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The Brookings Institution, often referred to simply as Brookings, is an
American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is ...

American
research group founded in 1916 on Think Tank Row in
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscaped ...
It conducts research and education in the
social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist o ...

social science
s, primarily in
economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a bran ...

economics
(and
tax policy Tax policy is the choice by a government as to what taxes to levy, in what amounts, and on whom. It has both Microeconomics, microeconomic and macroeconomics, macroeconomic aspects. The macroeconomic aspects concern the overall quantity of taxe ...
), metropolitan policy,
governance Governance is all the processes of interactions be they through the laws Law is a system of rules created and law enforcement, enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,Robertson, ''Crimes against humanity ...

governance
,
foreign policy ''Foreign Policy'' is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy. It produces content daily on its website, and in six print issues annually. ''Foreign Poli ...
,
global economy Global means of or referring to a globe A globe is a spherical of , of some other , or of the . Globes serve purposes similar to s, but unlike maps, they do not distort the surface that they portray except to scale it down. A model globe of Ear ...
, and
economic development In the economic An economy (; ) is an area of the Production (economics), production, Distribution (economics), distribution and trade, as well as Consumption (economics), consumption of Goods (economics), goods and Service (economics), servi ...
. Its stated mission is to "provide innovative and practical recommendations that advance three broad goals: strengthen American democracy; foster the economic and social welfare, security and opportunity of all Americans; and secure a more open, safe, prosperous, and cooperative international system." Brookings has five research programs at its Washington, D.C. campus (Economic Studies, Foreign Policy, Governance Studies, Global Economy and Development, and Metropolitan Policy) and three international centers based in
Doha Doha ( ar, الدوحة, ad-Dawḥa or ''ad-Dōḥa'') is the capital city, capital and most populous city of Qatar. It has a population of 2,382,000 (2018). The city is located on the coast of the Persian Gulf, Persian gulf in the east of the ...

Doha
,
Qatar Qatar (, , or ; ar, قطر, Qaṭar ; local vernacular pronunciation: ), officially the State of Qatar,) is a country in Western Asia. It occupies the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, and shares its ...

Qatar
(Brookings Doha Center);
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
,
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
(Brookings-Tsinghua Center for Public Policy); and
New Delhi New Delhi (, ''Naī Dillī'') is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majusc ...

New Delhi
,
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

India
(Brookings India). The
University of Pennsylvania The University of Pennsylvania (Penn or UPenn) is a in , Pennsylvania. The university, established as the College of Philadelphia in 1740, is one of the nine chartered prior to the . , Penn's founder and first president, advocated an edu ...

University of Pennsylvania
's ''Global Go To Think Tank Index Report'' has named Brookings "Think Tank of the Year" and "Top Think Tank in the World" every year since 2008. ''
The Economist ''The Economist'' is an international weekly newspaper A weekly newspaper is a general-news or current affairsCurrent affairs may refer to: Media * Current Affairs (magazine), ''Current Affairs'' (magazine), a bimonthly magazine of cult ...
'' describes Brookings as "perhaps America’s most prestigious think-tank." Brookings states that its staff "represent diverse points of view" and describes itself as
non-partisan Nonpartisanism is a lack of affiliation with, and a lack of bias toward, a political party. While an Oxford English Dictionary definition of ''partisan'' includes adherents of a party, cause, person, etc., in most cases, nonpartisan refers specifi ...
, and various media outlets have alternately described Brookings as
centrist Centrism is a political outlook or position that involves acceptance and/or support of a balance of social equality and a degree of social hierarchy, while opposing political changes which would result in a significant shift of society strong ...
or
liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an adherent of a Liberal Party Arts, entertainment and media *''El Liberal'', a Spanish newspaper published betw ...
. An academic analysis of Congressional records from 1993 to 2002 found that Brookings was referred to by conservative politicians almost as frequently as liberal politicians, earning a score of 53 on a 1–100 scale with 100 representing the most liberal score. The same study found Brookings to be the most frequently cited think tank by the U.S. media and politicians.


History


1916–1979

Brookings was founded in 1916 as the Institute for Government Research (IGR), with the mission of becoming "the first private organization devoted to analyzing public policy issues at the national level." The Institution's founder, a philanthropist
Robert S. Brookings Robert Somers Brookings (January 22, 1850November 15, 1932) was an American businessman and philanthropist, known for his involvement with Washington University in St. Louis Washington University in St. Louis (WashU, or WUSTL) is a private re ...

Robert S. Brookings
(1850–1932), originally created the formation of three organizations: the Institute for Government Research, the Institute of Economics (with funds from the
Carnegie Corporation The Carnegie Corporation of New York is a philanthropic fund established by Andrew Carnegie Andrew Carnegie ( , November 25, 1835August 11, 1919) was a Scottish-American industrialist and philanthropist Philanthropy consists of "pri ...
), and the Robert Brookings Graduate School affiliated with
Washington University in St. Louis Washington University in St. Louis (WashU, or WUSTL) is a private research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher ( ...

Washington University in St. Louis
. The three were merged into the Brookings Institution on December 8, 1927. During the
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a economic recession, recess ...
, economists at Brookings embarked on a large-scale study commissioned by President
Franklin D. Roosevelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt (, ; January 30, 1882April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American politician who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A member of the De ...

Franklin D. Roosevelt
to understand the underlying causes of the depression. Brookings's first president Harold Moulton and other Brookings scholars later led an effort to oppose President Roosevelt's
National Recovery Administration The National Recovery Administration (NRA) was a prime agency established by U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) in 1933. The goal of the administration was to eliminate " cut throat competition" by bringing industry, labor, and government ...
because they thought the NRA was impeding economic recovery. With the entry into
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
in 1941, Brookings researchers turned their attention to aiding the administration with a series of studies on mobilization. In 1948, Brookings was asked to submit a plan for the administration of the European Recovery Program. The resulting organization scheme assured that the
Marshall Plan The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative passed in 1948 for foreign aid to Western Europe. The United States transferred over $12 billion (equivalent to $ billion in ) in economic rec ...

Marshall Plan
was run carefully and on a businesslike basis. In 1952, Robert Calkins succeeded Moulton as president of the Brookings Institution. He secured grants from the
Rockefeller Foundation '' The Rockefeller Foundation is an American private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue Fifth Avenue is a major thoroughfare in the borough (New York City), borough of Manhattan in New York City. It stretches north from Washington Square Pa ...
and the
Ford Foundation The Ford Foundation is an American private foundation A private foundation is a charitable organization that, while serving a good cause, might or might not qualify as a public charity by government standards. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundati ...
that put the Institution on a strong financial basis. He reorganized the Institution around the Economic Studies, Government Studies, and Foreign Policy Programs. In 1957, the Institution moved from Jackson Avenue to a new research center near
Dupont Circle Dupont Circle is a traffic circle, park, Neighborhoods in Washington, D.C., neighborhood, and Historic district (United States), historic district in Northwest, Washington, D.C., Northwest Washington, D.C. The Dupont Circle neighborhood is bound ...

Dupont Circle
in Washington, D.C. Kermit Gordon assumed the presidency of Brookings in 1967. He began a series of studies of program choices for the federal budget in 1969 entitled "Setting National Priorities". He also expanded the Foreign Policy Studies Program to include research in national security and defense. After the election of
Richard Nixon Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913April 22, 1994) was the 37th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of the and is the of the . The power o ...

Richard Nixon
to the presidency in 1968, the relationship between the Brookings Institution and the White House deteriorated; at one point Nixon's aide
Charles Colson Charles Wendell Colson (October 16, 1931 – April 21, 2012), generally referred to as Chuck Colson, was an American attorney and political advisor who served as Special Counsel In the United States, a special counsel (formerly called spe ...
proposed a firebombing of the Institution. Yet throughout the 1970s, Brookings was offered more federal research contracts than it could handle.


1980–2017

By the 1980s, the Institution faced an increasingly competitive and ideologically charged intellectual environment. The need to reduce the federal budget deficit became a major research theme as well as investigating problems with national security and government inefficiency. Bruce MacLaury, fourth president of Brookings, also established the Center for Public Policy Education to develop workshop conferences and public forums to broaden the audience for research programs. In 1995,
Michael Armacost Michael Hayden Armacost (born April 15, 1937) is a retired American diplomat and a fellow at Stanford University's Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies, Freeman Spogli Institute. He was the President (corporate title), president of ...

Michael Armacost
became the fifth president of the Brookings Institution and led an effort to refocus the Institution's mission heading into the 21st century. Under Armacost's direction, Brookings created several interdisciplinary research centers, such as the Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy (now the Metropolitan Policy Program, led by Bruce J. Katz), which brought attention to the strengths of cities and metropolitan areas; and the Center for Northeast Asian Policy Studies, which brings together specialists from different Asian countries to examine regional problems.
Strobe Talbott Nelson Strobridge "Strobe" Talbott III (born April 25, 1946) is an American foreign policy analyst focused on Russia. He was associated with ''Time (magazine), Time'' magazine, and a diplomat who served as the United States Deputy Secretary of State ...
became president of Brookings in 2002. Shortly thereafter, Brookings launched the
Saban Center for Middle East Policy The Center for Middle East Policy (formerly the Saban Center for Middle East Policy) is a center for research within the Brookings Institution The Brookings Institution, often referred to simply as Brookings, is an American research group founde ...
and the John L. Thornton China Center. In October 2006, Bookings announced the establishment of the Brookings-Tsinghua Center in Beijing. In July 2007, the Institution announced the creation of the Engelberg Center for Health Care Reform to be directed by senior fellow
Mark McClellan Mark Barr McClellan (born June 26, 1963) is the director of the Robert J Margolis Center for Health Policy and the Margolis Professor of Business, Medicine and Health Policy at Duke University. Formerly, he was a senior fellow and director of the H ...
, and then in October 2007, the creation of the Brookings Doha Center directed by fellow
Hady Amr Hady Amr (born 1967) is a government official serving as Deputy Assistant Secretary for Israeli and Palestinian Affairs in the Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs within the U.S. Department of State. He was appointed to the role under President Joe Bide ...
in
Qatar Qatar (, , or ; ar, قطر, Qaṭar ; local vernacular pronunciation: ), officially the State of Qatar,) is a country in Western Asia. It occupies the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, and shares its ...

Qatar
. During this period the funding of Brookings by foreign governments and corporations came under public scrutiny (see Funding controversies below). In 2011, Brookings President Strobe Talbott inaugurated the Brookings India Office. In October 2017, former general John R. Allen became the seventh president of Brookings. As of June 30, 2019, Brookings had an endowment of $377.2 million.


Publications

Brookings as an institution produces an Annual Report. The Brookings Institution Press publishes books and journals from the institution's own research as well as authors outside the organization. The books and journals they publish include ''
Brookings Papers on Economic Activity {{Infobox Journal , title = Brookings Papers on Economic Activity , cover = , former_name = , abbreviation = Brook. Pap. Econ. Act. , discipline = Economics , language = , editors = Janice Eberly ...
'', ''Brookings Review'' (1982–2003, ), ''America Unbound: The Bush Revolution in Foreign Policy'', ''Globalphobia: Confronting Fears about Open Trade'', ''India: Emerging Power'', ''Through Their Eyes'', ''Taking the High Road'', ''Masses in Flight'', US Public Policy Regarding Sovereign Wealth Fund Investment in the United States and ''Stalemate'' to name a few. In addition, books, papers, articles, reports, policy briefs and opinion pieces are produced by Brookings research programs, centers, projects and, for the most part, by experts. Brookings also cooperates with the Lawfare Institute in publishing the ''
Lawfare Lawfare is a term that can have a double meaning A double entendre (plural double entendres) is a figure of speech or a particular way of wording that is devised to have a double meaning, of which one is typically obvious, whereas the other of ...
'' blog.


Policy influence

Brookings traces its history back to 1916 and has contributed to the creation of the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through formal ...

United Nations
, the
Marshall Plan The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative passed in 1948 for foreign aid to Western Europe. The United States transferred over $12 billion (equivalent to $ billion in ) in economic rec ...

Marshall Plan
, and the
Congressional Budget Office The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) is a federal agency within the legislative branch A legislature is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure ...

Congressional Budget Office
, as well as to the development of influential policies for
deregulation Deregulation is the process of removing or reducing state regulations, typically in the economic sphere. It is the repeal of governmental regulation of the economy. It became common in advanced industrial economies in the 1970s and 1980s, as a r ...
, broad-based tax reform,
welfare reform Welfare reforms are changes in the operation of a given Welfare, welfare system, with the goals of reducing the number of individuals dependent on government assistance, keeping the welfare systems affordable, and assisting recipients to become self ...
, and foreign aid. The annual think tank index published by ''Foreign Policy'' ranks it the number one think tank in the U.S. and the Global Go To Think Tank Index believes it is the number one such tank in the world. Moreover, in spite of an overall decline in the number of times information or opinions developed by think tanks are referred to by the US media, of the 200 most prominent think tanks in the U.S., the Brookings Institution's research remains the most frequently cited. In a 1997 survey of congressional staff and journalists, Brookings ranked as the first-most influential and first in credibility among 27 think tanks considered. Yet "Brookings and its researchers are not so concerned, in their work, in affecting the ideological direction of the nation" and rather tend "to be staffed by researchers with strong academic credentials". Along with the
Council on Foreign Relations The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), founded in 1921, is a United States Nonprofit organization, nonprofit think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and International relations, international affairs. It is headquartered in New York City ...
and
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (CEIP) is a nonpartisan foreign-policy think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for ...
, Brookings is generally considered one of the most influential policy institutes in the U.S.


Political stance

As a
501(c)(3) A 501(c)(3) organization is a corporation, trust, unincorporated association, or other type of organization exempt from federal income tax under section 501(c)(3) of Title 26 of the United States Code. It is one of the 29 types of 501(c) organizat ...
non-profit organization, Brookings describes itself as independent and non-partisan. A 2005 academic study by UCLA concluded it was "centrist" because it was referenced as an authority almost equally by both conservative and liberal politicians in congressional records from 1993 to 2002. ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
'' has referred to the organization as liberal, liberal-centrist, and centrist. ''
The Washington Post ''The Washington Post'' (also known as the ''Post'' and, informally, ''WaPo'') is an American daily newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is ...

The Washington Post
'' has described Brookings as centrist and liberal. The ''
Los Angeles Times The ''Los Angeles Times'' (abbreviated as ''LA Times'') is a Newspaper#Daily, daily newspaper based in El Segundo, California, which has been published in Los Angeles, California, since 1881. It has the List of newspapers in the United States, ...

Los Angeles Times
'' has described Brookings as liberal-leaning and centrist before opining that it did not believe such labels mattered. In 1977, ''
Time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past, through the present, into the future. It is a component quantity of various me ...
'' magazine described it as the "nation's pre-eminent liberal think tank". ''
Newsweek ''Newsweek'' is an American weekly founded in 1933, and was widely distributed through the 20th century, with many notable editors-in-chief. In 1961 the magazine was acquired by and remained under its ownership until 2010. Between 2008 and 20 ...
'' has described Brookings as centrist while ''
Politico ''Politico'' (stylized ''POLITICO''), known originally as ''The Politico'', is a political journalism Political journalism is a broad branch of journalism that includes coverage of all aspects of politics and political science Politica ...
'' has used the term "center-left". The media watchdog group
Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting Fairness or being fair can refer to: * Justice Justice, in its broadest sense, is the principle that people receive that which they deserve, with the interpretation of what then constitutes "deserving" being impacted upon by numerous fiel ...
, which describes itself as "progressive", has described Brookings as "centrist", "conservative", and "center-right". Journalists at ''
The Atlantic ''The Atlantic'' is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher. It was founded in 1857 in Boston, as ''The Atlantic Monthly'', a literary and cultural magazine that published leading writers' commentary on education, the , and other maj ...

The Atlantic
'' and ''
Salon Salon may refer to: * Beauty salon A beauty salon or beauty parlor is an establishment dealing with Cosmetics, cosmetic treatments for men and women. There's a difference between a beauty salon and a beauty parlor which is that a beauty salo ...
'' have argued that Brookings foreign policy scholars were overly supportive of Bush administration policies abroad. Blogger
Matthew Yglesias Matthew Yglesias (; born May 18, 1981) is an American blogger and journalist who writes about economics and politics. Yglesias has written columns and articles for publications such as ''The American Prospect ''The American Prospect'' is a daily ...

Matthew Yglesias
has stated that Brookings's Michael E. O'Hanlon frequently agrees with scholars from conservative organizations such as the
American Enterprise Institute The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, known simply as the American Enterprise Institute (AEI), is a Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the W ...
, ''
The Weekly Standard ''The Weekly Standard'' was an American political magazine of news, analysis and commentary, published 48 times per year. Originally edited by founders Bill Kristol and Fred Barnes (journalist), Fred Barnes, the ''Standard'' had been described ...
'', and the
Project for the New American Century The Project for the New American Century (PNAC) was a neoconservativeBenjamin Wittes Benjamin Wittes (born November 5, 1969) is an American legal journalist and Senior Fellow in Governance Studies at the Brookings Institution, where he is the Research Director in Public Law, and Co-Director of the Harvard Law School–Brooki ...
is a member of the conservative
Hoover Institution The Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace is a conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, as well a ...
's Task Force on National Security and Law. Brookings scholars have served in Republican and Democratic administrations, including
Mark McClellan Mark Barr McClellan (born June 26, 1963) is the director of the Robert J Margolis Center for Health Policy and the Margolis Professor of Business, Medicine and Health Policy at Duke University. Formerly, he was a senior fellow and director of the H ...
, Ron Haskins and
Martin Indyk Martin Sean Indyk (born July 1, 1951) is a diplomat and foreign relations analyst with expertise in the Middle East. He was a distinguished fellow in International Diplomacy and later executive vice president at the Brookings Institution The Bro ...

Martin Indyk
. The Brookings Board of Trustees is composed of 53 Trustees and more than three dozen Honorary Trustees, including
Kenneth Duberstein Kenneth M. Duberstein (born April 21, 1944) served as U.S. President Ronald Reagan Ronald Wilson Reagan ( ; February 6, 1911June 5, 2004) was an American politician who served as the 40th president of the United States from 1981 to 1989 ...
, a former chief of staff to Ronald Reagan. Aside from political figures, the board of trustees includes leaders in business and industry, including Philip H. Knight, Chairman of
Nike, Inc Nike, Inc. ( or ) is an American multinational corporation that is engaged in the design, development, manufacturing, and worldwide marketing and sales of footwear, clothing, apparel, equipment, Fashion accessory, accessories, and services. Th ...
,
Robert Bass Robert Muse Bass (born 1948) is an American billionaire businessman and philanthropist. He was the chairman of Aerion Corporation, an American aerospace firm in Reno, Nevada. In 2018 he had a net worth of $5 billion. Bass has served on the Texas D ...
, Hanzade Doğan Boyner,
Paul L. Cejas Paul L. Cejas (born 1943) is a native of Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor Archipelago, archip ...
, W. Edmund Clark,
Abby Joseph Cohen Abby Joseph Cohen (born February 29, 1952) is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), comm ...
, Betsy Cohen, Susan Crown, Arthur B. Culvahouse Jr., Jason Cummins, Paul Desmarais Jr., Kenneth M. Duberstein,
Glenn Hutchins Glenn Hutchins is an American businessman and investor. He is a private equity investor focused on the technology sector and co-founder of Silver Lake Partners, a $39 billion private equity firm. Career After studying at The Lawrenceville School ...
. Starting with the 1990 election cycle, employees of the Brookings Institution gave $853,017 to Democratic candidates and $26,104 to Republican candidates. In total, since 1990, 96 percent of its political donations have gone to Democrats.


Notable scholars

Notable Brookings scholars include former
Federal Reserve The Federal Reserve System (also known as the Federal Reserve or simply the Fed) is the central banking system of the United States of America. It was created on December 23, 1913, with the enactment of the Federal Reserve Act, after a series ...

Federal Reserve
chairs One of the basic pieces of furniture, a chair is a type of seat. Its primary features are two pieces of a durable material, attached as back and seat to one another at a 90°-or-slightly-greater angle, with usually the four corners of the horiz ...
Janet Yellen Janet Louise Yellen (born August 13, 1946) is an American economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and concepts from ...
and
Ben Bernanke Ben Shalom Bernanke ( ; born December 13, 1953) is an American economist at the Brookings Institution The Brookings Institution, often referred to simply as Brookings, is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, ...

Ben Bernanke
; former Federal Reserve vice chairs
Donald Kohn Donald Lewis Kohn (born November 7, 1942) is an Americans, American economist who served as the former Vice Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. He is considered a moderate dove on monetary policy. He retired after 40 ...
,
Alice Rivlin Alice Mitchell Rivlin (born Georgianna Alice Mitchell; March 4, 1931 – May 14, 2019) was an American economist and budget official. She served as Vice Chair of the Federal Reserve The Federal Reserve System (also known as the Federa ...

Alice Rivlin
, and
Alan Blinder Alan Stuart Blinder (, born October 14, 1945) is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), comm ...
; former chairmen of the president's
Jason Furman Jason Furman (born August 18, 1970) is an American economist and professor at Harvard University Harvard University is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Established in 1636 and named for ...

Jason Furman
and Martin Neil Baily; former CEA members Sandra Black, Jay Shambaugh, and James H. Stock; dean of the
University of Michigan , mottoeng = "Arts, Knowledge, Truth" , former_names = Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania (1817–1821) , budget = $8.99 billion (2018) , endowment = $17 billion (2021)As of October 25, 2021. ...

University of Michigan
's Ford School of Public Policy Susan M. Collins; former director of the
Congressional Budget Office The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) is a federal agency within the legislative branch A legislature is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure ...

Congressional Budget Office
Douglas Elmendorf; former Assistant Secretary of State Martin S. Indyk; former US Secretary of Education
Arne Duncan Arne Starkey Duncan (born November 6, 1964) is an American educator and was a United States Secretary of Education from January 2009 through July 2016. While his tenure as Secretary was marked by varying degrees of opposition from both social cons ...
; former
Federal Communications Commission The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in different jurisdictions. I ...
chairman
Tom Wheeler Thomas Edgar Wheeler (born April 5, 1946) is an American businessman and politician. He was the 31st Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an Independent agencies of the United Stat ...
; ''
Washington Post ''The Washington Post'' (also known as the ''Post'' and, informally, ''WaPo'') is an American daily newspaper published in Washington, D.C. It is the most-widely circulated newspaper within the Washington metropolitan area, and has a large nat ...

Washington Post
'' columnist E. J. Dionne;, ''The Wall Street Journal, Wall Street Journal'' columnist William Galston, and former NSC official Fiona Hill (presidential advisor), Fiona Hill.


Research programs


Center for Middle East Policy

In 2002, the Brookings Institution established the Center for Middle East Policy "to promote a better understanding of the policy choices facing American decision-makers in the Middle East.


Brookings-Tsinghua Center for Public Policy

In 2006, the Brookings Institution established the Brookings-Tsinghua Center (BTC) for Public Policy as a partnership between the Brookings Institution in Washington, DC and Tsinghua University's School of Public Policy and Management in
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
,
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
. The Center seeks to produce research in areas of fundamental importance for China's development and for US-China relations. The BTC was directed by Qi Ye until 2019.


21st Century Defense Initiative

The 21st Century Defense Initiative (21CDI) is aimed at producing research, analysis, and outreach that address three core issues: the future of war, the future of U.S. defense needs and priorities, and the future of the US defense system. The Initiative draws on the knowledge from regional centers, including the Center on the United States and Europe, the Center for Northeast Asian Policy Studies, the Thornton China Center, and the Center for Middle East Policy, allowing the integration of regional knowledge. P. W. Singer, author of ''Wired for War'', serves as Director of the 21st Century Defense Initiative, and Michael E. O'Hanlon, Michael O'Hanlon serves as Director of Research. Senior Fellow Stephen P. Cohen and Vanda Felbab-Brown are also affiliated with 21CDI.


WashU at Brookings

Under Brookings President Bruce MacLaury's leadership in the 1980s, the Center for Public Policy Education (CPPE) was formed to develop workshop conferences and public forums to broaden the audience for research programs. In 2005, the Center has renamed the Brookings Center for Executive Education (BCEE), which was shortened to Brookings Executive Education (BEE) with the launch of a partnership with the Olin Business School at
Washington University in St. Louis Washington University in St. Louis (WashU, or WUSTL) is a private research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher ( ...

Washington University in St. Louis
. The academic partnership is now known as "Washington University in St. Louis, WashU at Brookings".


Centers

*Anne T. And Robert M. Bass Center For Transformative Placemaking * Brown Center on Education Policy * Centennial Scholar Initiative * Center for 21st Century Security and Intelligence * Center for East Asia Policy Studies * Center for Effective Public Management * Center for Health Policy * Center for Middle East Policy * Center for Technology Innovation * Center for Universal Education * Center on Children and Families * Center on Social Dynamics and Policy * Center on the United States and Europe * John L. Thornton China Center * The Hutchins Center on Fiscal and Monetary Policy * Tax Policy Center, Urban-Brookings Tax Policy Center


Funders


Funding details

As of 2017 the Brookings Institution had assets of $524.2 million. Its largest contributors include the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the Hutchins Family Foundation, JPMorgan Chase, the LEGO Foundation, David Rubenstein, Qatar, State of Qatar, and John L. Thornton. Funding details as of 2017:


Funding controversies

An investigation by ''The New York Times'', reported on September 6, 2014, found the Brookings Institution to be among more than a dozen Washington research groups to have received payments from foreign governments while encouraging U.S. officials to encourage support for policies aligned with those foreign governments' agenda. ''The New York Times'' published documents showing that Brookings Institution accepted grants from Norway with specific policy requests and helped the country gain access to U.S. government officials, as well as other "deliverables". In June 2014, Norway agreed to make an additional $4 million donation to Brookings. Several legal specialists who examined the documents told the paper that the language of the transactions "appeared to necessitate Brookings filing as a foreign agent" under the Foreign Agent Registration Act. The Qatari government was named by ''The New York Times'' as "the single biggest foreign donor to Brookings", having reportedly made a $14.8 million, four-year contribution in 2013. A former visiting fellow at a Brookings affiliate in Qatar reportedly said that "he had been told during his job interview that he could not take positions critical of the Qatar government in papers". Brookings officials denied any connection between the views of their funders and their scholars' work, citing reports that questioned the Qatari government's education reform efforts and criticized its support of militants in Syria. However, Brookings officials reportedly acknowledged that they meet with Qatari government officials regularly. In 2018, ''The Washington Post'' reported that the Brookings Institution accepted funding from Huawei from 2012 to 2018. A report by the Center for International Policy's Center for International Policy#Foreign Influence Transparency Initiative, Foreign Influence Transparency Initiative of the top 50 think tanks on the
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's Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program#Global Go To Think Tank Index, Global Go-To Think Tanks rating index found that during the period 2014-2018 the Brookings Institution received the third-highest amount of funding from outside the United States compared to other think tanks, with a total of more than US$27 million.


Buildings

The main building of the Institution was erected in 1959 on 1775 Massachusetts Avenue. In 2009, Brookings acquired a building across the street, a former mansion built by the Ingalls family in 1922 on a design by Jules Henri de Sibour. This extension now houses the office of the President of the Brookings Institution.


See also

* List of Brookings Institution scholars


References


Citations


Sources

* Abelson, Donald E. ''Do Think Tanks Matter?: Assessing the Impact of Public Policy Institutes'' (2009). * Weidenbaum, Murray L. ''The Competition of Ideas: The World of the Washington Think Tanks'' (2011). * Boyd, Paxton F.''Do Think Tanks Matter?: Assessing the Impact of Public Policy Institutes'' (2009).


External links

* *
Think Tank Rankings


at NewAmericanCentury.org * {{Authority control Brookings Institution, 1916 establishments in Washington, D.C. Centrism in the United States Centrist political advocacy groups in the United States Charities based in Washington, D.C. Dupont Circle Embassy Row Foreign policy and strategy think tanks in the United States Nonpartisan organizations in the United States Organizations established in 1916 Political and economic think tanks in the United States Think tanks based in Washington, D.C.