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Bribery is defined by ''
Black's Law Dictionary ''Black's Law Dictionary'' is the most widely used law dictionary Image:Legal Dictionaries.jpg, 300px, Several English and Russian legal dictionaries A law dictionary (also known as legal dictionary) is a dictionary that is designed and compiled to ...
'' as the offering,
giving Giving may refer to: * Gift, the transfer of something without the expectation of receiving something in return * Generosity, the habit of giving freely without expecting anything in return * Charity (practice), the giving of help to those in need ...

giving
, receiving, or
soliciting Solicitation is the act of offering, or attempting to purchase, goods and/or services. Legal status may be specific to the time or place where it occurs. The crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or ...
of any item of value to influence the actions of an official, or other person, in charge of a public or
legal Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its boundari ...

legal
duty A duty (from "due" meaning "that which is owing"; fro, deu, did, past participle of ''devoir''; la, debere, debitum, whence "debt Debt is an obligation that requires one party, the debtor, to pay money or other agreed-upon value to anot ...

duty
. With regard to governmental operations, essentially, bribery is "Corrupt solicitation, acceptance, or transfer of value in exchange for official action." Gifts of money or other items of value which are otherwise available to everyone on an equivalent basis, and not for dishonest purposes, is not bribery. Offering a discount or a refund to all purchasers is a legal rebate and is not bribery. For example, it is legal for an employee of a Public Utilities Commission involved in electric rate regulation to accept a rebate on electric service that reduces their cost for electricity, when the rebate is available to other residential electric customers. However, giving a discount specifically to that employee to influence them to look favorably on the electric utility's rate increase applications would be considered bribery. A bribe is an illegal or unethical gift or lobbying effort bestowed to influence the recipient's conduct. It may be
money In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the left corner">174x174px Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally a ...

money
,
goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods ...
, rights in action,
property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on the nature of the property, an owner of property may have the right to , alter, , , , , , , , or ...
,
preferment A ferment (also known as bread starter) is a fermentation starter used in ''indirect'' methods of bread making. It may also be called mother dough. A ferment and a longer fermentation in the bread making, bread-making process have several benefits ...
,
privilege Privilege may refer to: Arts and entertainment * ''Privilege'' (film), a 1967 film directed by Peter Watkins * ''Privilege'' (Ivor Cutler album), 1983 * ''Privilege'' (Television Personalities album), 1990 * ''Privilege (Abridged) ''Privile ...
,
emolument Remuneration is the pay or other financial compensation provided in exchange for an employee's ''services performed'' (not to be confused with giving (away), or donating, or the act of providing to). A number of complementary Employee benefit, bene ...

emolument
, objects of value, advantage, or merely a promise to induce or influence the action, vote, or influence of a person in an official or public capacity. The United Nations
Sustainable Development Goal 16 Sustainable Development Goal 16 (SDG 16 or Global Goal 16) is about "peace, justice and strong institutions." One of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) or Global Goals are a collection of 17 interl ...

Sustainable Development Goal 16
has a target to substantially reduce corruption and bribery of all forms as part of international effort aimed at ensuring peace, justice and strong institutions.


Forms

Many types of payments or favors may be fairly or unfairly labeled as bribes:
tip Tip commonly refers to: * Tip (gambling) * Tip (gratuity) * Tip (law enforcement) Tip or TIP may also refer to: Science and technology * Targeted intervention program, a type of medication therapy management * Tip and ring, two wires in a telep ...
,
gift A gift or a present is an item given to someone without the expectation of payment or anything in return. An item is not a gift if that item is already owned by the one to whom it is given. Although gift-giving might involve an expectation o ...

gift
,
sop A sop is a piece of bread Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking. Throughout recorded history, it has been a prominent food in large parts of the world. It is one of the oldest man-made foods, h ...

sop
, perk,
skim Skim or skimming may refer to: Sports and games *Skimboarding, also skimming, a sport which involves riding a board on wet sand or shallow water *Snowmobile skipping, also known as skimming, operating a snowmobile on water *Stone skimming, skippin ...
, favor, discount,
waived A waiver is the voluntary relinquishment or surrender Surrender may refer to: * Surrender (law)In common law, surrender is the term describing a situation where a leasehold estate, tenant gives up possession of property held under a tenancy as ...
fee/ticket, free food, free ad, free trip, free tickets,
sweetheart deal A sweetheart deal or sweetheart contract is a contractual agreement, usually worked out in secret, that greatly benefits some of the parties while inappropriately disadvantaging other parties or the public at large. The term was coined in the 1940s ...
, kickback/payback,
funding Funding is the act of providing resources A resource is a source or supply from which a benefit is produced and that has some utility. Resources can broadly be classified upon their availability — they are classified into renewable and non-re ...

funding
, inflated sale of an object or property, lucrative contract,
donation A donation is a gift A gift or a present is an item given to someone without the expectation of payment or anything in return. An item is not a gift if that item is already owned by the one to whom it is given. Although gift-giving mig ...

donation
,
campaign contribution Campaign finance, also known as election finance or political donations, refers to the funds raised to promote candidates, political parties A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's electio ...
,
fundraiser Fundraising or fund-raising is the process of seeking and gathering voluntary financial contributions by engaging individuals, businesses, charitable foundations, or governmental agencies. Although fundraising typically refers to efforts to gathe ...

fundraiser
,
sponsorship Sponsoring something (or someone) is the act of supporting an event, activity, person, or organization financially or through the provision of products or services. The individual or group that provides the support, similar to a Benefactor (law), ...
/backing, higher paying job,
stock options In finance Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they operate within the financial system. It is concerned with the creation and management of money and investments. Savers and investors have money availa ...
, secret commission, or
promotion Promotion may refer to: Marketing * Promotion (marketing), one of the four marketing mix elements, comprising any type of marketing communication used to inform or persuade target audiences of the relative merits of a product, service, brand or i ...
(rise of position/rank). One must be careful of differing social and cultural norms when examining bribery. Expectations of when a monetary transaction is appropriate can differ from place to place. Political
campaign contributions Campaign finance, also known as election finance or political donations, refers to the funds raised to promote candidates, political parties A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's electio ...
in the form of cash, for example, are considered criminal acts of bribery in some countries, while in the United States, provided they adhere to election law, are legal. Tipping, for example, is considered bribery in some societies, while in others the two concepts may not be interchangeable. In some Spanish-speaking countries, bribes are referred to as "mordida" (literally, "bite"). In Arab countries, bribes may be called
baksheesh Mounted policemen in Egypt allow photos of themselves for ''baksheesh'', 2008 ''Baksheesh'' or ' (from fa, بخشش ) is tipping, charitable giving, and certain forms of political corruption Political corruption or Malpolitics is the use of ...
(a tip, gift, or gratuity) or "shay" (literally, "tea"). French-speaking countries often use the expressions "dessous-de-table" ("under-the-table" commissions), "pot-de-vin" (literally, "wine-pot"), or "commission occulte" ("secret commission" or "kickback"). While the last two expressions contain inherently a negative connotation, the expression "dessous-de-table" can be often understood as a commonly accepted business practice. In German, the common term is ''Schmiergeld'' ("smoothing money"). The offence may be divided into two great classes: the one, where a person invested with power is induced by payment to use it unjustly; the other, where power is obtained by purchasing the suffrages of those who can impart it. Likewise, the briber might hold a powerful role and control the transaction; or in other cases, a bribe may be effectively extracted from the person paying it, although this is better known as
extortion Extortion is the practice of obtaining benefit through coercion Coercion () is compelling a party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threat A threat is a communication of intent to inflict harm or loss on another person. Intimid ...
. The forms that bribery take are numerous. For example, a motorist might bribe a
police officer A police officer, also known as a policeman or policewoman, is a warranted law employee of a police force The police are a constituted body of persons empowered by a state, with the aim to enforce the law, to ensure the safety, ...

police officer
not to issue a ticket for speeding, a citizen seeking paperwork or utility line connections might bribe a functionary for faster service. Bribery may also take the form of a secret commission, a profit made by an agent, in the course of his employment, without the knowledge of his principal. Euphemisms abound for this (commission, sweetener, kick-back etc.) Bribers and recipients of bribery are likewise numerous although bribers have one common denominator and that is the financial ability to bribe. Overall, bribery is thought to be around one trillion dollars worldwide according to BBC news UK. As indicated on the pages devoted to
political corruption Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain. Forms of corruption vary, but can include bribery, lobbying, extortion, cronyism, nepotism, parochialism, patronage, infl ...
, efforts have been made in recent years by the international community to encourage countries to dissociate and incriminate as separate offences, active and passive bribery. From a legal point of view, active bribery can be defined for instance as ''the promising, offering or giving by any person, directly or indirectly, of any undue advantage o any public official for himself or herself or for anyone else, for him or her to act or refrain from acting in the exercise of his or her functions.'' (article 2 of the Criminal Law Convention on Corruption (ETS 173) of the
Council of Europe The Council of Europe (CoE; french: Conseil de l'Europe, ) is an international organisation ''International Organization'' is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the entire field of international relations, international aff ...

Council of Europe
). Passive bribery can be defined as ''the request or receipt y any public official directly or indirectly, of any undue advantage, for himself or herself or for anyone else, or the acceptance of an offer or a promise of such an advantage, to act or refrain from acting in the exercise of his or her functions'' (article 3 of the Criminal Law Convention on Corruption (ETS 173)). The reason for this dissociation is to make the early steps (offering, promising, requesting an advantage) of a corrupt deal already an offence and, thus, to give a clear signal (from a criminal policy point of view) that bribery is not acceptable. Besides, such a dissociation makes the prosecution of bribery offences easier since it can be very difficult to prove that two parties (the bribe-giver and the bribe-taker) have formally agreed upon a corrupt deal. Besides, there is often no such formal deal but only a mutual understanding, for instance when it is common knowledge in a municipality that to obtain a building permit one has to pay a "fee" to the decision maker to obtain a favourable decision. When examining the fact of bribe taking, we primarily need to understand that any action is affected by various elements; in addition, all these elements are interrelated. For instance, it would be wrong to indicate that the bribe-taker's motive is greediness as such, without examining causes of appearance of greediness in the personality of the particular bribe-taker. Largely, it is possible to confine oneself to the motive of greediness only in case if a bribe-taker tries to satisfy the primary (physical) needs. Yet, if money serves to satisfy secondary – psychological – needs, we should search for deeper motives of bribe taking.


Government

A grey area may exist when payments to smooth transactions are made. United States law is particularly strict in limiting the ability of businesses to pay for the awarding of contracts by foreign governments; however, the
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 (FCPA) (, ''et seq.'') is a United States federal law The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law, of which the most important is the nation's Constituti ...
contains an exception for "grease payments"; very basically, this allows payments to officials in order to obtain the performance of ministerial acts which they are legally required to do, but may delay in the absence of such payment. In some countries, this practice is the norm, often resulting from a developing nation not having the tax structure to pay civil servants an adequate salary. Nevertheless, most economists regard bribery as a bad thing because it encourages
rent seeking In public-choice theory, as well as in economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumpt ...
behaviour. A state where bribery has become a way of life is a
kleptocracy Kleptocracy (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 ...
. Recent evidence suggests that the act of bribery can have political consequences- with citizens being asked for bribes becoming less likely to identify with their country, region and/or tribal unit.


Tax treatment

The tax status of bribes is an issue for governments since the bribery of government officials impedes the democratic process and may interfere with good government. In some countries, such bribes are considered tax-deductible payments. However, in 1996, in an effort to discourage bribery, the
OECD Council
OECD Council
recommended that member countries cease to allow the tax-deductibility of bribes to foreign officials. This was followed by the signing of the Anti-Bribery Convention. Since that time, the majority of the OECD countries which are signatories of the convention have revised their tax policies according to this recommendation and some have extended the measures to bribes paid to any official, sending the message that bribery will no longer be tolerated in the operations of the government. As any monetary benefit received from an illegal activity such as bribery is generally considered part of one's taxable income, however, as it is criminal, some governments may refuse to accept it as income as it may mean they are a party to the activity.


Medicine

Pharmaceutical corporations may seek to entice
doctors Doctor or The Doctor may refer to: Personal titles * Doctor (title), the holder of an accredited academic degree * A medical practitioner, including: ** Physician ** Surgeon *Other roles ** Doctor of the Church, a title given to those with g ...

doctors
to favor prescribing their
drugs A drug is any chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched ...

drugs
over others of comparable effectiveness. If the medicine is prescribed heavily, they may seek to reward the individual through gifts. The
American Medical Association The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association and lobby group Advocacy groups, also known as special interest groups, use various forms of advocacy Advocacy is an activity by ...
has published ethical guidelines for gifts from industry which include the tenet that physicians should not accept gifts if they are given in relation to the physician's prescribing practices. Doubtful cases include grants for traveling to medical
convention Convention may refer to: * Convention (norm), a custom or tradition, a standard of presentation or conduct ** Treaty, an agreement in international law * Convention (meeting), meeting of a (usually large) group of individuals and/or companies in a ...
s that double as tourist trips. Dentists often receive samples of home dental care products such as toothpaste, which are of negligible value; somewhat ironically, dentists in a television commercial will often state that they get these samples but pay to use the sponsor's product. In countries offering state-subsidized or nationally funded healthcare where medical professionals are underpaid,
patient A patient is any recipient of health care Healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health Health, according to the , is "a state of complete physical, and social and not merely the absence of and ".. (2006)''Constitution of the ...

patient
s may use bribery to solicit the standard expected level of medical care. For example, in many formerly Communist countries from what used to be the
Eastern Bloc The Eastern Bloc, also known as the Communist Bloc, the Socialist Bloc and the Soviet Bloc, was the group of socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' ...
it may be customary to offer expensive gifts to doctors and nurses for the delivery of service at any level of medical care in the non-private health sector.Bribes for basic care in Romania
.
The Guardian Weekly ''The Guardian Weekly'' is an international English-language news magazine based in London, UK. It is one of the world's oldest international news publications and has readers in more than 170 countries. Editorial content is drawn from its sist ...
(March 26th 2008).


Politics

Politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective recipient of an award or honor, or a person seeking or being considered for some ...

Politician
s receive
campaign contributions Campaign finance, also known as election finance or political donations, refers to the funds raised to promote candidates, political parties A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's electio ...
and other payoffs from powerful corporations, organizations or individuals in return for making choices in the interests of those parties, or in anticipation of favorable
policy Policy is a deliberate system of guideline A guideline is a statement by which to determine a course of action. A guideline aims to streamline particular processes according to a set routine or sound practice. Guidelines may be issued by a ...

policy
, also referred to as
lobbying In politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of resources or status. The branch of socia ...

lobbying
. This is not illegal in the United States and forms a major part of
campaign finance Campaign finance, also known as election finance or political donations, refers to the funds raised to promote candidates, political parties A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's electio ...
, though it is sometimes referred to as the
money loop"Follow the money" is a catchphrase A catchphrase (alternatively spelled catch phrase) is a phrase or expression recognized by its repeated utterance. Such phrases often originate in popular culture and in the arts, and typically spread through w ...
. However, in many European countries, a politician accepting money from a corporation whose activities fall under the sector they currently (or are campaigning to be elected to) regulate would be considered a criminal offence, for instance the "
Cash-for-questions affair The "cash-for-questions affair" was a political scandal of the 1990s in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Tel ...
" and "
Cash for Honours In economics, cash ( , or in Australian English, AuE) is money in the physical form of currency, such as banknotes and coins. In bookkeeping and finance, cash is current assets comprising currency or currency equivalents that can be accessed ...
" in the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
. A grey area in these democracies is the so-called "
revolving door A revolving door typically consists of three or four doors that hang on a central shaft and rotate around a vertical axis within a cylindrical enclosure. Revolving doors are energy efficient as they (acting as an airlock An airlock is a device ...
" in which politicians are offered highly-paid, often consultancy jobs upon their retirement from politics by the corporations they regulate while in office, in return for enacting legislation favourable to the corporation while they are in office, a
conflict of interest A conflict of interest (COI) is a situation in which a person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic Logic is an i ...
. Convictions for this form of bribery are easier to obtain with hard evidence, a specific amount of money linked to a specific action by the recipient of the bribe. Such evidence is frequently obtained using undercover agents, since evidence of a
quid pro quo Quid pro quo ('what for what' in Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the ...
relation can often be difficult to prove. See also
influence peddling Influence peddling is the practice of using one's influence in government or connections with persons in authority to obtain favours or preferential treatment for another, usually in return for payment. Also called traffic of influence or trading i ...
and
political corruption Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain. Forms of corruption vary, but can include bribery, lobbying, extortion, cronyism, nepotism, parochialism, patronage, infl ...
. Recent evidence suggests that demands for bribes can adversely impact citizen level of trust and engagement with the political process.


Business

Employees, managers, or salespeople of a business may offer money or gifts to a potential client in exchange for business. For example, in 2006, German prosecutors conducted a wide-ranging investigation of
Siemens AG Siemens AG ( ) is a German multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, ...
to determine if Siemens employees paid bribes in exchange for business. In some cases where the system of law is not well-implemented, bribes may be a way for companies to continue their businesses. In the case, for example, custom officials may harass a certain firm or production plant, officially stating they are checking for irregularities, halting production or stalling other normal activities of a firm. The disruption may cause losses to the firm that exceed the amount of money to pay off the official. Bribing the officials is a common way to deal with this issue in countries where there exists no firm system of reporting these semi-illegal activities. A third party, known as a White Glove, may be involved to act as a clean middleman. Specialist consultancies have been set up to help multinational companies and
small and medium enterprises Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) or small and medium-sized businesses (SMBs) are businesses whose personnel numbers fall below certain limits. The abbreviation "SME" is used by international organizations such as the World Bank, the Europe ...
with a commitment to anti-corruption to trade more ethically and benefit from compliance with the law. Contracts based on or involving the payment or transfer of bribes ("corruption money", "secret commissions", "pots-de-vin", "kickbacks") are void. In 2012, ''
The Economist ''The Economist'' is an international weekly newspaper A weekly newspaper is a general-news or current affairsCurrent affairs may refer to: Media * Current Affairs (magazine), ''Current Affairs'' (magazine), a bimonthly magazine of cult ...
'' noted: In addition, a survey conducted by auditing firm Ernst & Young (EY) in 2012 found that 15 percent of top financial executives are willing to pay bribes in order to keep or win business. Another 4 percent said they would be willing to misstate financial performance. This alarming indifference represents a huge risk to their business, given their responsibility.


Sport corruption

Referee A referee is an official An official is someone who holds an office (function or Mandate (politics), mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual Office, working space with it) in an organization or government and participates in the ex ...

Referee
s and scoring judges may be offered money, gifts, or other compensation to guarantee a specific outcome in an athletic or other sports competition. A well-known example of this manner of bribery in the sport would be the 2002 Olympic Winter Games figure skating scandal, where the French judge in the pairs competition voted for the Russian skaters in order to secure an advantage for the French skaters in the ice dancing competition. Additionally, bribes may be offered by cities in order to secure athletic franchises, or even competitions, as happened with the
2002 Winter Olympics The 2002 Winter Olympics, officially the XIX Olympic Winter Games and commonly known as Salt Lake 2002, was a winter multi-sport event A multi-sport event is an organized sporting Sporting may refer to: *Sport, recreational games and play ...
. It is common practice for cities to "bid" against each other with stadiums, tax benefits, and licensing deals.


Prevention


Legislation

The U.S. introduced the
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 (FCPA) (, ''et seq.'') is a United States federal law The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law, of which the most important is the nation's Constituti ...
(FCPA) in 1977 to address bribery of foreign officials. FCPA criminalized the influencing of foreign officials by companies through rewards or payments. This legislation dominated international anti-corruption enforcement until around 2010 when other countries began introducing broader and more robust legislation, notably the United Kingdom Bribery Act 2010. The International Organization for Standardization introduced an international anti-bribery management system standard in 2016. In recent years, cooperation in enforcement action between countries has increased. Under 18 U.S. Code § 201 – Bribery of public officials and witnesses, the law strictly prohibits any type of promising, giving, or offering of value to a public official. A public official is further defined as anyone who holds public or elected office

Another stipulation of the law in place condemns the same kind of offering, giving, or coercing a witness in a legal case to changing their story

Under the U.S Code § 1503, influencing or injuring officer or juror generally, it clearly states that any offense under the section means you can be imprisoned for the maximum of 10 years and/or fine


Businesses

Programs of prevention need to be properly designed and meet with international standards of best practice. To ensure respect for a program, whether it be on the part of employees or business partners, external verification is necessary. International best practices such as the Council for Further Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, Annex 2; the
ISO 26000 ISO 26000:2010 ''Guidance on social responsibility'' is an international standard providing guidelines for social responsibility (SR, often CSR - ''corporate social responsibility''). It was released by the International Organization for Standardiz ...
norm (section 6.6.3) or TI Business Principles for Countering Bribery are used in external verification processes to measure and ensure that a program of bribery prevention works and is consistent with international standards. Another reason for businesses to undergo external verification of their bribery prevention programs is that it means evidence can be provided to assert that all that was possible was done to prevent corruption. Companies are unable to guarantee corruption has never occurred; what they can do is provide evidence that they did their best to prevent it. There is no federal statute under the U.S Law that prohibits or regulates any type of private or commercial bribery. There is a way for prosecutors to try people for bribery by using existing laws. Section 1346 of Title 18 can be used by prosecutors, to try people for ‘a scheme or artifice to deprive another of the intangible right to honest services,’ under the mail and wire fraud statutes.
/ref> Prosecutors have always successfully prosecuted private company employees for breaching a fiduciary duty and taking bribes, under Honest services fraud. There are also cases of successful prosecution of bribery in the case of international business. The DOJ has used the Travel Act, 18 USC Section 1952 to prosecute bribery. Under the Travel Act, it is against the law, domestically and internationally, to utilize‘the mail or any facility in interstate or foreign commerce’ with intent to ‘promote, manage, establish, carry on, or facilitate the promotion, management, establishment or carrying on, of any unlawful activity’.


Notable instances

*
Spiro Agnew Spiro Theodore Agnew (November 9, 1918 – September 17, 1996) was the 39th vice president of the United States The vice president of the United States (VPOTUS) is the second-highest officer in the executive branch The executive ( ...

Spiro Agnew
, Republican, American Vice President who resigned from office in the aftermath of discovery that he took bribes while serving as Governor of Maryland. *, former President of the United Nations General Assembly (2013-2014) and key negotiator for the , wa
arrested 6 October 2015
and charged, along with five others, in a criminal complaint involving receiving bribes from Macau casino and real estate developer Ng Lap Seng. * Pakistan cricket spot-fixing controversy, Mohammad Asif,
Mohammad Amir Mohammad Amir ( ur, ; born 13 April 1992) is a Pakistani cricketer Cricket is a bat-and-ball gameBat-and-ball may refer to: *Bat-and-ball games Bat-and-ball games (or safe haven games) are field games played by two opposing teams, in ...

Mohammad Amir
and
Salman Butt Salman Butt ( ur, , born 7 October 1984) is a Pakistani cricket commentator, cricketer and former captain who played for Pakistan national cricket team The Pakistan national cricket team, popularly referred to as the Shaheens (), Green Sh ...
, Pakistani
cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two Bail (cricket), bai ...

cricket
ers found guilty of accepting bribes to bowl
no-ball In cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two Bail ...
s against
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...
at certain times. *
Duke Cunningham Randall Harold "Duke" Cunningham (born December 8, 1941) is a formerly convicted felon, former American politician, and retired fighter pilot. A Republican, he served as member of the U.S. House of Representatives from California's 50th dist ...

Duke Cunningham
,
United States Navy ), (unofficial)."''Non sibi sed patriae''" ( en, "Not for self but for country") (unofficial). , colors = Blue and gold  , colors_label = Colors , march = "Anchors Aweigh" , mascot = , equipment = List of equipment of the United St ...
veteran and former Republican member of the United States House of Representatives from California's 50th Congressional District resigned after pleading guilty to accepting at least $2.4 million in bribes and under-reporting his income for 2004. * Gerald Garson, former New York Supreme Court Justice, convicted of accepting bribes to manipulate outcomes of divorce proceedings. *, Republican, former congressman from California's 40th district, convicted of accepting bribes. *, Democrat, former congressman from South Carolina's 6th district, convicted of accepting a bribe in the FBI's
Abscam Abscam (sometimes written ABSCAM) was an FBI The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the domestic intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction, logic, understanding, self-awareness, learnin ...
operation. *
Ralph Lauren Ralph Lauren, (; born Lifshitz; born October 14, 1939) is an American fashion designer Fashion is a form of self-expression and autonomy at a particular period and place and in a specific context, of clothing, footwear, Lifestyle (sociolo ...
, clothing retailer, was found guilty of making illegal payments and giving gifts to foreign officials in an attempt to circumvent custom' inspections and paperwork. *
Lee Myung-Bak Lee Myung-bak (; ; ; born 19 December 1941) is a former South Korean businessman and politician who served as the tenth president of South Korea The President of the Republic of Korea (), also known as the President of South Korea, (often a ...

Lee Myung-Bak
, former South Korean president was found guilty of accepting nearly $6 million bribes from
Samsung The Samsung Group (or simply Samsung) ( ko, 삼성) is a South Korean Multinational corporation, multinational manufacturing Conglomerate (company), conglomerate headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul, South Korea. It comprises numerous affil ...

Samsung
in exchange for a presidential pardon for Samsung Chairman
Lee Kun-hee Lee Kun-hee (, ; 9 January 194225 October 2020) was a South Korean businessman who served as chairman of the Samsung Group from 1987 to 2008 and from 2010 to 2020, and is credited with the transformation of Samsung to the world's largest manufa ...
. * Donald "Buz" Lukens, Republican, former congressman from Ohio's 8th district, charged with delinquency of a minor and convicted of bribery and conspiracy. *
Martin Thomas Manton Martin Thomas Manton (August 2, 1880 – November 17, 1946) was a United States federal judge, United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit and previously was a United States District Judge of the United ...
, former U.S. federal judge convicted of accepting bribes. *
Rick Renzi Richard George Renzi (born June 11, 1958) is a former United States, American politician who was a Republican Party (United States), Republican member of the United States House of Representatives representing from 2003 until in 2009. In 2013, he ...

Rick Renzi
, Republican, former congressman from Arizona's 1st district, found guilty of 17 counts including wire fraud, conspiracy, extortion, racketeering, and money laundering. *
Tangentopoli ''Mani pulite'' (; Italian language, Italian for "clean hands") was a nationwide judicial investigation into political corruption in Italy held in the 1990s, resulting in the demise of the so-called "History of Italy as a Republic#The First Rep ...
(Italian for "city of bribes") was a huge bribery scandal in early 1990s
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
, which brought down the whole system of political parties, when it was uncovered by the
Mani pulite ''Mani pulite'' (; Italian language, Italian for "clean hands") was a nationwide judicial investigation into political corruption in Italy held in the 1990s, resulting in the demise of the so-called "History of Italy as a Republic#The First Rep ...
investigations. At one point roughly half of members of parliament were under investigation. * Dianne Wilkerson, Democrat, former Massachusetts state senator pleaded guilty to eight counts of attempted extortion.


See also

*
Ambitus In ancient Roman law, ''ambitus'' was a crime of political corruption Political corruption or Malpolitics is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain. Forms of corruption vary, but can ...
*
Bid rigging Bid rigging is a fraudulent scheme in procurement auctions resulting in non-competitive bids and can be performed by corrupt officials, by firms in an orchestrated act of collusion Collusion is a deceitful agreement or secret cooperation betwe ...
*
Bribe Payers IndexBribe Payers Index (BPI) is a measure of how willing a nation's multinational corporations appear to engage in corrupt business practices. The first BPI was published by Transparency International on October 26, 1999 and the last one in 2001. The BP ...
*
Charbonneau Commission The Charbonneau Commission, officially the Commission of Inquiry on the Awarding and Management of Public Contracts in the Construction Industry, is a public inquiry in Quebec, Canada into potential political corruption, corruption in the management ...
*
Conflict of interest A conflict of interest (COI) is a situation in which a person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic Logic is an i ...
*
Corruption by country Corruption is a form of dishonesty Dishonesty is to act without honesty. It is used to describe a lack of probity, cheating, lying, or deliberately withholding information, or being deliberately deceptive or a lack in integrity, knavishness, ...
*
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 (FCPA) (, ''et seq.'') is a United States federal law The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law, of which the most important is the nation's Constituti ...
*Group of States Against Corruption (GRECO) of the
Council of Europe The Council of Europe (CoE; french: Conseil de l'Europe, ) is an international organisation ''International Organization'' is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the entire field of international relations, international aff ...

Council of Europe
*Influence peddling *ISO 37001, ISO 37001 Anti-bribery management systems *Jury tampering *Kickback (bribery) *Largitio *Legal plunder *Lobbying *Match fixing *Money trail, Money trail – Money loop *Organized crime *Pay to Play *Payola *Point shaving *Political corruption *Price fixing *Principal–agent problem *Transparency International *Bribery Act 2010, UK Bribery Act 2010


References

*


External links


World Bank survey of 100,000 firmsGroup of States against Corruption – GRECOTRACEBusiness Principles for Countering BriberyOECD Centre for Tax Policy and Administration
*[http://www.oecd.org/corruption/countryreportsontheimplementationoftheoecdanti-briberyconvention.htm Country reports on the implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention]
"The Business of Bribes"
PBS Frontline and FRONTLINE/World (February 2009)
N.Y. foundation's ex-chief gets 20 months in prison in U.N. bribe case
Reuters, July 29, 2016
Former Head Of Foundation Sentenced To 20 Months In Prison For Bribing Then-Ambassador And President Of United Nations General Assembly
United States Department of Justice, July 29, 2016 {{Authority control Bribery, Corporate crime Organized crime activity Political corruption White-collar criminals