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The Bouyei language (
autonym Autonym may refer to: * Autonym, the name used by a person to refer to themselves or their language; see Exonym and endonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) is a common, internal name A name is a term used ...
: Haausqyaix, also spelled ''Buyi'', ''Buyei'' or ''Puyi'';Ethnologue.com
/ref> , vi, tiếng Bố Y or ) is a language spoken by the
Bouyei Bouyei can refer to: *Bouyei language *Bouyei people {{disambig Language and nationality disambiguation pages ...
ethnic group of Southern
Guizhou Province Guizhou (; alternately Kweichow) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and adminis ...

Guizhou Province
, China. Classified as a member of the Northern Tai group in the
Tai language The Tai or Zhuang–Tai languages ( th, ภาษาไท or , transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a r ...
branch of the Tai–Kadai language family, the language has over 2.5 million native speakers and is also used by the Giay people ( vi, Giáy) in some parts of
Vietnam Vietnam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,, group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the ...

Vietnam
. There are native speakers living in
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
or the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
as well, which emigrated from China or Vietnam. About 98% of the native speakers are in China. Bouyei's characteristics are similar to the other members of its language branch. It is generally
monosyllabicIn linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include pho ...
and
word order In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languag ...
and
particles In the Outline of physical science, physical sciences, a particle (or corpuscule in older texts) is a small wikt:local, localized physical body, object to which can be ascribed several physical property, physical or chemical , chemical properties ...
are the main forms of
grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the ...
. Bouyei's syllable initials match up closely to the other Northern Tai languages, with relatively fast simplification and merging. Bouyei sentences can be shown to contain many different levels of phrasing. The contemporary Bouyei script was developed after the abandonment of the Bouyei-Zhuang Script Alliance Policy in 1981 and was designed from 1981 to 1985. It is focused and phonologically representative and takes the Wangmo County dialect as its foundation.


Subdivisions and distribution


China

According to a 1950s survey performed by the Chinese government, the Bouyei language as spoken in Guizhou can be divided into three general dialect groups (Snyder 2008). Note that () is an abbreviation for
Guizhou Guizhou (; alternately Kweichow) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational enti ...

Guizhou
. #The Southern Qian group - the largest of the three - from the Qianxinan Bouyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, which is mostly intelligible with the . This vernacular is spoken in the counties of Wangmo, Ceheng, Luodian, Dushan, Libo, Duyun, Pingtang, Zhenfeng, Anlong, Xingren, and Xinyi. #The Central Qian group - next most spoken of the three - which is spread throughout
Qiannan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture Qiannan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture (; Buyei language, Buyei: ''Qianfnanf Buxqyaix Buxyeeuz ziqziqzouy''; Hmu language, Hmu: ''Qeef Naif Dol Yat Dol Hmub Zid Zid Zeb'') is an autonomous prefecture of Guizhou province, People's Republic ...
and the suburbs of
Guiyang Guiyang (; ; Mandarin pronunciation: ) is the capital of Guizhou province of the China, People's Republic of China. It is located in the center of the province, situated on the east of the Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau, and on the north bank of the ...

Guiyang
, and is partially intelligible with the Southern Qian dialects (it is very similar to the Zhuang dialects of northern
Guangxi Guangxi (; alternately romanized as Kwanghsi; ; za, Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (GZAR), is an autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, uni ...

Guangxi
). This vernacular is spoken in the counties of Longli, Guiding, Qingzhen, Pingba, Kaiyang, Guiyang, and Anshun. #The Western Qian dialects - the least spoken of the three - which is spoken in the counties of
Zhenning Zhenning Buyei people, Buyei and Miao people, Miao Autonomous County (; usually referred to as "Zhenning County", commonly abbreviated as Zhenning (); Buyei language, Buyei: Xianqgahguanc Buxqyaix Buxyeeuz Zenqninf) is an autonomous county under the ...
, Guanling,
Ziyun Ziyun Miao and Buyei Autonomous County (; Bouyei Bouyei can refer to: *Bouyei language *Bouyei people {{disambig Language and nationality disambiguation pages ...: ) is a county in the southwest of Guizhou Guizhou (; alternately Kweichow) ...
, Qinglong, Pu'an, , Panxian,
Shuicheng Shuicheng () is a districy in the west of Guizhou Guizhou (; alternately Kweichow) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provin ...
,
Bijie Bijie () is a prefecture-level city A prefectural-level municipality (), prefectural-level city or prefectural city is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China ...

Bijie
, and Weining. The western dialects show more unique features than the other two groups. Some western dialects have aspirated stops, which is an uncommon feature in
northern Tai languages The Northern Tai languages are an established branch of the Tai languages of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the r ...
(Snyder 2008). Wu, Snyder, & Liang (2007) is the most comprehensive Bouyei survey to date, and covers the following data points. ; Qiannan Bouyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture *Guyang,
Changshun County Changshun County () is a county of Guizhou Guizhou (; alternately Kweichow) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', ...
() *Nanzhai,
Dushan County Dushan County () is a County (People's Republic of China), county of 346,000 people (2007) in Guizhou province, China. It is under the administration of Qiannan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, in the south of the province, bordering Guangxi t ...
() *Jichang, Dushan County () *Fuxi, Duyun County () *Gonggu Township, (), now merged *Danggu,
Huishui County Huishui () is a county of south-central Guizhou province, China. It is under the administration of the Qiannan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture. 61% of its 476,900 population are minorities, including Bouyei people, Bouyei, Miao people, Miao, Hu ...
() *Fucun,
Libo County Libo County () is a county of southern Guizhou province, China, bordering Guangxi to the south. It is under the administration of the Qiannan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture. Geography The county is located in the remote southeastern corner of ...
() *Yangchang, Longli County () *Luokun,
Luodian County Luodian County () is a county A county is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interactio ...
() *Poqiu, Luodian County () *Xiliang Township,
Pingtang County Pingtang County () is a county in the Qiannan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture of Guizhou province, China, bordering Guangxi to the south. It is a high mountain valley and is inhabited mainly by members of the Buyei and Miao people, Miao ethnic ...
(), now merged *Zhangbu Township, Pingtang County () ; Qianxinan Bouyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture *Pingle Township,
Anlong County Anlong County () is a county in the southwest of Guizhou province, China, bordering Guangxi to the south. It is under the administration of the Qianxinan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture. Wildlife Lungtou frog or Anlung odorous frog, ''Odorra ...
(), now merged *Huarong,
Ceheng County Ceheng County () is a county in the southwest of Guizhou province, China, bordering Guangxi to the south. It is under the administration of the Qianxinan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture. Climate External links

County-level divisions ...
() *Zitang, Qinglong County () *Fuxing, Wangmo County () *Bajie, Xingyi County () *Mingu, Zhenfeng County () ; *Huangla Buyei and Miao Ethnic Township, Anshun () *Banle, Zhenning County () *Shitouzhai, Zhenning County () *Huohua Township,
Ziyun County Ziyun Miao and Buyei Autonomous County () is a county in the southwest of Guizhou province, China. It is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Anshun. Climate External links

County-level divisions of Guizhou Bouyei au ...
() *Nonghe, Ziyun County () ;
Liuzhi Special District Liuzhi Special District () is a district of Guizhou Guizhou (; alternately Kweichow) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country ...
*Fa'er Buyei, Miao, and Yi Ethnic Township,
Shuicheng County Shuicheng () is a district in the west of Guizhou Guizhou (; alternately Kweichow) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provi ...
() The
Yei Zhuang Yei Zhuang is a Northern Tai The Northern Tai languages are an established branch of the Tai languages of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion ...
varieties of
Wenshan Prefecture Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture is an autonomous prefecture Autonomous prefectures () are one type of autonomous administrative divisions of China, existing at the prefectural level, with either ethnic minorities A minority gr ...
,
Yunnan Yunnan () is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in Southwest China, the southwest of the People's Republic of China. The province spans approximately and has a population of 48.3 million (as of 2018). The capital of the province is Ku ...

Yunnan
are closely related to the Bouyei varieties of
Guizhou Guizhou (; alternately Kweichow) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational enti ...

Guizhou
. Many other languages outside China with the names "Yei", "Yay", "Yoy", are also closely related.


Vietnam

Bouyei is also spoken in
northern Vietnam Northern Vietnam ( vi, Bắc Bộ) is one of three geographical regions within Vietnam Vietnam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,, group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spell ...
, where it is known as Giáy. Edmondson and Gregerson (2001) has determined their language to be most similar to the Bouyei dialects of southwest Guizhou. The Giáy are an officially recognized group in Vietnam who now number nearly 50,000. Some household registries of the Giáy of Vietnam indicate that their ancestors had left
Guizhou Guizhou (; alternately Kweichow) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational enti ...

Guizhou
160 years ago during the
Qing Dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
, and traveled overland to southern
Yunnan Yunnan () is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in Southwest China, the southwest of the People's Republic of China. The province spans approximately and has a population of 48.3 million (as of 2018). The capital of the province is Ku ...

Yunnan
and then Vietnam (Edmondson & Gregerson 2001). This coincides with the Miao Rebellion (1854–73) of Guizhou. The Giáy are found in the following locations of Vietnam. *
Lào Cai Lào Cai () is a city in the Northwest (Vietnam), Northwest region of Vietnam. It is the capital of Lào Cai Province. The city borders Bảo Thắng District, Bát Xát District, Sa Pa and the city of Hekou Yao Autonomous County, in Yunnan provi ...

Lào Cai
province **Tả Van village near
Sa Pa Sa Pa (, also written as Sapa) is a district-level town of Lào Cai Province Lào Cai () is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', w ...
** Bát Xát District **
Mường Khương Mường Khương is a Commune-level town (Vietnam), township () and capital of Mường Khương District, Lào Cai Province, Vietnam.Bảo Yên District *
Hà Giang Hà Giang () is a city located on the banks of the Lô River in the Northeast (Vietnam), Northeast region of Vietnam. It is the capital of Hà Giang Province. The city has an area of 135.33 km2 and a population of 55 559 inhabitants. The popu ...
Province ** Yên Minh District **
Đồng Văn District Đồng Văn is a Districts of Vietnam, rural district of Hà Giang province in the Đông Bắc, Northeast region of Vietnam. As of 2019, the district had a population of 81 880. The district covers an area of 447 km². The district capital ...
*
Lai Châu Lai Châu () is a city in the Northwest (Vietnam), Northwest region of Vietnam. It is the capital Districts of Vietnam, city of Lai Châu Province. The city borders Phong Thổ District, Sìn Hồ District và Tam Đường District. History Ima ...
Province ** Mường Tè District ** Phong Thổ District *
Cao Bằng Cao Bằng () is a city in northern Vietnam. It is the capital and largest settlement of Cao Bằng Province. It is located on the bank of the Bằng Giang river, and is around away from the border with China's Guangxi region. According to the 201 ...
Province ** Bảo Lạc District The Giáy of
Mường Khương District Mường Khương is a huyện, rural district of Lào Cai Province in the Northeast (Vietnam), Northeast region of Vietnam. ''Mường'' is as variation of ''Mueang#Etymology, Mueang''. As of 2003, the district had a population of 48,242. The dis ...
who call themselves Tudì 'thu zi''can only speak a form of Chinese, and no Giáy. Their autonym comes from their ancestral place of origin, which is
Duyun Duyun () is the capital of Qiannan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture Qiannan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture (; Buyei language, Buyei: ''Qianfnanf Buxqyaix Buxyeeuz ziqziqzouy''; Hmu language, Hmu: ''Qeef Naif Dol Yat Dol Hmub Zid Zi ...
of
Guizhou Guizhou (; alternately Kweichow) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational enti ...

Guizhou
province, China. According to their household records, they had arrived in
Maguan County Maguan County (, vi, Mã Quan) is located in Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan province, China, bordering Vietnam's Lào Cai Province, Lào Cai and Ha Giang Province, Ha Giang provinces to the south. Administrative divisions I ...
and in
Honghe Prefecture Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture () is an autonomous prefecture in Southeast-Central Yunnan, Yunnan Province, China, China–Vietnam border, bordering Vietnam's Lào Cai Province, Lào Cai and Lai Châu Province, Lai Châu provinces ...
about 200 years ago. Similarly, some Giáy of Vietnam report that they have relatives still living in Hekou,
Yunnan Yunnan () is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in Southwest China, the southwest of the People's Republic of China. The province spans approximately and has a population of 48.3 million (as of 2018). The capital of the province is Ku ...

Yunnan
province, China (Edmondson & Gregerson 2001). The Pu Nả people of
Tam Đường District, Lai Châu TAM may refer to: Biology * Thioacetamide, an organosulfur compound * Tumor-associated macrophage, a class of immune cells * Transparent Anatomical Manikin, an educational model Technology * Tanque Argentino Mediano, the main battle tank of Argen ...
Province, Vietnam call themselves the ''Vần Nả'' (with ''vần'' meaning 'people'), and number about 5,000 individuals (Lò 2012:11-20). They are also called ''Quý Châu'' (''
Guizhou Guizhou (; alternately Kweichow) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational enti ...

Guizhou
'' ), ''Sa Quý Châu'', ''Củi Chu'', ''Pu Y'', or ''Pâu Thìn''. The Pu Nả live in the following villages of Tam Đường District (Lò 2012:18). *Bản Giang commune **bản Coc Pa **bản Giang **bản Nà Bỏ **bản Nà Sài **bản Nà Cơ **bản Tẩn Phủ Nhiêu *Thèn Xin commune **bản Lở Thàng **Thèn Xin *San Thàng commune **bản Tả Xin Chải **Xéo Xin Chải **Phan Lỉn The Yay language described by William J. Gedney is in fact the Giáy dialect of Mường Hum, Bát Xát District,
Lào Cai Lào Cai () is a city in the Northwest (Vietnam), Northwest region of Vietnam. It is the capital of Lào Cai Province. The city borders Bảo Thắng District, Bát Xát District, Sa Pa and the city of Hekou Yao Autonomous County, in Yunnan provi ...

Lào Cai
(Edmondson & Gregerson 2001). There are also other related
Northern Tai languages The Northern Tai languages are an established branch of the Tai languages of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the r ...
spoken in Vietnam as well, such Bố Y, Nhang, and Quy Châu (possibly closely related to Tai Mène of
Laos , national_anthem = "Pheng Xat Lao "Pheng Sat Lāo" () is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that officially symbolizes a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often r ...

Laos
). The Bố Y had originally came from around Wangmo County in southwestern Guizhou. Some subgroups of Bố Y call themselves the ''Pu Na'' or ''Pu Thin'', meaning 'people of the paddy field'.


Phonology


Consonants

The Bouyei script recognizes 32 consonants, with names formed by the consonant in an initial position followed by a long "a" vowel. Pink: p, t, k, q, z, and c are used only to write
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
loanwords A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gesture ...
. Beige: sl and hr are used for sounds that occur only in certain dialects. V is pronounced as a before a "u". An absent consonant may produce a glottal sound . is also heard as a final sound.


Vowels and diphthongs

Bouyei has 77 vowels and diphthongs. The endings er , ao , ou , ia , io , iao , ua , uai , and ui are used in writing Chinese loanwords. Vowels may also have allophones of . Another vowel sound may occur phonemically in the dialects of Anshun, Qinglong, Shuicheng, Zhenning, and Ziyun.


Tones

Bouyei has six tones, corresponding to the eight ''sheng'' of Middle Chinese: all six in open syllables or with a final or , reduced to two "entering" tones with a final stop. Marking letters are placed at the end of syllables to indicate tone. Loanword marking letters y, f, j, and q match with
Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy and can compose the administration o ...
tones 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively.


Language shift

Bouyei shows de-voicing of Proto-Tai–Kadai's voiced consonants ( → , → , → ), and loss of aspiration. Proto-Tai–Kadai's tones experienced a splitting into modern Bouyei, shown in the following table.


Scripts


Ancient Bouyei script

Ancient Bouyei writing was created by borrowing elements from
Chinese characters Chinese characters, also called ''hanzi'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, ...
or by mimicking their forms, and is similar to
Sawndip Zhuang characters or ''Sawndip'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language by means of a writing system. Written language is an invention in that it must be taught to ch ...

Sawndip
. Items collected were mostly
Shaman Shamanism is a religious practice that involves a practitioner (shaman) interacting with what they believe to be a spirit world through altered states of consciousness An altered state of consciousness (ASC), also called altered state of min ...

Shaman
's books of the Buyi ancestors, which were used to select auspicious days, lucky numbers and directions, and divination. The scriptures also produced Nuo books and literary works. The Nuo scripts have been widely circulated among the Buyi people in Libo region for more than a thousand years to praise goodness, condamn evil, avocate filialiation, and to promote truth, kindness and beauty; and these have become the code of conduct among the local Buyei people. The epic poem ''Wang Yulian'' was a literary work that is believed to be the retelling of a Chinese story in Buyei language. Its manual copies are popular in Zhexiang Township, Wangmo County in Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture in Southwest Guizhou.


Old Modern Bouyei

In November 1956, a scientific conference was held in
Guiyang Guiyang (; ; Mandarin pronunciation: ) is the capital of Guizhou province of the China, People's Republic of China. It is located in the center of the province, situated on the east of the Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau, and on the north bank of the ...

Guiyang
to discuss the creation and implementation of a for Bouyei. The result was a script similar some Zhuang romanizations that used the
Longli Longli County () is a county of the Qiannan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, in central Guizhou Province, China. Area: . Population: 205,400 in 2003, including 78,300 population of minority ethnic groups Postal Code: 551200. Telephone Area ...
County dialect as its base. The script was approved by the Chinese government and was put into use in 1957, though its use ceased in 1960.


Current Bouyei script

In 1981 a conference on Bouyei history revised the script developed in 1956 in an attempt to make it more practical and phonologically representative of Wangmo County speech. It also was approved by the Chinese government, and was adopted on an experimental basis in 1982. Feedback was largely positive, and the script was officially brought into use in March 1985 and continues to be used to the present. Old and current Bouyei Romanization comparisons {, border="1" ! bgcolor="lightblue" , Old !! Current , IPA ! bgcolor="lightblue" , Old !! Current , IPA ! bgcolor="lightblue" , Old !! Current , IPA ! bgcolor="lightblue" , Old !! Current , IPA ! bgcolor="lightblue" , Old !! Current{ , IPA , ----- , bgcolor="lightblue" , b , , b , , , , bgcolor="lightblue" , , , mb , , , , bgcolor="lightblue" , m , , m , , , , bgcolor="lightblue" , f , , f , , , , bgcolor="lightblue" , v , , v, qv , , , - , bgcolor="lightblue" , c , , z , , , colspan=3 , , colspan=3, , bgcolor="lightblue" , s , , s , , , , bgcolor="lightblue" , r , , r , , , ----- , bgcolor="lightblue" , d , , d , , , , bgcolor="lightblue" , , , nd , , , , bgcolor="lightblue" , n , , n , , , colspan=3 , , , bgcolor="lightblue" , l , , l , , , ----- , bgcolor="lightblue" , g , , g , , , , bgcolor="lightblue" , gv , , gv , , , , bgcolor="lightblue" , ŋ , , ng , , , , bgcolor="lightblue" , ŋv , , ngv , , , , bgcolor="lightblue" , h , , h , , , ----- , bgcolor="lightblue" , gy , , j , , , colspan=3, , bgcolor="lightblue" , ny , , ny , , , , bgcolor="lightblue" , x , , x , , , , bgcolor="lightblue" , y , , y, qy , , , ----- , bgcolor="lightblue" , by , , by , , , colspan=3, , bgcolor="lightblue" , my , , my , ,
{, border=1 ! bgcolor="lightblue" , Old !! Zhuang !! Bouyei , IPA ! bgcolor="lightblue" , Old !! Zhuang !! Bouyei , IPA ! bgcolor="lightblue" , Old !! Zhuang !! Bouyei , IPA ! bgcolor="lightblue" , Old !! Zhuang !! Bouyei , IPA , ----- , bgcolor="lightblue" , a , , a , , aa , , , , bgcolor="lightblue" , ə , , ae, , a , , , , bgcolor="lightblue" , e , , e, , ee , , , , bgcolor="lightblue" , i , , i, , i , , , ----- , bgcolor="lightblue" , o , , o, , oo , , , , bgcolor="lightblue" , ө , , oe, , o, , , , bgcolor="lightblue" , u , , u, , u, , , , bgcolor="lightblue" , , , w, , e , ,
Tone Marking Letters {, border=1 ! # !! bgcolor="lightblue" , Old !! Zhuang !! Bouyei , Yangchang Dialect , , Fuxing Dialect , ----- ! 1 , bgcolor="lightblue" , none , , none , , l, q , , 35 , , 24 , ----- ! 2 , bgcolor="lightblue" , , , z , , z , , 11 , , 11 , ----- ! 3 , bgcolor="lightblue" , з , , j , , c, j , , 13 , , 53 , ----- ! 4 , bgcolor="lightblue" , ч , , x , , x, f , , 31 , , 11 , ----- ! 5 , bgcolor="lightblue" , , , q , , s , , 33 , , 35 , ----- ! 6 , bgcolor="lightblue" , , , h , , h, y , , 53 , , 33 , ----- ! 7 , bgcolor="lightblue" , (p, t, k) , , (p, t, k) , , (b, d, g)t , , 33 (long), 35 (short), , 35 , ----- ! 8 , bgcolor="lightblue" , (b, d, g) , , (b, d, g) , , (b, d, g) , , 53 (long), 11 (short) , , 33


References

* * Snyder, Wil C. (2008). "Bouyei Phonology." In Diller, Anthony, Jerold A. Edmondson, and Yongxian Luo ed. ''The Tai–Kadai Languages''. Routledge Language Family Series. Psychology Press, 2008. * Wu Wenyi, Wil C. Snyder, and Liang Yongshu. 2007
''Survey of the Guizhou Bouyei Language''
SIL Language and Culture Documentation and Description 2007-001. Dallas: SIL International. * ''Libo Buyi Han Ying cihui =: Libo Buyi-Chinese-English glossary (Language data 18)'' by Yu Jiongbiao, Wil Snyder (1995). Summer Institute of Linguistics, 278 p. .
Bouyei Culture Website


External links


ABVD: Bouyei (Wangmo) word list
{{Authority control Tai languages
Languages of China {{Commons cat, Languages of China Chinese culture Languages by country, China Languages of East Asia, China Languages of Asia by country, China ...
Bouyei people