HOME

TheInfoList



The Boeing 757 is an American
narrow-body airliner A narrow-body aircraft or single-aisle aircraft is an airliner arranged along a single aisle, permitting up to 6-abreast airline seat, seating in a aircraft cabin, cabin below of width. In contrast, a wide-body aircraft is a larger airliner usual ...
that was designed and built by
Boeing Commercial Airplanes Boeing Commercial Airplanes (BCA) is a division (business), division of Boeing, the Boeing Company. It Aircraft design process, designs, assembles, markets, and sells jet airliners and business jets (Boeing Business Jets), and also provides produ ...
. The then-named 7N7, a
twinjet A twinjet or twin-engine jet is a jet aircraft A jet aircraft (or simply jet) is an aircraft (nearly always a fixed-wing aircraft) propelled by jet engines. Whereas the engines in Propeller (aircraft), propeller-powered aircraft generally a ...
successor for the 727 (a
trijet A trijet is a jet aircraft powered by three jet engines. In general, passenger airline trijets are considered to be second-generation jet airliners, due to their innovative engine locations, in addition to the advancement of turbofan technology. Ot ...
), received its first orders in August 1978. The prototype completed its maiden flight on February 19, 1982 and it was
FAA The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is the largest modern transportation agency and a governmental body of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a c ...
certified on December 21, 1982.
Eastern Air Lines Eastern Air Lines, also colloquially known as Eastern, was a major American airline An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines utilize aircraft to supply these services and ma ...
placed the original in commercial service on January 1, 1983. A package
freighter A freighter is a vehicle or person that transports cargo, supplies, or goods, and may refer to: *Cargo ship *A large motor vehicle used to transport goods, known as a truck in the US and a "lorry" in the UK *The combination of a tractor unit with a ...

freighter
(PF) variant entered service in September 1987 and a combi model in September 1988. The stretched was launched in September 1996 and began service in March 1999. After 1,050 had been built for 54 customers, production ended in October 2004, while Boeing offered the largest 737 NG variants as a successor. The jetliner is powered by 36,600–43,500 lbf (163–193 kN)
Rolls-Royce RB211 Rolls-Royce (always hyphenated) may refer to: * Rolls-Royce Limited, a British manufacturer of cars and later aero engines, founded in 1906, now defunct Automobiles * Rolls-Royce Motor Cars, the current car manufacturing company incorporated in ...
or
Pratt & Whitney PW2000 The Pratt & Whitney PW2000, also known by the military designation F117 and initially referred to as the JT10D, is a series of high-bypass turbofan aircraft engines with a thrust Thrust is a reaction (physics), reaction force (physics), for ...
underwing
turbofan The turbofan or fanjet is a type of airbreathing jet engine that is widely used in aircraft engine, aircraft propulsion. The word "turbofan" is a portmanteau of "turbine" and "fan": the ''turbo'' portion refers to a gas turbine engine which ac ...

turbofan
engines for a MTOW. The 757 has a 2,000 sq ft (185 m2)
supercritical wing A supercritical airfoil (supercritical aerofoil in British English) is an airfoil designed primarily to delay the onset of wave drag in the transonic speed range. Supercritical airfoils are characterized by their flattened upper surface, highly ...
for reduced
aerodynamic drag In fluid dynamics In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of ...
and a
conventional tail showing conventional single vertical stabilizer A vertical stabilizer, vertical stabiliser, or fin, is a structure designed to reduce aerodynamic side slip and provide directional stability. They are most commonly found on vehicles such as airc ...
. It keeps the 707 cross-section and its two-crew
glass cockpit Glass is a non-Crystallinity, crystalline, often transparency and translucency, transparent amorphous solid, that has widespread practical, technological, and decorative use in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optics. Glass is most of ...
has a common
type rating A type rating is a licensing agency's certification of an airplane Pilot (aeronautics), pilot to fly a certain aircraft type that requires additional training beyond the scope of the initial Pilot licensing and certification, license and aircraf ...
with the concurrently designed 767 (a
wide-body aircraft A wide-body aircraft, also known as a twin-aisle aircraft, is an airliner An airliner is a type of aircraft for transporting passengers and air cargo. Such aircraft are most often operated by airline An airline is a company that provid ...
). It was produced in two
fuselage In aeronautics, the fuselage (; from the French ''fuselé'' "spindle-shaped") is an aircraft's main body section. It holds crew, passengers, and cargo. In single-engine aircraft, it will usually contain an engine, as well, although in some a ...

fuselage
lengths: the long 757-200 (the most popular with 913 built) typically seats 200 passengers in two classes over 3,915 nmi / 7,250 km; while the long 757-300 typically seats 243 over 3,400 nmi (6,295 km). The 757-200F can haul a 72,210 lb (32,755 kg) payload over 2,935 nmi (5,435 km). Passenger have been modified for cargo use as the Special Freighter (SF) and the Precision Converted Freighter (PCF). Major customers for the 757 included U.S.
mainline Mainline, ''Main line'', or ''Main Line'' may refer to: Transportation Railway * Main line (railway), the principal artery of a railway system * Main Line of Public Works, a railroad and canal system in Pennsylvania ** Main Line (Pennsylvania R ...
carriers, European
charter airline Air charter is the business of renting an entire aircraft (i.e., chartering) as opposed to individual aircraft seats (i.e., purchasing a airline ticket, ticket through a traditional airline). Regulation Charter, also called air taxi or ad hoc f ...
s, and cargo companies. It was commonly used for short and mid-range domestic routes, shuttle services, and transcontinental U.S. flights.
ETOPS ETOPS () is an acronym for ''Extended-range Twin-engine Operations Performance Standards''. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) coined the acronym for ''Extended Twin Operations'' for twin-engine aircraft operation further than o ...
extended flights were approved in 1986 to fly intercontinental routes. Private and government operators have customized the 757 as VIP carriers such as the US C-32. In July 2017, 666 were in airline service;
Delta Air Lines Delta Air Lines, Inc., typically referred to as Delta, is one of the major airlines of the United States and a legacy carrier. One of the List of airlines by foundation date, world's oldest airlines in operation, Delta is headquartered in Atlan ...
was the largest operator with 127 aircraft. The airliner has recorded eleven hull-loss accidents, including eight fatal crashes, .


Development


Background

In the early 1970s, following the launch of the wide-body 747,
Boeing The Boeing Company () is an American multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate organization that owns or controls the production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country. Black's L ...
began considering further developments of its narrow-body 727
trijet A trijet is a jet aircraft powered by three jet engines. In general, passenger airline trijets are considered to be second-generation jet airliners, due to their innovative engine locations, in addition to the advancement of turbofan technology. Ot ...
. Designed for short and medium length routes, the three-engined 727 was the best-selling commercial jetliner of the 1960s and a mainstay of the U.S. domestic airline market. Studies focused on improving the 189-seat , the most successful 727 variant. Two approaches were considered: a stretched 727 (to be designated 727-300), and an all-new aircraft code-named 7N7. The former was a cheaper derivative using the 727's existing technology and tail-mounted engine configuration, while the latter was a twin-engine aircraft which made use of new materials and improvements to propulsion technology which had become available in the civil aerospace industry.
United Airlines United Airlines, Inc. (commonly referred to as United) is a Major airlines of the United States, major American airline headquartered in Willis Tower in Chicago, Illinois.
United Airlines
provided input for the proposed 727-300, which Boeing was poised to launch in late 1975, but lost interest after examining development studies for the 7N7. Although the was offered to
Braniff International Airways Braniff Airways, Inc., operating as Braniff International Airways, from 1948 until 1965, and then Braniff International from 1965 until closure, was an American airline that flew air carrier operations from 1928 until 1982 and continues today a ...
and other carriers, customer interest remained insufficient for further development. Instead, airlines were drawn to the high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines, new flight deck technologies, lower weight, improved
aerodynamics study at Wallops Island Wallops Island is a island in Accomack County, Virginia, part of the Virginia Barrier Islands that stretch along the East coast of the United States, eastern seaboard of the United States of America. It is just south of ...
, and reduced operating cost promised by the 7N7. These features were also included in a parallel development effort for a new mid-size wide-body airliner, code-named 7X7, which became the 767. Work on both proposals accelerated as a result of the airline industry upturn in the late 1970s. By 1978, development studies focused on two variants: a with seating for 160, and a with room for over 180 seats. New features included a redesigned wing, under-wing engines, and lighter materials, while the forward fuselage, cockpit layout, and
T-tail A T-tail is an empennage wikt:configuration, configuration in which the tailplane is mounted to the top of the vertical stabilizer, fin. The arrangement looks like the capital letter T, hence the name. The T-tail differs from the standard c ...
configuration were retained from the 727. Boeing planned for the aircraft to offer the lowest fuel burn per passenger-kilometer of any narrow-body airliner. On August 31, 1978, Eastern Air Lines and British Airways became the first carriers to publicly commit to the 7N7 when they announced launch orders totaling 40 aircraft for the version. These orders were signed in March 1979, when Boeing officially designated the aircraft as the 757. The shorter did not receive any orders and was dropped; 737s later fulfilled its envisioned role.


Design effort

The 757 was intended to be more capable and more efficient than the preceding 727. The focus on
fuel efficiency Fuel efficiency is a form of thermal efficiency In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy, radiation, and physical properties of mat ...
reflected airline concerns over
operating cost Operating costs or operational costs, are the expenseExpenditure is an outflow of money Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose ...
s, which had grown amid rising oil prices during the Yom Kippur War of 1973. Design targets included a 20 percent reduction in fuel consumption from new engines, plus 10 percent from aerodynamic improvements, versus preceding aircraft. Lighter materials and new wings were also expected to improve efficiency. The maximum take-off weight (MTOW) was set at , which was more than the 727. The 757's higher
thrust-to-weight ratioThrust-to-weight ratio is a dimensionless ratio of thrust Thrust is a reaction (physics), reaction force (physics), force described quantitatively by Newton's third law. When a system expels or acceleration, accelerates mass in one direction, t ...
allowed it to take off from short runways and serve airports in
hot and high In aviation Aviation is the activities surrounding mechanical flight Flight or flying is the process by which an object (physics), object motion (physics), moves through a space without contacting any planetary surface, either within an at ...
conditions with higher ambient temperatures and thinner air, offering better
takeoff Takeoff is the phase of flight in which an aerospace vehicle leaves the ground and becomes airborne. For aircraft traveling vertically, this is known as liftoff. For aircraft that take off horizontally, this usually involves starting with a tr ...

takeoff
performance than that offered by competing aircraft. Competitors needed longer takeoff runs for these hot and high conditions. Boeing also offered options for higher payload capability.Ostrower, Jon, and Wall, Robert, "Boeing weighs options to reprise aging 757s", ''Wall Street Journal'', February 11, 2015, pp. B1–2. The twin-engine configuration was chosen for greater fuel efficiency versus three- and four-engine designs. Launch customers Eastern Air Lines and British Airways selected the turbofan built by
Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce (always hyphenated) may refer to: * Rolls-Royce Limited Rolls-Royce was a British luxury car and later an aero-engine manufacturing business established in 1904 in Manchester Manchester () is a city and metropolitan borough in ...
, which was capable of of
thrust Thrust is a reaction (physics), reaction force (physics), force described quantitatively by Newton's third law. When a system expels or acceleration, accelerates mass in one direction, the accelerated mass will cause a force of equal magnitude ...

thrust
. This marked the first time that a Boeing airliner was launched with engines produced outside the U.S. Domestic manufacturer
Pratt & Whitney Pratt & Whitney is an American aerospace manufacturer with global service operations. It is a subsidiary of Raytheon Technologies. Pratt & Whitney's aircraft engines are widely used in both civil aviation (especially airlines) and military aviati ...
subsequently offered the thrust PW2037, which Delta Air Lines launched with an order for 60 aircraft in November 1980.
General Electric General Electric Company (GE) is an American Multinational corporation, multinational Conglomerate (company), conglomerate incorporated in New York State and headquartered in Boston. Until 2021, the company operated through GE Aviation, aviati ...
also offered its engine early in the program, but eventually abandoned its involvement due to insufficient demand. As development progressed, the 757 increasingly departed from its 727 origins and adopted elements from the 767, which was several months ahead in development. To reduce risk and cost, Boeing combined design work on both twinjets, resulting in shared features such as interior fittings and handling characteristics.
Computer-aided design Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computers (or ) to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design. This software is used to increase the productivity of the designer, improve the quality of design, improve comm ...
, first applied on the 767, was used for over one-third of the 757's design drawings. In early 1979, a common two-crew member glass cockpit was adopted for the two aircraft, including shared instrumentation,
avionics Avionics (a blend of ''aviation'' and ''electronics'') are the electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of e ...
, and flight management systems. In October 1979 the nose was widened and dropped to reduce aerodynamic noise by six dB, to improve the flight deck view and to give more working area for the crew for greater commonality with the 767.
Cathode-ray tube File:CRT monochrome.png, 250px, Cutaway rendering of a monochrome CRT: 1. Deflection coils2. Electron beam3. Focusing coil4. Phosphor layer on the inner side of the screen; emits light when struck by the electron beam5.&nbs ...
(CRT) color displays replaced conventional
electromechanical In engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encomp ...
instruments, with increased automation eliminating the flight engineer position common to three-person cockpits. After completing a short conversion course, pilots rated on the 757 could be qualified to fly the 767 and vice versa, owing to their design similarities. A new aft-loaded shape which produced
lift Lift or LIFT may refer to: Physical devices * Elevator, or lift, a device used for raising and lowering people or goods ** Rack lift, a type of elevator ** Ski lift, an aerial or surface lift for uphill transport ** Space elevator, a hypothetical ...
across most of the upper wing surface, instead of a narrow band as in previous
airfoil An airfoil (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English ...
designs, was used for the 757's wings. The more efficient wings had less drag and greater fuel capacity, and were similar in configuration to those on the 767. A wider
wingspan The wingspan (or just span) of a bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class (biology), class Aves , characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the Oviparity, laying of Eggshell, hard-shelled eggs, a ...
than the 727's produced less
lift-induced dragIn aerodynamics, lift-induced drag, induced drag, vortex drag, or sometimes drag due to lift, is an aerodynamic drag In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or f ...
, while larger
wing root The wing root is the part of the wing on a fixed-wing aircraft or winged-spaceship that is closest to the fuselage In aeronautics, the fuselage (; from the French ''fuselé'' "spindle-shaped") is an aircraft's main body section. It holds cr ...
s increased undercarriage storage space and provided room for future stretched versions of the aircraft. One of the last 727 vestiges, the T-tail, was dropped in mid-1979 in favor of a conventional tail. This avoided the risk of an aerodynamic condition known as a
deep stall In fluid dynamics In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids—liquids and gases. It has several subdisciplines, including aerodynamics (the study of air and other gases i ...

deep stall
, and allowed for more passengers to be carried in a less tapered rear fuselage. At in length, the was longer than the , and with a greater proportion of its internal volume devoted to cabin space, seating was available for 239 passengers, or 50 more than its predecessor. The fuselage cross-section, whose upper lobe was common to the 707 and 737, was the only major structural feature to be retained from the 727. This was mainly to reduce drag, and while a wider fuselage had been considered, Boeing's market research found low cargo capacity needs and reduced passenger preference for wide-body aircraft on short-haul routes.


Production and testing

Boeing built a final assembly line in Washington at its Renton factory, home of 707, 727, and 737 production, to produce the 757. Early in the development program, Boeing,
British Airways British Airways (BA) is the flag carrier A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given sovereign state, enjoys preferential rights or privileges accorded by th ...
, and Rolls-Royce unsuccessfully lobbied the British aircraft industry to manufacture 757 wings. Ultimately, about half of the aircraft's components, including the wings, nose section, and
empennage The empennage ( or ), also known as the tail or tail assembly, is a structure at the rear of an aircraft that provides stability during flight, in a way similar to the feathers on an arrow.Crane, Dale: ''Dictionary of Aeronautical Terms, third ed ...
, were produced in-house at Boeing facilities with the remainder subcontracted to primarily U.S.-based companies.
Fairchild Aircraft Fairchild was an American aircraft and aerospace manufacturing company based at various times in Farmingdale, New York; Hagerstown, Maryland; and San Antonio, Texas. History Early aircraft The company was founded by Sherman Fairchild i ...
made the leading edge slats,
Grumman The Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation, later Grumman Aerospace Corporation, was a leading 20th century American producer of military and civilian aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to flight, fly by gaining support from t ...
supplied the flaps, and
Rockwell International Rockwell International was a major American manufacturing Manufacturing is the Production (economics), production of goods through the use of Work (human activity), labor, machines, tools, and chemical or biological processing or formulation ...
produced the main fuselage. Production ramp-up for the new narrow-body airliner coincided with the winding-down of the 727 program, and final assembly of the first aircraft began in January 1981. The prototype 757 rolled out of the Renton factory on January 13, 1982. The aircraft, equipped with engines, completed its maiden flight one week ahead of schedule on February 19, 1982. The first flight was affected by an engine stall, following indications of low
oil pressure{{unreferenced, date=May 2016 Oil pressure is an important factor in the longevity of most internal combustion engine An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine in which the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) i ...

oil pressure
. After checking system diagnostics, company test pilot John Armstrong and co-pilot Lew Wallick were able to restart the affected engine, and the flight proceeded normally thereafter. Subsequently, the 757 embarked on a seven-day weekly flight test schedule. By this time, the aircraft had received 136 orders from seven carriers, namely
Air Florida Air Florida was an American low-cost carrier A low-cost carrier or low-cost airline (occasionally referred to as ''no-frills'', ''budget'' or ''Discounts and allowances, discount carrier'' or ''airline'', and abbreviated as ''LCC'') is an airli ...
,
American Airlines American Airlines, Inc. (AA or American Airlines Group, AAL) is a major airlines of the United States, major American airline headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, within the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. It is the World's largest airlines, world ...
, British Airways, Delta Air Lines,
Eastern Air Lines Eastern Air Lines, also colloquially known as Eastern, was a major American airline An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines utilize aircraft to supply these services and ma ...
,
Monarch Airlines Monarch Airlines, also known as Monarch, was a British charter A charter is the grant of authority or rights Rights are law, legal, social, or ethics, ethical principles of Liberty, freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundame ...
, and
Transbrasil TransBrasil was a Brazilian airline which ceased operations on 3 December 2001. During most of its history, Transbrasil was owned by local entrepreneur Omar Fontana. Its aircraft usually featured a colorful livery, remarkably with a rainbow on the ...
. The seven-month 757 flight test program used the first five aircraft built. Tasks included flight systems and propulsion tests, hot and cold weather trials, and route-proving flights. Data from the 767 program helped expedite the process. After design issues were identified, the 757's exit doors received dual-spring mechanisms for easier operation, and the fuselage was strengthened for greater
bird strike A bird strike—sometimes called birdstrike, bird ingestion (for an engine), bird hit, or bird aircraft strike hazard (BASH)—is a collision between an airborne animal (usually a bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates consti ...
resistance. The production aircraft was lighter than originally specified, and recorded a three percent better-than-expected rate of fuel burn. This resulted in a range increase of , and prompted Boeing to tout the aircraft's fuel efficiency characteristics. After 1,380 flight test hours, the RB211-powered 757 received U.S.
Federal Aviation Administration The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is the largest transportation agency of the U.S. government and regulates all aspects of civil aviation in the country as well as over surrounding international waters The terms international wat ...
(FAA) certification on December 21, 1982, followed by UK
Civil Aviation Authority A national aviation authority (NAA) or civil aviation authority (CAA) is a government statutory authority in each country that maintains an Aircraft registration, aircraft register and oversees the approval and regulation of civil aviation. Role Du ...
(CAA) certification on January 14, 1983. The first delivery to launch customer Eastern Air Lines occurred on December 22, 1982, about four months after the first 767 deliveries. The first 757 with PW2037 engines rolled out about one year later, and was delivered to Delta Air Lines on November 5, 1984.


Service entry and operations

Eastern Air Lines operated the first commercial 757 flight on January 1, 1983, on the Atlanta-to-Tampa route. On February 9, 1983, British Airways began using the aircraft for London-to-Belfast shuttle services, where it replaced trijets. Charter carriers Monarch Airlines and
Air Europe Air Europe was a wholly privately owned, independentindependent from government-owned corporation A state-owned enterprise (SOE) or government-owned enterprise (GOE) is a business enterprise Business is the activity of making one's l ...
also began 757 operations later that year. Early operators noted improved reliability and quieter performance compared with previous jetliners. Transition courses eased pilots' introduction to the new CRT-based cockpit, and no major technical issues arose. Eastern Air Lines, the first 727 operator to take delivery of 757s, confirmed that the aircraft had greater payload capability than its predecessor, along with lower operating costs through improved fuel burn and the use of a two-crew member flight deck. Compared with the 707 and 727, the new twinjet consumed 42 and 40 percent less fuel per seat, respectively, on typical medium-haul flights. Despite the successful debut, 757 sales remained stagnant for most of the 1980s, a consequence of declining fuel prices and a shift to smaller aircraft in the post-
deregulationDeregulation is the process of removing or reducing state regulations, typically in the economic sphere. It is the repeal of governmental regulation of the economy. It became common in advanced industrial economies in the 1970s and 1980s, as a res ...
U.S. market. Although no direct competitor existed, 150-seat narrow-bodies such as the
McDonnell Douglas MD-80 The McDonnell Douglas MD-80 is a series of single-aisle airliners developed by McDonnell Douglas from the earlier DC-9. Stretched, heavier, and with higher bypass Pratt & Whitney JT8D-200 engines, the DC-9 Series 80 was launched in October ...

McDonnell Douglas MD-80
were less expensive and carried nearly as many passengers as some airlines' 757s. A three-year sales drought abated in November 1983 when
Northwest Airlines Northwest Airlines Corp. (NWA) was a major United States airline founded in 1926 and absorbed into Delta Air Lines, Inc. by a merger. The merger, approved on October 29, 2008, made Delta the largest airline in the world until the American Air ...
placed orders for 20 aircraft, which averted a costly production rate decrease. In December 1985, a freighter model, the , was announced following a launch order for 20 aircraft from
UPS Airlines UPS Airlines is a cargo airline Cargo airlines (or air freight carriers, and derivatives of these names) are airline An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines utilize aircraft ...

UPS Airlines
, and in February 1986, a freighter-passenger combi model, the , was launched with an order for one aircraft from
Royal Nepal Airlines Nepal Airlines Corporation ( ne, नेपाल वायुसेवा निगम), formerly known as Royal Nepal Airlines ( ne, शाही नेपाल वायुसेवा), is the flag carrier of Nepal. Founded in 1958, it is the ...

Royal Nepal Airlines
. The freighter model included a main deck cargo hold and entered service with UPS in September 1987. The combi model could carry both cargo and passengers on its main deck and entered service with Royal Nepal Airlines in September 1988. In the late 1980s, increasing
airline hub Airline hubs or hub airports are used by one or more airlines to concentrate passenger traffic and flight operations at a given airport. They serve as transfer (or stop-over) points to get passengers to their final destination. It is part of the ...
congestion and the onset of U.S. airport
noise regulation Noise regulation includes statuteA statute reffers to the body of law that are made by legislature of the nation with instrument which govern the state, country or any nation. it includes laws, rules and the reulation whichhas to be followed by eac ...
s fueled a turnaround in 757 sales. From 1988 to 1989, airlines placed 322 orders, including a combined 160 orders from American Airlines and United Airlines. By this time, the 757 had become commonplace on short-haul domestic flights and transcontinental services in the U.S., and had replaced aging 707s, 727s,
Douglas DC-8 The Douglas DC-8 (sometimes McDonnell Douglas DC-8) is a Narrow-body aircraft, narrow-body airliner built by the American Douglas Aircraft Company. After losing the May 1954 US Air Force tanker competition to the Boeing KC-135, Douglas announce ...
s, and
McDonnell Douglas DC-9 The McDonnell Douglas DC-9 (initially the Douglas DC-9) is an American single-aisle airliner designed by the Douglas Aircraft Company The Douglas Aircraft Company was an American aerospace manufacturer based in Southern California. It was found ...
s. The maximum range of , which was over one-and-a-half times the 727's, allowed airlines to use the aircraft on longer nonstop routes. The 757 was also flown out of airports with stringent noise regulations, such as
John Wayne Airport John Wayne Airport is a commercial and general aviation airport that serves Orange County, California, and the Greater Los Angeles area. The airport is located in an unincorporated area of Orange County, and it is owned and operated by the c ...
in Orange County, California, and airports with aircraft size restrictions, such as
Washington National Airport Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport , also known as National Airport, Washington National, Reagan National Airport, Reagan, or simply National, is a national airport in Arlington, Virginia, next to the border of Washington, D.C. It is th ...
near downtown Washington, D.C. The largest U.S. operators, Delta Air Lines and American Airlines, would ultimately operate fleets of over 100 aircraft each. In Europe, British Airways,
Iberia The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese language, Aragonese and Occitan language, Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eibérica * eu, Iberiar penintsula also known as Iberia, is a penin ...
, and
Icelandair Icelandair is the flag carrier A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given sovereign state, enjoys preferential rights or privileges accorded by the governme ...
were the 757's largest mainline customers, while other carriers such as
Lufthansa Deutsche Lufthansa Aktiengesellschaft, AG (), commonly shortened to Lufthansa, is the flag carrier and largest airline of Germany which, when combined with its subsidiaries, is the second-List of largest airlines in Europe, largest airline in Eu ...

Lufthansa
rejected the type as too large for their narrow-body aircraft needs. Many European charter airlines, including
Air 2000 Air 2000 was a United Kingdom, British charter airline that operated for 17 years between 1987 and 2004. The airline was renamed First Choice Airways in 2004. In 2008, TUI Travel PLC merged with First Choice Holidays PLC and the resultant m ...
, Air Holland, and LTU International, also acquired the twinjet for holiday and tour package flights in the late 1980s. In Asia, where even larger aircraft were commonly preferred because of greater passenger volumes, the 757 found fewer orders. A 1982 sales demonstration was unable to attract a purchase from potential customer Japan Airlines, and the first Asian customer, Singapore Airlines, sold its four 757s in 1989 in favor of standardizing on the 240-seat wide-body Airbus A310, just five years after debuting the type on Indonesian and Malaysian routes. The 757 fared better in China, where following an initial purchase by the CAAC Airlines in 1987, orders grew to 59 aircraft, making it the largest Asian market. Operators such as China Southern Airlines, China Southern, China Southwest Airlines, China Southwest, Shanghai Airlines, Xiamen Airlines, and China Xinjiang Airlines, Xinjiang Airlines used the 757 on medium length domestic routes. In 1986, the FAA approved RB211-powered 757s for extended-range twin-engine operational performance standards (
ETOPS ETOPS () is an acronym for ''Extended-range Twin-engine Operations Performance Standards''. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) coined the acronym for ''Extended Twin Operations'' for twin-engine aircraft operation further than o ...
) operations over the North Atlantic, following precedents set by the 767. Under ETOPS regulations, a set of safety standards governing twinjet flights over oceans and other areas without nearby suitable landing sites, airlines began using the aircraft for mid-range intercontinental routes. Although the 757 was not originally intended for transoceanic flights, regulators based their decision on its reliable performance record on extended transcontinental U.S. services. ETOPS certification for 757s equipped with PW2000 series engines was granted in 1992. In the early 1990s, the FAA and other U.S. government agencies, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), began studying the 757's wake turbulence characteristics. This followed several incidents, including two fatal crashes, in which small private aircraft experienced aircraft upset, loss of control when flying close behind the twinjet. Smaller airliners had also suffered unexpected rolling movements when flying behind 757s. Investigators focused on the aircraft's aft-loaded wing design, which at certain points during takeoff or landing could produce wingtip vortices that were stronger than those emanating from larger 767s and 747s. Other tests were inconclusive, leading to debate among government agencies, and in 1994 and 1996 the FAA updated air traffic control regulations to require greater Separation (air traffic control), separation behind the 757 than other large-category jets. The 757 became the only sub- airliner to be classified as a "heavy" jet, alongside wide-body aircraft, under FAA separation rules.


Stretched variant

Production of the 757 peaked at an annual rate of 100 aircraft in the early 1990s, during which time upgraded models came under consideration. For over a decade, the narrow-body twinjet had been its manufacturer's only single-aisle airliner without a stretched variant, and while rumors of a long-range and stretched persisted, no formal announcements had been made. European charter carriers were particularly interested in a higher-capacity version which could take better advantage of the 757's range. Besides meeting the needs of charter customers, a larger model would enable Boeing to match the passenger lift capabilities of the with lower operating costs, and counter longer-range versions of the 185-seat Airbus A321, a new stretched variant of the Airbus A320 family, A320 narrow-body airliner. In September 1996, following a launch order for 12 aircraft from charter carrier Condor Flugdienst, Condor, Boeing announced the stretched at the Farnborough Airshow. The new model was a stretch of the , resulting in room for 50 more passengers and nearly 50 percent more cargo. The type's design phase was intended to be the shortest in its manufacturer's history, with 27 months from launch to certification. Due to development and cost concerns, radical upgrades such as a Boeing 737 Next Generation, Next Generation 737-style advanced cockpit were not implemented. Instead, the stretched derivative received upgraded engines, enhanced avionics, and a redesigned interior. The first rolled out on May 31, 1998, and completed its maiden flight on August 2, 1998. Following regulatory certification in January 1999, the type entered service with Condor on March 19, 1999. The 757-300 was also ordered by ATA Airlines, American Trans Air, Arkia Israel Airlines, Continental Airlines, Icelandair, and Northwest Airlines. Sales for the type remained slow, and ultimately totaled 55 aircraft. Boeing had targeted the as a potential replacement for two of its largest customers, American Airlines and United Airlines, but neither were in a financial position to commit to new aircraft. Overtures to other charter airlines also did not result in further orders. By November 1999, faced with diminishing sales and a reduced backlog despite the launch of the , Boeing began studying a decrease in 757 production rates.


Further developments

While the 757 program had been financially successful, declining sales in the early 2000s threatened its continued viability. Airlines were again gravitating toward smaller aircraft, now mainly the 737 and A320, because of their reduced financial risk. An airline industry downturn and the large number of relatively young 757s already in service also reduced customer demand. In 2000, spurred by interest from Air 2000 and Continental Airlines, Boeing reexamined the possibility of building a longer-range . The proposed derivative would have featured auxiliary fuel tanks, plus wing and landing gear upgrades from the , resulting in a higher MTOW and a potential range increase to over . However, the proposal failed to garner any orders. In March 2001, Boeing delivered the first , a second-hand converted for freighter use, to DHL Aviation. The marked the manufacturer's first foray into passenger-to-freighter conversions. Customer interest in new 757s continued to decline, and in 2003, a renewed sales campaign centered on the and yielded only five new orders. In October 2003, following Continental Airlines' decision to switch its remaining orders to the , Boeing announced the end of 757 production. The 1,050th and last example, a built for Shanghai Airlines, rolled off the production line at the Renton factory on October 28, 2004, and was delivered on November 28, 2005, after several months of storage. With the conclusion of the 757 program, Boeing consolidated 737 assembly at its Renton factory, downsizing its facilities by 40 percent and shifting staff to different locations. Since the end of production, most 757s have remained in service, mainly in the U.S. From 2004 to 2008, the average fuel cost for typical mid-range U.S. domestic 757 flights tripled, putting pressure on airlines to improve the fuel efficiency of their fleets."$3.3 Million a Day – That's How Much American Airlines is Losing in the Era of Insane Fuel Prices." ''Fortune'', May 12, 2008, p. 94. In May 2005, the FAA granted regulatory approval for manufacturer-sanctioned Wingtip device, blended winglets from Aviation Partners Inc., Aviation Partners Incorporated as a retrofit on the . The winglets improve fuel efficiency by five percent and increase range by through the reduction of lift-induced drag. Continental Airlines was the first carrier to order winglets for the , and in February 2009 became the first operator of with winglets. Prior to the United-Continental merger in 2010, the 757 remained the only narrow-body aircraft in use by the large fleets of all three U.S. legacy carriers: American Airlines, Delta Air Lines and United Airlines. During this period, the 757's capacity and range capabilities have remained largely unequaled among narrow-body airliners; when selecting replacement aircraft, airlines have had to either downsize to smaller single-aisle aircraft in production with fewer seats and less range such as the and A321, or upsize to the larger, longer-range Boeing 787 Dreamliner, 787 Dreamliner and wide-body jets. The Tupolev Tu-204, a narrow-body twinjet introduced in 1989 with a design similar to the 757's, is offered in a 200-seat version, which has seen limited production for mainly Russian customers. Within Boeing, the 215-seat, range 737-900ER has been regarded as the closest aircraft in production to the 757-200.


Replacement aircraft

In February 2015, Boeing marketing Vice President Randy Tinseth stated that re-engining the 757 had been studied but there was no business case to support it. At the March 2015 International Society of Transport Aircraft Trading, ISTAT conference, Air Lease Corporation's Steven Udvar-Hazy predicted the 757 replacement would be a more capable, clean-sheet 767-like twin-aisle airplane capable of taking off from runways like New York LaGuardia, and Tinseth was focused on 20% more range and more capacity than the 757-200. In May 2020, due to the ongoing Boeing 737 MAX groundings, 737 MAX issues and the economic crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, Boeing set aside the clean-sheet design for the New Midsize Airplane (NMA) and began to look into a re-engined 757, dubbed the 757-Plus, which would compete with the Airbus A321XLR. The 757-Plus would need new engines, better efficiency, greater range, and more passenger capacity in order to satisfy the market that the NMA would have filled.


Design


Overview

The 757 is a low-wing Cantilever wing, cantilever monoplane with a conventional tail unit featuring a single fin and rudder. Each wing features a supercritical cross-section and is equipped with five-panel leading edge slats, single- and double-slotted flap (aircraft), flaps, an outboard aileron, and six Spoiler (aeronautics), spoilers. The wings are largely identical across all 757 variants, swept at 25 degrees, and optimized for a cruising speed of Mach number, Mach 0.8 (). The reduced wing sweep eliminates the need for inboard ailerons, yet incurs little drag penalty on short and medium length routes, during which most of the flight is spent climbing or descending. The airframe further incorporates carbon-fiber reinforced plastic wing surfaces, Kevlar Aircraft fairing, fairings and access panels, plus improved aluminium alloy, aluminum alloys, which together reduce overall weight by . To distribute the aircraft's weight on the ground, the 757 has a retractable Tricycle gear, tricycle landing gear with four wheels on each main gear and two for the nose gear. The landing gear was purposely designed to be taller than the company's previous narrow-body aircraft to provide ground clearance for stretched models. In 1982, the became the first subsonic aircraft, subsonic jetliner to offer longer lasting Ceramic composite, carbon brakes as a factory option, supplied by Dunlop Rubber, Dunlop. The stretched features a retractable tailstrike, tailskid on its aft fuselage to prevent damage if the tail section contacts the runway surface during takeoff. Besides common avionics and computer systems, the 757 shares its auxiliary power unit, electric power systems, flight deck, and hydraulic parts with the 767. Through operational commonality, 757 pilots can obtain a common type rating to fly the 767 and share the same Seniority list, seniority roster with pilots of either aircraft. This reduces costs for airlines that operate both twinjets.


Flight systems

The 757's flight deck uses six Rockwell Collins CRT screens to display flight instrumentation, as well as an Electronic Flight Instrument System, electronic flight instrument system (EFIS) and an Electronic Flight Instrument System#Engine indications and crew alerting system (EICAS) / electronic centralized aircraft monitoring (ECAM), engine indication and crew alerting system (EICAS). These systems allow the pilots to handle monitoring tasks previously performed by the flight engineer. An enhanced flight management system, improved over versions used on early 747s, automates navigation and other functions, while an Autoland, automatic landing system facilitates Instrument landing system, CAT IIIb instrument landings in low visibility conditions. The Inertial navigation system, inertial reference system (IRS) which debuted with the was the first to feature Inertial navigation system#Ring Laser Gyros (RLG), laser-light gyros. On the , the upgraded flight deck features a Honeywell Pegasus flight management computer, enhanced EICAS, and updated software systems. To accommodate the same flight deck design as the 767, the 757 has a more rounded nose section than previous narrow-body aircraft. The resulting space has unobstructed panel visibility and room for an observer seat. Similar pilot viewing angles as the 767 result from a downward sloped cockpit floor and the same forward cockpit windows. Three independent hydraulics, hydraulic systems are installed on the 757, one powered by each engine, and the third using electric pumps. A ram air turbine is fitted to provide power for essential controls in the event of an emergency. A basic form of fly-by-wire facilitates spoiler operation, utilizing electric signaling instead of traditional control cables. The fly-by-wire system, shared with the 767, reduces weight and provides for the independent operation of individual spoilers. When equipped for extended-range operations, the 757 features a backup hydraulic motor generator and an additional cooling fan in the aircraft's electronics bay.


Interior

The 757 interior allows seat arrangements of up to six per row with a single center aisle. Originally optimized for flights averaging two hours, the 757 features interior lighting and cabin architecture designs aimed at a more spacious impression. As on the 767, garment bag, garment-bag-length Airliner#Overhead bins, overhead bins and a rear economy-class Galley (kitchen), galley are standard equipment. The bins have twice the capacity as those on the preceding 727. To save weight, honeycomb structure, honeycomb sandwich is used for interior paneling and bins. Unlike previous evacuation slide designs which are not equipped for water landings, the 757's main exits feature combination Lifeboat (shipboard), slide rafts similar to those found on the 747. In the 1980s, Boeing altered the interior designs of its other narrow-body aircraft to be similar to that of the 757. In 1998, the 757-300 debuted a redesigned interior derived from the Next Generation 737 and Boeing 777, 777, including sculptured ceiling panels, indirect lighting, and larger overhead bins with an optional continuous handrail built into their base for the entire cabin length. Centerline storage containers mounted in the aisle ceiling for additional escape rafts and other emergency equipment were also added. The 757-300's interior later became an option on all new . In 2000, with wheeled Baggage#Hand luggage (carry-on), carry-on baggage becoming more popular, Delta Air Lines began installing overhead bin extensions on their to provide additional storage space, and American Airlines did the same in 2001. The larger bins are part of aftermarket interior upgrades which include updated ceiling panels and lighting.


Variants

The 757 was produced in standard and stretched lengths. The original 757-200 debuted as a passenger model, and was subsequently developed into the 757-200PF and 757-200SF cargo models, as well as the convertible 757-200M variant. The stretched 757-300 was only available as a passenger model. When referring to different versions, Boeing, and airlines are known to collapse the model number (757) and the variant designator (e.g. or ) into a truncated form (e.g. "752" or "753"). The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) classifies all variants based on the under the code "B752", and the is referred to as "B753" for air traffic control purposes.


757-200

The 757-200, the original version of the aircraft, entered service with Eastern Air Lines in 1983. The type was produced with two different door configurations, both with three standard cabin doors per side: the baseline version has a fourth, smaller cabin door on each side aft of the wings, and is certified for a maximum capacity of 239, while the alternate version has a pair of over-the-wing emergency exits on each side, and can seat a maximum of 224. The 757-200 was offered with a MTOW of up to ; some airlines and publications have referred to higher Aircraft gross weight, gross weight versions with ETOPS, ETOPS certification as "757-200ERs", but this designation is not used by the manufacturer. Similarly, versions with winglets are sometimes called "757-200W" or "757-200WL". The first engine to power the 757-200, the Rolls-Royce RB211#RB211-535C, Rolls Royce RB211-535C, was succeeded by the upgraded RB211-535E4 in October 1984. Other engines used include the Rolls-Royce RB211#RB211-535E, RB211-535E4, Rolls Royce RB211-535E4B, along with the Pratt & Whitney PW2000, Pratt & Whitney PW2037 and PW2040. Its range with full payload is .Flottau, Jens, and Guy Norris, "Filling the gaps", Aviation Week & Space Technology, January 15 – February 1, 2015, p. 24
online version
/ref> Although designed for short and medium length routes, the 757-200 has since been used in a variety of roles ranging from high-frequency shuttle services to transatlantic routes. In 1992, after gaining ETOPS approval, American Trans Air launched 757-200 transpacific services between Tucson and Honolulu. Since the turn of the century, mainline U.S. carriers have increasingly deployed the type on transatlantic routes to Europe, and particularly to smaller cities where passenger volumes are insufficient for wide-body aircraft. Production for the 757-200 totaled 913 aircraft, making the type by far the most popular 757 model. At over , , the longest commercial route served by a 757 is United Airlines' Newark to Berlin flight; the aircraft assigned to this route cannot fly with full payload. United's 757s assigned to transatlantic routes are fitted with 169 seats. In July 2018, 611 of the 757-200 versions were in service.


757-200PF

The 757-200PF, the production cargo version of the 757-200, entered service with UPS Airlines in 1987. Targeted at the Express mail, overnight package delivery market, the freighter can carry up to 15 Unit Load Device, ULD containers or pallets on its main deck, for a volume of up to , while its two lower holds can carry up to of bulk cargo. The maximum revenue payload capability is including container weight. The 757-200PF is specified with a MTOW of for maximal range performance; when fully loaded, the aircraft can fly up to . Because the freighter does not carry any passengers, it can operate transatlantic flights free of ETOPS restrictions. Power is provided by RB211-535E4B engines from Rolls-Royce, or PW2037 and PW2040 engines from Pratt & Whitney. The freighter features a large, upward-opening main deck cargo door on its forward port-side fuselage. Next to this large cargo door is an exit door used by the pilots. All other emergency exits are omitted, and cabin windows and passenger amenities are not available. The main-deck cargo hold has a smooth fiberglass lining, and a fixed rigid barrier with a sliding access door serves as a restraint wall next to the flight deck. Both lower holds can be equipped with a telescoping baggage system to load custom-fitted cargo modules. When equipped for extended-range transatlantic operations, UPS's 757-200PFs feature an upgraded auxiliary power unit, additional cargo bay fire suppression equipment, enhanced avionics, and an optional supplemental fuel tank in the aft lower hold. Total production for the 757-200PF totaled 80 aircraft.


757-200M

The 757-200M, a convertible version capable of carrying cargo and passengers on its main deck, entered service with Royal Nepal Airlines in 1988. Also known as the 757-200 Combi, the type retains the passenger windows and cabin doors of the 757-200, while adding a forward port-side cargo door in the manner of the 757-200PF. Kathmandu-based Royal Nepal Airlines, later renamed Nepal Airlines, included the convertible model as part of an order for two 757s in 1986. Nepal Airlines ordered the 757-200M to fulfill a requirement for an aircraft that could carry mixed passenger and freight loads, and operate out of Tribhuvan International Airport, with its elevation, in the foothills of the Himalayas. Patterned after convertible variants of the 737 and 747, the 757-200M can carry two to four cargo pallets on its main deck, along with 123 to 148 passengers in the remaining cabin space. Nepal Airlines' 757-200M, which features Rolls-Royce RB211-535E4 engines and an increased MTOW of , was the only production example ordered. In October 2010, Pemco World Air Services and Precision Conversions launched aftermarket conversion programs to modify 757-200s into 757 Combi aircraft. Vision Technologies Systems launched a similar program in December 2011. All three aftermarket conversions modify the forward portion of the aircraft to provide room for up to ten cargo pallets, while leaving the remaining space to fit around 45 to 58 passenger seats. This configuration is targeted at commercial charter flights which transport heavy equipment and personnel simultaneously. Customers for converted 757 Combi aircraft include the Air Transport Services Group, National Airlines (N8), National Airlines, and North American Airlines. In 2018, Nepal Airlines retired their sole Boeing 757-200M. They were trying to sell it for a price of 7 million, then 5.4 million, then 4.2 million. The deal fell through and Nepal Airlines planned to keep it in service to maintain its value.


757-200 SF/PCF

The 757-200SF is a passenger to freighter conversion developed by Boeing following an order for 34 aircraft plus 10 options by DHL. It entered service in 2001 with the initial ex-
British Airways British Airways (BA) is the flag carrier A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given sovereign state, enjoys preferential rights or privileges accorded by th ...
aircraft converted at Boeing's Wichita site and subsequent blocks of aircraft converted by Israel Aerospace Industries and ST Aerospace#Subsidiaries, ST Aerospace Services. Modifications included the removal of passenger amenities, main deck structural reinforcement, addition of cargo handling flooring and the installation of a 757-200PF port-side cargo door in the forward fuselage. The forward two entry doors and lobby area of the passenger aircraft are retained resulting in a main deck cargo capacity of 14 full sized pallets and one smaller LD3. Environmental controls can be fitted for animal cargo such as racehorses, and rear exits and window pairs are retained on some aircraft to facilitate animal handlers.ST Aerospace continue to offer 14, 14.5 and 15 Unit load device variants of the SF in 2020. In September 2006, FedEx Express announced a US$2.6 billion plan to acquire over 80 converted 757 freighters to replace its 727 fleet citing a 25% reduction in operating cost along with noise benefits. The 757-200PCF is a passenger to freighter conversion, developed by Precision Conversions and certificated in 2005. Reported in 2019 to cost $5 million per aircraft and similar to the SF it has 15 pallet positions. External differences include the removal of the forward passenger style doors and their replacement with a -200PF style small crew door. Internally the main cargo door is not integrated with the base aircraft hydraulic and warning systems and instead operates from a self-contained hydraulic system though powered by the aircraft electrics. By early 2020 a total of 120 757-200PCFs had been delivered.


757-300

The 757-300, the stretched version of the aircraft, entered service with Condor Flugdienst, Condor in 1999. With a length of , the type is the longest single-aisle twinjet ever built, while being shorter than the DC-8-61/63. Designed to serve the
charter airline Air charter is the business of renting an entire aircraft (i.e., chartering) as opposed to individual aircraft seats (i.e., purchasing a airline ticket, ticket through a traditional airline). Regulation Charter, also called air taxi or ad hoc f ...
market and provide a low-cost replacement for the 767-200, the 757-300 shares the basic design of the original 757, while extending the fuselage forward and aft of the wings. Six standard cabin doors, two smaller cabin doors behind the wings, plus a pair of over-the-wing emergency exits on each side, enable the 757-300 to have a maximum certified capacity of 295 passengers. A higher MTOW of is specified, while fuel capacity remains unchanged; as a result, the stretched variant offers a maximum range of . Engines used on the type include the RB211-535E4B from Rolls-Royce and the PW2043 from Pratt & Whitney. Due to its greater length, the 757-300 features a retractable tailskid on its aft fuselage to avoid tailstrikes. Condor ordered the stretched 757 to replace its McDonnell Douglas DC-10s and serve as low-cost, high-density transportation to holiday destinations such as the Canary Islands. Because tests showed that boarding the 757-300 could take up to eight minutes longer than the 757-200, Boeing and Condor developed zone-based boarding procedures to expedite loading and unloading times for the lengthened aircraft. The 757-300 has been operated by mainline carriers Continental Airlines (now part of United Airlines), Northwest Airlines (now part of Delta Air Lines), and Icelandair; other operators have included American Trans Air (the first North American operator), Arkia Israel Airlines, along with charter carriers Condor and Thomas Cook Airlines. Production for the 757-300 totaled 55 aircraft. All 55 were in service in July 2018.


Government, military, and corporate

Government, military, and private customers have acquired the 757 for uses ranging from aeronautical testing and research to cargo and VIP transport. The 757-200, the most widely ordered version of the aircraft, has formed the basis for these applications. The first government operator of the 757 was the Mexican Air Force, which took delivery of a VIP-configured 757-200 in November 1987. * Airborne Research Integrated Experiments System (ARIES), a NASA platform for air safety and operational research, was created in 1999 using the second production 757. The aircraft originally flew in the 757 flight test program before entering service with Eastern Air Lines. After NASA purchased the aircraft in 1994 to replace its 737-100 testbed, it was initially used to evaluate a hybrid airfoil#Introduction, laminar flow control system, avionics systems for the proposed Northrop YF-23 jet fighter, and the Boeing 777, 777's fly by wire, fly-by-wire control system. Equipped with a flight deck research station, on-board laboratories, and two experimental flight decks, ARIES was used for evaluating weather information and landing approach systems, as well as runway friction tests. ARIES went into storage in 2006. * C-32 – The United States Air Force (USAF) operates four VIP-configured 757-200s under the designation C-32A for missions including transporting the President of the United States and/or the Vice President of the United States. The C-32As are outfitted with a communication center, conference room, seating area, and private living quarters. The USAF also operates two 45-seat 757-200 aircraft, designated C-32B, for use by the U.S. State Department Foreign Emergency Support Team. The C-32As feature the blue-and-white paint scheme used by the USAF for its VIP transport fleet, while the C-32Bs are painted in solid white with minimal identification markings. The first C-32s were delivered in 1998 and replaced Boeing C-137 Stratoliner, C-137 Stratoliner transports. * F-22 Flying Testbed – the first 757 built was used in 1998 as a testbed for Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor avionics and sensor integration. The Boeing-owned aircraft was fitted with a Canard (aeronautics), canard above its cockpit to simulate the jet fighter's wing sensor layout, along with a forward F-22 fuselage section with radar and other systems, and a 30-seat laboratory with communication, electronic warfare, identification, and navigation sensors. * Krueger flap and Natural Laminar Flow Insect Mitigation Test Program – Boeing commenced a series of test flights on March 17, 2015 with a modified Boeing 757, incorporating new wing-leading-edge sections and an actively blown vertical tail. The left wing has been modified to include a 6.7 m-span glove section supporting a variable-camber Krueger flap which will be deployed during landing and which protrudes just ahead of the leading edge. Although Krueger flaps have been tried before as insect-mitigation screens, previous designs caused additional drag; the newer design being tested is variable-camber and designed to retract as seamlessly as possible into the lower wing surface. Increasing the use of natural laminar flow (NLF) on an aircraft wing has the potential to improve fuel burn by as much as 15%, but even small contaminants from insect remains will trip the flow from laminar to turbulent, destroying the performance benefit. The test flights have been supported by the European airline group TUI AG and conducted jointly with NASA as part of the agency's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) program. While the left wing tests the Kreuger flaps, the right wing is being used to test coatings that prevent insects from adhering to the wing. Success here will open the door to the application of Natural Laminar Flow to reduce fuel burn. * Active Flow Control System – Boeing has mounted 31 active flow jets mounted ahead of the rudder's leading edge. They receive air from the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU). Their purpose is to recover air flow that has separated from the rudder and redirect it to the rudder so that the rudder regains effectiveness, even at high deflection angles. The air exiting the APU is very hot, at , and is cooled by a heat exchanger mounted under the aft fuselage, which is connected to the ducts running along the front and back of the stabilizer's spars. This ensures an even air supply at all times. * Royal New Zealand Air Force 757 Combi – the RNZAF, Royal New Zealand Air Force (RNZAF) operates two 757s converted to 757-200M standard by ST Aerospace Services for delivering equipment, medical evacuation, troop movements, and VIP transport. A cargo door, upgraded auxiliary power unit, enhanced communications systems, and retractable airstairs are fitted. The two aircraft, which replaced two 727-100QCs, have carried the Prime Minister of New Zealand, and flown to the ice-covered Pegasus Field near New Zealand's Scott Base in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. * VIP transport – the 757-200 serves as VIP transports for the President of Argentina under the Agrupación Aérea Presidencial, Presidential Air Group serial ''Tango 01'' and for the President of Mexico under the Mexican Air Force call sign TP01 or ''Transporte Presidencial 1''. A Royal Brunei Airlines 757-200 was used by the Sultan of Brunei in the 1980s before being sold to the Government of Kazakhstan in 1995. The House of Saud, royal family of Saudi Arabia uses a 757-200 as a flying hospital. Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen used a private 757 from 2005 until 2011; the aircraft was then sold to Donald Trump and became known as "Trump Force One" during his 2016 United States presidential election, 2016 U.S. presidential campaign.


Proposed

* 757-100 - A 150-seat, short fueslage version intended to offer similar capacity to a 727-200 but with greater range. Both the 757-100 and -200 were announced at the product launch on 31 August 1978. The large wing and landing gear common with the 757-200 were excessively heavy for an aircraft of that capacity. The -100 was dropped in March 1979.


Operators

The largest 757 operators are Delta Air Lines, FedEx Express and United Airlines; Delta Air Lines is the largest overall, with a 757 fleet of 127 aircraft . American Airlines' 757 fleet of 142 aircraft was the largest until 2007, when the carrier retired Pratt & Whitney PW2000-powered models originating from its TWA acquisition to have an all Rolls-Royce RB211-powered 757 fleet. Delta subsequently acquired 17 former TWA/American Airlines 757s, and in October 2008, gained 45 more 757s from its acquisition of Northwest Airlines. The cargo carrier with the most 757s is FedEx Express, which operated a 757-200F fleet of 111 aircraft in July 2018. UPS Airlines operate a further 75 of the type, with DHL Aviation and its affiliated companies, DHL Air UK, DHL Latin America, European Air Transport Leipzig, and Blue Dart Aviation, combined operating 35 cargo 757s of various types in 2018. Joint launch customer British Airways operated the 757-200 for 27 years before retiring the type in November 2010. To celebrate the fleet's retirement, the airline unveiled one of its last three 757-200s in a retro style livery on October 4, 2010, matching the color scheme that it introduced the aircraft into service with in 1983. Subsequently, the type remained in operation with the company's subsidiary, OpenSkies. Over the duration of the program, 1,050 Boeing 757s were built with 1,049 aircraft delivered. The prototype 757 remained with the manufacturer for testing purposes. In August 2020, a total of 642 Boeing 757 aircraft of all variants were in commercial service with operators
Delta Air Lines Delta Air Lines, Inc., typically referred to as Delta, is one of the major airlines of the United States and a legacy carrier. One of the List of airlines by foundation date, world's oldest airlines in operation, Delta is headquartered in Atlan ...
(127), FedEx Express (107),
UPS Airlines UPS Airlines is a cargo airline Cargo airlines (or air freight carriers, and derivatives of these names) are airline An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines utilize aircraft ...

UPS Airlines
(75),
United Airlines United Airlines, Inc. (commonly referred to as United) is a Major airlines of the United States, major American airline headquartered in Willis Tower in Chicago, Illinois.
United Airlines
(72),
Icelandair Icelandair is the flag carrier A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given sovereign state, enjoys preferential rights or privileges accorded by the governme ...
(27) and others with fewer aircraft of the type.


Orders and deliveries

Boeing 757 orders and deliveries (cumulative, by year):
ImageSize = width:auto height:250 barincrement:38 PlotArea = left:35 bottom:15 top:10 right:18 AlignBars = justify DateFormat = yyyy Period = from:0 till:1100 TimeAxis = orientation:vertical ScaleMajor = unit:year increment:100 start:0 PlotData= color:skyblue width:38 bar:1978 from:start till:38 text:38 align:center bar:1979 from:start till:38 text:38 align:center bar:1980 from:start till:102 text:102 align:center bar:1981 from:start till:105 text:105 align:center bar:1982 from:2 till:107 text:107 align:center bar:1983 from:27 till:133 text:133 align:center bar:1984 from:45 till:135 text:135 align:center bar:1985 from:81 till:180 text:180 align:center bar:1986 from:116 till:193 text:193 align:center bar:1987 from:156 till:239 text:239 align:center bar:1988 from:204 till:387 text:387 align:center bar:1989 from:255 till:553 text:553 align:center bar:1990 from:332 till:648 text:648 align:center bar:1991 from:412 till:698 text:698 align:center bar:1992 from:511 till:733 text:733 align:center bar:1993 from:582 till:766 text:766 align:center bar:1994 from:651 till:778 text:778 align:center bar:1995 from:694 till:791 text:791 align:center bar:1996 from:736 till:850 text:850 align:center bar:1997 from:782 till:894 text:894 align:center bar:1998 from:836 till:944 text:944 align:center bar:1999 from:903 till:962 text:962 align:center bar:2000 from:948 till:1005 text:1005 align:center bar:2001 from:993 till:1042 text:1042 align:center bar:2002 from:1022 till:1042 text:1042 align:center bar:2003 from:1036 till:1049 text:1049 align:center bar:2004 from:1047 till:1049 text:1049 align:center color:powderblue width:38 bar:2005 from:1049 till:1049 text:1049 align:center color:green width:38– bar:1982 from:start till:2 text:2 align:center bar:1983 from:start till:27 text:27 align:center bar:1984 from:start till:45 text:45 align:center bar:1985 from:start till:81 text:81 align:center bar:1986 from:start till:116 text:116 align:center bar:1987 from:start till:156 text:156 align:center bar:1988 from:start till:204 text:204 align:center bar:1989 from:start till:255 text:255 align:center bar:1990 from:start till:332 text:332 align:center bar:1991 from:start till:412 text:412 align:center bar:1992 from:start till:511 text:511 align:center bar:1993 from:start till:582 text:582 align:center bar:1994 from:start till:651 text:651 align:center bar:1995 from:start till:694 text:694 align:center bar:1996 from:start till:736 text:736 align:center bar:1997 from:start till:782 text:782 align:center bar:1998 from:start till:836 text:836 align:center bar:1999 from:start till:903 text:903 align:center bar:2000 from:start till:948 text:948 align:center bar:2001 from:start till:993 text:993 align:center bar:2002 from:start till:1022 text:1022 align:center bar:2003 from:start till:1036 text:1036 align:center bar:2004 from:start till:1047 text:1047 align:center bar:2005 from:start till:1049 text:1049 align:center * Data from Boeing, through the end of production


Model summary

* Data from Boeing, through the end of production


Incidents and accidents

, the 757 has been involved in 39 Aviation accidents and incidents, aviation occurrences, including 11 hull loss, hull-loss accidents. Nine incidents and 12 Aircraft hijacking, hijackings have resulted in a total of occupant fatalities. The first fatal event involving the aircraft occurred on October 2, 1990, when a hijacked Xiamen Airlines 737 1990 Guangzhou Baiyun airport collisions, collided with a China Southern Airlines 757 on the runways of Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport, China, killing 46 of the 122 people on board. Two 757-200s were hijacked on September 11, 2001 during September 11 attacks, a coordinated terrorist attack in the United States; hijackers crashed American Airlines Flight 77 into the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, killing all 64 on board and 125 on the ground, and United Airlines Flight 93 was also hijacked, and crashed near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, killing all 44 on board. Accidents involving pilot error include American Airlines Flight 965, which crashed into a mountain in Buga, Colombia, on December 20, 1995, killing 151 passengers and eight crew members with four survivors, and the mid-air collision of Überlingen mid-air collision, DHL Flight 611 near Überlingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, on July 1, 2002, with the loss of the two people on board plus 69 on a BAL Bashkirian Airlines, Bashkirian Airlines Tupolev Tu-154. The American Airlines Flight 965 crash was blamed on navigational errors by the crew, while the collision of DHL Flight 611 involved air traffic control errors. Accidents attributed to spatial disorientation due to improperly maintained instruments include Birgenair Flight 301 on February 6, 1996, which crashed into the ocean near Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic, with the loss of all 189 passengers and crew, and Aeroperú Flight 603 on October 2, 1996, which crashed into the ocean off the coast of Pasamayo, Peru, with the loss of all 70 on board. In the Birgenair accident, investigators found that the aircraft had been stored without the necessary covers for its pitot tube sensors, thus allowing insects and debris to collect within, while in the Aeroperú accident, protective tape covering Pitot-static system, static vent sensors had not been removed. Two private aircraft crashes were blamed on wake turbulence emanating from 757s. On December 18, 1992, a Cessna Citation crashed near Billings Logan International Airport in Montana, killing all six aboard, and on December 15, 1993, an IAI Westwind crashed near John Wayne Airport in California, killing all five aboard. Both airplanes had been flying less than behind a 757. The FAA subsequently increased the required separation between small aircraft and 757s from to . On September 14, 1999, Britannia Airways Flight 226A crash landed near Girona-Costa Brava Airport, Spain, during a thunderstorm; the 757's fuselage broke into several pieces. The 245 occupants evacuated successfully, with 40 requiring hospital treatment. On October 25, 2010, American Airlines Flight 1640, a 757 flying between Miami and Boston, safely returned to Miami after suffering the loss of a fuselage section at an altitude of approximately . After investigating the incident, the FAA ordered all 757 operators in the U.S. to regularly inspect upper fuselage sections of their aircraft for Fatigue (material), structural fatigue.


Aircraft on display

A Delta Air Lines 757-200, registered as N608DA, is on display at the Delta Flight Museum in Atlanta, Georgia. The aircraft was the sixty-fourth example built. Prior to being moved to its permanent location, the aircraft was repainted into Delta's 'Widget' livery, the livery it wore when it was originally delivered; it is now on static display at the museum entrance.


Specifications


See also


References


Notes


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


Further reading

* * *


External links

* * * * * * * {{Authority control Boeing 757, Boeing aircraft, 757 1980s United States airliners 1980s United States cargo aircraft Twinjets Aircraft first flown in 1982 Low-wing aircraft