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Bristol () is a
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a ...
and
ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of England to which lord-lieutenant, lord-lieutenants are appointed. Lega ...

ceremonial county
in
England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated from by the to the east and the to the south. The country cover ...

England
. With a population of 463,400, it is the most populous city in
South West England South West England is one of nine official regions of England The regions, formerly known as the government office regions, are the highest tier of sub-national division in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, count ...
. The wider
Bristol Built-Up AreaGreater Bristol is a term used for the conurbation which contains and surrounds the city of Bristol in the South West England, South West of England. There is no official "Greater Bristol" authority, but the term is sometimes used by local, regional ...
has the 10th-largest population in England. The urban area population of 670,000 is the 11th-largest in the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
. The city lies between
Gloucestershire Gloucestershire ( abbreviated Glos) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers ...

Gloucestershire
to the north and
Somerset ( en, All The People of Somerset) , locator_map = , coordinates = , region = South West England South West England is one of nine official regions of England. It consists of the counties of Bristol Bristol () is a City status ...

Somerset
to the south.
South Wales South Wales ( cy, De Cymru) is a loosely defined region of Wales bordered by England to the east and mid Wales to the north. It has a population of around 2.2 million, almost three-quarters of the whole of Wales, including 400,000 in Cardiff, ...

South Wales
lies across the
Severn estuary , Gloucestershire Gloucestershire ( abbreviated Glos) is a Counties of England, county in South West England. The county comprises part of the Cotswold Hills, part of the flat fertile valley of the River Severn, and the entire Forest of Dea ...

Severn estuary
.
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history between the use of the first stone tools by hominins 3.3 million years ago and the ...
hill fort A hillfort is a type of earthwork used as a fortified A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically ...
s and
Roman villa A Roman villa was typically a farmhouse A farmhouse is a building that serves as the primary quarters in a rural or agricultural setting. Historically, farmhouses were often combined with space for animals called a housebarn. Other farmhou ...
s were built near the
confluence In geography, a confluence (also: ''conflux'') occurs where two or more flowing bodies of water join together to form a single channel. A confluence can occur in several configurations: at the point where a tributary joins a larger river (main ...

confluence
of the rivers
Frome Frome ( ) is a town and civil parishes in England, civil parish in eastern Somerset, England. The town is built on uneven high ground at the eastern end of the Mendip Hills, and centres on the River Frome, Somerset, River Frome. The town, about ...
and Avon, and around the beginning of the 11th century, the settlement was known as Brycgstow (
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
"the place at the bridge"). Bristol received a
royal charter A royal charter is a formal grant issued by a monarch under royal prerogative The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognized in common law and, sometimes, in civil law jurisdictions possessing ...

royal charter
in 1155 and was
historically History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the History of writing#Inventions of writing, invention of writing systems are considered ...
divided between
Gloucestershire Gloucestershire ( abbreviated Glos) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers ...

Gloucestershire
and
Somerset ( en, All The People of Somerset) , locator_map = , coordinates = , region = South West England South West England is one of nine official regions of England. It consists of the counties of Bristol Bristol () is a City status ...

Somerset
until 1373 when it became a county of itself. From the 13th to the 18th century, Bristol was among the top three English cities, after London, in tax receipts; however, it was surpassed by the rapid rise of
Birmingham Birmingham ( ) is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can ...

Birmingham
,
Manchester Manchester () is the most-populous city and metropolitan borough A metropolitan borough is a type of local government district The districts of England (also known as local authority districts or local government districts to distinguis ...

Manchester
and
Liverpool Liverpool is a and in , England. With a population of in 2019, it is the , and its is the fifth largest in the with a population of 2.24 million. Situated on the eastern side of the , Liverpool historically lay within the ancien ...

Liverpool
in the
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
. Bristol was a starting place for early voyages of exploration to the New World. On a ship out of Bristol in 1497
John Cabot John Cabot ( it, Giovanni Caboto ; 1450 – 1500) was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian la ...

John Cabot
, a , became the first European to land on mainland North America. In 1499 William Weston, a Bristol merchant, was the first Englishman to lead an exploration to North America. At the height of the Bristol slave trade, from 1700 to 1807, more than 2,000 slave ships carried an estimated 500,000 people from Africa to slavery in the Americas. The
Port of Bristol The Port of Bristol comprises the commercial docks situated in and near the city of Bristol Bristol () is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county in England. With a population of 463,40 ...
has since moved from
Bristol Harbour , during the 2004 Harbour Festival Bristol Harbour is the harbour in the city of Bristol, England. The harbour covers an area of . It has existed since the 13th century but was developed into its current form in the early 19th century by installing ...
in the city centre to the
Severn Estuary , Gloucestershire Gloucestershire ( abbreviated Glos) is a Counties of England, county in South West England. The county comprises part of the Cotswold Hills, part of the flat fertile valley of the River Severn, and the entire Forest of Dea ...

Severn Estuary
at
Avonmouth Avonmouth is a port and outer suburb of Bristol Bristol () is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county in England. With a population of 463,400, it is the most populous city in South Wes ...
and
Royal Portbury Dock The Royal Portbury Dock is part of the Port of Bristol, in England. It is situated near the village of Portbury on the southern side of the mouth of the River Avon, Bristol, Avon, where the river joins the Severn estuary — the Avonmouth ...
. Bristol's modern economy is built on the creative media, electronics and
aerospace Aerospace is a term used to collectively refer to the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a layer or a set of layers of g ...

aerospace
industries, and the city-centre docks have been redeveloped as centres of heritage and culture. The city has the largest circulating community currency in the UK; the
Bristol pound The Bristol Pound (£B) is a form of local, complementary, and/or community currency launched in Bristol Bristol () is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county in England. With a po ...
, which is pegged to the
Pound sterling The pound sterling (symbol: Pound sign, £; ISO 4217, ISO code: GBP), known in some contexts simply as the pound or sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, Gibraltar, South Georgia and the ...
. The city has two universities, the
University of Bristol The University of Bristol is a Red brick university, red brick Russell Group research university in Bristol, England. It received its royal charter in 1909, although it can trace its roots to a Society of Merchant Venturers, Merchant Venturers' sc ...

University of Bristol
and the
University of the West of England The University of the West of England, Bristol (UWE Bristol) is a Public university, public Research universities, research university, located in and around Bristol, England, which received university status in 1992. In common with the Universi ...
, and a variety of artistic and sporting organisations and venues including the
Royal West of England Academy The Royal West of England Academy (RWA) is Bristol's oldest art gallery, located in Clifton, Bristol Bristol () is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county in England. With a population ...

Royal West of England Academy
, the
Arnolfini Arnolfini is an international arts centre An art centre or arts center is distinct from an art gallery or art museum An art museum is a building or space for the display of art, usually from the museum's own Collection (artwork), collect ...

Arnolfini
,
Spike Island__NOTOC__ Spike Island may refer to: Australia * Spike Island (Tasmania) England * Spike Island, Bristol, an area of the English port city of Bristol, adjoining the city centre * Spike Island, Widnes, a park in Widnes * Spike Island (Southampto ...
, Ashton Gate and the . It is connected to London and other major UK cities by road and rail, and to the world by sea and air: road, by the and M4 (which connect to the city centre by the Portway and M32); rail, via
Bristol Temple Meads Bristol Temple Meads is the oldest and largest railway station in Bristol, England. It is an important transport hub for public transport in Bristol, public transport in the city. In addition to the train services there are bus services to many p ...

Bristol Temple Meads
and Bristol Parkway mainline rail stations; and
Bristol Airport Bristol Airport , at Lulsgate BottomLulsgate may refer to: * Bristol Airport, an English airport formerly known as Lulsgate * Lulsgate Plateau, an outlier of the Mendip Hills in North Somerset, England * Lulsgate Quarry, a Site of Special Scie ...

Bristol Airport
. One of the UK's most popular tourist destinations, Bristol was named the best city in Britain in which to live in 2014 and 2017, and won the
European Green Capital Award The European Green Capital Award is an award for a Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regi ...
in 2015.


Etymology

Early recorded place names in the Bristol area include the Roman-era
British Celtic Insular Celtic languages are the group of Celtic languages The Celtic languages ( , ) are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic. They form a branch of the Indo-European language family. The term "Celtic" was first used ...
''Abona'' (derived from the name of the Avon) and the archaic Welsh ''Caer Odor'' ("fort on the chasm"), which may have been
calque In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the me ...

calque
d as the modern English ''Clifton''. The current name "Bristol" derives from the
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
form ''Brycgstow'', which is typically etymologised as ''place at the bridge''. It has also been suggested that ''Brycgstow'' means "the place called Bridge by the place called Stow", the Stow in question referring to an early religious meeting place at what is now College Green. However, other derivations have been proposed. It appears that the form ''Bricstow'' prevailed until 1204, and the '' Bristolian 'L''' (the tendency for the local dialect to add the sound "L" to many words ending in a neutral vowel) is what eventually changed the name to ''Bristol''. The original form of the name survives as the surname Bristow, which is derived from the city.


History

Archaeological Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis Analysis is the process of breaking a complexity, complex topic or Substance theory, substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better underst ...
finds, including flint tools believed to be between 300,000 and 126,000years old made with the
Levallois technique upright=1.25, The Levallois technique of flint- knapping The Levallois technique () is a name given by archaeologist Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeo ...
, indicate the presence of
Neanderthal Neanderthals (, also Neandertals, ''Homo neanderthalensis'' or ''Homo sapiens neanderthalensis'') are an extinct species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, phys ...
s in the
Shirehampton Shirehampton is a district of Bristol Bristol () is a and in . With a population of 463,400, it is the most populous city in . The wider has the 10th-largest population in England. The urban area population of 670,000 is the 11th-larges ...
and St Annes areas of Bristol during the
Middle Palaeolithic The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic or Palæolithic (), also called the Old Stone Age, is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original devel ...
.
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history between the use of the first stone tools by hominins 3.3 million years ago and the ...
hill fort A hillfort is a type of earthwork used as a fortified A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically ...
s near the city are at
Leigh Woods Leigh Woods is a area of woodland on the south-west side of the Avon Gorge The Avon Gorge () is a 1.5-mile (2.5-kilometre) long gorge A canyon (; archaic British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the Englis ...
and
Clifton Down Clifton Down is an area of public open space in Bristol Bristol () is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county in England. With a population of 463,400, it is the most populous city in S ...
, on the side of the
Avon Gorge The Avon Gorge () is a 1.5-mile (2.5-kilometre) long gorge A canyon (; archaic British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language f ...
, and on Kings Weston Hill near
Henbury Henbury is a suburb of Bristol Bristol () is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county in England. With a population of 463,400, it is the most populous city in South West England. The w ...
. A
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testament of the Christian Bible Roman ...

Roman
settlement, Abona, existed at what is now Sea Mills (connected to
Bath Bath may refer to: * Bathing, immersion in a fluid ** Bathtub, a large open container for water, in which a person may wash their body ** Public bathing, a public place where people bathe * Thermae, ancient Roman public bathing facilities Place ...
by a
Roman road Roman roads ( la, viae Romanae ; singular: ; meaning "Roman way") were physical infrastructure vital to the maintenance and development of the Roman state, and were built from about 300 BC through the expansion and consolidation of the Roman Rep ...
); another was at the present-day . Isolated
Roman villa A Roman villa was typically a farmhouse A farmhouse is a building that serves as the primary quarters in a rural or agricultural setting. Historically, farmhouses were often combined with space for animals called a housebarn. Other farmhou ...
s and small
forts A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically officially authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, w ...

forts
and settlements were also scattered throughout the area.


Middle Ages

Bristol was founded by 1000; by about 1020, it was a trading centre with a
mint MiNT is Now TOS (MiNT) is a free software Free software (or libre software) is computer software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions and data (computing), data that tell a computer how to work. This ...
producing silver pennies bearing its name. By 1067 Brycgstow was a well-fortified ''
burh A burh () or burg was an Old English fortification or fortified settlement. In the 9th century, raids and invasions by Viking invasions of England, Vikings prompted Alfred the Great to develop a network of burhs and roads to use against such attack ...
'', and that year the townsmen beat back a raiding party from Ireland led by three of
Harold Godwinson Harold Godwinson ( – 14 October 1066), also called Harold II, was the last crowned Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is be ...
's sons. Under
Norman Norman or Normans may refer to: Ethnic and cultural identity * The Normans The Normans (Norman language, Norman: ''Normaunds''; french: Normands; la, Nortmanni/Normanni) were inhabitants of the early medieval Duchy of Normandy, descended from ...

Norman
rule, the town had one of the strongest
castles in East Sussex East Sussex is a county in South East England on the English Channel The English Channel,, "The Sleeve"; nrf, la Maunche, "The Sleeve" ( Cotentinais) or (Jèrriais), (Guernésiais), "The Channel"; br, Mor Breizh, ...

castles
in southern England. Bristol was the place of exile for
Diarmait Mac Murchada Diarmait Mac Murchada ( Modern Irish: Diarmaid Mac Murchadha), anglicised as Dermot MacMurrough, Dermod MacMurrough, or Dermot MacMorrogh (c. 1110c. 1 May 1171), was a King of Leinster in Ireland. In 1167, he was List of deposed politicians ...
, the Irish
king of Leinster The following is a provisional list of the kings of Leinster who ruled the Irish kingdom of Leinster (or Laigin) up to 1632 with the death of Domhnall Spainneach Mac Murrough Caomhanach, the last legitimately inaugurated head of the MacMurrough ...
, after being overthrown. The Bristol merchants subsequently played a prominent role in funding Richard Strongbow de Clare and the
Norman invasion of Ireland The Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland took place during the late 12th century, when Anglo-Normans gradually conquered and acquired large swathes of land from the Irish, which the Kingdom of England then claimed sovereignty over. At the time, Gaeli ...
. The port developed in the 11th century around the confluence of the Rivers Frome and Avon, adjacent to
Bristol Bridge Bristol Bridge is a bridge over the Bristol Harbour, floating harbour in Bristol, England, the original course of the River Avon (Bristol), River Avon. It is a grade II listed building. History Bristol's name is derived from the Saxon ''Brycgsto ...

Bristol Bridge
just outside the town walls. By the 12th century Bristol was an important port, handling much of England's trade with Ireland. There was also an important
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), suc ...
community in Bristol from the late 12th century through to the late 13th century when all Jews were expelled from England. The stone bridge built in 1247 was replaced by the current bridge during the 1760s. The town incorporated neighbouring suburbs and became a
county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert Chambers (publisher bo ...
in 1373, the first town in England to be given this status. During this period, Bristol became a shipbuilding and manufacturing centre. By the 14th century Bristol,
York York is a cathedral city City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the monarch of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United ...

York
and
Norwich Norwich () is a city and district of Norfolk Norfolk () is a rural and non-metropolitan county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary' ...

Norwich
were England's largest
medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
towns after London. One-third to one-half of the population died in the
Black Death The Black Death (also known as the Pestilence, the Great Mortality or the Plague) was a bubonic plague pandemic occurring in Afro-Eurasia from 1346 to 1353. It is the List of epidemics, most fatal pandemic recorded in human history, causing th ...

Black Death
of 1348–49, which checked population growth, and its population remained between 10,000 and 12,000 for most of the 15th and 16th centuries.


15th and 16th centuries

During the 15th century Bristol was the second most important port in the country, trading with Ireland, Iceland and
Gascony Gascony (; french: Gascogne ; oc, Gasconha ; eu, Gaskoinia) was a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region ...
. It was the starting point for many voyages, including
Robert SturmyRobert Sturmy was a 15th-century Bristol merchant. In 1445 he sponsored a voyage conveying 200 pilgrims to Santiago de Compostela in Galicia (Spain), Galicia and in 1447 his ship the ''Cog Anne'' took pilgrims to Jaffa in Palestine but was wrecked o ...
's (1457–58) unsuccessful attempt to break the Italian monopoly of Eastern Mediterranean trade. New exploration voyages were launched by Venetian
John Cabot John Cabot ( it, Giovanni Caboto ; 1450 – 1500) was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian la ...

John Cabot
, who in 1497 made landfall in North America. A 1499 voyage, led by merchant William Weston of Bristol, was the first expedition commanded by an Englishman to North America. During the first decade of the 16th century Bristol's merchants undertook a series of exploration voyages to North America and even founded a commercial organisation, 'The Company Adventurers to the New Found Land', to assist their endeavours. However, they seem to have lost interest in North America after 1509, having incurred great expenses and made little profit. During the 16th century, Bristol merchants concentrated on developing trade with Spain and its American colonies. This included the
smuggling Smuggling is the illegal transportation of objects, substances, information or people, such as out of a house or buildings, into a prison A prison, also known as a jail or gaol (dated, English language in England, standard English, Austr ...
of prohibited goods, such as food and guns, to Iberia during the
Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604) The Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604) was an intermittent conflict between the kingdoms of Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , na ...
. Bristol's illicit trade grew enormously after 1558, becoming integral to its economy. The original
Diocese of Bristol The Diocese of Bristol is a Church of England diocese in the Province of Canterbury, England. It is based in the city of Bristol and covers South Gloucestershire and parts of north Wiltshire, as far east as Swindon. The diocese is headed by the ...
was founded in 1542, when the former
Abbey An abbey is a type of monastery A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monk A monk (, from el, μοναχός, ''monachos'', "single, solitary" via Latin L ...

Abbey
of (founded by
Robert Fitzharding Robert Fitzharding (c. 1095–1170) was an Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group who inhabited England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with W ...

Robert Fitzharding
four hundred years earlier) became
Bristol Cathedral Bristol Cathedral, formally the Cathedral Church of the Holy and Undivided Trinity, is the Church of England cathedral in the city of Bristol Bristol () is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and Ceremonial counties of England, cerem ...

Bristol Cathedral
. Bristol also gained
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a ...
status that year. During the
English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers"), mainly over the manner of Kingdom of England, England's governance and issues of re ...
in the 1640s the city was occupied by Cavalier, Royalists, who built the Royal Fort House on the site of an earlier Roundhead, Parliamentarian stronghold.


17th and 18th centuries

Fishermen from Bristol, who had fished the Grand Banks of Newfoundland since the 16th century, began settling Newfoundland permanently in larger numbers during the 17th century, establishing colonies at Bristol's Hope and Cuper's Cove. Growth of the city and trade came with the rise of England's European colonization of the Americas, American colonies in the 17th century. Bristol's location on the west side of Great Britain gave its ships an advantage in sailing to and from the New World, and the city's merchants made the most of it. Bristol was a major supplier of slaves to South Carolina before 1750. The 18th century saw an expansion of Bristol's role in the Atlantic slave trade, Atlantic trade in Africans taken for slavery to the Americas. Bristol and later
Liverpool Liverpool is a and in , England. With a population of in 2019, it is the , and its is the fifth largest in the with a population of 2.24 million. Situated on the eastern side of the , Liverpool historically lay within the ancien ...

Liverpool
became centres of the Triangular Trade. Manufactured goods were shipped to West Africa and exchanged for Africans; the enslaved captives were transported across the Atlantic to the Americas in the Middle Passage under brutal conditions. Plantation goods such as sugar, tobacco, rum, rice, cotton and a few slaves (sold to the aristocracy as house servants) returned across the Atlantic to England. Some household slaves were baptised in the hope this would lead them to be freed. The Somersett Case of 1772 clarified that slavery was illegal in England. At the height of the Bristol slave trade from 1700 to 1807, more than 2,000 slave ships carried a conservatively estimated 500,000 people from Africa to slavery in the Americas. In 1739 John Wesley founded the first Methodism, Methodist chapel, the New Room, Bristol, New Room, in Bristol. Wesley, along with his brother Charles Wesley and George Whitefield, preached to large congregations in Bristol and the neighbouring village of Kingswood, South Gloucestershire, Kingswood, often in the open air. Wesley published a pamphlet on slavery, titled ''Thoughts Upon Slavery,'' in 1774 and the Society of Friends began lobbying against slavery in Bristol in 1783. The city's scions remained nonetheless strongly anti-abolitionist. Thomas Clarkson came to Bristol to study the slave trade and gained access to the Society of Merchant Venturers records. One of his contacts was the owner of the Seven Stars, Bristol, Seven Stars pub, public house, who boarded sailors Clarkson sought to meet. Through these sailors he was able to observe how slaver captains and first mates "plied and stupefied seamen with drink" to sign them up. Other informants included ship surgeons and seamen seeking redress. When William Wilberforce began his parliamentary abolition campaign on 12 May 1788, he recalled the history of the Irish slave trade from Bristol, which he provocatively claimed continued into the reign of Henry VII of England, Henry VII. Hannah More, originally from Bristol, and a good friend of both Wilberforce and Clarkson, published "Slavery, A Poem" in 1788, just as Wilberforce began his parliamentary campaign. His major speech on 2 April 1792 likewise described the Bristol slave trade specifically, and led to the arrest, trial and subsequent acquittal of a local slaver captain named Kimber.


19th century

The city was associated with Victorian engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel, who designed the Great Western Railway between Bristol and London Paddington station, London Paddington, two pioneering Bristol-built oceangoing Steamboat, steamships ( and ), and the Clifton Suspension Bridge. The new railway replaced the Kennet and Avon Canal, which had fully opened in 1810 as the main route for the transport of goods between Bristol and London. Competition from Liverpool (beginning around 1760), disruptions of maritime commerce due to war with France (1793) and the abolition of the slave trade (1807) contributed to Bristol's failure to keep pace with the newer manufacturing centres of Northern England and the West Midlands (region), West Midlands. The tidal Avon Gorge, which had secured the port during the Middle Ages, had become a liability. An 1804–09 plan to improve the city's port with a Bristol Harbour, floating harbour designed by William Jessop was a costly error, requiring high harbour fees. During the 19th century, Samuel Plimsoll, known as "the sailor's friend," campaigned to make the seas safer; shocked by overloaded vessels, he successfully fought for a compulsory Waterline, load line on ships. By 1867, ships were getting larger and the meanders in the river Avon prevented boats over from reaching the harbour, resulting in falling trade. The port facilities were migrating downstream to
Avonmouth Avonmouth is a port and outer suburb of Bristol Bristol () is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county in England. With a population of 463,400, it is the most populous city in South Wes ...
and new industrial complexes were founded there. Some of the traditional industries including copper and brass manufacture went into decline, but the import and processing of tobacco flourished with the expansion of the W.D. & H.O. Wills business. Supported by new industry and growing commerce, Bristol's population (66,000 in 1801), quintupled during the 19th century, resulting in the creation of new suburbs such as Clifton, Bristol, Clifton and Cotham, Bristol, Cotham. These provide architectural examples from the Georgian to the Regency style, with many fine terraces and villas facing the road, and at right angles to it. In the early 19th century, the romantic medieval Gothic revival, gothic style appeared, partially as a reaction against the symmetry of Palladianism, and can be seen in buildings such as the Bristol City Museum and Art Gallery, the
Royal West of England Academy The Royal West of England Academy (RWA) is Bristol's oldest art gallery, located in Clifton, Bristol Bristol () is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county in England. With a population ...

Royal West of England Academy
, and The Victoria Rooms. Bristol riots, Riots broke out in 1793 and 1831; the first over the renewal of toll road, tolls on Bristol Bridge, and the second against the rejection of the second Reform Act 1832, Reform Bill by the House of Lords. The population by 1841 had reached 140,158. The Diocese of Bristol had undergone several boundary changes by 1897 when it was "reconstituted" into the configuration which has lasted into the 21st century.


20th century

From a population of about 330,000 in 1901, Bristol grew steadily during the 20th century, peaking at 428,089 in 1971. Its Avonmouth docklands were enlarged during the early 1900s by the Royal Edward Dock. Another new dock, the
Royal Portbury Dock The Royal Portbury Dock is part of the Port of Bristol, in England. It is situated near the village of Portbury on the southern side of the mouth of the River Avon, Bristol, Avon, where the river joins the Severn estuary — the Avonmouth ...
, opened across the river from Avonmouth during the 1970s. As air travel grew in the first half of the century, aircraft manufacturers built factories. The unsuccessful Bristol International Exhibition was held on Ashton Meadows in the Bower Ashton area in 1914. After the premature closure of the exhibition the site was used, until 1919, as barracks for the Gloucestershire Regiment during World War I. Bristol Blitz, Bristol was heavily damaged by Luftwaffe raids during World War II; about 1,300 people living or working in the city were killed and nearly 100,000 buildings were damaged, at least 3,000 beyond repair. The original central shopping area, near the bridge and castle, Castle Park, Bristol, is now a park containing two bombed churches and fragments of the castle. A third bomb-damaged church nearby, St Nicholas Church, Bristol, St Nicholas was restored and after a period as a museum has now re-opened as a church. It houses a 1756 William Hogarth triptych painted for the high altar of St Mary Redcliffe. The church also has statues of Edward I of England, King Edward I (moved from Arno's Court Triumphal Arch) and Edward III of England, King Edward III (taken from Lawfords' Gate in the city walls when they were demolished about 1760), and 13th-century statues of Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester (builder of Bristol Castle) and Geoffrey de Montbray (who built the city's walls) from Bristol's Newgate. The rebuilding of Bristol city centre was characterised by 1960s and 1970s skyscrapers, mid-century modern architecture and 20th Century Road Schemes in Bristol, road building. Beginning in the 1980s some 20th Century Road Schemes in Bristol#Queen Square, Redcliffe Way and The Centre, main roads were closed, the Georgian era, Georgian-era Queen Square, Bristol, Queen Square and Portland Square, Bristol, Portland Square were restored, the Broadmead shopping area regenerated, and one of the city centre's tallest mid-century towers was demolished. Bristol's road infrastructure changed dramatically during the 1960s and 1970s with the development of the M4 and M5 motorways, which meet at the Almondsbury Interchange just north of the city and link Bristol with London (M4 eastbound), Swansea (M4 westbound across the
Severn Estuary , Gloucestershire Gloucestershire ( abbreviated Glos) is a Counties of England, county in South West England. The county comprises part of the Cotswold Hills, part of the flat fertile valley of the River Severn, and the entire Forest of Dea ...

Severn Estuary
), Exeter (M5 southbound) and
Birmingham Birmingham ( ) is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can ...

Birmingham
(M5 northbound). Bristol was bombed twice by the Provisional IRA, IRA, in 1974 Bristol bombing, 1974 and again in List of terrorist incidents in Great Britain#1970s, 1978. The 20th-century relocation of the docks to Avonmouth Docks and
Royal Portbury Dock The Royal Portbury Dock is part of the Port of Bristol, in England. It is situated near the village of Portbury on the southern side of the mouth of the River Avon, Bristol, Avon, where the river joins the Severn estuary — the Avonmouth ...
, downstream from the city centre, has allowed the redevelopment of the old dock area (the Floating Harbour). Although the docks' existence was once in jeopardy (since the area was seen as a derelict industrial site), the inaugural 1996 International Festival of the Sea, 1996, International Festival of the Sea held in and around the docks affirmed the area as a leisure asset of the city.


21st century

From 2018, there were lively discussions about a new explicative plaque under a commemorative statue of one of the city's major benefactors in the 17th and 18th centuries. The plaque was meant to replace an original which made no reference to Edward Colston's past with the Royal Africa Company and the Bristol Slave Trade. On 7 June 2020 a statue of Colston was pulled down from its plinth by protestors and pushed into Bristol Harbour. The statue was recovered on 11 June and will become a museum exhibit.


Government

Bristol City council consists of 70 councillors representing 35 wards, with between one and three per ward serving four-year terms. Councillors are elected in thirds, with elections held in three years out of every four-year period. Thus, since wards do not have both councillors up for election at the same time, two-thirds of the wards participate in each election. Although the council was long dominated by the Labour Party (UK), Labour Party, the Liberal Democrats (UK), Liberal Democrats have grown strong in the city and (as the largest party) took minority control of the council after the 2005 United Kingdom general election. In 2007, Labour and the Conservative Party (UK), Conservatives united to defeat the Liberal Democrat administration; Labour ruled the council as a minority administration, with Helen Holland as council leader. In February 2009, the Labour group resigned and the Liberal Democrats re-entered office with a minority administration. In the June 2009 Bristol City Council election, 2009 council elections the Liberal Democrats gained four seats and, for the first time, overall control of the city council. In 2010 Bristol City Council election, 2010 they increased their representation to 38 seats, giving them a majority of 6. In 2011, they lost their majority; leading to a hung council. In the 2013 local elections, in which a third of the city's wards were up for election, Labour gained 7seats and the Green Party of England & Wales, Green Party doubled their seats from 2to 4. The Liberal Democrats lost 10 seats. These trends were continued into the next election in May 2014, in which Labour gained three seats to take their total to 31, the Green Party of England and Wales, Green Party won two more seats, the Conservative party gained one seat, and UK Independence Party, UKIP won their first-ever seat on the council. The Liberal Democrats lost a further seven seats. On 3 May 2012, Bristol held a referendum on the question of a directly elected mayor replacing one elected by the council. There were 41,032 votes in favour of a directly elected mayor and 35,880 votes against, with a 24% turnout. An election for the new post was held on 15 November 2012, and Independent candidate George Ferguson (Mayor of Bristol), George Ferguson became Mayor of Bristol. The Lord Mayor of Bristol, not to be confused with the Mayor of Bristol, is a figurehead elected each May by the city council. Councillor Faruk Choudhury was selected by his fellow councillors for the position in 2013. At 38, he was the youngest person to serve as Lord Mayor of Bristol and the first Muslim elected to the office. Bristol constituencies in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, House of Commons also included parts of other local authority areas until the United Kingdom general election, 2010 (Bristol), 2010 general election, when their boundaries were aligned with the county boundary. The city is divided into Bristol Bristol West (UK Parliament constituency), West, Bristol East (UK Parliament constituency), East, Bristol South (UK Parliament constituency), South and Bristol North West (UK Parliament constituency), North West. At the 2017 United Kingdom general election, 2017 general election, Labour won all four of the Bristol constituencies, gaining the Bristol North West seat, seven years after losing it to the Conservatives. The city has a tradition of political activism. Edmund Burke, MP for the Bristol (UK Parliament constituency), Bristol constituency for six years beginning in 1774, insisted that he was a Member of Parliament first and a representative of his constituents' interests second. Women's-rights advocate Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence, Baroness Pethick-Lawrence, Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence (1867–1954) was born in Bristol, and the left-wing politics, left-winger Tony Benn served as MP for Bristol South East (UK Parliament constituency), Bristol South East in 1950–1960 and again from 1963 to 1983. In 1963 the Bristol Bus Boycott, following the Bristol Omnibus Company's refusal to hire Black drivers and conductors, drove the passage of the UK's 1965 Race Relations Act 1965, Race Relations Act. The 1980 St. Pauls riot protested against racism and police harassment and showed mounting dissatisfaction with the socioeconomic circumstances of the city's Afro-Caribbean residents. Local support of fair trade was recognised in 2005, when Bristol became a Fairtrade Town, fairtrade zone. Bristol is both a city and a county, since King Edward III granted it a county charter in 1373. The county was expanded in 1835 to include suburbs such as Clifton, Bristol, Clifton, and it was named a county borough in 1889 when that designation was introduced.


Former county of Avon

On 1 April 1974, Bristol became a local government district of the county of Avon (county), Avon. On 1 April 1996, Avon was abolished and Bristol became a unitary authority. The former Avon area, called Greater Bristol by the Government Office of the South West (now abolished) and others, refers to the city and the three neighbouring local authoritiesBath and North East Somerset, North Somerset and South Gloucestershire previously in Avon. The North Fringe of Bristol, a developed area between the Bristol city boundary and the M4, M5 and M32 motorways (now in South Gloucestershire) was so named as part of a 1987 local plan, plan prepared by the Northavon District Council of Avon county.


West of England Combined Authority

The West of England Combined Authority was created on 9 February 2017. Covering Bristol and the rest of the old Avon county with the exception of North Somerset, the new combined authority has responsibility for regional planning, roads, and local transport, and to a lesser extent, education and business investment. The authority's first Mayor of the West of England, mayor, Tim Bowles (politician), Tim Bowles, was elected in May 2017. One of the first actions of the new authority was the announcement of a new train station to be built at Portway.


Geography and environment


Boundaries

Bristol's boundaries can be defined in several ways, including those of the city itself, the developed area, or Greater Bristol. The Politics of Bristol, city council boundary is the narrowest definition of the city itself. However, it unusually includes a large, roughly rectangular section of the western
Severn Estuary , Gloucestershire Gloucestershire ( abbreviated Glos) is a Counties of England, county in South West England. The county comprises part of the Cotswold Hills, part of the flat fertile valley of the River Severn, and the entire Forest of Dea ...

Severn Estuary
ending at (but not including) the islands of Steep Holm and Flat Holm. This "seaward extension" can be traced back to the original boundary of the County of Bristol laid out in the charter granted to the city by Edward III of England, Edward III in 1373. The Office for National Statistics (ONS) has defined a Bristol Urban Area, which includes developed areas adjoining Bristol but outside the city-council boundary, such as Kingswood, South Gloucestershire, Kingswood, Mangotsfield, Stoke Gifford, Winterbourne, Gloucestershire, Winterbourne, Almondsbury, Easton in Gordano, Whitchurch, Bristol, Whitchurch village, Filton, Patchway and Bradley Stoke, but excludes undeveloped areas within that boundary.


Geography

Bristol lies within a limestone area running from the Mendip Hills in the south to the Cotswolds in the northeast. The rivers Avon and Frome cut through the limestone to the underlying clay, creating Bristol's characteristically hilly landscape. The Avon flows from Bath in the east, through Floodplain, flood plains and areas which were marshes before the city's growth. To the west the Avon cuts through the limestone to form the Avon Gorge, formed largely by glacial meltwater after the Quaternary glaciation, last ice age. The gorge, which helped protect Bristol Harbour, has been quarried for stone to build the city, and its surrounding land has been protected from development as The Downs, Bristol, The Downs and Leigh Woods. The Avon estuary and the gorge form the county boundary with North Somerset, and the river flows into the
Severn Estuary , Gloucestershire Gloucestershire ( abbreviated Glos) is a Counties of England, county in South West England. The county comprises part of the Cotswold Hills, part of the flat fertile valley of the River Severn, and the entire Forest of Dea ...

Severn Estuary
at
Avonmouth Avonmouth is a port and outer suburb of Bristol Bristol () is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county in England. With a population of 463,400, it is the most populous city in South Wes ...
. A smaller gorge, cut by the Hazel Brook which flows into the River Trym, crosses the Blaise Castle estate in northern Bristol. Bristol is sometimes described, by its inhabitants, as being built on seven hills. Local hills include Red Lion Hill, Barton Hill, Bristol, Barton Hill, Lawrence Hill, Bristol, Lawrence Hill, St. Michaels Hill, Black Boy Hill, Constitution Hill, Staple Hill, Gloucestershire, Staple Hill, Brandon Hill, Bristol, Brandon Hill, Windmill Hill, Bristol, Windmill Hill, Malborough Hill, Nine Tree Hill, Talbot, Brook Hill and Granby Hill. Bristol is west of London, south-southwest of
Birmingham Birmingham ( ) is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can ...

Birmingham
and east of the Welsh capital Cardiff. Areas adjoining the city fall within a loosely defined area known as Greater Bristol.
Bath Bath may refer to: * Bathing, immersion in a fluid ** Bathtub, a large open container for water, in which a person may wash their body ** Public bathing, a public place where people bathe * Thermae, ancient Roman public bathing facilities Place ...
is located south east of the city centre, Weston-super-Mare is to the south west, and the Welsh city of Newport, Wales, Newport is to the north west.


Climate

The climate is Oceanic climate, oceanic (Köppen climate classification, Köppen: ''Cfb)'', milder than most places in
England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated from by the to the east and the to the south. The country cover ...

England
and
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
. Located in southern England, Bristol is one of the warmest cities in the UK with a mean annual temperature of approximately . It is among the sunniest, with 1,541–1,885hours of sunshine per year. Although the city is partially sheltered by the Mendip Hills, it is exposed to the Severn Estuary and the Bristol Channel. Annual rainfall increases from north to south, with totals north of the Avon in the range and south of the river. Rain is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year, with autumn and winter the wetter seasons. The Atlantic Ocean influences Bristol's weather, keeping its average temperature above freezing throughout the year, but winter frosts are frequent and snow occasionally falls from early November to late April. Summers are warm and drier, with variable sunshine, rain and clouds, and spring weather is unsettled. The weather stations nearest Bristol for which long-term climate data are available are Long Ashton (about south west of the city centre) and Bristol Weather Station, in the city centre. Data collection at these locations ended in 2002 and 2001, respectively, and Filton Airfield is currently the nearest weather station to the city. Temperatures at Long Ashton from 1959 to 2002 ranged from in July 1976 to in January 1982. Monthly high temperatures since 2002 at Filton exceeding those recorded at Long Ashton include in April 2003, in July 2006 and in October 2011. The lowest recent temperature at Filton was in December 2010. Although large cities in general experience an urban heat island effect, with warmer temperatures than their surrounding rural areas, this phenomenon is minimal in Bristol.


Environment

Bristol was ranked as Britain's most sustainable city (based on its environmental performance, quality of life, Future proof, future-proofing and approaches to climate change, recycling and biodiversity), topping environmental charity Forum for the Future's 2008 Sustainable city, Sustainable Cities Index. Local initiatives include Sustrans (creators of the National Cycle Network, founded as Cyclebag in 1977) and Resourcesaver, a non-profit business established in 1988 by Avon Friends of the Earth. In 2014 ''The Sunday Times'' named it as the best city in Britain in which to live. The city received the 2015
European Green Capital Award The European Green Capital Award is an award for a Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regi ...
, becoming the first UK city to receive this award. In 2019, Bristol became the first city to completely ban diesel cars, effective from 2021. Diesel cars will be banned from the central area of the city between 7am and 3pm every day.


Green belt

The city has green belt mainly along its southern fringes, taking in small areas within the Ashton Court, Ashton Court Estate, South Bristol crematorium and cemetery, High Ridge common and Whitchurch, with a further area around Frenchay Farm. The belt extends outside the city boundaries into surrounding counties and districts, for several miles in places, to afford a protection from urban sprawl to surrounding villages and towns.


Demographics

In 2014, the Office for National Statistics estimated the Unitary authorities of England, Bristol unitary authority's population at 442,474, making it the List of ceremonial counties of England, 43rd-largest
ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of England to which lord-lieutenant, lord-lieutenants are appointed. Lega ...

ceremonial county
in England. The ONS, using United Kingdom Census 2001, Census 2001 data, estimated the city's population at 441,556. According to the United Kingdom Census 2011, 2011 census, 84% of the population was White people, White (77.9% White British, 0.9% Irish migration to Great Britain, White Irish, 0.1% Gypsy (term), Gypsy or Irish Travellers and 5.1% Other White); 3.6% Mixed (United Kingdom ethnicity category), mixed-race (1.7% white-and-black Caribbean, 0.4% white-and-black African, 0.8% white and Asian and 0.7% other mixed); 5.5% British Asian, Asian (1.6% British Pakistanis, Pakistani, 1.5% British Indian, Indian, 0.9% British Chinese, Chinese, 0.5% British Bangladeshi, Bangladeshi, and 1% other Asian); 6% Black British, Black (2.8% African, 1.6% British African-Caribbean people, Caribbean, 1.6% Other Black), 0.3% British Arabs, Arab and 0.6% with other heritage. Bristol is unusual among major British towns and cities in its larger black than Asian population. These statistics apply to the Bristol Unitary Authority area, excluding areas of the urban area (2006 estimated population 587,400) in South Gloucestershire, Bath and North East Somerset (BANES) and North Somerset—such as Kingswood, Mangotsfield, Filton and Warmley. 56.2% of the 209,995 Bristol residents who are employed commute to work using either a car, van, motorbike or taxi, 2.2% commute by rail and 9.8% by bus, while 19.6% walk.


Inequality

The Runnymede Trust found in 2017 that Bristol "ranked 7th out of the 348 districts of England & Wales (1=worst) on the Index of Multiple Inequality." In terms of employment, the report found that "ethnic minorities are disadvantaged compared to White British people nationally, but this is to a greater extent in Bristol, particularly for Black groups." Black people in Bristol experience the 3rd highest level of educational inequality in England and Wales.


Bristol conurbation

The population of Bristol Urban Area, Bristol's contiguous urban area was put at 551,066 by the ONS based on Census 2001 data. In 2006 the ONS estimated Bristol's urban-area population at 587,400, making it England's sixth-most populous city and tenth-most populous urban area. At it has the seventh-highest population density of any English district. According to data from 2019, the urban area has the 11th-largest population in the UK with a population of 670,000. In 2007 the European Spatial Planning Observation Network (ESPON) defined Bristol's functional urban area as including Weston-super-Mare, Bath and Clevedon with a total population of 1.04 million, the twelfth largest of the UK.


Economy

Bristol has a long history of trade, originally exporting wool cloth and importing fish, wine, grain and dairy products; later imports were tobacco, tropical fruits and plantation goods. Major imports are motor vehicles, grain, timber, produce and petroleum products. Since the 13th century, the rivers have been modified for docks; during the 1240s, the Frome was diverted into a deep, man-made channel (known as Saint Augustine's Reach) which flowed into the River Avon. Ships occasionally departed Bristol for Iceland as early as 1420, and speculation exists that sailors (fishermen who landed on the Canadian coast to salt/ smoke their catch) from Bristol made landfall in the Americas before Christopher Columbus or John Cabot. Beginning in the early 1480s, the Bristol Society of Merchant Venturers sponsored exploration of the North Atlantic in search of trading opportunities. In 1552, Edward VI of England, Edward VI granted a
royal charter A royal charter is a formal grant issued by a monarch under royal prerogative The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognized in common law and, sometimes, in civil law jurisdictions possessing ...

royal charter
to the Merchant Venturers to manage the port. Among explorers to depart from the port after Cabot were Martin Frobisher, Thomas James (sea captain), Thomas James, after whom James Bay, on southern coast of Hudson Bay is named, and Martin Pring, who discovered Cape Cod and the southern New England coast in 1603. By 1670 the city had 6,000tons of shipping (of which half was imported tobacco), and by the late 17th and early 18th centuries shipping played a significant role in the History of slavery, slave trade. During the 18th century, Bristol was Britain's second-busiest port; business was conducted in the trading area around The Exchange, Bristol, The Exchange in Corn Street over bronze tables known as Bristol nail, Nails. Although the Nails are cited as originating the phrase "cash on the nail" (immediate payment), the phrase was probably in use before their installation. The city's economy also relies on the
aerospace Aerospace is a term used to collectively refer to the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a layer or a set of layers of g ...

aerospace
, defence, media, information technology, financial services and tourism industries. The Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom), Ministry of Defence (MoD)'s Procurement Executive, later known as the Defence Procurement Agency and Defence Equipment and Support, moved to its headquarters to Abbey Wood, Filton, in 1995. This organisation, with a staff of 12,000 to 13,000, procures and supports MoD equipment. One of the UK's most popular tourist destinations, Bristol was selected in 2009 as one of the world's top-ten cities by international travel publishers Dorling Kindersley in their ''Eyewitness Books, Eyewitness'' guides for young adults. Bristol is one of the eight-largest regional English cities that make up the Core Cities Group, and is ranked as a Gamma level global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, the fourth-highest-ranked English city. In 2017 Bristol's gross domestic product was £88.448billion. Its per capita GDP was £46,000 ($65,106, €57,794), which was some 65% above the national average, the third-highest of any English city (after London and Nottingham) and the sixth-highest of any city in the United Kingdom (behind London, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Belfast and Nottingham). According to the 2011 census, Bristol's unemployment rate (claiming Jobseeker's Allowance) was three per cent, compared with two per cent for
South West England South West England is one of nine official regions of England The regions, formerly known as the government office regions, are the highest tier of sub-national division in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, count ...
and the national average of four per cent. Although Bristol's economy no longer relies upon its Port of Bristol, port, which was moved to docks at Avonmouth during the 1870s and to the Royal Portbury Dock in 1977 as ship size increased, it is the largest importer of cars to the UK. Until 1991, the port was publicly owned; it is leased, with £330million invested and its annual tonnage increasing from 3.9million long tons (4million tonnes) to 11.8million (12million). Tobacco importing and cigarette manufacturing have ceased, but the importation of wine and spirits continues. The financial services sector employs 59,000 in the city, and 50 micro-electronics and silicon design companies employ about 5,000. In 1983 Hewlett-Packard opened its national research laboratory in Bristol. In 2014 the city was ranked seventh in the "top 10 UK destinations" by TripAdvisor. During the 20th century, Bristol's manufacturing activities expanded to include aircraft production at Filton by the Bristol Aeroplane Company and aircraft-engine manufacturing by Bristol Aero Engines (later Rolls-Royce Holdings, Rolls-Royce) at Patchway. Bristol Aeroplane was known for their World War I Bristol F.2 Fighter, Bristol Fighter and World War II Bristol Blenheim, Blenheim and Bristol Beaufighter, Beaufighter planes. During the 1950s they were a major English manufacturer of civilian aircraft, known for the Bristol Freighter, Freighter, Bristol Britannia, Britannia and Bristol Brabazon, Brabazon. The company diversified into automobile manufacturing during the 1940s, producing hand-built, Luxury vehicle, luxury Bristol Cars at their factory in Filton, and the Bristol Cars company was spun off in 1960. The city also gave its name to Bristol buses, which were manufactured in the city from 1908 to 1983: by Bristol Tramways until 1955, and from 1955 to 1983 by Bristol Commercial Vehicles. Filton played a key role in the Anglo-French Concorde supersonic airliner project during the 1960s. The British Concorde prototype made its maiden flight from Filton to RAF Fairford on 9 April 1969, five weeks after the French test flight. In 2003 British Airways and Air France decided to discontinue Concorde flights, retiring the aircraft to locations (primarily museums) worldwide. On 26 November 2003 Concorde 216 made the final Concorde flight, returning to Bristol Filton Airport as the centrepiece of a proposed air museum which is planned to include the existing Bristol Aero collection (including a Bristol Britannia). The aerospace industry remains a major sector of the local economy. Major aerospace companies in Bristol include BAE Systems, a merger of Marconi Electronic Systems and British Aerospace, BAe (the latter a merger of BAC, Hawker Siddeley and Scottish Aviation). Airbus and Rolls-Royce are also based at Filton, and aerospace engineering is an area of research at the University of the West of England. Another aviation company in the city is Cameron Balloons, who manufacture hot air balloons; each August the city hosts the Bristol International Balloon Fiesta, one of Europe's largest hot-air balloon festivals. In 2005 Bristol was named by the UK government one of England's six science cities. A £500million shopping centre, Cabot Circus, opened in 2008 amidst predictions by developers and politicians that the city would become one of England's top ten retail destinations. The Bristol Temple Quarter Enterprise Zone, focused on creative, high-tech and low-carbon industries around Bristol Temple Meads railway station, was announced in 2011 and launched the following year. The Urban Enterprise Zone has streamlined planning permission, planning procedures and reduced business rates in England and Wales, business rates. Rates generated by the zone are channelled to five other designated enterprise areas in the region: Avonmouth, Bath, Bristol and Bath Science Park in Emersons Green, Filton, and Weston-super-Mare. Bristol is the only big city whose wealth per capita is higher than that of Britain as a whole. With a highly skilled workforce drawn from its universities, Bristol claims to have the largest cluster of computer chip designers and manufacturers outside Silicon Valley. The wider region has one of the biggest aerospace hubs in the UK, centred on Airbus, Rolls-Royce and GKN at Filton airfield.


Culture


Arts

Bristol has a thriving current and historical arts scene. Some of the modern venues and modern digital production companies have merged with legacy production companies based in old buildings around the city. In 2008 the city was a finalist for the 2008 European Capital of Culture, although the title was awarded to Liverpool. The city was designated "City of Film" by UNESCO in 2017 and has been a member of the Creative Cities Network since then. The Bristol Old Vic, founded in 1946 as an offshoot of The Old Vic in London, occupies the 1766 Theatre Royal (607 seats) on King Street, Bristol, King Street; the 150-seat New Vic (a studio-type theatre), and a foyer and bar in the adjacent Coopers' Hall (built in 1743). The Theatre Royal, a grade I listed building, is the oldest continuously operating theatre in England. The Bristol Old Vic Theatre School (which originated in King Street) is a separate company, and the Bristol Hippodrome is a 1,951-seat theatre for national touring productions. Other smaller theatres include the Tobacco Factory, Queen Elizabeth's Hospital, QEH, the Redgrave Theatre at Clifton College and the Alma Tavern. Bristol's theatre scene features several companies as well as the Old Vic, including Show of Strength Theatre Company, Show of Strength, Shakespeare at the Tobacco Factory and Travelling Light. Theatre Bristol is a partnership between the city council, Arts Council England and local residents to develop the city's theatre industry. Several organisations support Bristol theatre; the Residence (an artist-led community) provides office, social and rehearsal space for theatre and performance companies, and Equity (trade union), Equity has a branch in the city. The city has many venues for live music, its largest the 2,000-seat Bristol Beacon, previously Colston Hall, named after Edward Colston. Others include the O2 Academy Bristol, Bristol Academy, Wool Hall, Bristol, The Fleece, The Croft (music venue), The Croft, the Exchange, Fiddlers, the Victoria Rooms, Bristol, Victoria Rooms, Rough Trade, Trinity Centre, St George's Church, Brandon Hill, St George's Bristol and several pubs, from the jazz-oriented The Old Duke to rock at the Fleece and independent music, indie bands at the Louisiana. In 2010 PRS for Music called Bristol the UK's most musical city, based on the number of its members born there relative to the city's population. Since the late 1970s Bristol has been home to bands combining Punk rock, punk, Funk rock, funk, Dub music, dub and political consciousness. With trip hop and Bristol underground scene, Bristol Sound artists such as Tricky (musician), Tricky, Portishead (band), Portishead and Massive Attack, the list of bands from Bristol is extensive. The city is a stronghold of drum and bass, with artists such as Roni Size, Roni Size's Mercury Prize-winning Reprazent, as Krust, DJ Krust, Rob Smith (British musician), More Rockers and TC (musician), TC. Trip hop and drum & bass music, in particular, is part of the Bristol urban-culture scene which received international media attention during the 1990s. The Downs Festival is also a yearly occurrence where both local and well-known bands play. Since its inception in 2016, it has become a major event in the city. The Bristol City Museum and Art Gallery houses a collection encompassing natural history, archaeology, local glassware, Chinese ceramics and art. The M Shed museum opened in 2011 on the site of the former Bristol Industrial Museum. Both are operated by Bristol Museums, Galleries and Archives, which also runs three historic housesthe Red Lodge Museum, Bristol, Tudor Red Lodge, the Georgian House, Bristol, Georgian House and Blaise Castle Estate, Blaise Castle Houseand Bristol Archives. The 18th- and 19th-century portrait painter Thomas Lawrence, 19th-century architect Francis Greenway (designer of many of Sydney's first buildings) were born in the city. The graffiti artist Banksy is believed to be from Bristol, and many of his works are on display in the city. The Watershed (Bristol), Watershed Media Centre and Arnolfini, Arnolfini gallery (both in dockside warehouses) exhibit contemporary art, photography and cinema, and the city's oldest gallery is at the
Royal West of England Academy The Royal West of England Academy (RWA) is Bristol's oldest art gallery, located in Clifton, Bristol Bristol () is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county in England. With a population ...

Royal West of England Academy
in Clifton. The nomadic Antlers Gallery opened in 2010, moving into empty spaces on Park Street, Bristol, Park Street, on Whiteladies Road and in the Purifier House on Bristol's Harbourside. Stop motion, Stop-motion animation films and commercials (produced by Aardman Animations) are made in Bristol. Robert Newton, Bobby Driscoll and other cast members of the 1950 Walt Disney film ''Treasure Island (1950 film), Treasure Island'' (some scenes were filmed along the Bristol Harbour, harbourside) were visitors to the city along with Walt Disney himself. Bristol is home to the Broadcasting House, Bristol, regional headquarters of BBC West and the BBC Natural History Unit. Locations in and around Bristol have featured in the BBC's natural-history programmes, including ''Animal Magic (TV series), Animal Magic'' (filmed at Bristol Zoo). Bristol is the birthplace of 18th-century poets Robert Southey and Thomas Chatterton. Southey (born on Wine Street, Bristol, Wine Street in 1774) and his friend, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, married the Fricker sisters from the city. William Wordsworth spent time in Bristol, where Joseph Cottle published ''Lyrical Ballads'' in 1798. Actor Cary Grant was born in Bristol and comedians from the city include Justin Lee Collins, Lee Evans (comedian), Lee Evans, Russell Howard and writer-comedian Stephen Merchant. The author John Betjeman wrote a poem called "Bristol". It begins:


Architecture

Bristol has 51 Grade I listed buildings in Bristol, Grade I, 500 Grade II* listed buildings in Bristol, Grade II* and over 3,800 Grade II listed buildings in Bristol, Grade II listed Categories of listed building, buildings in a variety of Architecture, architectural styles, from Medieval architecture, medieval to modern. During the mid-19th century Bristol Byzantine, a style unique to the city, was developed, and several examples have survived. Buildings from most History of architecture, architectural periods of the United Kingdom can be seen in the city. Surviving elements of the fortifications and castle date to the medieval period, and the Church of St James dates back to the 12th century. The oldest Grade I listed buildings in Bristol are religious. St James' Priory, Bristol, St James' Priory was founded in 1129 as a Benedictine priory by Earl Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester, Robert of Gloucester, the illegitimate son of Henry I of England, Henry I. The second-oldest is Bristol Cathedral and its associated The Great Gatehouse, Great Gatehouse. Founded in 1140, the church became the seat of the bishop and cathedral of the new Diocese of Bristol in 1542. Most of the medieval stonework, particularly the Elder Lady Chapel, is made from limestone taken from quarries around Dundry and Felton, Somerset, Felton with Bath stone being used in other areas. Amongst the other churches included in the list is the 12th-century St Mary Redcliffe which is the tallest building in Bristol. The church was described by Queen Elizabeth I as "the fairest, goodliest, and most famous parish church in England." Secular buildings include The Red Lodge, built in 1580 for John Yonge as a gatehouse, lodge for a larger house that once stood on the site of the present Colston Hall. It was subsequently added to in Georgian architecture, Georgian times and restored in the early 20th century. St Bartholomew's Hospital, Bristol, St Bartholomew's Hospital is a 12th-century town house which was incorporated into a monastery hospital founded in 1240 by Earl De La Warr, Sir John la Warr, 2nd Baron De La Warr (), and became Bristol Grammar School from 1532 to 1767, and then Queen Elizabeth's Hospital 1767–1847. The round piers predate the hospital, and may come from an aisled hall, the earliest remains of domestic architecture in the city, which was then adapted to form the hospital chapel. Three 17th-century town houses which were attached to the hospital were incorporated into model workers' flats in 1865, and converted to offices in 1978. St Nicholas's Almshouses were built in 1652 to provide care for the poor. Several public houses were also built in this period, including the Llandoger Trow on King Street and the Hatchet Inn, Bristol, Hatchet Inn. Manor houses include Goldney Hall, where the highly decorated Grotto at Goldney House, Grotto dates from 1739. Commercial buildings such as the Exchange and Old Post Office, Bristol, Old Post Office from the 1740s are also included in the list. Residential buildings include the Georgian Portland Square and the complex of small cottages around a green at Blaise Hamlet, which was built around 1811 for retired employees of Quaker banking, banker and philanthropy, philanthropist John Scandrett Harford, who owned Blaise Castle House. The 18th-century Kings Weston House, in northern Bristol, was designed by John Vanbrugh and is the only Vanbrugh building in any UK city outside London. Almshouses and pubs from the same period intermingle with modern development. Several Georgian Garden square, squares were designed for the middle class as prosperity increased during the 18th century. During World War II, the city centre was heavily bombed during the Bristol Blitz. The central shopping area near Castle Park, Bristol, Wine Street and Castle Street was particularly hard-hit, and The Dutch House, Bristol, the Dutch House and St Peter's Hospital, Bristol, St Peter's Hospital were destroyed. Nevertheless, in 1961 John Betjeman called Bristol "the most beautiful, interesting and distinguished city in England".


Sport

Bristol is represented by professional teams in all the major national sports. Bristol City FC, Bristol City and Bristol Rovers FC, Bristol Rovers are the city's main Association football, football clubs. Bristol Bears (rugby union) and Gloucestershire County Cricket Club are also based in the city. The two The Football League, Football League clubs are Bristol City and Bristol Roversthe former being the only club from the city to play in the precursor to the Premier League. National League System, Non-league clubs include Bristol Manor Farm FC, Bristol Manor Farm, Hengrove Athletic FC, Hengrove Athletic, Brislington FC, Brislington, Roman Glass St George FC, Roman Glass St George and Bristol Telephones F.C., Bristol Telephones. Bristol City, formed in 1897, were Division One runners-up in 1907 and lost the FA Cup final in 1909. In the First Division in 1976, they then sank to the bottom professional tier before reforming after a 1982 bankruptcy. 28 October 2000 is a date of significance in the city as it is the last time Bristol Rovers were above Bristol City in the Football league. Bristol City were promoted to the second tier of English football in 2007, losing to Hull City AFC, Hull City in the playoff for promotion to the Premier League that season. Bristol City WFC, Bristol City Women are based at Twerton Park. Bristol Rovers, the oldest professional football team in the city, were formed in 1883 and promoted back into the football league in 2015. They were third-tier champions twice (Football League Third Division South, Division Three South in 1952–53 and Football League Third Division, Division Three in 1989–90), Watney Cup Winners (1972) and runners-up for the Football League Trophy, Johnstone's Paint Trophy (2006–07) although have never played in England's top Division. The club has planning permission for a new 21,700-capacity all-seater stadium at the University of the West of England's Frenchay campus. Construction was due to begin in mid-2014, but in March 2015 the sale of the Memorial Stadium site (needed to finance the new stadium) was in jeopardy. Bristol Manor Farm FC, Bristol Manor Farm are the highest-ranked non-league club within the city boundaries. They play their games at The Creek, Sea Mills in the north of Bristol. Formed in 1960, the club currently play in the Southern Football League, Southern League Division One South having finished the 2016-17 Western Football League, 2016-17 Western League season as champions. They reached the quarter finals of the FA Vase in 2015-16 FA Vase, 2015-16. The city is also home to Bristol Bears, formed in 1888 as Bristol Football Club by the merger of the Carlton club with rival Redland Park. Westbury Park declined the merger and folded, with many of its players joining what was then Bristol Rugby. Bristol Rugby has often competed at the highest level of the sport since its formation in 1888. The club played at the Memorial Stadium (Bristol), Memorial Ground, which it shared with Bristol Rovers from 1996. Although Bristol Rugby owned the stadium when the football club arrived, a decline in the rugby club's fortunes led to a transfer of ownership to Bristol Rovers. In 2014 Bristol Rugby moved to their new home, Ashton Gate Stadium (home to Bristol Rovers' rivals Bristol City), for the 2014–15 season. They changed their name from Bristol Rugby to Bristol Bears to coincide with their return to Premiership Rugby in 2018-19 English Premiership, 2018–19. Dating from 1901, the Bristol and District Rugby Football Combination, Bristol Combination and its 53 clubs promote rugby union in the city and help support Bristol Bears. The most prominent of Bristol's smaller rugby clubs include Clifton Rugby Football Club, Clifton Rugby, Dings Crusaders Rugby Football Club, Dings Crusaders, and Cleve RFC, Cleve. Rugby league is represented in Bristol by the Bristol Sonics. The first-class cricket club Gloucestershire County Cricket Club has its headquarters and plays the majority of its home games at the Bristol County Ground, the only major international sports venue in the south-west of England. It was formed by the family of W. G. Grace. The club is arguably Bristol's most successful, achieving a period of success between 1999 and 2006 when it won nine trophies and became the most formidable one-day outfit in England, including winning a "double double" in 1999 and 2000 (both the Benson and Hedges Cup and the C&G Trophy), and the Sunday League in 2000. Gloucestershire CCC also won the Royal London One-Day Cup in 2015. The Bristol Flyers basketball team have competed in the British Basketball League, the UK's premier professional basketball league, since 2014. Bristol Aztecs play in Britain's premier American football competition, the BAFA National Leagues. In 2009 ice hockey returned to Bristol after a 17-year absence, with the Bristol Pitbulls playing at Bristol Ice Rink; after its closure, it shared a venue with Oxford City Stars. Bristol sponsors an annual Bristol Half Marathon, half marathon and hosted the 2001 IAAF World Half Marathon Championships. Athletic clubs in Bristol include Bristol and West AC, Bitton Road Runners and Westbury Harriers. Bristol has staged finishes and starts of the Tour of Britain cycle race and facilities in the city were used as training camps for the 2012 London Olympics. The Bristol International Balloon Fiesta, a major UK hot-air ballooning event, is held each summer at Ashton Court.


Dialect

A dialect of English (West Country English), known as Bristolian, is spoken by longtime residents, who are known as Bristolians. Bristol natives have a Rhoticity in English, rhotic accent, in which the post-vocalic ''r'' in ''car'' and ''card'' is pronounced (unlike in Received Pronunciation). The unique feature of this accent is the ’Bristol (or terminal) l’, in which ''l'' is appended to words ending in ''a'' or ''o''. Whether this is a broad ''l'' or a ''w'' is a subject of debate, with ''area'' pronounced ’areal’ or ’areaw’. The ending of ''Bristol'' is another example of the Bristol ''l''. Bristolians pronounce ''-a'' and ''-o'' at the end of a word as ''-aw'' (''cinemaw''). To non-natives, the pronunciation suggests an ''l'' after the vowel. Until recently Bristolese was characterised by retention of the second-person singular, as in the doggerel "Cassn't see what bist looking at? Cassn't see as well as couldst, casst? And if couldst, 'ouldn't, 'ouldst?" The West Saxon ''bist'' is used for the English ''art'', and children were admonished with "Thee and thou, the Welshman's cow". In Bristolian, as in French and German, the second-person singular was not used when speaking to a superior (except by the egalitarian Quakers). The pronoun ''thee'' is also used in the subject position ("What bist thee doing?"), and ''I'' or ''he'' in the object position ("Give he to I."). Linguist Stanley Ellis (linguist), Stanley Ellis, who found that many dialect words in the Filton area were linked to aerospace work, described Bristolian as "a cranky, crazy, crab-apple tree of language and with the sharpest, juiciest flavour that I've heard for a long time".


Religion

In the 2011 United Kingdom census, 46.8% of Bristol's population identified as Christians, Christian and 37.4% said they were not religious; the English averages were 59.4% and 24.7%, respectively. Islam is observed by 5.1% of the population, Buddhism by 0.6%, Hinduism by 0.6%, Sikhism by 0.5%, Judaism by 0.2% and other religions 0.7%; 8.1% did not identify with a religion. Bristol has several List of churches in Bristol, Christian churches; the most notable are the Anglicanism, Anglican Bristol Cathedral and St Mary Redcliffe and the Roman Catholic Clifton Cathedral. Nonconformist (Protestantism), Nonconformist chapels include Buckingham Baptist Chapel and John Wesley's New Room in Broadmead. After St James' Presbyterian Church of England, Bristol, St James' Presbyterian Church was The Blitz, bombed on 24 November 1940, it was never again used as a church; although its bell tower remains, its nave was converted into offices. The city has eleven mosques, several Buddhist meditation centres, a Hindu temple, Movement for Reform Judaism, Reform and Orthodox-Jewish synagogues and four Gurdwara, Sikh temples.


Bars and nightlife

Bristol has been awarded Purple Flag status on many of its districts, which shows that it meets or surpasses the standards of excellence in managing the evening and night-time economy.  DJ Mag's top 100 club list ranked Motion as the 19th-best club in the world in 2016.  This is up 5 spots from 2015. Motion is host to some of the world's top DJs, and leading producers. Motion is a complex made up of different rooms, outdoor space and a terrace that looks over the river Avon. In 2011 Motion was transformed from a skate park, into the rave spot it is today. In:Motion is an annual series which takes place each autumn and delivers 12 weeks of music and dancing. The club, on Avon Street, behind Temple Meads train station, does not limit itself to playing one genre of music. Party-goers can hear everything from disco, house, techno, grime, drum and bass or hip hop, depending on the night. Other clubs of note in the city include Lakota (club), Lakota and The Thekla, Thekla. The Attic Bar is a venue located in Stokes Croft.  Equipped with a sound system and stage which are used every weekend for gigs of every genre, the bar and the connected Full Moon Pub were rated by ''The Guardian'', a British daily paper, as one of the top ten clubs in the UK. Located by Bristol's harbourside, The Apple is a cider bar which opened in 2004, in a converted Dutch barge, offering a range of 40 different ciders.  In 2014, the Great British Pub Awards ranked The Apple as the best cider bar in the UK. Bristol is also home to the pie chain Pieminster started in the Stokes Croft area of the city.


Media

Bristol is home to the regional headquarters of BBC West and the BBC Natural History Unit based at Broadcasting House, which produces television, radio and online content with a natural history or wildlife theme. These include nature documentary, nature documentaries, including ''The Blue Planet'' and ''Planet Earth (franchise), Planet Earth''. The city has a long association with David Attenborough's authored documentaries, including ''Life on Earth (TV series), Life on Earth''. Bristol has two daily newspapers, the ''Western Daily Press'' and the ''Bristol Post'', (both owned by Reach plc); and a Bristol edition of the free Metro (British newspaper), ''Metro'' newspaper (owned by Daily Mail and General Trust, DMGT). Aardman Animations is an Academy Awards, Oscar-winning animation studio founded and still based in Bristol. They created famous characters such as Wallace and Gromit and Morph (animation), Morph. Its Aardman filmography, films include ''Chicken Run'' (2000), ''Early Man (film), Early Man (2018)'', shorts such as ''Creature Comforts'' and ''Adam (1992 film), Adam'' and TV series like ''Shaun the Sheep'' and ''Angry Kid''. The city has several radio stations, including BBC Radio Bristol. Bristol's television productions include ''BBC Points West, Points West'' for BBC West, Endemol productions such as ''Deal or No Deal'', ''The Crystal Maze'', and ''ITV News West Country'' for ITV West Country. The hospital drama ''Casualty (TV series), Casualty'', formerly filmed in Bristol, moved to Cardiff in 2012. In October 2018, Channel 4 announced that Bristol would be home to one of its 'Creative Hubs', as part of their move to produce more content outside of London. Publishers in the city have included 18th-century Bristolian Joseph Cottle, who helped introduce Romanticism by publishing the works of William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge. During the 19th century, J.W. Arrowsmith published the Victorian comedies ''Three Men in a Boat'' (by Jerome K. Jerome) and ''The Diary of a Nobody'' by George Grossmith, George and Weedon Grossmith. The contemporary Redcliffe Press has published over 200 books covering all aspects of the city. Bristol is home to YouTube video developers and stylists The Yogscast, with founders Simon Lane and Lewis Brindley moving their operations from Reading, Berkshire, Reading to Bristol in 2012.


Education

Bristol has two major institutions of higher education: the
University of Bristol The University of Bristol is a Red brick university, red brick Russell Group research university in Bristol, England. It received its royal charter in 1909, although it can trace its roots to a Society of Merchant Venturers, Merchant Venturers' sc ...

University of Bristol
, a Red brick university, redbrick chartered in 1909, and the
University of the West of England The University of the West of England, Bristol (UWE Bristol) is a Public university, public Research universities, research university, located in and around Bristol, England, which received university status in 1992. In common with the Universi ...
, opened as Bristol Institute of technology, Polytechnic in 1969, which became a university in 1992. The University of Law also has a campus in the city. Bristol has two further education institutions (City of Bristol College and South Gloucestershire and Stroud College) and two Theology, theological colleges: Trinity College, Bristol, Trinity College, and Baptists Together, Bristol Baptist College. The city has 129 Infant school, infant, Junior school, junior and primary schools, List of schools in Bristol, 17 secondary schools, and three learning centres. After a section of north London, Bristol has England's second-highest number of Independent school (United Kingdom), independent school places. Independent schools in the city include Clifton College, Clifton High School, Bristol, Clifton High School, Badminton School, Bristol Grammar School, Queen Elizabeth's Hospital (the only all-boys school) and the Redmaids' High School, Redmaids' School (founded in 1634 by John Whitson, which claims to be England's oldest girls' school). In 2005 Chancellor of the Exchequer Gordon Brown named Bristol one of six English ‘science cities’, and a £300million science park was planned at Emersons Green. Research is conducted at the two universities, the Bristol Royal Infirmary and Southmead Hospital, and science outreach is practiced at We The Curious, the Bristol Zoo, the Bristol Festival of Nature and the CREATE Centre. The city has produced a number of scientists, including 19th-century chemist Humphry Davy (who worked in Hotwells). Physicist Paul Dirac (from Bishopston, Bristol, Bishopston) received the 1933 Nobel Prize for his contributions to quantum mechanics. C. F. Powell, Cecil Frank Powell was the Melvill Wills Professor of Physics at the University of Bristol when he received the 1950 Nobel Prize for, among other discoveries, his photographic method of studying nuclear processes. Colin Pillinger was the planetary scientist behind the Beagle 2 project, and neuropsychologist Richard Gregory founded the Exploratory (a hands-on science centre which was the predecessor of At-Bristol/We The Curious). Initiatives such as the Flying Start Challenge encourage an interest in science and engineering in Bristol secondary-school pupils; links with aerospace companies impart technical information and advance student understanding of design. The Bloodhound SSC project to break the land speed record is based at the Bloodhound Technology Centre on the city's harbourside.


Transport


Rail

Bristol has two principal railway stations.
Bristol Temple Meads Bristol Temple Meads is the oldest and largest railway station in Bristol, England. It is an important transport hub for public transport in Bristol, public transport in the city. In addition to the train services there are bus services to many p ...

Bristol Temple Meads
(near the city centre) has Great Western Railway (train operating company), Great Western Railway services which include high-speed trains to Paddington railway station, London Paddington and local, regional and CrossCountry trains. Bristol Parkway, north of the city centre, has high-speed Great Western Railway services to Swansea railway station, Swansea, Cardiff Central railway station, Cardiff Central and London Paddington and CrossCountry services to Birmingham New Street railway station, Birmingham and Northern England, east of Northern England. A limited service to London Waterloo railway station, London Waterloo, via Clapham Junction railway station, Clapham Junction, from Temple Meads is operated by South Western Railway (train operating company), South Western Railway and there are scheduled coach links to most major UK cities. Bristol's principal surviving suburban railway is the Severn Beach Line to Avonmouth and Severn Beach. Although Portishead Railway, Portishead Railway's passenger service was a casualty of the Beeching cuts, freight service to the Royal Portbury Dock was restored from 2000 to 2002 with a Strategic Rail Authority rail-freight grant. The MetroWest (Bristol), MetroWest scheme, formerly known as The Greater Bristol Metro, proposes to increase the city's rail capacity including the restoration of a further of track on the Portishead Railway, line to Portishead, Somerset, Portishead (a Commuter town, dormitory town with one connecting road), is due to open in 2023. A further commuter rail line from
Bristol Temple Meads Bristol Temple Meads is the oldest and largest railway station in Bristol, England. It is an important transport hub for public transport in Bristol, public transport in the city. In addition to the train services there are bus services to many p ...

Bristol Temple Meads
to
Henbury Henbury is a suburb of Bristol Bristol () is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county in England. With a population of 463,400, it is the most populous city in South West England. The w ...
, on an Henbury Loop Line, existing freight line, is due to open in 2021.


Roads

The M4 motorway connects the city on an east–west axis from London to West Wales, and the M5 is a north–south west axis from Birmingham to Exeter. The M49 motorway is a shortcut between the M5 in the south and the M4 Second Severn Crossing, Severn Crossing in the west, and the M32 is a spur from the M4 to the city centre. The Portway connects the M5 to the city centre, and was the most expensive road in Britain when opened in 1926. As of 2019, Bristol is working on plans for a Clean Air Zone to reduce pollution, which could involve charging the most polluting vehicles to enter the city centre. Several road-construction plans, including re-routing and improving the South Bristol (UK), South Bristol A4174 road, Ring Road, are supported by the city council. Private car use is high in the city, leading to traffic congestion costing an estimated £350million per year. Bristol allows motorcycles to use most of the city's bus lanes and provides secure, free parking for them.


Public transport

Public transport in the city consists primarily of a First West of England Buses in Bristol, bus network. Other providers are Abus, Stagecoach West, Stagecoach South West and until it's sale to Stagecoach West, Wessex Bus. Bristol's bus service has been criticised as unreliable and expensive, and in 2005 FirstGroup was fined for delays and safety violations. Although the city council has included a light rail system in its local transport plan since 2000, it has not yet funded the project; Bristol was offered European Union funding for the system, but the Department for Transport did not provide the required additional funding. As of 2019, a four-line mass transit network with potential underground sections is proposed to link Bristol city centre with
Bristol Airport Bristol Airport , at Lulsgate BottomLulsgate may refer to: * Bristol Airport, an English airport formerly known as Lulsgate * Lulsgate Plateau, an outlier of the Mendip Hills in North Somerset, England * Lulsgate Quarry, a Site of Special Scie ...

Bristol Airport
via South Bristol, England, South Bristol, the North Fringe of Bristol, North Fringe, East Bristol and
Bath Bath may refer to: * Bathing, immersion in a fluid ** Bathtub, a large open container for water, in which a person may wash their body ** Public bathing, a public place where people bathe * Thermae, ancient Roman public bathing facilities Place ...
. A new bus rapid transit system (BRT) called MetroBus (Bristol), MetroBus, is currently under construction across Bristol, as of 2018, to provide a faster and more reliable service than buses, improve transport infrastructure and reduce congestion. The MetroBus rapid transit scheme will run on both bus lanes and segregated guided busways on three routes; North Fringe to Hengrove (route m1), Ashton Vale to
Bristol Temple Meads Bristol Temple Meads is the oldest and largest railway station in Bristol, England. It is an important transport hub for public transport in Bristol, public transport in the city. In addition to the train services there are bus services to many p ...

Bristol Temple Meads
(route m2), and Emersons Green to The Centre, Bristol, The Centre (route m3). MetroBus services started in 2018. Three park and ride sites serve Bristol. The city centre has water transport operated by Bristol Ferry Boats, Bristol Packet Boat Trips and Number Seven Boat Trips, providing leisure and commuter service in the harbour.


Cycling

Bristol was designated as England's first "cycling city" in 2008 and one of England's 12 "Cycling demonstration" areas. It is home to Sustrans, the sustainable transport charity. The Bristol and Bath Railway Path links it to Bath, and was the first part of the National Cycle Network. The city also has urban cycle routes and links with National Cycle Network routes to The rest of the Country. Cycling trips increased by 21% from 2001 to 2005.


Air

The runway, terminal and other facilities at
Bristol Airport Bristol Airport , at Lulsgate BottomLulsgate may refer to: * Bristol Airport, an English airport formerly known as Lulsgate * Lulsgate Plateau, an outlier of the Mendip Hills in North Somerset, England * Lulsgate Quarry, a Site of Special Scie ...

Bristol Airport
(BRS), Lulsgate Plateau, Lulsgate, have been upgraded since 2001. In 2019 it was ranked the eighth Busiest airports in the United Kingdom by total passenger traffic, busiest airport in the United Kingdom, handling nearly 8.9 million passengers, an over 3% increase compared with 2018.


International relations

Bristol was among the first cities to adopt Twin towns and sister cities, town twinning after World War II. Twin towns include: * Bordeaux, France (since 1947) * Hanover, Germany (since 1947; one of the first post-war twinnings of British and German cities) * Porto, Portugal (since 1984) * Tbilisi, Georgia (since 1988) * Puerto Morazán, Nicaragua (since 1989) * Beira, Mozambique (since 1990) * Guangzhou, China (since 2001)


Freedom of the City

People and military units receiving the Freedom of the City of Bristol include: * Billy Hughes: 20 May 1916. * Kipchoge Keino: 5 July 2012. * Peter Higgs: 4 July 2013. * Sir David Attenborough: 17 December 2013. * The Rifles: 2007, 2015. * 39 (Skinners) Signal Regiment, 39 Signal Regiment: 20 March 2019.


See also

* Atlantic history *Bristol Pound *Healthcare in Bristol *Parks of Bristol *Subdivisions of Bristol


References


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


External links


Visit Bristol
official tourism website
Bristol City Council
* {{featured article Bristol, Populated places on the River Severn Unitary authority districts of England Port cities and towns in South West England Staple ports County towns in England Cities in South West England Populated places in Bristol (county) Local government districts of South West England River Avon, Bristol Counties of England established in 1373 Counties of England disestablished in 1974 Counties of England established in 1996 Counties in South West England Unparished areas