In

(455 pages

(NB. Contains extended versions of the best manuscripts from the 10th International Workshop on Boolean Problems held at the Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany on 2012-09-19/21.) * (480 pages

(NB. Contains extended versions of the best manuscripts from the 11th International Workshop on Boolean Problems held at the Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany on 2014-09-17/19.) *

(536 pages

(NB. Contains extended versions of the best manuscripts from the 12th International Workshop on Boolean Problems held at the Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany on 2016-09-22/23.) * (vii+265+7 pages

(NB. Contains extended versions of the best manuscripts from the 13th International Workshop on Boolean Problems (IWSBP 2018) held in Bremen, Germany on 2018-09-19/21.) * {{cite book , editor-first1=Rolf , editor-last1=Drechsler , editor-link1=Rolf Drechsler , editor-first2=Daniel , editor-last2=Große , title=Recent Findings in Boolean Techniques - Selected Papers from the 14th International Workshop on Boolean Problems , publisher= Springer Nature Switzerland AG , edition=1 , date=2021-04-30 , isbn=978-3-030-68070-1 , doi= (204 pages

(NB. Contains extended versions of the best manuscripts from the 14th International Workshop on Boolean Problems (IWSBP 2020) held COVID-19, virtually on 2020-09-24/25.) Boolean algebra

mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics ...

and abstract algebra
In mathematics, more specifically algebra, abstract algebra or modern algebra is the study of algebraic structures. Algebraic structures include groups, rings, fields, modules, vector spaces, lattices, and algebras over a field. The ter ...

, a Boolean domain is a set
Set, The Set, SET or SETS may refer to:
Science, technology, and mathematics Mathematics
*Set (mathematics), a collection of elements
*Category of sets, the category whose objects and morphisms are sets and total functions, respectively
Electro ...

consisting of exactly two elements whose interpretations include ''false'' and ''true''. In logic
Logic is the study of correct reasoning. It includes both formal and informal logic. Formal logic is the science of deductively valid inferences or of logical truths. It is a formal science investigating how conclusions follow from prem ...

, mathematics and theoretical computer science
computer science (TCS) is a subset of general computer science and mathematics that focuses on mathematical aspects of computer science such as the theory of computation, lambda calculus, and type theory.
It is difficult to circumscribe the ...

, a Boolean domain is usually written as , or $\backslash mathbb.$
The algebraic structure
In mathematics, an algebraic structure consists of a nonempty set ''A'' (called the underlying set, carrier set or domain), a collection of operations on ''A'' (typically binary operations such as addition and multiplication), and a finite set o ...

that naturally builds on a Boolean domain is the Boolean algebra with two elements. The initial object
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, an initial object of a category is an object in such that for every object in , there exists precisely one morphism .
The dual notion is that of a terminal object (also called terminal element): ...

in the category
Category, plural categories, may refer to:
Philosophy and general uses
*Categorization, categories in cognitive science, information science and generally
* Category of being
* ''Categories'' (Aristotle)
* Category (Kant)
* Categories (Peirce) ...

of bounded lattices is a Boolean domain.
In computer science
Computer science is the study of computation, automation, and information. Computer science spans theoretical disciplines (such as algorithms, theory of computation, information theory, and automation) to Applied science, practical discipli ...

, a Boolean variable is a variable that takes values in some Boolean domain. Some programming language
A programming language is a system of notation for writing computer programs. Most programming languages are text-based formal languages, but they may also be graphical. They are a kind of computer language.
The description of a programming ...

s feature reserved words or symbols for the elements of the Boolean domain, for example `false`

and `true`

. However, many programming languages do not have a Boolean datatype in the strict sense. In C or BASIC
BASIC (Beginners' All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages designed for ease of use. The original version was created by John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz at Dartmouth College ...

, for example, falsity is represented by the number 0 and truth is represented by the number 1 or −1, and all variables that can take these values can also take any other numerical values.
Generalizations

The Boolean domain can be replaced by theunit interval
In mathematics, the unit interval is the closed interval , that is, the set of all real numbers that are greater than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to 1. It is often denoted ' (capital letter ). In addition to its role in real analysis ...

, in which case rather than only taking values 0 or 1, any value between and including 0 and 1 can be assumed. Algebraically, negation (NOT) is replaced with $1-x,$ conjunction (AND) is replaced with multiplication ($xy$), and disjunction (OR) is defined via De Morgan's law to be $1-(1-x)(1-y)=x+y-xy$.
Interpreting these values as logical truth value
In logic and mathematics, a truth value, sometimes called a logical value, is a value indicating the relation of a proposition to truth, which in classical logic has only two possible values ('' true'' or '' false'').
Computing
In some pro ...

s yields a multi-valued logic, which forms the basis for fuzzy logic
Fuzzy logic is a form of many-valued logic in which the truth value of variables may be any real number between 0 and 1. It is employed to handle the concept of partial truth, where the truth value may range between completely true and completel ...

and probabilistic logic. In these interpretations, a value is interpreted as the "degree" of truth – to what extent a proposition is true, or the probability that the proposition is true.
See also

* Boolean-valued function *GF(2)
(also denoted \mathbb F_2, or \mathbb Z/2\mathbb Z) is the finite field of two elements (GF is the initialism of ''Galois field'', another name for finite fields). Notations and \mathbb Z_2 may be encountered although they can be confused wit ...

References

Further reading

*(455 pages

(NB. Contains extended versions of the best manuscripts from the 10th International Workshop on Boolean Problems held at the Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany on 2012-09-19/21.) * (480 pages

(NB. Contains extended versions of the best manuscripts from the 11th International Workshop on Boolean Problems held at the Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany on 2014-09-17/19.) *

(536 pages

(NB. Contains extended versions of the best manuscripts from the 12th International Workshop on Boolean Problems held at the Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany on 2016-09-22/23.) * (vii+265+7 pages

(NB. Contains extended versions of the best manuscripts from the 13th International Workshop on Boolean Problems (IWSBP 2018) held in Bremen, Germany on 2018-09-19/21.) * {{cite book , editor-first1=Rolf , editor-last1=Drechsler , editor-link1=Rolf Drechsler , editor-first2=Daniel , editor-last2=Große , title=Recent Findings in Boolean Techniques - Selected Papers from the 14th International Workshop on Boolean Problems , publisher= Springer Nature Switzerland AG , edition=1 , date=2021-04-30 , isbn=978-3-030-68070-1 , doi= (204 pages

(NB. Contains extended versions of the best manuscripts from the 14th International Workshop on Boolean Problems (IWSBP 2020) held COVID-19, virtually on 2020-09-24/25.) Boolean algebra