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Borommatrailokkanat ( th|บรมไตรโลกนาถ, ) or Trailok (1431–1488) was the king of the Ayutthaya Kingdom from 1448 to 1488. He was one of many monarchs who gained the epithet ''King of White Elephants'' ( th|พระเจ้าช้างเผือก). He was the first Thai king to possess a "noble" or white elephant, which, according to Hindu belief, was a "glorious and happy sign". His reign was also known for a massive reforms of Thai bureaucracy and a successful campaign against Lan Na. He was also revered as one of the greatest monarchs of Thailand.

King of Sukhothai

Prince Ramesuan (not to be confused with King Ramesuan r. 1369–1370) was born in 1431 to King Borommarachathirat II or Chao Sam Phraya. Some authors claim that his mother was a princess of the Sukhothai Kingdom, daughter of Sai Lue Thai. According to historian Michael Vickery, however, this is not verifiable in historic sources and may be due to a misreading or misinterpretation of a chronicle. Be that as it may, Ramesuan was born at a time when the Kingdom of Sukhothai was increasingly tied to Ayutthaya, being under its suzerainty since 1412. When King Maha Thammaracha IV (Borommapan) of Sukhothai died in 1438, Borommaracha II of Ayutthaya annexed Sukhothai and installed his own son, then seven year old Prince Ramesuan, as viceroy ''(uparaja)'' of Sukhothai. When Ramesuan was 15 years old, the king sent him to Phitsanulok (which had replaced the city of Sukhothai as capital around 1430) to rule the former territories of Sukhothai which were now known as the "northern cities" ''(Mueang Nuea)'' and increase the control of the ruling family over them. Borommaracha II died in 1448, Prince Ramesuan was then crowned King Borommatrailokkanat of Ayutthaya, making a personal union between Sukhothai and Ayutthaya.

Reforms




Bureaucracy


Borommatrailokkanat reformed the Thai bureaucracy – the system lasted well into the 20th century. He separated civil and military officials, giving them titular ranks and feudal ranks to create the hierarchy of nobility, or life-nobles. He also established the mandalas: Inner Cities, Outer Cities, and Tributaries. He also stopped the tradition of appointing royal princes to govern cities, as they had always clashed with each other in times of succession. Borommatrailokkanat promulgated Ayutthayan Law in 1458. The traditional ministries of Thailand—the ''Kalahom'' (predecessor of today's ministry of defence) and the ''Mahatthai'' (precursor of the ministry of interior)—were introduced by Borommatrailokkanat. Originally they were meant to serve as simultaneous military and civil Greater Officers of State for the north and south, respectively.


Feudal rank


Also in his reign in 1454, noble titles were first codified under the hierarchy system called ''sakdina''. Each subject was given a numerical ranking corresponding to the number of ''rai'' of land he was entitled to.


Royal rank


Borommatrailokkanat adopted the position of Uparaja, translated as "Deputy-King", "viceroy" or "underking", usually held by the king's senior son, or full brother, or the sons of their queens, in an attempt to regularize the succession to the throne — a particularly difficult feat for a polygamous dynasty. In practice, there was inherent conflict between king and uparaja and frequent disputed successions. He appointed his eldest son Uparaja of Ayutthaya while he lived in Phitsanulok for twenty-five years, keeping Chiang Mai under control. Eventually, a younger son was made the Uparaja of Phitsanulok, junior to the Uparaja of Ayutthaya.


Tributary relationships of Cities


In 1468, Borommatrailokkanat adopted a mandala tributary system, and ranked the cities recognizing him as overlord. Phitsanulok and Nakhon Sri Thamarat were listed among the eight great first-rank cities (''Phraya maha nakhon''). The ''mueang''s Sing, In and Phrom were downgraded to be the level of four cities () under Lopburi. Governors of first class towns were ''chao phraya'', second class were ''phraya'', third class were ''phra'', fourth class were ''luang'', fifth class were ''khun'', and sixth class were ''muen''.


Foreign relations


In 1455, Borommatrailokkanat sent envoys to the Malacca Sultanate. The Thai had been suspicious of the sultanate since its conversion to Islam. The expedition was mentioned in Portuguese chronicles, written several years later, as not of great significance.http://www.bloggang.com/mainblog.php?id=rattanakosin225&month=17-03-2007&group=2&gblog=16

Wars with Lan Na

Yutthitthira, a Sukhothai royal and Boromtrailokkanat’s relative, was the king's close childhood friend. He himself had promised Yuttittira the title of uparaja. However, after Borommatrailokkanat’s reforms, Yuttittira ended up with the title of the Governor of Phichit. Yutthitthira then claimed to be the rightful king of Sukhothai. Lan Na under Tilokkarat was so powerful that he led armies down south to subjugate Ayutthaya. In 1456, Yutthitthira sought Tilokkarat’s support and led the Lan Na armies to capture Sukhothai and proceeded further towards Ayutthaya. Borommatrailokkanat, however, led armies to successfully defeat Lan Na. Tilokarat of ''mueang'' Chiang Mai, and Yutthitthira, governor of ''mueang'' Sawankhalok led the Lan Na armies to invade Ayutthaya but without achieving fruitful results and retreated. Trailokkanat then took this opportunity to retake Sukhothai. Borommatrailokkanat, upon seeing the seriousness of the wars, made Phitsanulok his base, moving the capital from Ayutthaya.Rajanubhab, D., 2001, Our Wars With the Burmese, Bangkok: White Lotus Co. Ltd., Borommatrailokkanat, accompanied by more than 2000 followers, was the first Thai king to be ordained as a Buddhist monk. The ordination took place at Wat Chulamani, Phitsanulok, in 1461. In 1463, Lan Na invaded again. Borommatrailokkanat sent his son, Prince Intharacha, to crush the invading armies. Indraracha defeated Yutthitthira but was killed during battles against Nagara, Tilokkarat’s uncle. However, Lan Na was plunged by her own internal princely conflicts. In 1474, Borommatrailokkanat finally expelled Lan Na out of Ayutthaya territories. The next year, Tilokarat sought peace settlements. In Phitsanulok, Borommatrailokkanat ordered the establishment of new temples as well as the restoration of existing older ones. He ordered the construction of a cetiya and other buildings at Wat Ratchaburana, Phitsanulok, for example.

Legacy

In 1485, Borommatrailokkanat appointed his son Prince Chaiyachettha (later Ramathibodi II) as the ''Uparaja'' and King of Sukhothai. The title "King of Sukhothai" then became a title for Ayutthayan Crown Prince. However, upon Borommatrailokkanat's death in 1488, his two sons inherited the two kingdoms, thus separating the union once again. Fort Borommatrailokkanat (Royal Thai Army Base) in Samo Khae, Phitsanulok Province, is named after Borommatrailokkanat.

Ancestors



References



Bibliography

* * * {{Front Palace and Rear Palace Category:1431 births Category:1488 deaths Category:Suphannaphum Dynasty Category:Kings of Ayutthaya Category:Phitsanulok Province Category:15th-century monarchs in Asia Category:Princes of Ayutthaya Category:15th-century Thai people