areas of Belgium, federal regions of Belgium, along with Flanders and Wallonia, and has bilingual status. The yellow iris is the emblem of the region (referring to the presence of these flowers on the city's original site) and a stylised version is featured on its official flag. In recent years, Brussels has become an important venue for international events. In 2000, it and eight other European cities were named European Capital of Culture. In 2014, the city hosted the 40th G7 summit. 2016 Brussels bombings, On 22 March 2016, three coordinated nail bombings were detonated by Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, ISIL in Brussels—two at Brussels Airport in Zaventem and one at Maalbeek/Maelbeek metro station—resulting in 32 victims and three Suicide bombing, suicide bombers killed, and 330 people were injured. It was the deadliest act of terrorism in Belgium.
Location and topographyBrussels lies in the north-central part of Belgium, about from the Belgian coast and about from Belgium's southern tip. It is located in the heartland of the Brabantian Plateau, about south of (Flanders), and north of Charleroi (Wallonia). Its average elevation is above sea level, varying from a low point in the valley of the almost completely covered , which cuts the Brussels-Capital Region from east to west, up to high points in the Sonian Forest, on its southeastern side. In addition to the Senne, tributary streams such as the Maalbeek and the Woluwe, to the east of the region, account for significant elevation differences. Central Boulevards of Brussels, Brussels' central boulevards are above sea level. Contrary to popular belief, the highest point (at ) is not near the / in Forest, Belgium, Forest, but at the / in the Sonian Forest.
ClimateBrussels experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification, Köppen: ''Cfb'') with warm summers and cool winters. Proximity to coastal areas influences the area's climate by sending marine air masses from the Atlantic Ocean. Nearby wetlands also ensure a maritime temperate climate. On average (based on measurements in the period 1981–2010), there are approximately 135 days of rain per year in the Brussels-Capital Region. Snowfall is infrequent, averaging 24 days per year. The city also often experiences violent thunderstorms in summer months.
Brussels as a capitalDespite its name, the Brussels-Capital Region is not the capital of . Article 194 of the Belgian Constitution establishes that the capital of Belgium is the , the municipality in the region that is the city's core. The City of Brussels is the location of many national institutions. The Royal Palace of Brussels, Royal Palace, where the Monarchy of Belgium, King of the Belgians exercises his prerogatives as head of state, is situated alongside Brussels Park, Brussels' Park (not to be confused with the Royal Castle of Laeken, the official home of the Belgian Royal Family). The Belgian Federal Parliament, Palace of the Nation is located on the opposite side of this park, and is the seat of the Belgian Federal Parliament. The office of the Prime Minister of Belgium, colloquially called ''Law Street 16'' (French: , Dutch: ), is located adjacent to this building. It is also where the Council of Ministers (Belgium), Council of Ministers holds its meetings. The Court of Cassation (Belgium), Court of Cassation, Belgium's main court, has its seat in the Palace of Justice (Brussels), Palace of Justice. Other important institutions in the City of Brussels are the Constitutional Court of Belgium, Constitutional Court, the Council of State (Belgium), Council of State, the Court of Audit of Belgium, Court of Audit, the Royal Belgian Mint and the National Bank of Belgium. The City of Brussels is also the capital of both the and the . The Flemish Parliament and Flemish Government have their seats in Brussels, and so do the Parliament of the French Community and the Government of the French Community.
MunicipalitiesThe 19 Municipalities of Belgium, municipalities (French: , Dutch: ) of the Brussels-Capital Communities, regions and language areas of Belgium#Regions, Region are political subdivisions with individual responsibilities for the handling of local level duties, such as law enforcement and the upkeep of schools and roads within its borders. Municipal administration is also conducted by a mayor, a council, and an executive. In 1831, Belgium was divided into 2,739 municipalities, including the 19 in the Brussels-Capital Region. Unlike most of the municipalities in Belgium, the ones located in the Brussels-Capital Region were not merged with others during mergers occurring in 1964, 1970, and 1975. However, several municipalities outside the Brussels-Capital Region have been merged with the throughout its history, including Laeken, Haren, Belgium, Haren and Neder-Over-Heembeek in 1921. The largest municipality in area and population is the City of Brussels, covering and with 145,917 inhabitants; the least populous is Koekelberg with 18,541 inhabitants. The smallest in area is Saint-Josse-ten-Noode, which is only , but still has the highest population density in the region, with . Watermael-Boitsfort has the lowest population density in the region, with . There is much controversy on the division of 19 municipalities for a highly urbanised region, which is considered as (half of) one city by most people. Some politicians mock the "19 baronies" and want to merge the municipalities under one city council and one mayor. That would lower the number of politicians needed to govern Brussels, and centralise the power over the city to make decisions easier, thus reduce the overall running costs. The current municipalities could be transformed into districts with limited responsibilities, similar to the current structure of or to structures of other capitals like the London boroughs, boroughs in London or ''Arrondissements of Paris, arrondissements'' in Paris, to keep politics close enough to the citizen. In early 2016, Molenbeek-Saint-Jean held a reputation as a safe haven for jihadists in relation to the support shown by some residents towards the bombers who carried out the 2013 Paris attacks, Paris and 2016 Brussels bombings, Brussels attacks.
Political statusThe Brussels-Capital Region is one of the three federated regions of Belgium, alongside the and the . Geographically and linguistically, it is a bilingual in the monolingual Flemish Region. Regions are one component of Belgium's institutions; the three communities being the other component. Brussels' inhabitants deal with either the French Community of Belgium, French Community or the for matters such as culture and education, as well as a Common Community Commission, Common Community for competencies which do not belong exclusively to either Community, such as healthcare and social welfare. Since the split of Brabant (province), Brabant in 1995, the Brussels Region does not belong to any of the provinces of Belgium, nor is it subdivided into provinces itself. Within the Region, 99% of the areas of provincial jurisdiction are assumed by the Brussels regional institutions and community commissions. Remaining is only the governor of Brussels-Capital and some aides, analogously to provinces. Its status is roughly akin to that of a federal district.
InstitutionsThe Brussels-Capital Region is governed by a Parliament of the Brussels-Capital Region, parliament of 89 members (72 French-speaking, 17 Dutch-speaking—parties are organised on a linguistic basis) and an eight-member regional cabinet consisting of a Minister-President of the Brussels-Capital Region, minister-president, four ministers and three Secretary of state, state secretaries. By law, the cabinet must comprise two French-speaking and two Dutch-speaking ministers, one Dutch-speaking secretary of state and two French-speaking secretaries of state. The minister-president does not count against the language quota, but in practice every minister-president has been a bilingual francophone. The regional parliament can enact Ordinance (Belgium), ordinances (French: , Dutch: ), which have equal status as a national legislative act. 19 of the 72 French-speaking members of the Brussels Parliament are also members of the Parliament of the French Community of Belgium, and, until 2004, this was also the case for six Dutch-speaking members, who were at the same time members of the Flemish Parliament. Now, people voting for a Flemish party have to vote separately for 6 directly elected members of the Flemish Parliament.
Agglomeration of BrusselsBefore the creation of the Brussels-Capital Region, regional competences in the 19 municipalities were performed by the Brussels Agglomeration. The Brussels Agglomeration was an administrative division established in 1971. This decentralised administrative public body also assumed jurisdiction over areas which, elsewhere in Belgium, were exercised by municipalities or provinces. The Brussels Agglomeration had a separate legislative council, but the by-laws enacted by it did not have the status of a legislative act. The only election of the council took place on 21 November 1971. The working of the council was subject to many difficulties caused by the linguistic and socio-economic tensions between the two communities. After the creation of the Brussels-Capital Region, the Brussels Agglomeration was never formally abolished, although it no longer has a purpose.
French and Flemish communitiesThe French Community of Belgium, French Community and the exercise their powers in Brussels through two community-specific public authorities: the French Community Commission (French: or COCOF) and the Flemish Community Commission (Dutch: or VGC). These two bodies each have an assembly composed of the members of each linguistic group of the Parliament of the Brussels-Capital Region. They also have a board composed of the ministers and secretaries of state of each linguistic group in the Government of the Brussels-Capital Region. The French Community Commission has also another capacity: some legislative powers of the French Community have been devolved to the Walloon Region (for the French language area of Belgium) and to the French Community Commission (for the bilingual language area). The Flemish Community, however, did the opposite; it merged the Flemish Region into the Flemish Community. This is related to different conceptions in the two communities, one focusing more on the Communities and the other more on the Regions, causing an asymmetrical federalism. Because of this devolution, the French Community Commission can enact decrees, which are legislative acts.
Common Community CommissionA bi-communitarian public authority, the Common Community Commission (French: , COCOM, Dutch: , GGC) also exists. Its assembly is composed of the members of the regional parliament, and its board are the ministers—not the secretaries of state—of the region, with the minister-president not having the right to vote. This commission has two capacities: it is a decentralised administrative public body, responsible for implementing cultural policies of common interest. It can give subsidies and enact by-laws. In another capacity, it can also enact ordinances, which have equal status as a national legislative act, in the field of the welfare powers of the communities: in the Brussels-Capital Region, both the French Community and the Flemish Community can exercise powers in the field of welfare, but only in regard to institutions that are unilingual (for example, a private French-speaking retirement home or the Dutch-speaking hospital of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel). The Common Community Commission is responsible for policies aiming directly at private persons or at bilingual institutions (for example, the centres for social welfare of the 19 municipalities). Its ordinances have to be enacted with a majority in both linguistic groups. Failing such a majority, a new vote can be held, where a majority of at least one third in each linguistic group is sufficient.
International institutionsBrussels has, since World War II, become the administrative centre of many international organisations. The (EU) and the NATO, North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) have their main institutions in the city, along with many other international organisations such as the World Customs Organization and EUROCONTROL, as well as international corporations. Brussels is third in the number of international conferences it hosts, also becoming one of the largest convention centres in the world. The presence of the EU and the other international bodies has, for example, led to there being more ambassadors and journalists in Brussels than in Washington, D.C., Washington D.C. International schools have also been established to serve this presence. The "international community" in Brussels numbers at least 70,000 people. In 2009, there were an estimated 286 lobbying consultancies known to work in Brussels.
European UnionBrussels serves as '' '' capital of the European Union, hosting the major political Institutions of the European Union, institutions of the Union. The EU has not declared a capital formally, though the Treaty of Amsterdam formally gives Brussels the seat of the European Commission (the executive branch of government) and the Council of the European Union (a legislative institution made up from executives of member states).European Commission publication: ''Europe in Brussels'' 2007 It locates the formal seat of European Parliament in , where votes take place, with the council, on the proposals made by the commission. However, meetings of political groups and committee groups are formally given to Brussels, along with a set number of plenary sessions. Three quarters of Parliament sessions now take place at its Espace Léopold, Brussels hemicycle. Between 2002 and 2004, the European Council also fixed its seat in the city. In 2014, the Union hosted a 40th G7 summit, G7 summit in the city. Brussels, along with Luxembourg (city), Luxembourg and Strasbourg, began to host European institutions in 1957, soon becoming the centre of activities, as the Commission and Council based their activities in what has become the Brussels and the European Union, ''European Quarter'', in the east of the city. Early building in Brussels was sporadic and uncontrolled, with little planning. The current major buildings are the Berlaymont building of the commission, symbolic of the quarter as a whole, the Justus Lipsius building of the Council and the Espace Léopold of the Parliament. Today, the presence has increased considerably, with the Commission alone occupying within the ''European Quarter'' (a quarter of the total office space in Brussels). The concentration and density has caused concern that the presence of the institutions has created a ''ghetto effect'' in that part of the city. However, the European presence has contributed significantly to the importance of Brussels as an international centre.
EurocontrolThe European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation, commonly known as Eurocontrol, is an international organisation which coordinates and plans air traffic control across European airspace. The corporation was founded in 1960 and has 41 member states. Its headquarters are located in Haren, Belgium, Haren, on the northeast perimeter of the .
North Atlantic Treaty OrganisationThe Treaty of Brussels, which was signed on 17 March 1948 between Belgium, , Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, was a prelude to the establishment of the Intergovernmental organization, intergovernmental military alliance which later became the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Today, the alliance consists of 29 independent member countries across North America and Europe. Several countries also have diplomatic missions to NATO List of diplomatic missions to NATO, through embassies in Belgium. Since 1949, a number of NATO summit, NATO Summits have been held in Brussels, the most recent taking place in May 2017. The organisation's political and administrative are located on / in Haren, Belgium, Haren, Brussels. A new €750 million headquarters building begun in 2010 and was completed in 2017.
PopulationBrussels is located in one of the most Blue Banana, urbanised regions of Europe, between Paris, London, the Rhine-Ruhr (Germany), and the Randstad (Netherlands). The Brussels-Capital Region has a population of around 1.2 million and has witnessed, in recent years, a remarkable increase in its population. In general, the population of Brussels is younger than the national average, and the gap between rich and poor is wider. Brussels is the core of a built-up area that extends well beyond the region's limits. Sometimes referred to as the urban area of Brussels (french: aire urbaine de Bruxelles, link=no, nl, stedelijk gebied van Brussel, link=no) or Greater Brussels (french: Grand-Bruxelles, link=no, nl, Groot-Brussel, link=no), this area extends over a large part of the two Brabant provinces, including much of the surrounding arrondissement of Halle-Vilvoorde and some small parts of the arrondissement of Leuven in Flemish Brabant, as well as the northern part of . The metropolitan area of Brussels is divided into three levels. Firstly, the central agglomeration (within the regional borders), with a population of 1,218,255 inhabitants. Adding the closest suburbs (french: banlieues, link=no, nl, buitenwijken, link=no) gives a total population of 1,831,496. Including the outer commuter zone (Brussels Regional Express Network (RER/GEN) area), the population is 2,676,701. Brussels is also part of a wider Flemish Diamond, diamond-shaped , with , and , which has about 4.4 million inhabitants (a little more than 40% of the Belgium's total population).
NationalitiesBrussels is home to a large number of immigrants and people of immigrant background. At the last Belgian census in 1991, 63.7% of inhabitants in Brussels-Capital Region answered that they were Belgian citizens, born as such in Belgium. – The linguistic situation in Belgium (and in particular various estimations of the population speaking French and Dutch in Brussels) is discussed in detail. However, there have been numerous individual or familial migrations towards Brussels since the end of the 18th century, including Right of asylum, political refugees (Karl Marx, Victor Hugo, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Pierre Joseph Proudhon, Léon Daudet, for example), from neighbouring or more distant countries, as well as labour migrants, former foreign students or s, and many Belgian families in Brussels can claim at least one foreign grandparent. This large concentration of immigrants and their descendance includes many of Moroccan (mainly Riffian people, Riffian and Berbers, Berber) and Turkish ancestry, together with French-speaking black Africans from former Belgian overseas colonies, Belgian colonies, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda and Burundi. People of foreign origin make up nearly 70% of the population of Brussels, most of whom have been Naturalization, naturalised following the great 1991 reform of the naturalisation process. About 32% of city residents are of non-Belgian European origin (mainly expatriates from France, Romania, Italy, Spain, Poland, and Portugal) and 36% are of another background, mostly from Morocco, Turkey and Sub-Saharan Africa. Among all major migrant groups from outside the EU, a majority of the permanent residents have acquired Belgian nationality.
LanguagesHistorically a Dutch language, Dutch-speaking city ( to be exact), over the two past centuries (specifically ) has become the majority language and '' '' in Brussels. The main cause of this transition was the rapid Cultural assimilation, assimilation of the local Flemish people, Flemish population, amplified by immigration from and Wallonia. The Francization, rise of French in public life gradually began by the end of the 18th century, quickly accelerating after Belgian Revolution, Belgian independence. Dutch — of which Standard language, standardisation in Belgium was still very weak — could not compete with French, which was the exclusive language of the judiciary, the administration, the army, education, cultural life and the media, and thus necessary for social mobility. The value and prestige of the French language was universally acknowledged to such an extent that after 1880, and more particularly after the turn of the 20th century, proficiency in French among Dutch-speakers in Brussels increased spectacularly. Although the majority of the population remained bilingual until the second half of the 20th century, the original Brabantian dialect was often no longer passed down from one generation to another, leading to an increase of monolingual French-speakers from 1910 onwards. From the mid-20th century, the number of monolingual French-speakers surpassed the number of mostly bilingual Flemish inhabitants. This process of assimilation weakened after the 1960s, as the language border was fixed, the status of Dutch as an official language of Belgium was reinforced, and the economic centre of gravity shifted northward to Flanders. However, with the continuing arrival of immigrants and the post-war emergence of Brussels as a Brussels and the European Union, centre of international politics, the relative position of Dutch continued to decline. Furthermore, as Brussels' urban area expanded, a further number of Dutch-speaking municipalities in the Brussels Periphery, Brussels periphery also became predominantly French-speaking. This phenomenon of expanding Francisation — dubbed "oil slick" by its opponents — is, together with the future of Brussels, one of the most controversial topics in Politics of Belgium, Belgian politics. Today, the Brussels-Capital Region is officially bilingual in French and Dutch,. as is the administration of the 19 municipalities. The creation of this bilingual, full-fledged region, with its own competencies and jurisdiction, had long been hampered by different visions of Belgian federalism. Nevertheless, some communitarian issues remain. Flemish political parties demanded, for decades, that the Flemish part of Brussels-Halle-Vilvoorde (BHV) ''arrondissement'' be separated from the Brussels Region (which made Halle-Vilvoorde a monolingual Flemish electoral and judicial district). BHV was divided mid-2012. The French-speaking population regards the language border as artificial and demands the extension of the bilingual region to at least all six municipalities with language facilities in the surroundings of Brussels. Flemish politicians have strongly rejected these proposals. Besides, owing to migration and to its international role, Brussels is home to a growing number of foreign language speakers. Currently, the first language of roughly half of the inhabitants is not an official one of the Capital Region. In 2013, academic research showed that approximately 17% of families spoke none of the official languages in the home, while in a further 23% a foreign language was used alongside French. The share of unilingual French-speaking families had fallen to 38% and that of Dutch-speaking families to 5%, while the percentage of bilingual Dutch-French families reached 17%. In 2013, French was spoken "well to perfectly" by 88% of the population and Dutch by 23% (down from 33% in 2000), while the other most commonly known languages were English at 30%, Arabic at 18%, Spanish at 9%, German at 7% and Italian and Turkish at around 5%. Despite the rise of English as a second language in Brussels, including as an unofficial compromise language between French and Dutch, as well as the working language for some of its international businesses and institutions, French remains the ''lingua franca'' and all public services are conducted exclusively in French or Dutch. The original dialect of Brussels (known as ''Brussels'', and also sometimes called or Marollien), a form of Brabantic (the variant of Dutch spoken in the ancient Duchy of Brabant) with a significant number of loanwords from French, still survives among a small minority of inhabitants called ''Brusseleers''Mary Anne Evans, ''Frommer's Brussels and Bruges Day by Day. First Edition'' (Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2008), 71. (or ''Brusseleirs''), many of them quite bi- and multilingual, or educated in French and not writing in Dutch.Jeanine Treffers-Daller, ''Mixing Two Languages: French-Dutch Contact in a Comparative Perspective'' (Walter de Gruyter, 1994), 25. The ethnic and national self-identification of Brussels' inhabitants is nonetheless sometimes quite distinct from the French and Dutch-speaking communities. For the French-speakers, it can vary from Francophone Belgian, (French demonym for an inhabitant of Brussels), Walloons, Walloon (for people who migrated from the Walloon Region at an adult age); for Flemings living in Brussels, it is mainly either Dutch-speaking Belgian, Flemish or (Dutch demonym for an inhabitant), and often both. For the ''Brusseleers'', many simply consider themselves as belonging to Brussels.
ReligionsHistorically, Brussels has been predominantly Catholic Church, Roman Catholic, especially since the expulsion of Protestantism, Protestants in the 16th century. This is clear from the large number of historical churches in the region, particularly in the . The pre-eminent Catholic cathedral in Brussels is the Cathedral of St. Michael and St. Gudula, serving as the co-cathedral of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Mechelen-Brussels, Archdiocese of Mechelen–Brussels. On the northwestern side of the region, the Basilica of the Sacred Heart, Brussels, National Basilica of the Sacred Heart is a Minor Basilica and parish church and the List of largest church buildings, 14th largest church building in the world. The Church of Our Lady of Laeken holds the tombs of many members of the Monarchy of Belgium, Belgian royal family, including all the former List of Belgian monarchs, Belgian monarchs, within the Royal Crypt (Belgium), Royal Crypt. In reflection of its multicultural makeup, Brussels hosts a variety of religious communities, as well as large numbers of atheism, atheists and agnosticism, agnostics. Minority faiths include Islam, Anglicanism, Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodoxy, Judaism, and Buddhism. According to a 2016 survey, approximately 40% of residents of Brussels declared themselves Catholics (12% were practising Catholics and 28% were non-practising Catholics), 30% were Irreligion, non-religious, 23% were Muslim (19% practising, 4% non-practising), 3% were Protestant Christian, Protestants and 4% were of another religion. Recognised religions and Secularism in Belgium, laicism enjoy public funding and school courses. It was once the case that every pupil in an official school from 6 years old to 18 had to choose 2 hours per week of compulsory religion—or laicist—inspired morals. However, in 2015, the Belgian Constitutional court ruled religious studies could no longer be required in the primary and secondary education system. Brussels has a large concentration of Islam in Belgium, Muslims, mostly of Moroccan, Turkish, Syrian and Guinean ancestry. The Great Mosque of Brussels, located in the Cinquantenaire, Parc du Cinquantenaire/Jubelpark, is the oldest mosque in Brussels. Belgium does not collect statistics by ethnic background, so exact figures are unknown. It was estimated that, in 2005, people of Muslim background living in the Brussels Region numbered 256,220 and accounted for 25.5% of the city's population, a much higher concentration than those of the other regions of Belgium.
ArchitectureThe architecture in Brussels is diverse, and spans from the clashing combination of Gothic architecture, Gothic, Baroque architecture, Baroque, and French Baroque architecture, Louis XIV styles on the to the Postmodern architecture, postmodern buildings of the Brussels and the European Union, EU institutions. Very little medieval architecture is preserved in Brussels. Buildings from that period are mostly found in the historic centre (called ), Saint-Géry Island, ''Saint Géry''/''Sint-Goriks'' and / neighbourhoods. The Brabantine Gothic Cathedral of St. Michael and St. Gudula remains a prominent feature in the skyline of downtown Brussels. Isolated portions of the First walls of Brussels, first city walls were saved from destruction and can be seen to this day. One of the only remains of the Second walls of Brussels, second walls is the Halle Gate. The is the main attraction in the city centre and has been a World Heritage Site, UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1998. The square is dominated by the 15th century Flamboyant Brussels Town Hall, Town Hall, the Gothic Revival architecture, neo-Gothic ''Museum of the City of Brussels, Breadhouse'' and the Baroque guildhalls of the former Guilds of Brussels. '' '', a fountain containing a small bronze sculpture of a urinating youth, is a tourist attraction and symbol of the city. The Neoclassical architecture, neoclassical style of the 18th and 19th centuries is represented in the ''Royal Quarter''/''Coudenberg'' area, around Brussels Park, Brussels' Park and the Place Royale (Brussels), Royal Square. Examples include the Royal Palace of Brussels, Royal Palace, the Church of Saint Jacques-sur-Coudenberg, Church of St. James on Coudenberg, the Belgian Federal Parliament, Palace of the Nation (Parliament building), the Academy Palace, the Palace of Charles of Lorraine, the Palace of the Count of Flanders and the Egmont Palace. Other uniform neoclassical ensembles can be found around Place des Martyrs, Brussels, Martyrs' Square and Barricades' Square. Some additional landmarks in the centre are the Galeries Royales Saint-Hubert, Royal Saint-Hubert Galleries (1847), one of the oldest covered shopping arcades in Europe, the Congress Column (1859), the former Brussels Stock Exchange building (1873) and the Law Courts of Brussels, Palace of Justice (1883), designed by Joseph Poelaert, in Eclecticism in architecture, eclectic style, and reputed to be the largest building constructed in the 19th century. Located outside the centre, in a greener environment, are the Cinquantenaire, Parc du Cinquantenaire/Jubelpark with its Arcade du Cinquantenaire, memorial arcade and nearby museums, and in Laeken, the Royal Castle of Laeken and the Royal Domain with its large Royal Greenhouses of Laeken, greenhouses, as well as the Museums of the Far East. Also particularly striking are the buildings in the Art Nouveau in Brussels, Art Nouveau style, most famously by the Belgian architects Victor Horta, Paul Hankar and Henry Van de Velde. Some of Brussels' municipalities, such as Schaerbeek, Etterbeek, Ixelles, and Saint-Gilles, Belgium, Saint-Gilles, were developed during the heyday of Art Nouveau and have many buildings in that style. The Major Town Houses of the Architect Victor Horta (Brussels), Major Town Houses of the Architect Victor Horta—Hôtel Tassel (1893), Hôtel Solvay (1894), Hôtel van Eetvelde (1895) and the Horta Museum (1901)—have been listed as a World Heritage Site since 2000. Another example of Brussels' Art Nouveau is the Stoclet Palace (1911), by the Viennese architect Josef Hoffmann, designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in June 2009.
ArtsBrussels List of museums in Brussels, contains over 80 museums. The Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium, Royal Museums of Fine Arts has an extensive collection of various painters, such as Flemish painting, Flemish old masters like Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Bruegel, Rogier van der Weyden, Robert Campin, Anthony van Dyck, Jacob Jordaens, and Peter Paul Rubens. The Magritte Museum houses the world's largest collection of the works of the Surrealism, surrealist René Magritte. Museums dedicated to the national history of Belgium include the BELvue Museum, the Royal Museums of Art and History, and the Royal Museum of the Armed Forces and Military History. The Musical Instrument Museum (Brussels), Musical Instruments Museum (MIM), housed in the Old England (department store), Old England building, is part of the Royal Museums of Art and History, and is internationally renowned for its collection of over 8,000 instruments. The Brussels Museums Council is an independent body for all the museums in the Brussels-Capital Region, covering around 100 federal, private, municipal, and community museums. It promotes member museums through the Brussels Card (giving access to public transport and 30 of the 100 museums), the Brussels Museums Nocturnes (every Thursday from 5 p.m. to 10 p.m. from mid-September to mid-December) and the Museum Night Fever (an event for and by young people on a Saturday night in late February or early March). Brussels has had a distinguished artist scene for many years. The famous Belgian surrealists René Magritte and Paul Delvaux, for instance, studied and lived there, as did the avant-garde dramatist Michel de Ghelderode. The city was also home of the Impressionism, impressionist painter Anna Boch from the Artist Group Les XX, and includes other famous Belgian painters such as Léon Spilliaert. Brussels is also a capital of the ; some treasured Belgian characters are The Adventures of Tintin, Tintin, Lucky Luke, The Smurfs, Spirou et Fantasio, Spirou, Gaston (comics), Gaston, Marsupilami, Blake and Mortimer, Boule et Bill and Cubitus (see ). Throughout the city, walls are painted with large motifs of comic book characters; these murals taken together are known as Brussels' Comic Book Route. Also, the interiors of some Brussels Metro, metro stations are designed by artists. The Belgian Comic Strip Center combines two artistic leitmotifs of Brussels, being a museum devoted to Belgian comic strips, housed in the former ''Magasins Waucquez'' textile department store, designed by Victor Horta in the Art Nouveau in Brussels, Art Nouveau style. Brussels is well known for its performing arts scene, with the La Monnaie, Royal Theatre of La Monnaie and the Kaaitheater among the most notable institutions. The Kunstenfestivaldesarts, an international performing arts festival, is organised every year in May in about twenty different cultural houses and theatres throughout the city. The King Baudouin Stadium is a concert and competition facility with a 50,000 seat capacity, the largest in Belgium. The site was formerly occupied by the Heysel Stadium. Furthermore, the Centre for Fine Arts, Brussels, Center for Fine Arts (often referred to as BOZAR in French or PSK in Dutch), a multi-purpose centre for theatre, cinema, music, literature and art exhibitions, is home to the National Orchestra of Belgium and to the annual Queen Elisabeth Competition for Classical music, classical singers and instrumentalists, one of the most challenging and prestigious competitions of the kind. Studio 4 in Le Flagey cultural centre hosts the Brussels Philharmonic. Other concert venues include Forest National, Forest National/Vorst Nationaal, the Ancienne Belgique, the Cirque Royal, Cirque Royal/Koninklijk Circus, the Le Botanique, Botanique and Palais 12, Palais 12/Paleis 12. The Jazz Station in Saint-Josse-ten-Noode is a museum and archive on jazz, and a venue for jazz concerts.
FolkloreBrussels' identity owes much to its rich folklore and traditions, among the liveliest in the country. * The Ommegang of Brussels, Ommegang, a folkloric costumed procession, commemorating the Joyous Entry of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Emperor Charles V in the city in 1549, takes place every year in July. The colourful parade includes floats, traditional giant puppets, such as Saint Michael and Saint Gudula, and scores of folkloric groups, either on foot or on horseback, dressed in medieval garb. The parade ends in a Medieval pageant, pageant on the . * The Meyboom, an even-older folk tradition of Brussels (1308), celebrating the May tree—in fact, a bad translation of the Dutch ''tree of joy''—takes place paradoxically on 9 August. After parading a young beech in the city, it is planted in a joyful spirit with lots of music, ''Brusseleir'' songs, and giant puppets. It was recognised as an expression of intangible cultural heritage by , as part of the bi-national inscription "Processional giants and dragons in Belgium and France". The celebration is reminiscent of the town's long-standing (folkloric) feud with , which dates back to the Middle Ages. * Another good introduction to the ''Brusseleir'' Marols, local dialect and way of life can be obtained at the Royal Theatre Toone, a folkloric theatre of marionettes, located a stone's throw away from the Grand Place. * The St V, Saint-Verhaegen (often shortened to ''St V''), a folkloric student procession, celebrating the anniversary of the founding of the Université libre de Bruxelles and the Vrije Universiteit Brussel, is held on 20 November.
Cultural events and festivalsMany events are organised or hosted in Brussels throughout the year. In addition, many festivals animate the Brussels scene. The Iris Festival is the official festival of the Brussels-Capital Region and is held annually in spring. The International Fantastic Film Festival of Brussels (BIFFF) is organised during the Easter holidays and the Magritte Awards in February. The Festival of Europe, an open day and activities in and around the institutions of the , is held on 9 May. On Belgian National Day, on 21 July, a military parade and celebrations take place on the / and in Brussels Park, Brussels' Park, ending with a display of fireworks in the evening. Some summer festivities include Couleur Café, Couleur Café Festival, a festival of World music, world and Urban contemporary, urban music, around the end of June or early July, the Brussels Summer Festival (BSF), a music festival in August, the Brussels Fair, the most important yearly fair in Brussels, lasting more than a month, in July and August, and Brussels Beach, when the banks of the Brussels–Charleroi Canal, canal are turned into a temporary urban beach. Other biennial events are the Zinneke Parade, a colourful, multicultural parade through the city, which has been held since 2000 in May, as well as the popular Flower Carpet (Brussels), Flower Carpet at the in August. European Heritage Days, Heritage Days are organised on the third weekend of September (sometimes coinciding with the car-free day) and are a good opportunity to discover the wealth of buildings, institutions and real estate in Brussels. The "Winter Wonders" animate the heart of Brussels in December; these winter activities were launched in Brussels in 2001.
CuisineBrussels is known for its local Belgian waffle, waffle, its chocolate, its French fries and its numerous types of beers. The Brussels sprout, which has long been popular in Brussels, and may have originated there, is also named after the city. The gastronomic offer includes approximately 1,800 restaurants (including three 2-starred and ten 1-starred Michelin Guide, Michelin restaurants), and a number of bars. In addition to the traditional restaurants, there are many Coffeehouse, cafés, bistros and the usual range of international Fast food restaurant, fast food chains. The cafés are similar to bars, and offer beer and light dishes; Coffeehouse, coffee houses are called . Also widespread are brasseries, which usually offer a variety of beers and typical national dishes. Belgian cuisine is known among connoisseurs as one of the best in Europe. It is characterised by the combination of French cuisine with the more hearty Flemish fare. Notable specialities include Brussels waffles (gaufres) and mussels (usually as moules frites, ''moules-frites'', served with fries). The city is a stronghold of chocolate and pralines manufacturers with renowned companies like Côte d'Or (chocolate), Côte d'Or, Chocolatier Neuhaus, Neuhaus, Leonidas (chocolate maker), Leonidas and Godiva Chocolatier, Godiva. Pralines were first introduced in 1912, by Jean Neuhaus II, a Belgian chocolatier of Swiss origin, in the Royal Saint-Hubert Galleries. Numerous friteries are spread throughout the city, and in tourist areas, fresh hot waffles are also sold on the street. As well as other Beer in Belgium, Belgian beers, the Spontaneous fermentation, spontaneously fermented lambic style, brewed in and around Brussels, is widely available there and in the nearby valley where the wild yeasts which ferment it have their origin. Kriek lambic, Kriek, a cherry lambic, is available in almost every bar or restaurant in Brussels. Brussels is known as the birthplace of the Chicory, Belgian endive. The technique for growing Blanching (horticulture), blanched endives was accidentally discovered in the 1850s at the Botanical Garden of Brussels in Saint-Josse-ten-Noode.
ShoppingFamous shopping areas in Brussels include the pedestrian-only Rue Neuve (Brussels), Rue Neuve/Nieuwstraat, the second busiest shopping street in Belgium (after the Meir, Antwerp, Meir, in ) with a weekly average of 230,000 visitors, home to popular international chains (H&M, C&A, Zara (retailer), Zara, Primark), as well as the City 2 and Anspach galleries. The Royal Saint-Hubert Galleries hold a variety of luxury shops and some six million people stroll through them each year. The neighbourhood around / has become, in recent years, a focal point for fashion and design; this main street and its side streets also feature Belgium's young and most happening artistic talent. In Ixelles, / and Namur Gate area offer a blend of luxury shops, fast food restaurants and entertainment venues, and /, in the mainly-Congolese ''Matongé (Ixelles), Matongé'' district, offers a great taste of African fashion and lifestyle. The nearby Avenue Louise is lined with high-end fashion stores and boutiques, making it one of the most expensive streets in Belgium. There are shopping centres outside the inner ring: Basilix, Woluwe Shopping Center, Westland Shopping Center, and Docks Bruxsel, which opened in October 2017. In addition, Brussels ranks as one of Europe's best capital cities for flea market shopping. The'' Old Market'', on the Place du Jeu de Balle, Place du Jeu de Balle/Vossenplein, in the Marollen, ''Marolles''/''Marollen'' neighbourhood, is particularly renowned. The nearby ''Sablon''/''Zavel'' area is home to many of Brussels' antique dealers. The ''Midi Market'' around Brussels-South railway station, Brussels-South station and / is reputed to be one of the largest markets in Europe.
SportsSport in Brussels is under the responsibility of the Communities, regions and language areas of Belgium, Communities. The (ADEPS) is responsible for recognising the various French-speaking sports federations and also runs three sports centres in the Brussels-Capital Region. Its Dutch-speaking counterpart is (formerly called Bloso, BLOSO). The King Baudouin Stadium (formerly Heysel Stadium) is the largest in the country and home to the national teams in Belgium national football team, football and Belgium national rugby union team, rugby union. It hosted the final of the 1972 UEFA European Football Championship, and the opening game of Euro 2000, the 2000 edition. Several European club finals have been held at the ground, including the 1985 European Cup Final which saw 39 deaths due to hooliganism and structural collapse. The King Baudouin Stadium is also home of the annual Memorial Van Damme athletics event, Belgium's foremost track and field competition, which is part of the Diamond League. Other important athletics events are the Brussels Marathon and the 20 km of Brussels.
CyclingBrussels is home to notable cycling races. The city is the arrival location of the Brussels Cycling Classic, formerly known as Paris–Brussels, which is one of the oldest classic cycle races, semi classic Road bicycle racing, bicycle races on the international calendar. From World War I until the early 1970s, the Six Days of Brussels was organised regularly. In the last decades of the 20th century, the Grand Prix Eddy Merckx was also held in Brussels.
Association footballR.S.C. Anderlecht, based in the Constant Vanden Stock Stadium in Anderlecht, is the most successful Belgian football club in the Belgian Pro League, with 34 titles. It has also won the most major European tournaments for a Belgian side, with 6 European titles. Brussels is also home to R. Union Saint-Gilloise, Union Saint-Gilloise, the most successful Belgian club before World War II, with 11 titles The club was founded in Saint-Gilles, Belgium, Saint-Gilles but is based in nearby Forest, Belgium, Forest, and plays in the Belgian Second Division, Second Division. R. White Star Bruxelles, White Star Bruxelles is another football club that plays in second division. R. White Daring Molenbeek, Racing White Daring Molenbeek, based in Molenbeek-Saint-Jean, and often referred to as RWDM, was a very popular football club until it was dissolved in 2002. Since 2015, its reincarnation RWDM47 is back playing in the second division. Other Brussels clubs that played in the national series over the years were Ixelles SC, K.V.V. Crossing Elewijt, Crossing Club de Schaerbeek (born from a merger between RCS de Schaerbeek and Crossing Club Molenbeek), Scup Jette, RUS de Laeken, Racing Jet de Bruxelles, AS Auderghem, KV Wosjot Woluwe and FC Ganshoren.
EconomyServing as the centre of administration for Belgium and Europe, Brussels' economy is largely Tertiary sector of the economy, service-oriented. It is dominated by regional and world headquarters of Multinational corporation, multinationals, by European institutions, by various local and federal administrations, and by related services companies, though it does have a number of notable craft industries, such as the Cantillon Brewery, a lambic brewery founded in 1900. Brussels has a robust economy. The region contributes to one fifth of Belgium's Gross domestic product, GDP, and its 550,000 jobs account for 17.7% of Belgium's employment. Its is nearly double that of Belgium as a whole, and it has the highest GDP per capita of any Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics, NUTS 1 region in the EU, at ~$80,000 in 2016. That being said, the GDP is boosted by a massive inflow of Commuting, commuters from neighbouring regions; over half of those who work in Brussels live in Flanders or Wallonia, with 230,000 and 130,000 commuters per day respectively. Conversely, only 16.0% of people from Brussels work outside Brussels (68,827 (68.5%) of them in Flanders and 21,035 (31.5%) in Wallonia). Not all of the wealth generated in Brussels remains in Brussels itself, and , the unemployment among residents of Brussels is 20.4%. There are approximately 50,000 businesses in Brussels, of which around 2,200 are foreign. This number is constantly increasing and can well explain the role of Brussels in Europe. The city's infrastructure is very favourable in terms of starting up a new business. House prices have also increased in recent years, especially with the increase of young professionals settling down in Brussels, making it the most expensive city to live in Belgium. In addition, Brussels holds more than 1,000 business conferences annually, making it the ninth most popular conference city in Europe. Brussels is rated as the 34th most important financial centre in the world as of 2020, according to the Global Financial Centres Index. The Brussels Stock Exchange, abbreviated to BSE, now called ''Euronext Brussels'', is part of the European stock exchange Euronext N.V., along with Paris Bourse, Lisbon Stock Exchange and Amsterdam Stock Exchange. Its benchmark stock market index is the BEL20.
MediaBrussels is a centre of both media and communications in Belgium, with many Belgian television stations, radio stations, newspapers and telephone companies having their headquarters in the region. The Belgian French-language Public broadcasting, public broadcaster RTBF, the Belgian Dutch-speaking public broadcaster Vlaamse Radio- en Televisieomroeporganisatie, VRT, the two regional channels BX1 (formerly ''Télé Bruxelles'') and Bruzz (formerly ''TV Brussel''), the encrypted BeTV (Belgium), BeTV channel and private channels RTL-TVI and VTM (TV channel), VTM are headquartered in Brussels. Some national newspapers such as Le Soir, La Libre Belgique, La Libre, De Morgen and the news agency Belga (news agency), Belga are based in or around Brussels. The Belgian Mail, postal company Bpost, as well as the telecommunication companies and mobile operators Proximus, Orange Belgium and Telenet (Belgium), Telenet are all located there. As English is spoken widely, several English media organisations operate in Brussels. The most popular of these are the English-language daily news media platform and bi-monthly magazine ''The Brussels Times'' and the quarterly magazine and website ''The Bulletin (Brussels weekly), The Bulletin''. The Multilingualism, multilingual Pan-European identity, pan-European news channel Euronews also maintains an office in Brussels.
Tertiary educationThere are several University, universities in Brussels. Except for the Royal Military Academy (Belgium), Royal Military Academy, a military college established in 1834, all universities in Brussels are private/autonomous. The Université Libre de Bruxelles, Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB), a French-speaking university, with about 20,000 students, has three campuses in the city, and the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), its Dutch language, Dutch-speaking sister university, has about 10,000 students. Both universities originate from a single ancestor university, founded in 1834, namely the Free University of Brussels (1834–1969), Free University of Brussels, which was split in 1970, at about the same time the Flemish and French Communities gained legislative power over the organisation of higher education. Saint-Louis University, Brussels (also known as UCLouvain Saint-Louis – Bruxelles) was founded in 1858 and is specialised in social and human sciences, with 4,000 students, and located on two campuses in the and Ixelles. Still other universities have campuses in Brussels, such as the French-speaking UCLouvain, University of Louvain (UCLouvain), which has 10,000 students in the city with its medical faculties at UCLouvain Brussels Woluwe, UCLouvain Bruxelles Woluwe since 1973, in addition to its UCLouvain Faculty of Architecture, Architectural Engineering and Urban Planning, Faculty of Architecture, Architectural Engineering and Urban Planning and UCLouvain's Dutch-speaking sister KU Leuven, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KU Leuven) (offering bachelor's and master's degrees in economics & business, law, arts, and architecture; 4,400 students). In addition, the University of Kent's Brussels School of International Studies is a specialised postgraduate school offering advanced international studies. Also a dozen of university colleges are located in Brussels, including two drama schools, founded in 1832: the French-speaking Conservatoire royal de Bruxelles, Conservatoire Royal and its Dutch language, Dutch-speaking equivalent, the Koninklijk Conservatorium (Brussel), Koninklijk Conservatorium.
Primary and secondary educationMost of Brussels pupils between the ages of 3 and 18 go to schools organised by the French-speaking Community or the , with close to 80% going to French-speaking schools, and roughly 20% to Dutch-speaking schools. Due to the post-war international presence in the city, there are also a number of international schools, including the International School of Brussels, with 1,450 pupils, between the ages of 2 and 18, the British School of Brussels, and the four European Schools, which provide free education for the children of those working in the EU institutions. The combined student population of the four European Schools in Brussels is around 10,000.
LibrariesBrussels has a number of public or private-owned Library, libraries on its territory. Libraries in Brussels fall under the competence of the Communities and are usually separated between French-speaking and Dutch-speaking institutions, although some are mixed.
Science and technologyScience and technology in Brussels is well developed with the presence of several List of universities in Belgium, universities and research institutes. The Museum of Natural Sciences, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences houses the world's largest hall completely dedicated to dinosaurs, with its collection of 30 fossilised ''Iguanodon'' skeletons. The Planetarium (Belgium), Planetarium of the Royal Observatory of Belgium is one of the largest in Europe.
HealthcareBrussels is home to a thriving Pharmaceutical industry, pharmaceutical and health care industry which includes pioneering biotechnology research. The health sector employs 70,000 employees in 30,000 companies. There are 3,000 life sciences researchers in the city and two large science parks: Da Vinci Research Park and Erasmus Research Park. There are five Teaching hospital, university hospitals, a military hospital and more than 40 general hospitals and specialist clinics. Due to Languages of Belgium, its bilingual nature, hospitals in the can be either monolingual French, monolingual Dutch, or bilingual, depending on their nature. University hospitals belong to one of the two Communities, regions and language areas of Belgium, linguistic communities and are thus monolingual French or Dutch by law. Other hospitals managed by a public authority must be legally bilingual. Private hospitals are legally not bound to either language, but most cater to both. However, all hospital emergency services in the Capital Region (whether part of a public or private hospital) are required to be bilingual, since patients transported by emergency ambulance cannot chose the hospital they will be brought to.
AirThe Brussels-Capital Region is served by several airports, all of which are located outside of the administrative territory of the region. The most notable are: * Brussels Airport, Brussels-National Airport, located in the nearby Flemish municipality of Zaventem, east of the capital; * Brussels South Charleroi Airport, located in Gosselies, a part of the city of Charleroi (Wallonia), some south-west of Brussels; * Melsbroek Air Base, located in Steenokkerzeel, is mainly a military airport and is used in a minority way for civilian travelers. The first two are also the main airports of Belgium.
WaterSince the 16th century, Brussels has had its own harbour, the port of Brussels. It has been enlarged throughout the centuries to become the second Belgian inland port. Historically situated near the /, it lies today to the northwest of the region, on the Brussels–Scheldt Maritime Canal (commonly called Willebroek Canal), which connects Brussels to via the Scheldt. Ships and large barges up to 4,500 tons can penetrate deep into the country, avoiding break-ups and load transfers between Antwerp and the centre of Brussels, hence reducing the cost for companies using the canal, and thus offering a competitive advantage. Moreover, the connection of the Willebroek Canal with the Brussels–Charleroi Canal, in the very heart of the capital, creates a north–south link, by means of waterways, between the Netherlands, Flanders and the industrial zone of Hainaut (province), Hainaut (Wallonia). There, navigation can access the network of French canals, thanks to the important Canal inclined plane, inclined plane of Ronquières inclined plane, Ronquières and the lifts of Strépy-Bracquegnies. The importance of river traffic in Brussels makes it possible to avoid the road equivalent of 740,000 trucks per year—almost 2,000 per day—which, in addition to easing traffic problems, represents an estimated carbon dioxide saving of 51,545 tonnes per year.
TrainThe Brussels-Capital Region has three main train stations: Brussels-South railway station, Brussels-South, Brussels-Central railway station, Brussels-Central and Brussels-North railway station, Brussels-North, which are also the busiest of the country. Brussels-South is also served by direct high-speed rail links: to London by Eurostar trains via the Channel Tunnel (1hr 51min); to Amsterdam by Thalys and ''InterCity'' connections; to Amsterdam, Paris (1hr 50min and 1hr 25min respectively ), and by Thalys; and to Cologne (1hr 50min) and Frankfurt (2hr 57min) by the German Intercity Express, ICE. The train rails in Brussels go underground, near the centre, through the North–South connection, with Brussels Central Station also being largely underground. The tunnel itself is only six tracks wide at its narrowest point, which often causes congestion and delays due to heavy use of the route. The has minor railway stations at Bockstael railway station, Bockstael, Brussels-Chapel railway station, Brussels-Chapel, Brussels-Congres railway station, Brussels-Congres, Brussels-Luxembourg railway station, Brussels-Luxembourg, Schuman station, Brussels-Schuman, Brussels-West station, Brussels-West, Haren railway station (Brussels), Haren, Haren-South railway station, Haren-South and Simonis metro station, Simonis. In the Brussels Region, there are also railways stations at Berchem-Sainte-Agathe railway station, Berchem-Sainte-Agathe, Boitsfort railway station, Boitsfort, Boondael railway station, Boondael, Bordet railway station, Bordet (Evere), Etterbeek railway station, Etterbeek, Evere railway station, Evere, Forest-East railway station, Forest-East, Forest-South railway station, Forest-South, Jette railway station, Jette, Meiser railway station, Meiser (Schaerbeek), Moensberg railway station, Moensberg (Uccle), Saint-Job railway station, Saint-Job (Uccle), Schaerbeek railway station, Schaarbeek, Uccle-Calevoet railway station, Uccle-Calevoet, Uccle-Stalle railway station, Uccle-Stalle, Vivier d'Oie-Diesdelle (Uccle), Merode station, Merode and Watermael railway station, Watermael.
City public transportThe Brussels Intercommunal Transport Company (Brussels Intercommunal Transport Company, STIB/MIVB) is the local public transport operator in Brussels. It covers the 19 municipalities of the Brussels-Capital Region and some surface routes extend to the near suburbs in the other two regions.
MetroThe dates back to 1976, but underground lines known as the Brussels premetro, ''premetro'' have been serviced by tramways since 1968. It is the only system in Belgium (Antwerp Pre-metro, Antwerp and Charleroi Metro, Charleroi both having light rail systems). The network consists of four conventional metro lines and three ''premetro'' lines. The metro-grade lines are M1, M2, M5, and M6, with some shared sections, covering a total of . , the metro network within the region has a total of 69 metro and ''premetro'' stations. The metro is an important Transport in Brussels, means of transport, connecting with six railway stations of the National Railway Company of Belgium (NMBS/SNCB), and many tram and bus stops operated by STIB/MIVB, and with Flanders, Flemish De Lijn and Wallonia, Walloon TEC (transport), TEC bus stops.
Trams and busesA comprehensive Brussels buses, bus and Brussels trams, tram network covers the region. , the Brussels tram system consists of 17 tram lines (three of which – lines T3, T4 and T7 – qualify as ''premetro'' lines). The total route length is , making it one of the largest tram networks in Europe. The Brussels bus network is complementary to the rail network. It consists of 50 bus routes and 11 night routes, spanning . Since April 2007, STIB/MIVB has been operating a night bus network called Noctis. On Fridays and Saturdays, 11 bus routes operate from midnight until 3 a.m. They run from the centre of Brussels to the outer reaches of the Brussels-Capital Region.
TicketingAn interticketing system means that a STIB/MIVB ticket holder can use the train or long-distance buses inside the region. A single journey can include multiple stages across the different modes of transport. The commuter services operated by De Lijn, TEC (transport), TEC and National Railway Company of Belgium, NMBS/SNCB will, in the next few years, be augmented by the Brussels Regional Express Network (RER/GEN), which will connect the capital and surrounding towns. Since August 2016, paper tickets have been discontinued in favour of electronic MoBIB cards.
Other public transportSince 2003, Brussels has had a car-sharing service operated by the Bremen company Cambio, in partnership with the STIB/MIVB and local ridesharing company Taxi Stop. In 2006, a Community bicycle program, public bicycle-sharing programme was introduced. The scheme was subsequently taken over by Villo!. Since 2008, this night-time public transport service has been supplemented by Collecto, a shared taxi system, which operates on weekdays between 11 p.m. and 6 a.m. In 2012, the Zen Car electric car-sharing scheme was launched in the university and European areas.
Road networkIn medieval times, Brussels stood at the intersection of routes running north–south (the modern /) and east–west (/-/-/). The ancient pattern of streets, radiating from the , in large part remains, but has been overlaid by Central Boulevards of Brussels, boulevards built covering of the Senne, over the River Senne, small ring (Brussels), over the city walls and over the railway connection between the North and South Stations. Today, Brussels has the most congested traffic in North America and Europe, according to US traffic information platform INRIX. Brussels is the hub of a range of old national roads, the main ones being clockwise: the N1 road (Belgium), N1 (N to Breda), N2 road (Belgium), N2 (E to Maastricht), N3 road (Belgium), N3 (E to Aachen), N4 road (Belgium), N4 (SE to ) N5 road (Belgium), N5 (S to Reims, Rheims), N6 (S to Maubeuge), N7 (SW to Lille), N8 road (Belgium), N8 (W to Koksijde) and N9 (NW to Ostend). Usually named /, these highways normally run in a straight line, but sometimes lose themselves in a maze of narrow shopping streets. The region is skirted by the European route E19 (N-S) and the European route E40, E40 (E-W), while the E411 leads away to the SE. Brussels has an beltway, orbital motorway, numbered R0 (R-zero) and commonly referred to as the ''Ring''. It is pear-shaped, as the southern side was never built as originally conceived, owing to residents' objections. The city centre, sometimes known as the ''Pentagon'', is surrounded by an inner ring road, the small ring (Brussels), ''Small Ring'' (French: , Dutch: ), a sequence of boulevards formally numbered R20 or N0. These were built upon the site of the second walls of Brussels, second set of city walls following their demolition. The Brussels Metro line 2, metro line 2 runs under much of these. Since June 2015, a number of Central Boulevards of Brussels, central boulevards inside the ''Pentagon'' have become car-free, limiting transit traffic through the old city. On the eastern side of the region, the R21 or ''Greater ring (Brussels), Greater Ring'' (French: , Dutch: ) is formed by a string of boulevards that curves round from Laeken to Uccle. Some ''premetro'' stations (see ) were built on that route. A little further out, a stretch numbered R22 leads from Zaventem to Uccle, Saint-Job.
Security and emergency services
PoliceThe Brussels local police, supported by the federal police, is responsible for law enforcement in Brussels. The 19 municipalities of the Brussels-Capital Region are divided into six police zones, all bilingual (French and Dutch): * 5339 Brussels Capital Ixelles: the and Ixelles * 5340 Brussels West: Sint-Agatha-Berchem, Berchem-Sainte-Agathe, Ganshoren, Jette, Koekelberg and Molenbeek-Saint-Jean * 5341 South: Anderlecht, Forest, Belgium, Forest and Saint-Gilles, Belgium, Saint-Gilles * 5342 Uccle/Watermael-Boitsfort/Auderghem: Auderghem, Uccle and Watermael-Boitsfort * 5343 Montgomery: Etterbeek, et Woluwe-Saint-Pierre * 5344 Polbruno: , Saint-Josse-ten-Noode et Schaerbeek
Fire departmentThe Brussels Fire and Emergency Medical Care Service, commonly known by its acronym SIAMU (DBDMH), operates in the 19 municipalities of Brussels. It is a class X fire department and the largest Fire department, fire service in Belgium in terms of annual operations, equipment, and personnel. It has 9 fire stations, spread over the entire Brussels-Capital Region, and employs about 1,000 professional firefighters. As well as preventing and fighting fires, SIAMU also provides emergency medical care services in Brussels via its centralised 100 number (and the single 112 emergency number for the 27 countries of the European Union). It is bilingual (French–Dutch).
Parks and green spacesBrussels is one of the greenest capitals in Europe, with over 8,000 hectares of green spaces. Vegetation cover and natural areas are higher in the outskirts, where they have limited the peri-urbanisation of the capital, but they decrease sharply towards the centre of Brussels; 10% in the central ''Pentagon'', 30% of the municipalities in the first ring, and 71% of the municipalities in the second ring are occupied by green spaces. Many parks and gardens, both public and privately owned, are scattered throughout the city. In addition to this, the Sonian Forest is located in its southern part and stretches out over the three Communities, regions and language areas of Belgium#Regions, Belgian regions. , it has been inscribed as a World Heritage Site, the only Belgian component to the multinational inscription 'Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe'.
Twin towns and sister citiesBrussels is sister city, twinned with the following cities: * Aichi, Japan * Atlanta, United States * Beijing, People's Republic of China * Berlin, Germany * Brasília, Brazil * Breda, Netherlands * Casablanca, Morocco * Kyiv, Ukraine * Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo * Ljubljana, Slovenia * Macau * Madrid, Spain * Montreal, Canada * Moscow, Russia * Prague, Czech Republic * Tirana, Albania * Washington, D.C., United States
Rankings* , the Brussels-Capital Region is ranked the 12th list of cities in the European Union by population within city limits, largest capital city of the European Union.
See also* Bourgeois of Brussels * Brussels Regional Investment Company * Outline of Belgium * Seven Noble Houses of Brussels * Statue of Europe