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British North America comprised the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
's colonial territories in North America from 1783 to 1907, not including the Caribbean. The Atlantic island of Bermuda (originally part of Virginia and, with the Bahamas, grouped with North America prior to 1783) was grouped with the Maritimes from 1783 until the formation of the Canadian dominion, and thereafter generally with the colonies in the British West Indies, although the Church of England continued to place Bermuda under the Bishop of Newfoundland until 1919. The term was first used informally in 1783, but it was uncommon before the
Report on the Affairs of British North America The ''Report on the Affairs of British North America'', (1839) commonly known as the ''Durham Report'' or ''Lord Durham's Report'', is an important document in the history of Quebec ) , image_map = Quebec in Canada 2.svg , L ...
(1839), called the Durham Report. These territories today form modern-day Canada and the
Pacific Northwest The Pacific Northwest (PNW) is a geographic region in western North America bounded by its coastal waters of the Pacific Ocean to the west and, loosely, by the Rocky Mountains to the east. Though no official boundary exists, the most common co ...
of the United States.
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...
colonisation of North America began in the 16th century in
Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic Canada, Atlantic region. It is composed of the island of Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland and the continental ...
, then began further south at Roanoke and
Jamestown, Virginia The Jamestown settlement in the Colony of Virginia was the first permanent British colonization of the Americas, English settlement in the Americas. It was located on the northeast bank of the James River, James (Powhatan) River about southwe ...
, and reached its peak when colonies had been established through much of the Americas.


Political divisions

In 1775, on the eve of the
American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution which occurred in colonial North America between 1765 and 1783. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colo ...
,
British America British America comprised the colonial territories of the British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, terri ...

British America
included territories in the Western Hemisphere northeast of
New Spain New Spain, officially the Viceroyalty of New Spain ( es, Virreinato de Nueva España, ), or Kingdom of New Spain, was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as th ...

New Spain
, apart from the islands and claims of the
British West Indies The British West Indies, sometimes abbreviated to the BWI, is a collective term for the British territories The British Overseas Territories (BOTs), also known as United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs), are fourteen dependent territo ...
. These were: *
Bermuda ) , anthem = "God Save the Queen "God Save the Queen", alternatively "God Save the King" (dependent on the gender of the reigning monarch), is the or in most s, their territories, and the British . The author of the tune is unknown, ...

Bermuda
*
British Arctic Territories The British Arctic territories, now known as the Arctic Archipelago The Arctic Archipelago, also known as the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chai ...
*
the Floridas 225px, Under Spanish rule, Florida was divided by the natural separation of the Carey & Isaac Lea, Lea, 1822) The Floridas ( es, Las Floridas) was a region of the southeastern United States comprising the historical colonies of East Florida and W ...
( East and
West Florida West Florida ( es, Florida Occidental) was a region on the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico The Gulf of Mexico ( es, Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North America ...
, administered separately) *
Indian Reserve In Canada, an Indian reserve (french: réserve indienne) is specified by the ''Indian Act The ''Indian Act'' (, long name ''An Act to amend and consolidate the laws respecting Indians'') is a Canadian act of Parliament that concerns India ...
*
Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic Canada, Atlantic region. It is composed of the island of Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland and the continental ...
*
North-Western Territory The North-Western Territory was a region of British North America British North America comprised the British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate ...
*
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , capital ...
*
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...
*
Rupert's Land Rupert's Land (french: Terre de Rupert), or Prince Rupert's Land, was a territory in British North America comprising the Hudson Bay drainage basin, a territory in which a commercial monopoly was operated by the Hudson's Bay Company for 200 ...
(the territory of the
Hudson's Bay Company The Hudson's Bay Company (HBC; french: Compagnie de la Baie d'Hudson) is a Canadian, now American-owned, retail Retail is the sale of goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with ...
) * St. John's Island (later
Prince Edward Island (''The small protected by the great'') , image_map = Prince Edward Island in Canada (special marker) 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English English usually ref ...

Prince Edward Island
) * the
Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of Kingdom of Great Britain, British colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America. Founded in the 17th and 18th centuries, th ...
(each one administered separately, soon to become the United States) The Somers Isles, or
Bermuda ) , anthem = "God Save the Queen "God Save the Queen", alternatively "God Save the King" (dependent on the gender of the reigning monarch), is the or in most s, their territories, and the British . The author of the tune is unknown, ...

Bermuda
, had been occupied by the
Virginia Company The Virginia Company was an English trading companyTrading companies are business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling Product (business), products (such as goods and services). ...
since its flagship, the
Sea Venture ''Sea Venture'' was a seventeenth-century English sailing ship, part of the Third SupplyThe Jamestown supply missions were a series of fleets (or sometimes individual ships) from 1607 to around 1611 that were dispatched from England by the Londo ...
, was wrecked there in 1609, and the archipelago was officially added to the company's territory in 1612, then managed by a spin-off, the
Somers Isles Company The Somers Isles Company (fully, the Company of the City of London for the Plantacion of The Somers Isles or the Company of The Somers Isles) was formed in 1615 to operate the English colonial empire, English colony of the Somers Isles, also known ...
, until 1684, but maintained close links with Virginia and
Carolina Colony Carolina was a province of Kingdom of England, England (1663–1707) and Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain (1707–1712) that existed in North America and the Caribbean from 1663 until partitioned into Province of North Carolina, North an ...
(which had subsequently been settled from Bermuda under
William Sayle Captain William Sayle (c. 1590–1671) was a prominent British landholder who was Governor A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the Executive (government), executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national ...
in 1670). The British Government originally grouped Bermuda with North America (the archipelago is approximately east-southeast of
Cape Hatteras Cape Hatteras is a bend in Hatteras Island, one of the barrier islands of North Carolina North Carolina () is a U.S. state, state in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. North Carolina is the List of ...

Cape Hatteras
,
North Carolina North Carolina () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily news ...

North Carolina
(with ''Cape Point'' on
Hatteras Island Hatteras Island (historically Croatoan Island) is a barrier island Barrier islands are coastal landforms and a type of dune system that are exceptionally flat or lumpy areas of sand that form by wave and tidal action parallel to the mainlan ...
being the nearest landfall); south of
Cape Sable Island Cape Sable Island, locally referred to as Cape Island, is a small Canada, Canadian island at the southernmost point of the Nova Scotia peninsula. It is sometimes confused with Sable Island. Historically, the Argyle, Nova Scotia region was known as ...
,
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , capital ...

Nova Scotia
; northeast of
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud Isla de la Juventud (; en, Isle of Youth) is the second-largest Cuban islan ...

Cuba
, and due north of the
British Virgin Islands ) , anthem = "God Save the Queen" , song_type = Territorial song , song = "Oh, Beautiful Virgin Islands" , image_map = British Virgin Islands in United Kingdom.svg , map_caption = , mapsize = 290px , image_map2 = British Virgin Islands ...

British Virgin Islands
. Although Bermudians, with close ties of blood and trade to the southern continental colonies (especially Virginia and South Carolina), tended towards the rebels early in the American War of Independence, the control of the surrounding Atlantic by the Royal Navy meant there was no likelihood of the colony joining the rebellion. Although the rebels were supplied with ships and gunpowder by the Bermudians, Bermudian privateers soon turned aggressively on rebel shipping. After the acknowledgement by the British Government of the independence of the thirteen rebellious continental colonies in 1783, Bermuda was grouped regionally by the British Government with
The Maritimes The Maritimes, also called the Maritime provinces, is a region In geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, in ...
and
Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador (; sometimes abbreviated as NL) is the easternmost province of Canada The Province of Canada (or the United Province of Canada or the United Canadas) (french: link=no, Province du Canada) was a British North Am ...
, and, more widely, with British North America. Following the war, the Royal Navy spent a dozen years charting the barrier reef around Bermuda to discover the channel that enabled access to the northern lagoon, the Great Sound, and
Hamilton Harbour 250px, The Burlington Bay James N. Allan Skyway bridges the waters of Hamilton Harbour. Hamilton Harbour, formerly known as Burlington Bay, lies on the western tip of Lake Ontario Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes File:Locat ...
. Once this had been located, a base was established (initially at St. George's before the construction of the
Royal Naval Dockyard, Bermuda HMD Bermuda ( Her/His Majesty's Dockyard, Bermuda) was the principal base of the Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's Navy, naval warfare force. Although warships were used by English and Scottish kings from the early medi ...
) in 1794, when Vice Admiral
Sir George Murray Sir George Murray (6 February 1772 – 28 July 1846) was a United Kingdom, British soldier and politician from Scotland. Background and education Murray was born in Perth, Scotland, Perth, Scotland, the second son of Sir William Murray, of Ocht ...
, Commander-in-Chief of the new River St. Lawrence and Coast of America and North America and West Indies Station, set up the first
Admiralty House, Bermuda Admiralty House in Bermuda was the official residence and offices for the senior officer of the Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's Navy, naval warfare force. Although warships were used by English and Scottish kings from ...
at Rose Hill, St. George's. In 1813, the area of command became the ''North America Station'' again, with the West Indies falling under the
Jamaica Station Jamaica station is a major train station A train station, railway station, railroad station or depot is a Rail transport, railway facility or area where trains regularly stop to load or unload passenger train, passengers, freight rail transp ...
, and in 1816 it was renamed the ''North America and Lakes of Canada Station''. The headquarters was initially in Bermuda during the winter and Halifax during the summer, but Bermuda, became the year-round headquarters of the Station in 1821, when the area of command became the ''North America and Newfoundland Station''.Marilyn Gurney, The Kings Yard, Maritime Command Museum, Halifax. The
Royal Naval Dockyard, Halifax Royal Naval Dockyard, Halifax was a Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's Navy, naval warfare force. Although warships were used by English and Scottish kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime enga ...
was finally transferred to the
Royal Canadian Navy , march = "Heart of Oak" , mascot = SONAR (Newfoundland dog) , battles = , website = , commander1 = , Monarchy of Canada, of Can ...
in 1907.''The Andrew and The Onions: The Story of The Royal Navy in Bermuda, 1795–1975'', by Lieutenant-Commander B. Ian D. Stranack. Bermuda Maritime Museum Press A British Army
garrison Garrison (from the French ''garnison'', itself from the verb ''garnir'', "to equip") is the collective term for any body of troop A troop is a military sub-subunit, originally a small formation of cavalry, subordinate to a Squadron (cav ...
was re-established at Bermuda in 1794 (a small garrison had existed from 1701 to 1768, alongside the militia, and part of the Royal Garrison Battalion had been stationed there in 1778 but the battalion was disbanded there in 1784) and was expanded greatly during the 19th Century, both to defend the colony as a naval base and to launch amphibious operations against the Atlantic coast of the United States in any war that should transpire. Prior to 1784, the
Bermuda Garrison The Bermuda Garrison was the military establishment maintained on the British Overseas Territory of Bermuda by the regular British Army, and its local militia and Territorial Army (United Kingdom), voluntary reserves from 1701 to 1957. The garris ...
had been placed under the military Commander-in-Chief America in New York during the American War of Independence, but was to become part of the Nova Scotia Command until the 1860s (in 1815, Lieutenant-General Sir
George PrevostGeorge may refer to: People * George (given name) George (in English or in Romanian) is a masculine given name derived from the Greek language, Greek Georgios, Geōrgios (; ). The name gained popularity due to its association with the Christian ...
was ''Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief in and over the Provinces of Upper-Canada, Lower-Canada, Nova-Scotia, and New~Brunswick, and their several Dependencies, Vice-Admiral of the same, Lieutenant-General and Commander of all His Majesty’s Forces in the said Provinces of Lower Canada and Upper-Canada, Nova-Scotia and New-Brunswick, and their several Dependencies, and in the islands of Newfoundland, Prince Edward, Cape Breton and the Bermudas, &c. &c. &c.'' Beneath Prevost, the staff of the British Army in ''the Provinces of Nova-Scotia, New-Brunswick, and their Dependencies, including the Islands of Newfoundland, Cape Breton, Prince Edward and Bermuda'' were under the Command of Lieutenant-General Sir
John Coape Sherbrooke General A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines Marines or naval infantry, are typically a military force trained to operate on Littoral Zone, littoral zone ...

John Coape Sherbrooke
. Below Sherbrooke, the
Bermuda Garrison The Bermuda Garrison was the military establishment maintained on the British Overseas Territory of Bermuda by the regular British Army, and its local militia and Territorial Army (United Kingdom), voluntary reserves from 1701 to 1957. The garris ...
was under the immediate control of the Lieutenant-Governor of Bermuda, Major-General George Horsford). The Royal Navy, British Army, Royal Marines, and Colonial Marines forces based in Bermuda carried out actions of this sort during the American War of 1812 (most notably the
Burning of Washington The Burning of Washington was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the British i ...
in retribution for the "wanton destruction of private property along the north shores of Lake Erie" by American forces under Col. John Campbell in May 1814, the most notable being the
Raid on Port Dover The Raid on Port Dover was an episode during the War of 1812 The War of 1812 (18 June 1812 – 17 February 1815) was a conflict fought by the and its against and its allies in , with limited participation by in . It began when the US de ...
) to draw United States forces away from the Canadian border.] The established
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
in Bermuda (since 1978, titled the
Anglican Church of Bermuda The Anglican Church of Bermuda (as the Church of England in the British Overseas Territory of Bermuda ) , anthem = "God Save the Queen" , song_type = Unofficial territorial song , song = "Hail to Bermuda" , image_map = , map_caption = ...
) and Newfoundland was attached to the See of
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , capital ...

Nova Scotia
from 1825 to 1839 and from 1787 to 1839, respectively. From 1839, the island of Newfoundland and the coast of Labrador, as well as Bermuda, became parts of the Diocese of Newfoundland and Bermuda, with the shared Bishop ( Aubrey George Spencer being the first) alternating his residence between the two colonies. A separate Bermuda Synod was incorporated in 1879, but continued to share its Bishop with Newfoundland until 1919, when the separate position of
Bishop of BermudaThe Bishop of Bermuda is an Episcopal polity, episcopal title given to the Ordinary (officer), ordinary of the Anglican Church of Bermuda, one of six extra-provincial Anglican churches within the Church of England overseen by the Archbishop of Cante ...
was created (in 1949, on Newfoundland becoming a province of Canada, the Diocese of Newfoundland became part of the
Anglican Church of Canada Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called ''Anglicans''; t ...
; the Church of England in Bermuda, which was re-titled the
Anglican Church of Bermuda The Anglican Church of Bermuda (as the Church of England in the British Overseas Territory of Bermuda ) , anthem = "God Save the Queen" , song_type = Unofficial territorial song , song = "Hail to Bermuda" , image_map = , map_caption = ...
in 1978, is today one of six
extra-provincial Anglican churches The extra-provincial Anglican churches are a group of small, semi-independent church entities within the Anglican Communion The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian Full communion, communion after the Catholic Church and Easter ...
within the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
overseen by the
Archbishop of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Cat ...
).Anglican Diocese of Eastern Newfoundland and Labrador
/ref> Britain acquired Quebec and the eastern half of
Louisiana Louisiana (Standard French Standard French (in French: ''le français standard'', ''le français normé'', ''le français neutre'' eutral Frenchor ''le français international'' nternational French is an unofficial term for a standard ...
, including West Florida, from France, and East Florida from Spain, by the
Treaty of Paris (1763) The Treaty of Paris, also known as the Treaty of 1763, was signed on 10 February 1763 by the kingdoms of Great Britain Great Britain is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by ...
, which ended the
Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain and Kingdom of France, France. In Europe, the conflict ar ...
. (Spain had not taken possession of any of Louisiana, which had been ceded to it under the Treaty of Fontainebleau, from France until 1769.) By the
Treaty of Paris (1783) The Treaty of Paris, signed in Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of m ...
, the United States acquired the part of Quebec south of the Great Lakes; at the same time Spain gained West Florida and regained East Florida. Nova Scotia was split into modern-day
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , capital ...

Nova Scotia
and
New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Fredericton Fredericton (; ) is the capital city of the Canadian provinc ...

New Brunswick
in 1784. The part of Quebec retained after 1783 was split into the primarily French-speaking
Lower Canada The Province of Lower Canada (french: province du Bas-Canada) was a British colony Within the British Empire, a Crown colony or royal colony was a colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. ...
and the primarily English-speaking
Upper Canada The Province of Upper Canada (french: link=no, province du Haut-Canada) was a part Part, parts or PART may refer to: People *Armi Pärt Armi Pärt (born 18 June 1991) is an Estonian handballer, playing in French D2 for Massy Essonne H ...
in 1791. After the
War of 1812 The War of 1812 (18 June 1812 – 17 February 1815) was a conflict fought by the United States of America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It ...
, the
Treaty of 1818 The Convention respecting fisheries, boundary and the restoration of slaves, also known as the London Convention, Anglo-American Convention of 1818, Convention of 1818, or simply the Treaty of 1818, is an international treaty A treaty is ...
established the 49th parallel as the United States–British North America border from Rupert's Land west to the
Rocky Mountains The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with simila ...

Rocky Mountains
. Then, in 1846, Britain and the United States split the
Oregon Country In the 19th century, the Oregon Country was a disputed region of the Pacific Northwest The Pacific Northwest (PNW) is a geographic region in western North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphe ...
. The United States was assigned lands south of the 49th parallel, but Britain retained all of
Vancouver Island Vancouver Island is an island in the northeastern Pacific Ocean and part of the Canadian Provinces and territories of Canada, province of British Columbia. The island is in length, in width at its widest point, and in area. The island is the ...
(including south of the 49th parallel). After threats and squabbles over rich timber lands, the boundary with
Maine Maine () is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States, bordered by New Hampshire to the west; the Gulf of Maine to the southeast; and the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Qu ...

Maine
was clarified by the
Webster–Ashburton Treaty The Webster–Ashburton Treaty, signed August 9, 1842, was a treaty that resolved several border issues between the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a countr ...
of 1842.
The Canadas The Canadas is the collective name for the provinces of Lower Canada The Province of Lower Canada (french: province du Bas-Canada) was a British colony Within the British Empire, a Crown colony or royal colony was a colony In politic ...
were united into the
Province of Canada The Province of Canada (or the United Province of Canada or the United Canadas) (french: link=no, Province du Canada) was a British colony Within the British Empire, a Crown colony or royal colony was a colony In political science, ...
in 1841. On 1 July 1867, the
Dominion of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as the northern subcontinent of ...
was created by the
British North America Act, 1867 The ''Constitution Act, 1867'The Constitution Act, 1867'', 30 & 31 Victoria (U.K.), c. 3, http://canlii.ca/t/ldsw retrieved on 2019-03-14. (french: Loi constitutionnelle de 1867, originally enacted as ''The British North America Act, 1867 ...

British North America Act, 1867
. The confederation process brought together the provinces of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. The former Province of Canada was split back into its two parts, with
Canada East Canada East (french: links=no, Canada-Est) was the northeastern portion of the United Province of Canada The Province of Canada (or the United Province of Canada or the United Canadas) (french: link=no, Province du Canada) was a Britis ...
(Lower Canada) being renamed
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
, and
Canada West The Province of Canada (or the United Province of Canada or the United Canadas) (french: link=no, Province du Canada) was a British colony Within the British Empire, a Crown colony or royal colony was a colony In political science, ...
(Upper Canada) renamed
Ontario ("Loyal she began, loyal she remains") , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , cap ...

Ontario
. Following confederation in 1867, the British Army withdrew from Canada in 1871, handing military defence over to the
Canadian Militia The Canadian Militia is a historical title for military units raised for the defence of Canada. The term has been used to describe sedentary militia units raised from local communities in Canada; as well as the regular army for the Province of Can ...
. With the consequent abolition of the British Army's Nova Scotia Command, and the office of its Commander-in-Chief for British North America, the still-growing Bermuda Garrison was elevated to a separate ''Bermuda Command''.] Although Newfoundland remained separate from Canada until 1949, Bermuda, following Canadian confederation, was increasingly perceived by the British Government as in, or at least grouped for convenience with, the British West Indies. The last administrative link to the Maritimes was the established church. In 1879 the Synod of the Church of England in Bermuda was formed and a Diocese of Bermuda became separate from the Diocese of Newfoundland, but continued to be grouped under the ''Bishop of Newfoundland and Bermuda'' until 1919, when Newfoundland and Bermuda each received its own bishop. In 1870, Rupert's Land was annexed to Canada as the
Northwest Territories The Northwest Territories (commonly abbreviated as NT or NWT; french: Territoires du Nord-Ouest) is a federal territory A territory is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subd ...

Northwest Territories
(NWT) and the new province of
Manitoba Manitoba ( ) is a Provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada at the Centre of Canada, longitudinal centre of the country. It is Canada's Population of Canada by province and territory, fifth-most populous province, with a population o ...

Manitoba
.
British Columbia ( en, Splendour without diminishment) , image_map = British Columbia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = None , Slogan = Beautiful British C ...

British Columbia
, the British colony on the west coast north of the 49th parallel, including all of
Vancouver Island Vancouver Island is an island in the northeastern Pacific Ocean and part of the Canadian Provinces and territories of Canada, province of British Columbia. The island is in length, in width at its widest point, and in area. The island is the ...
, joined as Canada's sixth province in 1871, and Prince Edward Island joined as the seventh in 1873. The boundary of British Columbia with
Washington Territory The Territory of Washington was an organized incorporated territory of the United States and the founding of the United States: Kingdom of Great Britain, British claims are indicated in red and pink, while Spanish claims are in orange and yello ...
was settled by arbitration in 1872, and with
Alaska Alaska (; ale, Alax̂sxax̂; ; ems, Alas'kaaq; Central Alaskan Yup'ik language, Yup'ik: ''Alaskaq''; tli, Anáaski) is a U.S. state in the Western United States, on the northwest extremity of the country's West Coast of the United State ...

Alaska
by arbitration in 1903. The
Arctic Archipelago The Arctic Archipelago, also known as the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a smal ...
was ceded by Britain to Canada in 1880 and added to the Northwest Territories (NWT). Later on, large sections of the NWT were split off as new territories (the
Yukon Territory Yukon (; ; also called Yukon Territory and referred to by some as the Yukon) is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three territories. It also is the least populated province or territory in Canada, with a population of 35,874 people as of ...
in 1898 and
Nunavut Nunavut ( iu, ᓄᓇᕗᑦ ; ) is the largest and northernmost provinces and territories of Canada, territory of Canada. It was separated officially from the Northwest Territories on April 1, 1999, via the ''Nunavut Act'' and the ''Nunavut ...
in 1999), or provinces (
Alberta ("Strong and free") , image_map = Alberta in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English , capital = Edmonton Edmonton ( ) is the capital ...

Alberta
and
Saskatchewan ("From Many Peoples Strength") , image_map = Saskatchewan in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English language, English , capital = Regina, S ...
, both in 1905), or were added to existing provinces (Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec, in stages ending in 1912). In 1907, the sole remaining British North American colony,
Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic Canada, Atlantic region. It is composed of the island of Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland and the continental ...
, was granted the status of a
Dominion The term dominion was used to refer to one of several self-governing nations of the British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other D ...

Dominion
, although starting in 1934 it returned to British administration under the
Commission of Government Commission or commissioning may refer to: Business and contracting * Commission (remuneration)Commissions are a form of variable-pay remuneration for services rendered or products sold. Commissions are a common way to motivate and reward salespeo ...
. In 1949, the island of
Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic Canada, Atlantic region. It is composed of the island of Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland and the continental ...
, and its associated mainland territory of
Labrador , nickname = "The Big Land" , etymology = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name = Canada , subdivision_type1 = Provinces and territories of ...

Labrador
, joined Canada as the tenth province. Canada became semi-independent beginning in 1867, and fully sovereign on foreign affairs beginning with the
Statute of Westminster 1931 The Statute of Westminster 1931 is an act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom In the United Kingdom an Act of Parliament is primary legislation In parliamentary systems and presidential systems of government, primary legislation and ...
. Canada gained the right to establish and accept foreign embassies, with the first one being in Washington, D.C. Then the last vestiges of Canada's constitutional dependency upon Britain remained until Canadians from various provinces agreed on an internal procedure for amending the Canadian Constitution. This agreement was implemented when the British Parliament passed the
Canada Act 1982 The Canada Act 1982 (1982 c. 11; french: Loi de 1982 sur le Canada) is an act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may r ...
at the request of the
Parliament of Canada The Parliament of Canada (french: Parlement du Canada) is the federal Federal or foederal (archaic) may refer to: Politics General *Federal monarchy, a federation of monarchies *Federation, or ''Federal state'' (federal system), a type of gov ...

Parliament of Canada
. Maton, 1998, article


British North America colonies

The colonies that existed before the signing of the 1846 Oregon Treaty: *
Province of Canada The Province of Canada (or the United Province of Canada or the United Canadas) (french: link=no, Province du Canada) was a British colony Within the British Empire, a Crown colony or royal colony was a colony In political science, ...
(previously
Upper Canada The Province of Upper Canada (french: link=no, province du Haut-Canada) was a part Part, parts or PART may refer to: People *Armi Pärt Armi Pärt (born 18 June 1991) is an Estonian handballer, playing in French D2 for Massy Essonne H ...
and
Lower Canada The Province of Lower Canada (french: province du Bas-Canada) was a British colony Within the British Empire, a Crown colony or royal colony was a colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. ...
) *Colony of Newfoundland, Newfoundland *
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , capital ...

Nova Scotia
*
New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Fredericton Fredericton (; ) is the capital city of the Canadian provinc ...

New Brunswick
*
Prince Edward Island (''The small protected by the great'') , image_map = Prince Edward Island in Canada (special marker) 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English English usually ref ...

Prince Edward Island
*
Rupert's Land Rupert's Land (french: Terre de Rupert), or Prince Rupert's Land, was a territory in British North America comprising the Hudson Bay drainage basin, a territory in which a commercial monopoly was operated by the Hudson's Bay Company for 200 ...
*
British Arctic Territories The British Arctic territories, now known as the Arctic Archipelago The Arctic Archipelago, also known as the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chai ...
*Columbia District/
Oregon Country In the 19th century, the Oregon Country was a disputed region of the Pacific Northwest The Pacific Northwest (PNW) is a geographic region in western North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphe ...
(shared with the United States)


Administration

Besides the local colonial governments in each colony, British North America was administered directly via London. From 1783 through 1801, British North America was administered by the Home Office and by the Home Secretary, then from 1801 to 1854 under the War Office and Secretary of State for War and Colonies. When the Colonial Office was reestablished it was under the responsibility of the Secretary of State for the Colonies, Colonial Secretary. The postal system had a deputy based in British North America, with administration from London.''Rapport de L'assemblée Annuelle''. Canadian Historical Association, 1948. p
64
"Up to 1846 the postal services in British North America were administered from London through a deputy residing in the colonies."


See also

*Atlantic history *
British America British America comprised the colonial territories of the British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, terri ...

British America
*
British West Indies The British West Indies, sometimes abbreviated to the BWI, is a collective term for the British territories The British Overseas Territories (BOTs), also known as United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs), are fourteen dependent territo ...
*British North America Acts *British colonization of the Americas *Canada under British rule *Colonial government in the Thirteen Colonies *Colonial history of the United States *Economic history of the United States#Colonial era *Former colonies and territories in Canada *Historiography of the British Empire, with long bibliography *History of Canada *New England Colonies


References


Sources

* *


Further reading

* Bailyn, Bernard. ''The Peopling of British North America: An Introduction'' (1988
excerpt and text search
* Cooke, Jacob E. ''Encyclopedia of the North American Colonies'' (3 vol 1993) * Foster, Stephen, ed. ''British North America in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries'' (Oxford History of the British Empire Companion) (2014
excerpt and text search
11 essays by scholars * Garner, John. ''The franchise and politics in British North America, 1755–1867'' (U of Toronto Press, 1969) * Gipson, Lawrence Henry. ''The British Empire Before the American Revolution'' (15 vol., 1936–70), extremely comprehensive study; Pulitzer Prize * Morton, W. L. ''The Kingdom of Canada: A General History from Earliest Times'' (1969) * Savelle, Max. ''Empires To Nations: Expansion In America 1713–1824'' (1974
online
{{Authority control British North America, Former British colonies and protectorates in the Americas Former colonies in North America History of Canada by period 19th century in Canada 19th century in the British Empire 19th century in North America 1790s in Canada 1900s in Canada History of Canada English-speaking countries and territories