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An anniversary is the date on which an event took place or an institution was founded in a previous year, and may also refer to the commemoration or celebration of that event. For example, the first event is the initial occurrence or, if planned, the inaugural of the event. One year later would be the first anniversary of that event. The word was first used for
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...
feasts to commemorate
saint In religious belief, a saint is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of Q-D-Š, holiness, likeness, or closeness to God. However, the use of the term ''saint'' depends on the context and Christian denomination, denominatio ...

saint
s. Most countries celebrate national anniversaries, typically called
national day A national day is a day on which celebrations mark the nationhood A nation is a community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as norms, religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural ...

national day
s. These could be the date of independence of the nation or the adoption of a new
constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...

constitution
or form of government. The important dates in a sitting monarch's reign may also be commemorated, an event often referred to as a "
jubilee A jubilee is a particular anniversary An anniversary is the date on which an event took place or an institution was founded in a previous year, and may also refer to the commemoration or celebration of that event. For example, the first ev ...

jubilee
".


Anniversary names

*
Birthday A birthday is the anniversary An anniversary is the date on which an event took place or an institution was founded in a previous year, and may also refer to the commemoration or celebration of that event. For example, the first event ...

Birthday
s are the most common type of anniversary, on which someone's birthdate is commemorated each year. The actual celebration is sometimes moved for practical reasons, as in the case of an
official birthday A birthday is the anniversary An anniversary is the date on which an event took place or an institution was founded in a previous year, and may also refer to the commemoration or celebration of that event. For example, the first event is ...
. * Wedding anniversaries are also often celebrated, on the same day of the year as the wedding occurred. * Death anniversaries. The
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
phrase '' dies natalis'' (literally "birth day") has become a common term, adopted in many languages, especially in intellectual and institutional circles, for the anniversary of the founding ("legal or statutory birth") of an institution, such as an '' alma mater'' (college or other school). In ancient Rome, the ''
iesThe initialism IES may refer to: Government organizations * Indian Economic Service * Indian Education Service, in British India * Institute for Environment and Sustainability of the European Commission * Institute of Education Sciences of the U ...

ies
Aquilae natalis'' was the "birthday of the eagle", the anniversary of the official founding of a legion. Anniversaries of nations are usually marked by the number of years elapsed, expressed with Latin words or Roman numerals.


Latin-derived numerical names

Latin terms for anniversaries are mostly straightforward, particularly those relating to the first twenty years (1–20), or multiples of ten years (30, 40, 50, 60, 70 etc.), or multiples of centuries or millennia (100, 200, 300, 1000, 2000, 3000, etc.) In these instances, the name of the anniversary is generally derived from the Latin word(s) for the respective number of years. However, when anniversaries relate to fractions of centuries (125, 150, 175, 250 years—i.e. 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, and 2.5 centuries), the situation is not as simple. Roman fractions were based on a duodecimal system. From to they were expressed as multiples of twelfths ('' uncia'' "twelfth"; the source of the English words ''inch'' and ''ounce'') and from to they were expressed as multiple twelfths less than the next whole unit—i.e. a whole unit less , or respectively. There were also special terms for quarter (''
quadrans l.; three pellets. Reverse: prow of galley A galley is a type of ship that is propelled mainly by oars. The galley is characterized by its long, slender hull, shallow draft (hull), draft, and low freeboard (nautical), freeboard (clearance bet ...
''), half (''
semis The semis, literally meaning half, was a small Roman bronze coin that was valued at half an as. During the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run through pub ...

semis
''), and three-quarters (''
dodrans The dodrans (a contraction of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power ...
''). ''
Dodrans The dodrans (a contraction of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power ...
'' is a Latin contraction of ''de-quadrans'' which means "a whole unit less a quarter" (''de'' means "from"; ''quadrans'' means "quarter"). Thus for the example of 175 years, the term is a quarter century less than the next whole (bi)century or 175 = (−25 + 200). In Latin, it seems that this rule did not apply precisely for 1½. While ''secundus'' is Latin for "second", and ''bis'' for "twice", these terms are not used such as in sesqui-secundus. Instead ''sesqui'' (or ''ses'') is used by itself.


Anniversary symbols

Many anniversaries have special names. ''Etiquette in Society, in Business, in Politics and at Home'' by
Emily Post Emily Post (''née'' Price; c. October 27, 1872 – September 25, 1960) was an American author, novelist, and socialite, famous for writing about etiquette Etiquette ( and ; ) is the set of conventional rules of personal behaviour in polit ...
, published in 1922, contained suggestions for wedding anniversary gifts for 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 50, and 75 years. Wedding anniversary gift suggestions for other years were added in later editions and publications; they now comprise what is referred to as the "traditional" list. Generally speaking, the longer the period, the more precious or durable the material associated with it. See
wedding anniversary A wedding anniversary is the anniversary An anniversary is the date on which an event took place or an institution was founded in a previous year, and may also refer to the commemoration or celebration of that event. For example, the first ...
for a general list of the wedding anniversary symbols; however, there are variations according to some national traditions. Furthermore, there exist numerous partially overlapping, partially contradictory lists of anniversary gifts (such as wedding stones), separate from the 'traditional' names. The concepts of a person's
birthday stone
birthday stone
and zodiac stone, by contrast, are fixed for life according to the day of the week, month, or astrological sign corresponding to the recipient's
birthday A birthday is the anniversary An anniversary is the date on which an event took place or an institution was founded in a previous year, and may also refer to the commemoration or celebration of that event. For example, the first event ...

birthday
.


See also

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List of historical anniversaries The following pages, corresponding to the Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the calendar used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII as a modification of the Julian calendar, reducing the averag ...
*
Quinquennial Neronia The quinquennial Neronia was a massive Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is app ...
*
Wedding anniversary A wedding anniversary is the anniversary An anniversary is the date on which an event took place or an institution was founded in a previous year, and may also refer to the commemoration or celebration of that event. For example, the first ...


References


External links

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