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The Book of Numbers (from
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
Ἀριθμοί, ''Arithmoi''; he, בְּמִדְבַּר, Bəmiḏbar, "In the desert
f
f
) is the fourth book of the
Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; : , or ), is the of scriptures, including the , the , and the . These texts are almost exclusively in , with a few passages in (in the books of and , the verse 10:11, and some single words). The authoritativ ...

Hebrew Bible
, and the fourth of five books of the Jewish
Torah Torah (; he, תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings. It can most specifically mean the first five books (Pentateuch or Five Books of Moses) of the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: ...

Torah
. The book has a long and complex history; its final form is possibly due to a Priestly redaction (i.e., editing) of a
Yahwist The Jahwist, or Yahwist, often abbreviated J, is one of the most widely recognized Source criticism (biblical studies), sources of the Pentateuch (Torah), together with the Deuteronomist, the Priestly source and the Elohist. The existence of the ...
ic source made some time in the early Persian period (5th century BCE). The name of the book comes from the two censuses taken of the Israelites. Numbers begins at
Mount Sinai Mount Sinai ( he , הר סיני ''Har Sinai''; Aramaic Aramaic (Classical Syriac The Syriac language (; syc, ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ / '), also known as Syriac Aramaic (''Syrian Aramaic'', ''Syro-Aramaic'') and Classical Syriac (in its ...

Mount Sinai
, where the
Israelites The Israelites (; ) were a confederation of of the , who inhabited a part of during the . Overview In the , the term ''Israelites'' is used interchangeably with the term '. Although related, the terms , Israelites, and are not interchan ...

Israelites
have received their laws and covenant from God and God has taken up residence among them in the
sanctuary violates Cassandra Cassandra or Kassandra (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divid ...

sanctuary
. The task before them is to take possession of the
Promised Land The Promised Land ( he, הארץ המובטחת, translit. Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping Letter (alphabet), letters (thus ''wikt:trans-#Prefix, trans-'' + ''wikt:litter ...
. The people are counted and preparations are made for resuming their march. The Israelites begin the journey, but they "murmur" at the hardships along the way, and about the authority of
Moses Moses he, מֹשֶׁה, ''Mōše''; also known as Moshe Rabbenu ( he, מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ "Moshe our Teacher"); syr, ܡܘܫܐ, ''Mūše''; ar, موسى '; el, Mωϋσῆς, ' () is considered the most important prophet in Judais ...

Moses
and
Aaron Aaron ''′aharon'', ar, هارون, Hārūn, Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its popul ...

Aaron
. For these acts, God destroys approximately 15,000 of them through various means. They arrive at the borders of
Canaan A 1692 map of Canaan, by Philip Lea Canaan (; Northwest Semitic Northwest Semitic, known as Syro-Palestinian in dialect geography, is a division of the Semitic languages comprising the indigenous languages of the Levant. It would have ...

Canaan
and send spies into the land. Upon hearing the spies' fearful report concerning the conditions in Canaan, the Israelites refuse to take possession of it. God condemns them to death in the wilderness until a new generation can grow up and carry out the task. The book ends with the new generation of Israelites in the
Plain of Moab
Plain of Moab
ready for the crossing of the
Jordan River ) , name_native_lang = , name_other = , name_etymology = Hebrew: ירדן (yardén, ''“descender”''), from ירד (yarad, ''“descended”'') , image = 20100923 mer morte13.JPG , image_size = , ima ...

Jordan River
. Numbers is the culmination of the story of
Israel's exodus from oppression in Egypt
Israel's exodus from oppression in Egypt
and their journey to take possession of the land God promised their fathers. As such it draws to a conclusion the themes introduced in
Genesis Genesis may refer to: Literature and comics * Genesis (DC Comics), a 1997 DC Comics crossover * Genesis (Marvel Comics), a Marvel Comics villain * Genesis, a fictional character from the ''Preacher (comics), Preacher'' comic-book series * ''Genes ...

Genesis
and played out in
Exodus Exodus or the Exodus may refer to: Religion *Book of Exodus, second book of the Hebrew Torah and the Christian Bible *The Exodus, the biblical story of the migration of the ancient Israelites from Egypt into Canaan Historical events * Jujuy E ...
and Leviticus: God has promised the Israelites that they shall become a great (i.e. numerous) nation, that they will have a special relationship with
Yahweh Yahweh was the national god of ancient Kingdom of Israel (Samaria), Israel and Kingdom of Judah, Judah. His origins reach at least to the early Iron Age, and likely to the Late Bronze Age. In the oldest biblical literature, he is a Weather ...
their god, and that they shall take possession of the land of
Canaan A 1692 map of Canaan, by Philip Lea Canaan (; Northwest Semitic Northwest Semitic, known as Syro-Palestinian in dialect geography, is a division of the Semitic languages comprising the indigenous languages of the Levant. It would have ...

Canaan
. Numbers also demonstrates the importance of holiness, faithfulness and trust: despite God's presence and his priests, Israel lacks in faith and the possession of the land is left to a new generation.


Structure

Most commentators divide Numbers into three sections based on locale (
Mount Sinai Mount Sinai ( he , הר סיני ''Har Sinai''; Aramaic Aramaic (Classical Syriac The Syriac language (; syc, ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ / '), also known as Syriac Aramaic (''Syrian Aramaic'', ''Syro-Aramaic'') and Classical Syriac (in its ...

Mount Sinai
,
Kadesh-Barnea Kadesh or Qadesh (in classical Hebrew he, קָדֵשׁ, from the root "holy") is a place-name that occurs several times in the Hebrew Bible, describing a site or sites located south of, or at the southern border of, Canaan and the Kingdom of Jud ...
and the plains of Moab), linked by two travel sections; an alternative is to see it as structured around the two generations of those condemned to die in the wilderness and the new generation who will enter Canaan, making a theological distinction between the disobedience of the first generation and the obedience of the second.


Summary

God orders Moses, in the wilderness of Sinai, to number those able to bear arms—of all the men "from twenty years old and upward," and to appoint princes over each tribe. A total of 603,550 Israelites are found to be fit for military service. The
tribe of Levi According to the Bible, the Tribe of Levi is one of the tribes of Israel The Twelve Tribes of Israel ( he, שבטי ישראל, translit=Shivtei Yisrael, lit=Tribes of Israel) are, according to Judeo-Christian texts, the descendants of the Biblica ...
is exempted from military service and therefore not included in the census. Moses consecrates the Levites for the service of the Tabernacle in the place of the first-born sons, who hitherto had performed that service. The Levites are divided into three families, the Gershonites, the Kohathites, and the Merarites, each under a chief. The Kohathites were headed by
Eleazar Eleazar (; ) or Elʽazar was a priest A priest is a religious leader authorized to perform the Sacred rite, sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deity, deities. They also have the au ...

Eleazar
, son of
Aaron Aaron ''′aharon'', ar, هارون, Hārūn, Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its popul ...

Aaron
, while the Gershonites and Merarites were headed by Aaron's other son, Ithamar. Preparations are then made for resuming the march to the
Promised Land The Promised Land ( he, הארץ המובטחת, translit. Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping Letter (alphabet), letters (thus ''wikt:trans-#Prefix, trans-'' + ''wikt:litter ...
. Various ordinances and laws are decreed. The Israelites set out from Sinai. The people murmur against God and are punished by fire; Moses complains of their stubbornness and is ordered to choose seventy elders to assist him in the government of the people.
Miriam Miriam ( he, מִרְיָם ''Mīrəyām'') is described in the as the daughter of and , and the older sister of and . She was a and first appears in the . The refers to her as "Miriam the Prophetess" and the names her as one of the seven ...
and Aaron insult Moses at Hazeroth, which angers God; Miriam is punished with
leprosy Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD), is a chronic (medicine), long-term infection by the bacteria ''Mycobacterium leprae'' or ''Mycobacterium lepromatosis''. Infection can lead to damage of the Peripheral nervous system, nerves, respira ...

leprosy
and is shut out of camp for seven days, at the end of which the Israelites proceed to the desert of Paran on the border of Canaan. Twelve spies are sent out into Canaan and come back to report to Moses.
Joshua Joshua () or Yehoshua ( he, יְהוֹשֻׁעַ ''Yəhōšūaʿ'') ''Yēšūʿ''; syr, ܝܫܘܥ ܒܪ ܢܘܢ ''Yəšūʿ bar Nōn''; el, Ἰησοῦς, ar , يُوشَعُ ٱبْنُ نُونٍ '' Yūšaʿ ibn Nūn''; la, Iosue functioned ...

Joshua
and
Caleb Caleb (), sometimes transliterated as Kaleb ( he, כָּלֵב, ''Kalev'', ; Tiberian vocalization: Kālēḇ; Academy of the Hebrew Language, Hebrew Academy: Kalev), is a figure who appears in the Hebrew Bible as a representative of the Tribe of J ...

Caleb
, two of the spies, report that the land is abundant and is "flowing with milk and honey", but the other spies say that it is inhabited by giants, and the Israelites refuse to enter the land. Yahweh decrees that the Israelites will be punished for their loss of
faith Faith, derived from ''fides'' and ''feid'', is confidence or trust in a , thing, or In the context of , one can define faith as " in or in the doctrines or teachings of religion". Religious people often think of faith as confidence based on ...

faith
by having to wander in the wilderness for 40 years. God orders Moses to make plates to cover the altar. The children of Israel murmur against Moses and Aaron on account of the destruction of
Korah Korah ( he, ''Qōraḥ''; ar, قارون ''Qārūn''), son of IzharAccording to the Torah Torah (; he, תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings. It can most specifically mean the first five books (Pe ...
's men and are stricken with the plague, with 14,700 perishing. Aaron and his family are declared by God to be responsible for any iniquity committed in connection with the sanctuary. The Levites are again appointed to help in the keeping of the Tabernacle. The Levites are ordered to surrender to the priests a part of the tithes taken to them. Miriam dies at Kadesh Barnea and the Israelites set out for Moab, on Canaan's eastern border. The Israelites blame Moses for the lack of water. Moses is ordered by God to speak to a rock but initially disobeys, and is punished by the announcement that he shall not enter Canaan. The king of Edom refuses permission to pass through his land and they go around it. Aaron dies on Mount Hor. The Israelites are bitten by
Fiery flying serpent The fiery flying serpent is a creature mentioned in the Book of Isaiah in the Hebrew Bible, known as the Old Testament in the Christianity, Christian Bible. Name The term "fiery flying serpent" is an English translation of the Hebrew words , ' (a ...
s for speaking against God and Moses. A brazen serpent is made to ward off these serpents. The Israelites arrive on the plains of Moab. A new census gives the total number of males from twenty years and upward as 601,730, and the number of the Levites from the age of one month and upward as 23,000. The land shall be divided by lot. The daughters of
Zelophehad The Daughters of Zelophehad ( he, בְּנוֹת צְלָפְחָד) were five sisters - Mahlah, Noa, Hoglah, Milcah, and Tirzah - mentioned in the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical co ...
, who had no sons, are to share in the allotment. Moses is ordered to appoint
Joshua Joshua () or Yehoshua ( he, יְהוֹשֻׁעַ ''Yəhōšūaʿ'') ''Yēšūʿ''; syr, ܝܫܘܥ ܒܪ ܢܘܢ ''Yəšūʿ bar Nōn''; el, Ἰησοῦς, ar , يُوشَعُ ٱبْنُ نُونٍ '' Yūšaʿ ibn Nūn''; la, Iosue functioned ...

Joshua
as his successor. Prescriptions for the observance of the feasts and the offerings for different occasions are enumerated. Moses orders the Israelites to massacre the people of Midian, in retaliation for the Baal-Peor incident. The Reubenites and the Gadites request Moses to assign them the land east of the Jordan. Moses grants their request after they promise to help in the conquest of the land west of the Jordan. The land east of the Jordan is divided among the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and the half-tribe of Manasseh. Moses recalls the stations at which the Israelites halted during their forty years' wanderings and instructs the Israelites to exterminate the Canaanites and destroy their idols. The boundaries of the land are spelled out; the land is to be divided under the supervision of
Eleazar Eleazar (; ) or Elʽazar was a priest A priest is a religious leader authorized to perform the Sacred rite, sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deity, deities. They also have the au ...

Eleazar
, Joshua, and twelve princes, one of each tribe.


Composition

The majority of modern biblical scholars believe that the
Torah Torah (; he, תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings. It can most specifically mean the first five books (Pentateuch or Five Books of Moses) of the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: ...

Torah
(the books of
Genesis Genesis may refer to: Literature and comics * Genesis (DC Comics), a 1997 DC Comics crossover * Genesis (Marvel Comics), a Marvel Comics villain * Genesis, a fictional character from the ''Preacher (comics), Preacher'' comic-book series * ''Genes ...

Genesis
,
Exodus Exodus or the Exodus may refer to: Religion *Book of Exodus, second book of the Hebrew Torah and the Christian Bible *The Exodus, the biblical story of the migration of the ancient Israelites from Egypt into Canaan Historical events * Jujuy E ...
, Leviticus, Numbers, and
Deuteronomy The Book of Deuteronomy (literally "second law" from Greek ''deuteros'' + ''nomos'') is the fifth book of the Jewish , where it is called ''Devarim'' ( he, דְּבָרִים), "the words f Moses F, or f, is the sixth Letter (alphabet), let ...
) reached its present form in the post-Exilic period (i.e., after c.520 BCE), based on pre-existing written and oral traditions, as well as contemporary geographical and political realities. The five books are often described as being drawn from four "sources" - schools of writers rather than individuals - the
Yahwist The Jahwist, or Yahwist, often abbreviated J, is one of the most widely recognized Source criticism (biblical studies), sources of the Pentateuch (Torah), together with the Deuteronomist, the Priestly source and the Elohist. The existence of the ...
and the
Elohist According to the documentary hypothesis The documentary hypothesis (DH) is one of the models used by biblical scholars to explain the origins and composition of the Torah (or Pentateuch, the first five books of the Bible: Book of Genesis, Genes ...
(frequently treated as a single source), the
Priestly source The Priestly source (or simply P) is perhaps the most widely recognized source underlying the Torah Torah (; he, תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings. It can most specifically mean the first five boo ...
and the
Deuteronomist The Deuteronomist, abbreviated as either Dtr or simply D, may refer either to the source document underlying the core chapters (12–26) of the Book of Deuteronomy The Book of Deuteronomy (literally "second law" from Greek ''deuteros'' + ''nomos' ...
. There is an ongoing dispute over the origins of the non-Priestly source(s), but it is generally agreed that the Priestly source is post-exilic. *
Genesis Genesis may refer to: Literature and comics * Genesis (DC Comics), a 1997 DC Comics crossover * Genesis (Marvel Comics), a Marvel Comics villain * Genesis, a fictional character from the ''Preacher (comics), Preacher'' comic-book series * ''Genes ...

Genesis
is made up of Priestly and non-Priestly material. *
Exodus Exodus or the Exodus may refer to: Religion *Book of Exodus, second book of the Hebrew Torah and the Christian Bible *The Exodus, the biblical story of the migration of the ancient Israelites from Egypt into Canaan Historical events * Jujuy E ...
is an anthology drawn from nearly all periods of Israel's history. * Leviticus is entirely Priestly and dates from the exilic/post-exilic period. *Numbers is a Priestly redaction (i.e., editing) of a non-Priestly original. *
Deuteronomy The Book of Deuteronomy (literally "second law" from Greek ''deuteros'' + ''nomos'') is the fifth book of the Jewish , where it is called ''Devarim'' ( he, דְּבָרִים), "the words f Moses F, or f, is the sixth Letter (alphabet), let ...
, now the last book of the Torah, began as the set of religious laws (these make up the bulk of the book), was extended in the early part of the 6th century BCE to serve as the introduction to the
Deuteronomistic history The Deuteronomist, abbreviated as either Dtr or simply D, may refer either to the source document underlying the core chapters (12–26) of the Book of Deuteronomy The Book of Deuteronomy (literally "second law" from Greek ''deuteros'' + ''nomos' ...
(the books from Joshua to Kings), and later still was detached from that history, extended and edited again, and attached to the Torah.


Themes

David A. Clines, in his influential ''The Themes of the Pentateuch'' (1978), identified the overarching
theme Theme or themes may refer to: * Theme (arts) In contemporary literary studies, a theme is a central topic, subject, or message within a narrative. Themes can be divided into two categories: a work's ''thematic concept'' is what readers "think the ...
of the five books as the partial fulfilment of a promise made by God to the patriarchs,
Abraham Abraham, ''Ibrāhīm''; el, Ἀβραάμ, translit=Abraám, name=, group= (originally Abram) is the common patriarch of the , including , , and . In Judaism, he is the founding father of the , the special relationship between the and ; in C ...

Abraham
,
Isaac Isaac, ''Isaák''; ar, إسحٰق/إسحاق, ; am, ይስሐቅ is one of the three patriarchs The highest-ranking bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is gener ...

Isaac
and
Jacob Jacob (; ; ar, يَعْقُوب, Yaʿqūb; gr, Ἰακώβ, Iakṓb), later given the name Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State ...

Jacob
. The promise has three elements: posterity (i.e., descendants – Abraham is told that his descendants will be as innumerable as the stars), divine-human relationship (Israel is to be God's chosen people), and land (the land of Canaan, cursed by Noah immediately after the Deluge). The theme of the divine-human relationship is expressed, or managed, through a series of
covenant Covenant may refer to: Religion * Covenant (religion) In religion, a covenant is a formal alliance or agreement made by God with a religious community or with humanity in general. The concept, central to the Abrahamic religions The Abraha ...
s (meaning treaties, legally binding agreements) stretching from Genesis to Deuteronomy and beyond. The first is the covenant between God and Noah immediately after the Deluge in which God agrees never again to destroy the Earth with water. The next is between God and Abraham, and the third between God and all Israel at Mount Sinai. In this third covenant, unlike the first two, God hands down an elaborate set of laws (scattered through Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers), which the Israelites are to observe; they are also to remain faithful to Yahweh, the god of Israel, meaning, among other things, that they must put their trust in his help. The theme of descendants marks the first event in Numbers, the census of Israel's fighting men: the huge number which results (over 600,000) demonstrates the fulfillment of God's promise to Abraham of innumerable descendants, as well as serving as God's guarantee of victory in Canaan. As chapters 1–10 progress, the theme of God's presence with Israel comes to the fore: these chapters describe how Israel is to be organized around the Sanctuary, God's dwelling-place in their midst, under the charge of the Levites and priests, in preparation for the conquest of the land. The Israelites then set out to conquer the land, but almost immediately they refuse to enter it, and Yahweh condemns the whole generation who left Egypt to die in the wilderness. The message is clear: failure was not due to any fault in the preparation, because Yahweh had foreseen everything, but to Israel's sin of unfaithfulness. In the final section, the Israelites of the new generation follow Yahweh's instructions as given through Moses and are successful in all they attempt. The last five chapters are exclusively concerned with land: instructions for the extermination of the Canaanites, the demarcation of the boundaries of the land, how the land is to be divided, holy cities for the Levites and "cities of refuge", the problem of pollution of the land by blood, and regulations for inheritance when a male heir is lacking.


Judaism's weekly Torah portions in the Book of Numbers

* '' Bemidbar'', on Numbers 1–4: First census, priestly duties * '' Naso'', on Numbers 4–7: Priestly duties, the camp, unfaithfulness, and the Nazirite, Tabernacle consecration * '' Behaalotecha'', on Numbers 8–12: Levites, journeying by cloud and fire, complaints, questioning of Moses * ''
Shlach ''Shlach, Shelach, Sh'lah, Shlach Lecha'', or ''Sh'lah L'kha'' ( or — Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is reg ...
'', on Numbers 13–15: Mixed report of the scouts and Israel's response, libations, bread, idol worship, fringes * '' Korach'', on Numbers 16–18: Korah's rebellion, plague, Aaron's staff buds, duties of the Levites * ''
Chukat Chukat, HuQath , Hukath, or Chukkas ( — Hebrew language, Hebrew for "decree," the ninth word, and the first distinctive word, in the parashah) is the 39th weekly Torah portion (, ''parashah'') in the annual Judaism, Jewish cycle of Torah readi ...
'', on Numbers 19–21: Red heifer, water from a rock, Miriam's and Aaron's deaths, victories, serpents * ''
Balak Balak ( ''Bālāq'') was a king of Moab Moab ''Mōáb''; Akkadian language, Assyrian: 𒈬𒀪𒁀𒀀𒀀 ''Mu'aba'', 𒈠𒀪𒁀𒀀𒀀 ''Ma'ba'', 𒈠𒀪𒀊 ''Ma'ab''; Egyptian language, Egyptian: 𓈗𓇋𓃀𓅱𓈉 ''Mū'ībū' ...
'', on Numbers 22–25: Balaam's donkey and blessing * '' Pinechas'', on Numbers 25–29: Phinehas, second census, inheritance, Moses' successor, offerings and holidays * ''
Matot Matot, Mattot, Mattoth, or Matos ( — Hebrew language, Hebrew for "tribes", the fifth word, and the first distinctive word, in the parashah) is the 42nd weekly Torah portion (, ''parashah'') in the annual Judaism, Jewish cycle of Torah reading and ...
'', on Numbers 30–32: Vows, Midian, dividing booty, land for Reuben, Gad, and half of Manasseh * ''
Masei Masei, Mas'ei, or Masse ( — Hebrew language, Hebrew for "journeys," the second word, and the first distinctive word, in the parashah) is the 43rd weekly Torah portion (, ''parashah'') in the annual Judaism, Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the ...
'', on Numbers 33–36: Stations of the Israelites’ journeys, instructions for conquest, cities for Levites


See also

*
Balaam Balaam (; , Standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrology), an object that bears a defined r ...

Balaam
*
Book of the Wars of the Lord The Book of the Wars of the Lord (סֵפֶר מִלְחֲמֹת יהוה) is one of several non-canonical books referenced in the Bible The non-canonical books referenced in the Bible includes non-Biblical cultures, and lost works of known or unkn ...
*
Inverted nun Image:Inverted letter nun 3.jpg, frame, none, Inverted nun - Z-shape Inverted ( "isolated " or "inverted " or "" in Hebrew language, Hebrew) is a rare glyph used in classical Hebrew. Its function in the ancient texts is disputed. It takes t ...
(only appears twice in the Book of Numbers and seven times in the
Book of Psalms The Book of Psalms ( or ; he, תְּהִלִּים, , lit. "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms, the Psalter or "the Psalms", is the first book of the ("Writings"), the third section of the Tanakh The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh ...
) *
Ketef Hinnom Ketef Hinnom ( he, כֵּתֵף הִינוֹם ', "shoulder of Hinnom") is an archaeological site southwest of the Old City of Jerusalem, adjacent to St Andrew's Church, Jerusalem, St. Andrew's Church, now on the grounds of the Menachem Begin Herit ...
*
Priestly Blessing The Priestly Blessing or priestly benediction, ( he, ברכת כהנים; Transliteration, translit. ''birkat kohanim''), also known in rabbinic literature as raising of the hands (Hebrew ''nesiat kapayim'') or rising to the platform (Hebrew ''al ...
*
Torah Torah (; he, תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings. It can most specifically mean the first five books (Pentateuch or Five Books of Moses) of the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: ...

Torah
* What hath God wrought (disambiguation) *
Wilderness of SinThe Wilderness of Sin or Desert of Sin ( he, מִדְבַּר סִין ''Miḏbar Sîn'') is a geographic area mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as lying between Elim (Bible), Elim and Biblical Mount Sinai, Mount Sinai. ''Sin'' does not refer to the mora ...


References


Citations


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * * * * * Plaut, Gunther. ''The Torah: A Modern Commentary'' (1981), * * *


Further reading

* * * * * * * * * *


External links


במדבר ''Bamidbar'' – Numbers
(
Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as one of the spoken languages of the Israelites and their longest-survivi ...
 – English at Mechon-Mamre.org)


Translations

Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is ...
translations:
Numbers at Mechon-Mamre
(Jewish Publication Society translation)
Numbers (The Living Torah)
Rabbi
Aryeh Kaplan Aryeh Moshe Eliyahu Kaplan ( he, אריה משה אליהו קפלן; October 23, 1934 – January 28, 1983) was an American Orthodox rabbi A rabbi is a spiritual leader or religious teacher in Judaism. One becomes a rabbi by being ordain ...
's translation and commentary at Ort.org
Bamidbar – Numbers (Judaica Press)
translation ith_Rashi's_commentary.html"_;"title="Rashi.html"_;"title="ith_Rashi">ith_Rashi's_commentary">Rashi.html"_;"title="ith_Rashi">ith_
ith_Rashi's_commentary.html"_;"title="Rashi.html"_;"title="ith_Rashi">ith_Rashi's_commentary">Rashi.html"_;"title="ith_Rashi">ith_Rashi's_commentaryat_Chabad.org Christianity">Christian Christians_()_are_people_who_follow_or_adhere_to_Christianity,_a_monotheistic_Abrahamic_religion_based_on_the_life_and_teachings_of_Jesus_in_Christianity,_Jesus_Christ._The_words_''Christ_(title),_Christ''_and_''Christian''_derive_from_the_Koi_...
_translations:
Numbers

''Online_Bible''_at_GospelHall.org
_(Authorized_King_James_Version.html" "title="Rashi's_commentaryat_Chabad.org Christianity.html" "title="Rashi">ith_Rashi's_commentary.html" ;"title="Rashi.html" ;"title="ith Rashi">ith Rashi's commentary">Rashi.html" ;"title="ith Rashi">ith Rashi's commentaryat Chabad.org Christianity">Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian'' derive from the Koi ...
translations:
Numbers

''Online Bible'' at GospelHall.org
(Authorized King James Version">King James Version The King James Version (KJV), also the King James Bible (KJB) and the Authorized Version, is an of the Christian for the , which was commissioned in 1604 and published in 1611, by sponsorship of King . The include the 39 books of the , a ...
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''oremus Bible Browser''
(New Revised Standard Version)
''oremus Bible Browser''
(''Anglicized'' New Revised Standard Version) * s:Bible, King James, Numbers, Numbers at Wikisource (
Authorized King James Version The King James Version (KJV), also the King James Bible (KJB) and the Authorized Version, is an English translations of the Bible, English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, which was commissioned in 1604 and publ ...

Authorized King James Version
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Numbers at drbo.org
( Douay-Rheims Version) * Various versions {{DEFAULTSORT:Numbers, Book Of 5th-century BC books 4