British India (1793–1947)In 1608, Mughal authorities allowed the English East India Company to establish a small trading settlement at Surat (now in the state of ), and this became the company's first headquarters town. It was followed in 1611 by a permanent factory at Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast, and in 1612 the company joined other already established East India Company (disambiguation), European trading companies in Bengal in trade. However, the power of the Mughal Empire declined from 1707, first at the hands of the Maratha Empire, Marathas and later due to invasion from Persia (1739) and Afghanistan (1761); after the East India Company's victories at the Battle of Plassey (1757) and Battle of Buxar (1764)—both within the Bengal Presidency established in 1765—and the abolition of local rule (Nizamat) in Bengal in 1793, the Company gradually began to formally expand its territories across . By the mid-19th century, and after the three Anglo-Maratha Wars the East India Company had become the paramount political and military power in south Asia, its territory held in Trust law, trust for the The Crown, British Crown. Company rule in Bengal (after 1793) was terminated by the Government of India Act 1858, following the events of the Bengal Rebellion of 1857. Henceforth known as British India, it was thereafter directly ruled as a colonial possession of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United Kingdom, and India was officially known after 1876 as the Indian Empire. India was divided into British India, regions that were directly administered by the British, with Acts established and passed in British Parliament, and the Princely States, ruled by local rulers of different ethnic backgrounds. These rulers were allowed a measure of internal autonomy in exchange for recognition of British suzerainty. British India constituted a significant portion of India both in area and population; in 1910, for example, it covered approximately 54% of the area and included over 77% of the population. In addition, there were Portuguese India, Portuguese and French India, French exclaves in India. Independence from British rule was achieved in 1947 with the formation of two nations, the Dominions of Dominion of India, India and Dominion of Pakistan, Pakistan, the latter including East Bengal, present-day Bangladesh. The term ''British India'' also applied to Burma for a shorter time period: beginning in 1824, a small part of Burma, and by 1886, almost two thirds of Burma had been made part of British India. This arrangement lasted until 1937, when Burma was reorganized as a separate British colony. ''British India'' did not apply to other countries in the region, such as Sri Lanka (then British Ceylon, Ceylon), which was a British Crown colony, or the Maldive Islands, which were a British Protectorate#Colonial protection, protectorate. At its greatest extent, in the early 20th century, the territory of British India extended as far as the frontiers of Persia in the west; Afghanistan in the northwest; Nepal in the north, Tibet in the northeast; and China, French Indochina and Siam in the east. It also included the Chief Commissioner's Province of Aden, Aden Province in the Arabian Peninsula.
Administration under the Company (1793–1858)The British East India Company, East India Company, which was incorporated on 31 December 1600, established trade relations with Indian rulers in Masulipatam on the east coast in 1611 and Surat on the west coast in 1612. The company rented a small trading outpost in Madras in 1639. Bombay, which was ceded to the British Crown by Portugal as part of the wedding dowry of Catherine of Braganza in 1661, was in turn granted to the East India Company to be held in trust for the Crown. Meanwhile, in eastern India, after obtaining permission from the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan to trade with Bengal, the company established its first factory at Hooghly (town), Hoogly in 1640. Almost a half-century later, after Mughal Emperor Aurengzeb forced the Company out of Hooghly for its tax evasion, Job Charnock purchased three small villages, later renamed Calcutta, in 1686, making it the company's new headquarters. By the mid-18th century, the three principal trading settlements including factories and forts, were then called the Madras Presidency (or the Presidency of Fort St. George), the Bombay Presidency, and the Bengal Presidency (or the Presidency of Fort William) — each administered by a Governor.
The new provincesBy 1851, the East India Company's vast and growing holdings across the sub-continent were still grouped into just four main territories: *Bengal Presidency with its capital at Calcutta *Bombay Presidency with its capital at Bombay *Madras Presidency with its capital at Madras *North-Western Provinces with the seat of the Lieutenant-Governor at Agra. The original seat of government was at Allahabad, then at Agra from 1834 to 1868. In 1833, an Act of Parliament, Act of the British Parliament (statute 3 and 4, William IV, cap. 85) promulgated the elevation the ''Ceded and Conquered Provinces'' to the new ''Presidency of Agra'', and the appointment of a new Governor for the latter, but the plan was never carried out. In 1835 another Act of Parliament (statute 5 and 6, William IV, cap. 52) renamed the region the ''North-Western Provinces'', this time to be administered by a Lieutenant-Governor, the first of whom, Sir Charles Metcalfe, 1st Baron Metcalfe, Charles Metcalfe, would be appointed in 1836. By the time of the , and the end of Company rule, the developments could be summarised as follows: * Bombay Presidency: expanded after the Anglo-Maratha Wars. * Madras Presidency: Expanded in the mid-to-late 18th century Carnatic Wars and Anglo-Mysore Wars. * Bengal Presidency: Expanded after the battles of Battle of Plassey, Plassey (1757) and Battle of Buxar, Buxar (1764), and after the Second Anglo-Maratha War, Second and Third Anglo-Maratha Wars. * Penang: became residency within the Bengal Presidency in 1786, the fourth presidency of India in 1805, part of the presidency of the Straits Settlements until 1830, again part of a residency within the Bengal Presidency when the Straits Settlements became so, and finally separated from British India in 1867. * Ceded and Conquered Provinces: Established in 1802 within the Bengal Presidency. Proposed to be renamed the Presidency of Agra under a Governor in 1835, but proposal not implemented. * Ajmer-Merwara-Kekri: ceded by Sindhia of Gwalior in 1818 at the conclusion of the Third Anglo-Maratha War. * Coorg: Annexed in 1834. * North-Western Provinces: established as a Lieutenant-Governorship in 1836 from the erstwhile ''Ceded and Conquered Provinces'' * Sindh, Sind: annexed to the Bombay Presidency in 1843. * Punjab: Established in 1849 from territories captured in the First Anglo-Sikh War, First and Second Anglo-Sikh War, Second Anglo-Sikh Wars. * Nagpur Province: Created in 1853 from the princely state of Nagpur, seized by the doctrine of lapse. Merged into the Central Provinces in 1861. * Oudh annexed in 1856 and governed thereafter until 1905 as a Chief Commissionership, as a part of North-Western Provinces and Oudh.
Administration under the Crown (1858–1947)
Historical backgroundThe British Raj began with the idea of the Presidencies as the centres of government. Until 1834, when a General Legislative Council was formed, each Presidency under its Governor and Council was empowered to enact a code of so-called 'Regulations' for its government. Therefore, any territory or province that was added by conquest or treaty to a presidency came under the existing regulations of the corresponding presidency. However, in the case of provinces that were acquired but were not annexed to any of the three Presidencies, their official staff could be provided as the Governor-General pleased, and was not governed by the existing regulations of the Bengal, Madras, or Bombay Presidencies. Such provinces became known as "Non-Regulation Provinces" and up to 1833 no provision for a legislative power existed in such places. The same two kinds of management applied for districts. Thus Ganjam district, Ganjam and Visakhapatnam district, Vizagapatam were non-regulation districts.
Regulation provinces* Central Provinces and Berar, Central Provinces: Created in 1861 from Nagpur Province and the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories. Berar administered since 1903, renamed the Central Provinces and Berar in 1936. * Burma: Lower Burma annexed 1852, established as a province in 1862, Upper Burma incorporated in 1886. Separated from British India in 1937 to become administered independently by the newly established British Government Burma Office. * Assam Province: separated from Bengal in 1874 as the North-East Frontier non-regulation province. Incorporated into the new province of Eastern Bengal and Assam in 1905. Re-established as a province in 1912. * Andaman and Nicobar Islands: established as a province in 1875. * Baluchistan (Chief Commissioner's Province), Baluchistan: Organised into a province in 1887.
Major provincesAt the turn of the 20th century, British India consisted of eight provinces that were administered either by a Governor or a Lieutenant-Governor. The following table lists their areas and populations (but does not include those of the dependent Native States): During the partition of Bengal (1905–1912), a new Lieutenant-Governor's province of Eastern Bengal and Assam existed. In 1912, the partition was partially reversed, with the eastern and western halves of Bengal re-united and the province of Assam re-established; a new Lieutenant-Governor's province of Bihar and Orissa Province, Bihar and Orissa was also created.
Minor provincesIn addition, there were a few provinces that were administered by a Chief Commissioner:
Aden* As the Settlement of Aden, a dependency of Bombay Presidency from 1839 to 1932; becomes a Chief Commissioner's province in 1932; separated from India and made the Crown Colony of Aden in 1937.
Partition and independence (1947)At the time of independence in 1947, British India had 17 provinces: Upon the Partition of British India into the Dominion of India and Dominion of Pakistan, 11 provinces (Ajmer-Merwara-Kekri, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bihar, Bombay, Central Provinces and Berar, Coorg, Delhi, Madras, Panth-Piploda, Orissa, and the United Provinces) joined India, 3 (Baluchistan, North-West Frontier and Sindh) joined Pakistan, and 3 (British Punjab, Punjab, Bengal and Assam) were partitioned between India and Pakistan. In 1950, after the new Constitution of India, Indian Constitution was adopted, the provinces in India were replaced by redrawn states and union territories. Pakistan, however, retained its five provinces, one of which, East Bengal, was renamed East Pakistan in 1956 and became the independent nation of Bangladesh in 1971.
References* ''The Imperial Gazetteer of India'' (26 vol, 1908–31), highly detailed description of all of India in 1901
Further reading* * * * * * * * . * * * * * * Seymour, William. "The Indian States under the British Crown" ''History Today''. (Dec 1967), Vol. 17 Issue 12, pp 819–827 online; covers 1858 to 1947. * *