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The Bicesse Accords, also known as the Estoril Accords, laid out a transition to
multi-party democracy In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decis ...
in
Angola , national_anthem = "Angola Avante "Angola Avante" (, ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that officially symbolizes a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often r ...

Angola
under the supervision of the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
' UNAVEM II mission.
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a chief executive officer ...
José Eduardo dos Santos
José Eduardo dos Santos
of the
MPLA The People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola, for some years called the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola – Labour Party ( pt, Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola – Partido do Trabalho, MPLA), is a left-wing politi ...
and
Jonas Savimbi Jonas Malheiro Savimbi (; 3 August 1934 – 22 February 2002) was an Angola , national_anthem = "Angola Avante"() , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Luanda , religion = , religion_year = 2015 , ...

Jonas Savimbi
of
UNITA The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA, pt, União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola) is the second-largest political party in Angola. Founded in 1966, UNITA fought alongside the Popular Movement for the L ...
signed the accord in
Lisbon, Portugal Lisbon (; pt, Lisboa ) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political e ...

Lisbon, Portugal
on May 31, 1991.Wright, George. ''The Destruction of a Nation: United States' Policy Towards Angola Since 1945'', 1997. Page 159. UNITA rejected the official results of the 1992 presidential election as rigged and renewed their guerrilla war.


Negotiation

UNITA and the Angolan government began six rounds of negotiations in April 1991. The
Portuguese government , border = Central , image = , caption = , date = , state = Portuguese Republic Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a whose main ...
represented by foreign minister
José Manuel Barroso José Manuel Durão Barroso (; born 23 March 1956) is a Portuguese people, Portuguese politician and university teacher, currently serving as non-executive Chairman of Goldman Sachs International. He previously served as the 11th President of t ...
mediated the discussion while officials from the U.S. and
Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sove ...
governments observed.Chester A. Crocker, Pamela R. Aall, and Fen Osler Hampson. ''Grasping The Nettle: Analyzing Cases Of Intractable Conflict'', 2005. Page 218.


Treaty terms

The Angolan government and UNITA formed the Joint Verification and Monitoring Commission and the Joint Commission on the Formation of the Angolan Armed Forces. The JVMC oversaw political reconciliation while the latter monitored military activity. The accords attempted to demobilize the 152,000 active fighters and integrate the remaining government troops and UNITA rebels into a 50,000-strong
Angolan Armed Forces The Angolan Armed Forces (Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, vari ...
(FAA). The FAA would consist of a national army with 40,000 troops, navy with 6,000, and air force with 4,000. Multi-party elections monitored by the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
would be held in September 1992.


Implementation

While the UN declared the presidential election generally "free and fair," fighting continued. 120,000 people were killed in the first eighteen months following the 1992 election, nearly half the number of casualties of the previous sixteen years of war. Hayward R. Alker, Ted Robert Gurr, and Kumar Rupesinghe. ''Journeys Through Conflict: Narratives and Lessons'', 2001. Page 181. The Lusaka Protocol of 1994 reaffirmed the Bicesse Accords.Rothchild, Donald S. ''Managing Ethnic Conflict in Africa: Pressures and Incentives for Cooperation'', 1997. Page 251.


See also

*Angolagate *Alvor Agreement *Nakuru Agreement *Lusaka Protocol


References


External links


UN Peacemaker.org: Full text of Bicesse Accords

UN Peacemaker.org: Text of all peace accords for Angola
Angolan Civil War 1991 in Angola Peace treaties of Angola Treaties concluded in 1991 MPLA UNITA Treaties of the People's Republic of Angola Mitterrand–Pasqua affair 1991 in Portugal 1990s in Angola {{Angola-gov-stub