A boarding school is a school where pupils live within premises while being given formal instruction. The word "boarding" is used in the sense of " room and board
", i.e. lodging and meals. As they have existed for many centuries, and now extend across many countries, their functioning, codes of conduct and ethos vary greatly. Children in boarding schools study and live during the school year with their fellow students and possibly teachers or administrators. Some boarding schools also have day students who attend the institution by day and return off-campus to their families in the evenings.
Boarding school pupils are typically referred to as "boarders". Children may be sent for one year to twelve years or more in boarding school, until the age of eighteen. There are several types of boarders depending on the intervals at which they visit their family. Full-term boarders visit their homes at the end of an academic year, semester boarders visit their homes at the end of an academic term, weekly boarders visit their homes at weekends. There are also semi-boarders who attend a boarding school in the school hours for formal instruction and activities but return home by the end of the day. In some cultures, boarders spend the majority of their childhood and adolescent life away from their families. Boarding schools are relatively more prevalent in the United Kingdom (UK), India, China, and parts of Africa. These countries begin boarding schools at a very early age and for a longer span of time. However, boarding schools are relatively less prevalent in Europe and the US where it is mostly seen for grades seven or nine through grade twelve—the high school years. Some are for either boys or girls
while others are co-education
al. In the United Kingdom which has a long tradition of classic British boarding schools, many are independent (private) schools
that have elite associations. There are also state boarding schools
, many of which serve children from remote areas.
In some societies and cultures, boarding schools are the most elite educational option (such as Eton
, which have produced several prime ministers), whereas in other contexts, they serve as places to segregate children deemed a problem to their parents or wider society. Canada and the United States tried to assimilate indigenous children
Canadian Indian residential school system
In Canada, the Indian residential school system was a network of boarding schools for Indigenous peoples. The network was funded by the Canadian government's Department of Indian Affairs and administered by Christian churches. The school ...
American Indian boarding schools
American Indian boarding schools, also known more recently as American Indian residential schools, were established in the United States from the mid 17th to the early 20th centuries with a primary objective of "civilizing" or assimilating Na ...
respectively. Some function essentially as
An orphanage is a residential institution, total institution or group home, devoted to the care of orphans and children who, for various reasons, cannot be cared for by their biological families. The parents may be deceased, absent, or ab ...
s, e.g. the G.I. Rossolimo Boarding School Number 49
in Russia. Tens of millions of rural children are now educated at boarding schools in China
. Therapeutic boarding school
s offer treatment for psychological difficulties. Military academies
provide strict discipline. Education for children with special needs
has a long association with boarding; see, for example, deaf education
Council of Schools and Services for the Blind
The Council of Schools and Services for the Blind (COSB) is a consortium of specialized schools in Canada and the United States whose major goal is improving the quality of services to children who are blind and visually impaired.
COSB is a ...
. Some boarding schools offer an immersion into democratic education
, such as
Summerhill School is an independent (i.e. fee-paying) boarding school in Leiston, Suffolk, England. It was founded in 1921 by Alexander Sutherland Neill with the belief that the school should be made to fit the child, rather than the other ...
. Others are international, such as the United World Colleges
The term ''boarding school'' often refers to classic British boarding schools and many boarding schools around the world which are modeled on these.
[Bamford T.W. (1967) ''Rise of the public schools: a study of boys public boarding schools in England and Wales from 1837 to the present day''. London: Nelson, 1967.]
A typical boarding school has several separate residential houses, either within the school grounds or in the surrounding area.
A number of senior teaching staff are appointed as housemasters, housemistresses, dorm parents, prefect
s, or residential advisors, each of whom takes quasi-parental responsibility (''
in loco parentis
The term ''in loco parentis'', Latin for "in the place of a parent" refers to the legal responsibility of a person or organization to take on some of the functions and responsibilities of a parent.
Originally derived from English common law ...
'') for anywhere from 5 to 50 students resident in their ''house'' or dormitory at all times but particularly outside school hours. Each may be assisted in the domestic management of the house by a housekeeper often known in U.K. or Commonwealth countries as ''
Matron is the job title of a very senior or the chief nurse in several countries, including the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland and other Commonwealth countries and former colonies.
The chief nurse, in other words the person ...
'', and by a ''house tutor'' for academic matters, often providing staff of each gender. In the U.S., boarding schools often have a resident family that lives in the dorm, known as dorm parents. They often have janitorial staff for maintenance and housekeeping, but typically do not have tutors associated with an individual dorm. Nevertheless, older students are often less supervised by staff, and a system of monitors or prefects gives limited authority to senior students. Houses readily develop distinctive characters, and a healthy rivalry between houses is often encouraged in sport.
Houses or dorms usually include study-bedrooms or
A dormitory (originated from the Latin word ''dormitorium'', often abbreviated to dorm) is a building primarily providing sleeping and residential quarters for large numbers of people such as boarding school, high school, college or universit ...
, a dining room or refectory
where students take meals at fixed times, a library and possibly study carrels
where students can do their homework. Houses may also have common rooms for television and relaxation and kitchens for snacks, and occasionally storage facilities for bicycles or other sports equipment. Some facilities may be shared between several houses or dorms.
In some schools, each house has students of all ages, in which case there is usually a prefect system, which gives older students some privileges and some responsibility for the welfare of the younger ones. In others, separate houses accommodate the needs of different years or classes. In some schools, day students are assigned to a dorm or house for social activities and sports purposes.
Most school dormitories have an "in your room by" and a "lights out" time, depending on their age when the students are required to prepare for bed, after which no talking is permitted. Such rules may be difficult to enforce; students may often try to break them, for example by using their laptop computers or going to another student's room to talk or play computer games. International students may take advantage of the time difference between countries (e.g. 7 hours between UK and China) to contact friends or family. Students sharing study rooms are less likely to disturb others and may be given more latitude.
As well as the usual academic facilities such as classrooms, halls, libraries, and laboratories, boarding schools often provide a wide variety of facilities for extracurricular activities such as music rooms, gymnasiums, sports fields and school grounds, boats, squash courts, swimming pools, cinemas, and theaters. A school chapel is often found on site. Day students often stay on after school to use these facilities. Many North American boarding schools are located in beautiful rural environments and have a combination of architectural styles that vary from modern to hundreds of years old.
Food quality can vary from school to school, but most boarding schools offer diverse menu choices for many kinds of dietary restrictions and preferences. Some boarding schools have a dress code for specific meals like dinner or for specific days of the week. Students are generally free to eat with friends, teammates, as well as with faculty and coaches. Extra curricular activities groups, e.g. the French Club, may have meetings and meals together. The Dining Hall often serves as a central place where lessons and learning can continue between students and teachers or other faculty mentors or coaches. Some schools welcome day students to attend breakfast and dinner, in addition to the standard lunch, while others charge a fee.
Many boarding schools have an on-campus school store or snack hall where additional food and school supplies can be purchased; may also have a student recreational center where food can be purchased during specified hours.
Boarding schools also have infirmary
, a small room with first aid or other emergencies medical aid.
Students generally need permission to go outside defined school bounds; they may be allowed to travel off-campus at certain times.
Depending on country and context, boarding schools generally offer one or more options: full (students stay at the school full-time), weekly (students stay in the school from Monday through Friday, then return home for the weekend), or on a flexible schedule (students choose when to board, e.g. during exam week).
Each student has an individual timetable, which in the early years allows little discretion. Boarders and day students are taught together in school hours and in most cases continue beyond the school day to include sports, clubs and societies, or excursions.
British boarding schools have three terms
a year, approximately twelve weeks each, with a few days' half-term holidays during which students are expected to go home or at least away from school. There may be several exeat
s, or weekends, in each half of the term when students may go home or away (e.g. international students may stay with their appointed guardians, or with a host family). Boarding students nowadays often go to school within easy traveling distance of their homes, and so may see their families frequently; e.g. families are encouraged to come and support school sports teams playing at home against other schools, or for school performances in music, drama, or theatre.
Some boarding schools allow only boarding students, while others have both boarding students and day students who go home at the end of the school day. Day students are sometimes known as day boys or day girls. Some schools welcome day students to attend breakfast and dinner, while others charge a fee. For schools that have designated study hours or quiet hours in the evenings, students on campus (including day students) are usually required to observe the same "quiet" rules (such as no television, students must stay in their rooms, library or study hall, etc.). Schools that have both boarding and day students sometimes describe themselves as semi-boarding schools or day boarding schools. Some schools also have students who board during the week but go home on weekends: these are known as weekly boarders, quasi-boarders, or five-day boarders.
Other forms of residential schools
Boarding schools are residential schools; however, not all residential schools are "classic" boarding schools. Other forms of residential schools include:
* Therapeutic boarding schools
are tuition-based, out-of-home placements that combine therapy and education for children, usually teenagers, with emotional, behavioral, substance abuse, or learning disabilities.
* Traveling boarding schools, such as Think Global School
, are four-year high schools that immerse the students in a new city each term. Traveling boarding schools partner with a host school within the city to provide the living and educational facilities.
* Sailing boarding schools, such as A+ World Academy
, are high schools based on ships that sail around the world and combine high school education with travel, and personal development. Classes typically take place both, onboard and in some of the ports they visit.
* Outdoor boarding schools, which teach students independence and self-reliance through survival style camp outs and other
Outdoor recreation or outdoor activity refers to recreation done outside, most commonly in natural settings. The activities that encompass outdoor recreation vary depending on the physical environment they are being carried out in. These activitie ...
Residential education, broadly defined, is a pre-college education provided in an environment where students both live and learn outside their family homes. Some typical forms of residential education include boarding schools, preparatory school ...
programs, which provide a stable and supportive environment for at-risk children to live and learn together.
* Residential schools for students with special educational needs
, who may or may not be disabled
* Semester school
s, which complement a student's
Secondary education or post-primary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education scale. Level 2 or lower secondary education (less commonly junior secondary education) is considered the second and final ph ...
by providing a one semester
residential experience with a central focusing curricular theme—which may appeal to students and families uninterested in a longer residential education experience
* Specialist schools focused on a particular academic discipline, such as the public North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics
or the private
Interlochen Arts Academy
Interlochen Center for the Arts is a non-profit corporation which operates arts education institutions and performance venues in northwest Michigan. It is situated on a campus in Interlochen, Michigan, roughly southwest of Traverse City.
* The Israeli youth villages
, where children stay and are educated in a commune, but also have everyday contact with their parents at specified hours.
* Public boarding schools, which are operated by public school districts. In the U.S., general-attendance public boarding schools were once numerous in rural areas, but are extremely rare today. As of the 2013–2014 school year, the
The SEED Foundation (also often referred to as the SEED Schools) is a 501(c)(3) organization, established in 1997 to provide boarding school college-preparatory educational opportunities to underserved students.
[Crane Union High School in Crane, Oregon. Around two-thirds of its more than 80 students, mostly children from remote ranches, board during the school week in order to save a one-way commute of up to across Harney County.
* Ranch school, once common in the western United States, incorporating aspects of the "dude ranch" (] Guest ranch
A guest ranch, also known as a dude ranch, is a type of ranch oriented towards visitors or tourism. It is considered a form of agritourism.
Guest ranches arose in response to the romanticization of the American West that began to occur ...)
In the UK, almost all boarding schools are independent schools, which are not subject to the national curriculum or other educational regulations applicable to state schools. Nevertheless, there are some regulations, primarily for health and safety purposes, as well as the general law. The
Department for Children, Schools and Families
Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) was a department of the UK government, between 2007 and 2010, responsible for issues affecting people in England up to the age of 19, including child protection and education. DCSF was repla ..., in conjunction with the Department of Health
A health department or health ministry is a part of government which focuses on issues related to the general health of the citizenry. Subnational entities, such as states, counties and cities, often also operate a health department of their ... of the United Kingdom, has prescribed guidelines for boarding schools, called the National Boarding Standards.
One example of regulations covered within the National Boarding Standards are those for the minimum floor area or living space required for each student and other aspects of basic facilities. The minimum floor area of a dormitory accommodating two or more students is defined as the number of students sleeping in the dormitory multiplied by 4.2 m2, plus 1.2 m2. A minimum distance of 0.9 m should also be maintained between any two beds in a dormitory, bedroom, or cubicle. In case students are provided with a cubicle, then each student must be provided with a window and a floor area of 5.0 m2 at the least. A bedroom for a single student should be at least of the floor area of 6.0 m2. Boarding schools must provide a total floor area of at least 2.3 m2 living accommodation for every boarder. This should also be incorporated with at least one bathtub or shower for every ten students.
These are some of the few guidelines set by the department among many others. It could probably be observed that not all boarding schools around the world meet these minimum basic standards, despite their apparent appeal.
Boarding schools manifest themselves in different ways in different societies. For example, in some societies children enter at an earlier age than in others. In some societies, a tradition has developed in which families send their children to the same boarding school for generations. One observation that appears to apply globally is that a significantly larger number of boys than girls attend boarding school and for a longer span of time. The practice of sending children, particularly boys, to other families or to schools so that they could learn together is of very long-standing, recorded in classical literature and in UK records going back over 1,000 years.
In Europe, a practice developed by early medieval times of sending boys to be taught by literate clergymen, either in monasteries or as pages in great households. The King's School, Canterbury, arguably the world's oldest boarding school, dates its foundation from the development of the monastery school in around 597 AD. The author of the ''
Crowland (modern usage) or Croyland (medieval era name and the one still in ecclesiastical use; cf. la, Croilandia) is a town in the South Holland district of Lincolnshire, England. It is situated between Peterborough and Spalding. Crowland ...'' recalls being tested on his grammar by Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor ; la, Eduardus Confessor , ; ( 1003 – 5 January 1066) was one of the last Anglo-Saxon English kings. Usually considered the last king of the House of Wessex, he ruled from 1042 to 1066.
Edward was the son of Æth ...'s wife Queen Editha in the abbey cloisters as a Westminster schoolboy, in around the 1050s. Monastic schools as such were generally dissolved with the monasteries themselves under Henry VIII, although Westminster School was specifically preserved by the King's letters patent
Letters patent ( la, litterae patentes) ( always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch, president or other head of state, generally granting an office, right, monopoly, tit ..., and it seems likely that most schools were immediately replaced. Winchester College
Winchester College is a public school (fee-charging independent day and boarding school) in Winchester, Hampshire, England. It was founded by William of Wykeham in 1382 and has existed in its present location ever since. It is the oldest of ... founded by Bishop William of Wykeham
William of Wykeham (; 1320 or 1324 – 27 September 1404) was Bishop of Winchester and Chancellor of England. He founded New College, Oxford, and New College School in 1379, and founded Winchester College in 1382. He was also the clerk of ... in 1382 and Oswestry School
Oswestry School is an ancient public school (English independent day and boarding school), located in Oswestry, Shropshire, England. It was founded in 1407 as a 'free' school, being independent of the church. This gives it the distinction of ... founded by David Holbache in 1407 are the oldest boarding schools in continuous operation.
Boarding schools in Britain started in medieval times when boys were sent to be educated by literate clerics at a monastery or noble household. In the 12th century, the Pope ordered all
, image = Medalla San Benito.PNG
, caption = Design on the obverse side of the Saint Benedict Medal
, abbreviation = OSB
, formation =
, motto = (English: 'Pray and Work')
, found ... monasteries such as Westminster
Westminster is an area of Central London, part of the wider City of Westminster.
The area, which extends from the River Thames to Oxford Street, has many visitor attractions and historic landmarks, including the Palace of Westminster, B ... to provide charity schools, and many public schools started when such schools attracted paying students. These public schools reflected the collegiate universities of Oxford and Cambridge, as in many ways they still do, and were accordingly staffed almost entirely by clergymen until the 19th century. Private tuition
Tuition payments, usually known as tuition in American English and as tuition fees in Commonwealth English, are fees charged by education institutions for instruction or other services. Besides public spending (by governments and other public bo ... at home remained the norm for aristocratic families, and for girls in particular, but after the 16th century, it was increasingly accepted that adolescents of any rank might best be educated collectively. The institution has thus adapted itself to changing social circumstances over 1,000 years.
Boarding preparatory schools tend to reflect the public schools they feed. They often have a more or less official tie to particular schools.
The classic British boarding school became highly popular during the colonial expansion of the British Empire. British colonial administrators abroad could ensure that their children were brought up in British culture at public schools at home in the UK, and local rulers were offered the same education for their sons. More junior expatriates would send their children to local British-run schools, which would also admit selected local children who might travel from considerable distances. The boarding schools, which inculcated their own values, became an effective way to encourage local people to share British ideals, and so help the British achieve their imperial goals.
One of the reasons sometimes stated for sending children to boarding schools is to develop wider horizons than their family can provide. A boarding school a family has attended for generations may define the culture parents aspire to for their children. Equally, by choosing a fashionable boarding school, parents may aspire to better their children by enabling them to mix on equal terms with children of the upper classes. However, such stated reasons may conceal other reasons for sending a child away from home. [CWAB – Session 6.2 – Reasons for displacement](_blank)
European Union – Canada project Child welfare across borders (2003)
[Duffell, N. "The Making of Them. The British Attitude to Children and the Boarding School System". (London: Lone Arrow Press, 2000).] [Schaverien, J. (2004) Boarding School: The Trauma of the Privileged Child, in Journal of Analytical Psychology, vol 49, 683–705] These might apply to children who are considered too disobedient or underachieving, children from families with divorced spouses, and children to whom the parents do not much relate. These reasons are rarely explicitly stated, though the child might be aware of them.
In 1998, there were 772 private-sector boarding schools in the United Kingdom with over 100,000 children attending them all across the country. They are an important factor in the British class system. About one percent of British children are sent to boarding schools. [Dansokho, S., Little, M., & Thomas, B. (2003). ''Residential services for children: definitions, numbers, and classifications''. Chicago: Chapin Hall Center for Children.] [Department of Health. (1998). Caring for Children away from Home. Chichester: Wiley and Son] [Little, M. Kohm, A. Thompson, R. (2005). "The impact of residential placement on child development: research and policy implications". ''International Journal of Social Welfare''; 14, 200–209. ] Also in Britain children as young as 5 to 9 years of age are sent to boarding schools. [Power A (2007) "Discussion of Trauma at the Threshold: The Impact of Boarding School on Attachment in Young Children", in ''ATTACHMENT: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis''; Vol. 1, November 2007: pp. 313–320]
In the United States, boarding schools for students below the age of 13 are called ''junior boarding schools'', and are relatively uncommon. The oldest junior boarding school is the Fay School in Southborough, Massachusetts, established in 1866. Other boarding schools are intended for high school age students, generally of ages 14–18. Some of the oldest of these boarding schools include West Nottingham Academy (est. 1744), Linden Hall (school) (est. 1756), The Governor's Academy (est. 1763),
Phillips Academy Andover
("Not for Self") la, Finis Origine Pendet ("The End Depends Upon the Beginning") Youth From Every Quarter Knowledge and Goodness
, address = 180 Main Street
, city = Andover
, state = M ... (est. 1778), and Phillips Exeter Academy
(not for oneself) la, Finis Origine Pendet (The End Depends Upon the Beginning) gr, Χάριτι Θεοῦ (By the Grace of God)
, location = 20 Main Street
, city = Exeter, New Hampshire
, zipcode ... (est. 1781). Boarding schools for this age group are often referred to as prep schools. About half of one percent or (.5%) of school children attend boarding schools, about half the percentage of British children.
Native American schools
In the late 19th century, the United States government undertook a policy of educating Native American youth in the ways of the dominant Western culture so that Native Americans might then be able to assimilate into Western society. At these boarding schools, managed and regulated by the government, Native American students were subjected to a number of tactics to prepare them for life outside their reservation homes.
[Adams, David Wallace. Education for Extinction: American Indians and the Boarding School Experience, 1875–1928. University of Kansas Press, Lawrence: 1995.]
In accordance with the assimilation methods used at the boarding schools, the education that the Native American children received at these institutions centered on the dominant society's construction of gender norms and ideals. Thus boys and girls were separated in almost every activity and their interactions were strictly regulated along the lines of Victorian ideals. In addition, the instruction that the children received reflected the roles and duties that they were to assume once outside the reservation. Thus girls were taught skills that could be used in the home, such as "sewing, cooking, canning, ironing, child care, and cleaning" (Adams 150). Native American boys in the boarding schools were taught the importance of an agricultural lifestyle, with an emphasis on raising livestock and agricultural skills like "plowing and planting, field irrigation, the care of stock, and the maintenance of fruit orchards" (Adams 149). These ideas of domesticity were in stark contrast to those existing in native communities and on reservations: many indigenous societies were based on a matrilineal system where the women's lineage was honored and the women's place in society respected in different ways. For example, women in native society held powerful roles in their own communities, undertaking tasks that Western society deemed only appropriate for men: indigenous women could be leaders, healers, and farmers.
While the Native American children were exposed to and were likely to adopt some of the ideals set out by the whites operating these boarding schools, many resisted and rejected the gender norms that were being imposed upon them.
Other Commonwealth countries
Most societies around the world decline to make boarding schools the preferred option for the upbringing of their children. However, boarding schools are one of the preferred modes of education in former British colonies or Commonwealth countries like India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and other former
Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area ...n colonies of Great Britain. For instance, in Ghana
Ghana (; tw, Gaana, ee, Gana), officially the Republic of Ghana, is a country in West Africa. It abuts the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean to the south, sharing borders with Ivory Coast in the west, Burkina Faso in the north, and ... the majority of the secondary schools are boarding. In China some children are sent to boarding schools at 2 years of age. In some countries, such as New Zealand and Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්රී ලංකා, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO (); ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO ()), formerly known as Ceylon and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an ..., a number of state schools have boarding facilities. These state boarding schools are frequently the traditional single-sex state schools, whose ethos is much like that of their independent counterparts. Furthermore, the proportion of boarders at these schools is often much lower than at independent boarding schools, typically around 10%.
In Canada, the largest independent boarding school is Columbia International College, with an enrollment of 1,700 students from all over the world. Robert Land Academy in Wellandport, Ontario is Canada's only private military-style boarding school for boys in Grades 6 through 12.
Russia and former Soviet Union
In the former Soviet Union these schools were sometimes known as Internat-schools (Russian: ''Школа-интернат'') (from Latin: ''internet''). They varied in their organization. Some schools were a type of specialized schools with a specific focus in a particular field or fields such as mathematics, physics, language, science, sports, etc. For example, in the 1960s Soviet official established a new type of boarding school, an AESC - Advanced educational scientific center (Russian: ''СУНЦ - Специализированный учебно-научный центр''). Those schools were parts of some major universities and prepared students to study there. Now, only a few exist in Russia - in Moscow, Novosibirsk, and Yekaterinburg, though several boarding schools still operate in former Soviet republics, and even some new ones are being opened (e.g. MSU Gymnasium in Moscow, Russia, or Nazarbayev schools all over Kazakhstan).
Other schools were associated with
An orphanage is a residential institution, total institution or group home, devoted to the care of orphans and children who, for various reasons, cannot be cared for by their biological families. The parents may be deceased, absent, or ab ...s after which all children enrolled in Internat-school automatically. Also, separate boarding schools were established for children with special needs (schools for the blind, deaf, and others). General schools offered "extended stay" programs (Russian: Группа продленного дня) featuring cheap meals for children and preventing them from coming home too early before parents were back from work (education in the Soviet Union was free). In post-Soviet countries, the concept of boarding school differs from country to country.
The Swiss government developed a strategy of fostering private boarding schools for foreign students as a business integral to the country's economy. Their boarding schools offer instruction in several major languages and have a large number of quality facilities organized through the ''Swiss Federation of Private Schools''. In 2015, a Swiss boarding school named A+ World Academy was established on the Norwegian Tall Ship Fullriggeren Sørlandet. Some of the most expensive boarding schools in the world include the Swiss schools Institut Le Rosey, Beau Soleil, Collège du Léman, Collège Champittet and Leysin American School.
there were about 100,000 boarding schools in rural areas of
"Mainland China" is a geopolitical term defined as the territory governed by the People's Republic of China (including islands like Hainan or Chongming), excluding dependent territories of the PRC, and other territories within Greater Chin ..., with about 33 million children living in them. [Roberts, Dexter.] The majority of these boarding schools are in western China, which generally is not as wealthy as eastern and central China.
China's Dickensian Boarding Schools
''Bloomberg Businessweek'', previously known as ''BusinessWeek'', is an American weekly business magazine published fifty times a year. Since 2009, the magazine is owned by New York City-based Bloomberg L.P. The magazine debuted in New York City ...''. 6 April 2015. Retrieved on 13 July 2015. [Zhao, Zhenzhou, p. 238] Many migrant workers and farmers send their children to boarding schools.
The history of the boarding School in Malaysia start since the British Administration in Malay States. The purpose of the establishment in earlier to train the elite children especially from the royal family and British Officer, later after the independence of Malaysia, it provided learning facilities for the brilliant students especially to the less affluent families. This Schools also produce the leaders and professionals inside the country.
Usually, this schools mostly administered by the government and it also known as:
Sekolah Berasrama Penuh
Sekolah Berasrama Penuh (SBP) or Fully Residential School is a school system established in Malaysia to nurture outstanding students to excel in academics and extracurricular activities. Since 2008, SBPs are directly administered by Fully Resi ... that administered by Ministry of Education (Malaysia) under Fully Residential and Excellent Schools Management Division.
• MARA Junior Science College
The MARA Junior Science College (MJSC) ( ms, Maktab Rendah Sains MARA (MRSM)) is a group of boarding schools created by Majlis Amanah Rakyat ( MARA), a Malaysian government agency. The institution provides learning facilities for bright stud ... (Maktab Rendah Sains MARA) that administered by Majlis Amanah Rakyat
The Majlis Amanah Rakyat (MARA; ms, People's Trust Council) is a Malaysian government agency. It was formed to aid, train, and guide Bumiputra ( Malays and other indigenous Malaysians) in the areas of business and industry. MARA was formed ... (MARA) under MARA education division.
• Several Government Aid Religious School (Sekolah Agama Bantuan Kerajaan) or State-owned Religious School (Sekolah Agama Kerajaan Negeri).
• Private Boarding Schools.
Today, around 60 Sekolah Berasrama Penuh and 54 MARA junior Science College that have being built around Malaysia.
Some elite university-preparatory boarding schools for students from age 13 to 18 are seen by sociologists as centers of socialization for the next generation of the political upper class and reproduces an elitist class system.
This attracts families who value power and hierarchy
A hierarchy (from Greek: , from , 'president of sacred rites') is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) that are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another. Hierarchy is an important ... for the socialization of their family members. These families share a sense of entitlement to social class or hierarchy and power.
Boarding schools are seen by certain families as centres of socialization where students mingle with others of similar social hierarchy to form what is called an old boy network
An old boy network (also known as old boys' network, ol' boys' club, old boys' club, old boys' society, good ol' boys club, or good ol' boys system) is an informal system in which wealthy men with similar social or educational background help .... Elite boarding school students are brought up with the assumption that they are meant to control society. Significant numbers of them enter the political upper class of society or join the financial elite in fields such as international banking and venture capital
Venture capital (often abbreviated as VC) is a form of private equity financing that is provided by venture capital firms or funds to startups, early-stage, and emerging companies that have been deemed to have high growth potential or which h .... Elite boarding school socialization causes students to internalize a strong sense of entitlement and social control or hierarchy. This form of socialization is called "deep structure socialization" by Peter Cookson & Caroline Hodges (1985). This refers to the way in which boarding schools not only manage to control the students' physical lives but also their emotional lives.
Boarding school establishment involves control of behavior regarding several aspects of life including what is appropriate and/or acceptable which adolescents
Adolescence () is a transitional stage of physical and psychological development that generally occurs during the period from puberty to adulthood (typically corresponding to the age of majority). Adolescence is usually associated with the ... would consider as intrusive. This boarding school socialization is carried over well after leaving school and into their dealings with the social world. Thus it causes boarding school students to adhere to the values of the elite social class which they come from or which they aspire to be part of. Nick Duffell, author of ''Wounded Leaders: British elitism and the Entitlement Illusion – A Psychohistory'', states that the education of the elite in the British boarding school system leaves the nation with "a cadre of leaders who perpetuate a culture of elitism, bullying and misogyny affecting the whole of society". According to Peter W Cookson Jr (2009) the elitist tradition of preparatory boarding schools has declined due to the development of modern economy and the political rise of the liberal west coast of the United States of America.
Socialization of role control and gender stratification
The boarding school socialization of control and hierarchy develops deep rooted and strong adherence to social roles and rigid gender stratification.
In one studied school the social pressure for conformity was so severe that several students abused performance drugs like Adderall and Ritalin for both academic performance and to lose weight. The distinct and hierarchical nature of socialization in boarding school culture becomes very obvious in the manner students sit together and form cliques, especially in the refectory, or dining hall. This leads to pervasive form of explicit and implicit bullying, and excessive competition between cliques and between individuals. The rigid gender stratification and role control is displayed in the boys forming cliques on the basis of wealth and social background, and the girls overtly accepting that they would marry only for money, while choosing only rich or affluent males as boyfriends. Students are not able to display much sensitivity and emotional response and are unable to have closer relationships except on a superficial and politically correct
''Political correctness'' (adjectivally: ''politically correct''; commonly abbreviated ''PC'') is a term used to describe language, policies, or measures that are intended to avoid offense or disadvantage to members of particular groups in socie ... level, engaging in social behaviour that would make them seem appropriate and rank high in social hierarchy. This affects their perceptions of gender and social roles later in life.
The aspect of boarding school life with its round the clock habitation of students with each other in the same environment, involved in studying, sleeping, and socializing can lead to pressures and stress in boarding school life.
This is manifested in the form of hypercompetitiveness, use of recreational or illegal drugs and psychological depression
Depression is a mental state of low mood and aversion to activity, which affects more than 280 million people of all ages (about 3.5% of the global population). Classified medically as a mental and behavioral disorder, the experience of ... that at times may manifest in suicide
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death. Mental disorders (including depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorders, anxiety disorders), physical disorders (such as chronic fatigue syndrome), and ... or its attempt. Studies show that about 90% of boarding school students acknowledge that living in a total institution like boarding school has a significant impact and changed their perception and interaction with social relationships.
Total institution and child displacement
It is claimed that children may be sent to boarding schools to be given more opportunities than their families can provide. However, that involves spending significant parts of one's early life in what may be seen as a total institution
[Goffman, Erving (1961) ''Asylums: Essays on the Social Situation of Mental Patients and Other Inmates''. (New York: Doubleday Anchor, 1961); (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1968) ] and possibly experiencing social detachment, as suggested by social-psychologist Erving Goffman
Erving Goffman (11 June 1922 – 19 November 1982) was a Canadian-born sociologist, social psychologist, and writer, considered by some "the most influential American sociologist of the twentieth century". In 2007 '' The Times Higher Ed .... This may involve long-term separation from one's parents and culture, leading to the experience of homesickness [Brewin, C.R., Furnham, A. & Howes, M. (1989). Demographic and psychological determinants of homesickness and confiding among students. ''British Journal of Psychology'', 80, 467–477.] [Fisher, S., Frazer, N. & Murray, K (1986). Homesickness and health in boarding school children. ''Journal of Environmental Psychology'', 6, 35–47.] [Thurber A. Christopher (1999) The phenomenology of homesickness in boys, ''Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology''] and emotional abandonment and may give rise to a phenomenon known as the 'TCK' or third culture kid. [Pollock DC and Van Reken R (2001). Third Culture Kids. Nicholas Brealey Publishing/Intercultural Press. Yarmouth, Maine. .]
The celebrated British classicist and poet, Robert Graves
Captain Robert von Ranke Graves (24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985) was a British poet, historical novelist and critic. His father was Alfred Perceval Graves, a celebrated Irish poet and figure in the Gaelic revival; they were both Celti ... (1895–1985), who attended six different preparatory schools at a young age during the early 20th century, wrote:
Some modern philosophies of education, such as constructivism
Constructivism may refer to:
Art and architecture
* Constructivism (art), an early 20th-century artistic movement that extols art as a practice for social purposes
* Constructivist architecture, an architectural movement in Russia in the 1920s a ... and new methods of music training for children including Orff Schulwerk and the Suzuki method, make the everyday interaction of the child and parent an integral part of training and education. In children, separation involves maternal deprivation
Maternal deprivation is a scientific term summarising the early work of psychiatrist and psychoanalyst John Bowlby on the effects of separating infants and young children from their mother (or primary caregiver). Although the effect of loss of the .... [Rutter, M (1972) Maternal Deprivation Reassessed. London:Penguin] The European Union
The European Union (EU) is a supranational political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe. The union has a total area of and an estimated total population of about 447million. The EU has often been ...– Canada
Canada is a country in North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering over , making it the world ... project "Child Welfare Across Borders" (2003), an international venture on child development, considers boarding schools as one form of permanent displacement of the child. This view reflects a new outlook towards education and child growth in the wake of more scientific
Science is a systematic endeavor that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.
Science may be as old as the human species, and some of the earliest archeological evidence f ... understanding of the human brain
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system. The brain consists of the cerebrum, the brainstem and the cerebellum. It controls most of the activities of the ... and cognitive development
Cognitive development is a field of study in neuroscience and psychology focusing on a child's development in terms of information processing, conceptual resources, perceptual skill, language learning, and other aspects of the developed adult bra ....
Data have not yet been tabulated regarding the statistical ratio of boys to girls that matriculate boarding schools, the total number of children in a given population in boarding schools by country, the average age across populations when children are sent to boarding schools, and the average length of education (in years) for boarding school students. There is also little evidence or research about the complete circumstances or complete set of reasons about sending kids to boarding schools.
Boarding school syndrome
The term ''boarding school syndrome'' was coined by psychotherapist Joy Schaverien in 2011.
It is used to identify a set of lasting psychological problems that are observable in adults who, as children, were sent away to boarding schools at an early age.
Scharverien's observations are echoed by a boarding schoolboy, George Monbiot, who goes so far as to attribute some dysfunctionalities of the UK government to boarding schools. British psychotherapist Nick Duffell refers to adults who have gone through boarding school separation as 'Boarding school survivors'. He has described some of these individuals to exhibit behaviors such as a sense of detachment from any relationships, workaholism, compulsive behavior, and a penchant to control.
In popular culture
Boarding schools and their surrounding settings and situations became in the late Victorian period a genre in
British literature is literature from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Isle of Man, and the Channel Islands. This article covers British literature in the English language. Anglo-Saxon (Old English) literature is ... with its own identifiable conventions. (Typically, protagonists find themselves occasionally having to break school rules for honorable reasons the reader can identify with and might get severely punished when caught – but usually, they do not embark on a total rebellion against the school as a system.)
Notable examples of the school story include:
* Sarah Fielding's '' The Governess, or The Little Female Academy
''The Governess; or, The Little Female Academy'' (published 1749) by Sarah Fielding is the first full-length novel written for children.As such and in itself it is a significant work of 18th-century children's literature.H. Carpenter and M. Pr ...'' (1749)
* Charles Dickens
Charles John Huffam Dickens (; 7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's best-known fictional characters and is regarded by many as the greatest novelist of the Victorian e ...'s serialised novel '' Nicholas Nickleby'' (1838)
* Charlotte Brontë's novels '' Jane Eyre'' (1847) and '' Villette'' (1853)
* Thomas Hughes's novel '' Tom Brown's Schooldays'' (1857)
* Frederic W. Farrar's '' Eric, or, Little by Little'' (1858), a particularly religious and moralistic treatment of the theme
* L. T. Meade's ''A World of Girls'' (1886) and dozens more girls school stories
* '' O Ateneu'' (1888), written by the Brazil
Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At and with over 217 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area ...ian Raul Pompéia and dealing openly with the issue of homosexuality
Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction, or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender. As a sexual orientation, homosexuality is "an enduring pattern of emotional, romantic, and/or sexual attractions" to ... in the boarding school
* Frances Hodgson Burnett's serial ''Sara Crewe: or what Happened at Miss Minchin's'' (1887), revised and expanded as '' A Little Princess
''A Little Princess'' is a children's novel by Frances Hodgson Burnett, first published as a book in 1905. It is an expanded version of the short story "Sara Crewe: or, What Happened at Miss Minchin's", which was serialized in '' St. Nicholas M ...'' (1905)
* Greyfriars School
Greyfriars School is a fictional English public school used as a setting in the long-running series of stories by the writer Charles Hamilton, who wrote under the pen-name of Frank Richards. Although the stories are focused on the Remove (or l ..., created by Charles Hamilton (writing as Frank Richards) in 1910 in the first of what became 1,670 stories, many featuring Billy Bunter
William George Bunter is a fictional schoolboy created by Charles Hamilton using the pen name Frank Richards. He features in stories set at Greyfriars School, a fictional English public school in Kent, originally published in the boys' weekly ....
* George Orwell's essay " Boys' Weeklies
"Boys' Weeklies" is an essay by George Orwell in which he analyses those weekly story-paper publications for boys which were current around 1940. After being published in ''Horizon'' in abridged form, it was published alongside two of his other ..." suggested in 1940 that Frank Richards created a taste for public schools stories in readers who could never have attended public schools
* '' Boy
A boy is a young male human. The term is commonly used for a child or an adolescent. When a male human reaches adulthood, he is described as a man.
Definition, etymology, and use
According to the ''Merriam-Webster Dictionary'', a boy i ...'' by Roald Dahl
Roald Dahl (13 September 1916 – 23 November 1990) was a British novelist, short-story writer, poet, screenwriter, and wartime fighter ace of Norwegian descent. His books have sold more than 250 million copies worldwide. Dahl has b ...
* Dozens of boys' school novels by Gunby Hadath (1871–1954)
* Elinor Brent-Dyer's '' Chalet School'' series of about sixty children's novels (1925–1970)
* Erich Kästner
Emil Erich Kästner (; 23 February 1899 – 29 July 1974) was a German writer, poet, screenwriter and satirist, known primarily for his humorous, socially astute poems and for children's books including '' Emil and the Detectives''. He received ...'s '' The Flying Classroom'' (''Das Fliegende Klassenzimmer'') (1933) is a conspicuous non-British example.
* James Hilton's novel '' Goodbye, Mr. Chips'' (1934) centers on a teacher, rather than on the students
* Ludwig Bemelmans' '' Madeline'' series of children's picture books (1939–present)
* Penelope Farmer's '' Charlotte Sometimes'' (1969)
* In Jill Murphy's '' The Worst Witch'' stories (from 1974), the traditional boarding school themes are explored in a fantasy
Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction involving magical elements, typically set in a fictional universe and sometimes inspired by mythology and folklore. Its roots are in oral traditions, which then became fantasy literature and d ... school that teaches magic.
* Dianna Wynne Jones's novel '' Witch Week'' (1982) features Larwood House where magic is not taught —its use is a capital crime— but many students grow into magic powers
* J. K. Rowling
Joanne Rowling ( "rolling"; born 31 July 1965), also known by her pen name J. K. Rowling, is a British author and philanthropist. She wrote ''Harry Potter'', a seven-volume children's fantasy series published from 1997 to 2007. The ser ...'s '' Harry Potter
''Harry Potter'' is a series of seven fantasy novels written by British author J. K. Rowling. The novels chronicle the lives of a young wizard, Harry Potter, and his friends Hermione Granger and Ron Weasley, all of whom are students at H ...'' series (1997–2007) features Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry
Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry () is a fictional Scottish boarding school of magic for students aged eleven to eighteen, and is the primary setting for the first six books in J. K. Rowling's ''Harry Potter'' series and serves as a ma ...
* Jenny Nimmo's '' Children of the Red King
Charlie Bone is a series of ten children's fantasy, school and adventure novels written by British author Jenny Nimmo, first published by Egmont 2002 to 2010. It is sometimes called "the ''Charlie Bone'' series" after its main character. A ...'' series (2002–2009) features magically endowed children at Bloor Academy, which most students leave on weekends
* Libba Bray's '' Gemma Doyle Trilogy'', volumes one and two (2003, 2006), features a girl's discovery of magical capabilities and realms
* Enid Blyton
Enid Mary Blyton (11 August 1897 – 28 November 1968) was an English children's writer, whose books have been worldwide bestsellers since the 1930s, selling more than 600 million copies. Her books are still enormously popular and have b ...'s '' Malory Towers'', '' St Clare's'' and '' Naughtiest Girl'' series
* John van de Ruit's '' Spud'' book and movie
A film also called a movie, motion picture, moving picture, picture, photoplay or (slang) flick is a work of visual art that simulates experiences and otherwise communicates ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty, or atmospher ... series, that take place at a school based on Michaelhouse
Michaelhouse is a full boarding senior school for boys founded in 1896. It is located in the Balgowan valley in the Midlands of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
''St. Michael's Diocesan College'' was founded in Pietermaritzburg in 1896 ...
The setting has also been featured in notable North American fiction:
* J.D. Salinger's novel '' The Catcher in the Rye'' (1951)
* John Knowles
John Knowles (; September 16, 1926November 29, 2001) was an American novelist best known for ''A Separate Peace'' (1959).
Knowles was born on September 17, 1926, in Fairmont, West Virginia, the son of James M. Knowles, a purchasing ag ...'s novels '' A Separate Peace
''A Separate Peace'' is a coming-of-age novel by John Knowles, published in 1958. Based on his earlier short story "Phineas", published in the May 1956 issue of '' Cosmopolitan'', it was Knowles's first published novel and became his best-kn ...'' (1959) and '' Peace Breaks Out'' (1981)
* Edward Kay's science fiction novel '' STAR Academy
''Star Academy'', called ''Operación Triunfo'' ("Operation Triumph") in Spanish-speaking countries, is a highly successful television pop music talent contest with viewer voting and reality show elements.
There are many versions of t ...'' (2009)
* John Green's 2006 young adult novel '' Looking for Alaska
''Looking for Alaska'' is American author John Green‘s debut novel, published in March 2005 by Dutton Juvenile. Based on his time at Indian Springs School, Green wrote the novel as a result of his desire to create meaningful young adult ficti ...''
There is also a huge boarding-school genre literature, mostly uncollected, in British comics
a medium used to express ideas with images, often combined with text or other visual information. It typically the form of a sequence of panels of images. Textual devices such as speech balloons, captions, and onomatopoeia can indicate ... and serials from the 1900s to the 1980s.
The subgenre of books and films set in a military or naval academy has many similarities with the above.
Films and television
Mädchen in Uniform
' ("Girls in Uniform") is a 1931 German romantic drama film based on the play ' (''Yesterday and Today'') by Christa Winsloe and directed by Leontine Sagan with artistic direction from Carl Froelich, who also funded the film. Winsloe also wro ...'' (1931)
* '' Goodbye, Mr. Chips'' (1939)
* '' The Happiest Days of Your Life'' (1950)
* '' The Browning Version'' (1951)
* '' Tom Brown's Schooldays'' (1951)
* '' The Belles of St. Trinian's'' (1954) and its five sequels and re-boots
* '' Hasta el viento tiene miedo'' (1968)
* '' If....'' (1968)
* '' Tom Brown's Schooldays'' (1971)
* '' Pink Floyd – The Wall'' (1982)
* '' Class'' (1983)
* '' Another Country'' (1984)
* '' Dead Poets Society'' (1989)
* '' The Power of One'' (1992)
* '' Scent of a Woman'' (1992)
* '' School Ties'' (1992)
* '' The Browning Version'' (1994)
* '' A Little Princess
''A Little Princess'' is a children's novel by Frances Hodgson Burnett, first published as a book in 1905. It is an expanded version of the short story "Sara Crewe: or, What Happened at Miss Minchin's", which was serialized in '' St. Nicholas M ...'' (1995)
* '' Boys
A boy is a young male human. The term is commonly used for a child or an adolescent. When a male human reaches adulthood, he is described as a man.
Definition, etymology, and use
According to the ''Merriam-Webster Dictionary'', a boy is ...'' (1996)
* '' Ponette'' (1996) (French Film)
* '' Madeline'' (1998)
* '' Young Americans'' (2000)
* '' Harry Potter
''Harry Potter'' is a series of seven fantasy novels written by British author J. K. Rowling. The novels chronicle the lives of a young wizard, Harry Potter, and his friends Hermione Granger and Ron Weasley, all of whom are students at H ...'' series, Hogwarts
Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry () is a fictional Scottish boarding school of magic for students aged eleven to eighteen, and is the primary setting for the first six books in J. K. Rowling's ''Harry Potter'' series and serves as a ma ... (2001–2011)
* '' Cadet Kelly'' (2002)
* '' The Wild Thornberrys Movie'' (2002)
* '' The Emperor's Club'' (2002)
* '' Rebelde Way'' (2002–2004)
* '' Strange Days at Blake Holsey High'' (2002–2006)
* '' That'll Teach 'Em'' (2003-2006)
* '' Winx Club
''Winx Club'' is an animated series co-produced by Rainbow S.p.A., Rainbow SpA and later Nickelodeon. It was created by Italian animator Iginio Straffi. The show is set in a magical universe that is inhabited by fairies, witches, and other myth ...'' (2004–present)
* '' Les Choristes'' (2004)
*'' La Mala Educación'' (2004)
* '' Zoey 101
''Zoey 101'' is an American comedy drama television series created by Dan Schneider for Nickelodeon. It aired from January 9, 2005, to May 2, 2008.
It focuses on the lives of Zoey Brooks ( Jamie Lynn Spears), her brother Dustin ( Paul Butcher), ...'' (2005-2008)
* '' She's the Man'' (2006)
* '' St Trinian's'' (2007)
* '' Wild Child'' (2008)
* '' Hanazakarino Kimitachihe'' (2006)
* '' Hanazakari no Kimitachi e
, also known by the abbreviation IkePara, is a teen romantic-comedy Japanese television drama planned by Hiroyuki Gotō for Fuji TV and Kyodo TV, based on the ''shōjo'' comic series of the same title by Hisaya Nakajo. Filming locations incl ...'' (2007)
* '' Lost and Delirious'' (2001)
* '' Archer'' (2009–present)
* '' Cracks'' (2009)
* '' Tanner Hall'' (2009)
* '' Four Eyes!'' (2006)
* '' Loving Annabelle'' (2006)
* '' Spud'' (2010)
* '' The Moth Diaries'' (2011)
* '' 5ive Girls'' (2006)
* '' Barbie: Princess Charm School'' (2011)
* '' Prom Wars'' (2008)
* '' The Trouble with Angels'' (1966)
* '' The Facts of Life'' (1979-1988)
* '' You Are Not Alone
"You Are Not Alone" is a song by American singer Michael Jackson from his ninth studio album, '' HIStory: Past, Present and Future, Book I'' (1995). It was released on August 15, 1995, as the second single from the album.
An R&B ballad, "You ...'' (1978)
* '' House of Anubis'' (2011–2013)
* '' Ever After High'' (2013–present)
* ''Descendants'' (2015 film) (2015–present)
* '' Taps'' (1981)
* '' Candy Candy
is a Japanese series created by Kyoko Mizuki. The main character, Candice "Candy" White Ardley is a blonde girl with freckles, large emerald green eyes and long hair, worn in pigtails with bows. ''Candy Candy'' first appeared as a man ...'' (1976)
* '' My Hero Academia
is a Japanese superhero manga series written and illustrated by Kōhei Horikoshi. It has been serialized in Shueisha's ''shōnen'' manga magazine '' Weekly Shōnen Jump'' since July 2014, with its chapters additionally collected i ...'' (2016)
* '' Our Fires Still Burn'' (2013)
* '' DC Super Hero Girls'' (2015-2018)
* '' Legacies'' (2018–present)
* '' Fate: The Winx Saga'' (2021–present)
* '' Taare Zameen Par'' (2007)
* '' Young Royals'' (2021-Present)
Final Fantasy VIII
is a role-playing video game developed and published by Square for the PlayStation console. Released in 1999, it is the eighth main installment in the ''Final Fantasy'' series. Set on an unnamed fantasy world with science fiction elements, th ...'' (1998)
* '' Bully'' (2006)
* '' The Sims 3'' (2009)
* '' Katawa Shoujo'' (2012)
* '' Life Is Strange'' (2015)
* '' Fire Emblem: Three Houses'' (2019)
List of boarding schools
This list includes notable boarding schools (where some or all pupils study and live during the school year).
* Our Lady of Lourdes College, Mankon
* Saker Baptist College, Limbe
* Aburi Girls' Senior High School
* Cadet, Linton Hall, Linton Hall Military School Memories: One cadet's memoir, Scrounge Press, 2014. Memoir of cadet who attended during the late 1960s, with copies of brochures from the 1940s and 1980s, and photos of the school.
* Cookson, Peter W., Jr., and Caroline Hodges Persell.
Preparing for Power: America's Elite Boarding Schools
'. (New York: Basic Books, 1985).
* Fisher, S. & Hood, B. (1987). The stress of the transition to university: a longitudinal study of psychological disturbance, absent-mindedness and vulnerability to homesickness. ''British Journal of Psychology'', 78, 425–441
* Hein, David (1991). The High Church origins of the American boarding school. ''Journal of Ecclesiastical History'', 42, 577–95.
* Hickson, A. "The Poisoned Bowl: Sex Repression and the Public School System". (London: Constable, 1995).
* Johann, Klaus: ''Grenze und Halt: Der Einzelne im "Haus der Regeln". Zur deutschsprachigen Internatsliteratur.'' (Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter 2003, Beiträge zur neueren Literaturgeschichte, 201.),
* Ladenthin, Volker; Fitzek, Herbert; Ley, Michael: Das Internat. Aufgaben, Erwartungen und Evaluationskriterien. Bonn 2006 (7. Aufl.).
Duffel N. (2000) The making of them. London: Lone Arrow Press
* Schaverien, J. (2004) Boarding School: The Trauma of the Privileged Child, in Journal of Analytical Psychology, vol 49, 683–705
* Cookson, P. W., Jr. (2009). "Boarding Schools" in ''The Child: an encyclopedic companion'' (ed.) Richard A Shweder. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. pp. 112–114.
Education in popular culture