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Bhabar or Bhabhar ( Kumaoni: bhābar) is a region south of the Lower
Himalayas The Himalayas, or Himalaya (; Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It ar ...

Himalayas
and the
Sivalik Hills The Sivalik Hills (also known as the Shivalik Hills and Churia Hills) are a mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ran ...
in
Uttarakhand Uttarakhand ( , or ; , lit. 'Northern Land'), formerly known as Uttaranchal ( ), is a state in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the "Devbhumi" (literally "Land of the Gods") due to its religious significance and numerous ...

Uttarakhand
state of
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
. It is the
alluvial apron
alluvial apron
of sediments washed down from the Sivaliks along the northern edge of the
Indo-Gangetic Plain #REDIRECT Indo-Gangetic Plain#REDIRECT Indo-Gangetic Plain Image:India-Pakistan Borderlands at Night.JPG, 250px, Clusters of yellow lights on the Indo-Gangetic Plain reveal numerous cities large and small in this astronaut photograph of norther ...

Indo-Gangetic Plain
.


Etymology

The name ''Bhabar'' refers to a local tall-growing grass, ''
Eulaliopsis binata ''Eulaliopsis binata'', the sabaigrass or Chinese alpine rush, is a perennial plant belonging to the Poaceae, grass family that is grown in many Asian countries like China, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Bhutan, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia and Philippine ...
'', used for the manufacture of paper and rope.


Overview

Bhabar is the gently-sloping coarse
alluvial Alluvium (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power ...
zone below the Sivalik Hills (outermost foothills of the
Himalayas The Himalayas, or Himalaya (; Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It ar ...

Himalayas
) where streams disappear into permeable
sediment Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently sediment transport, transported by the action of wind, water, or ice or by the force of gravity acting on the particles. ...

sediment
s. The underground water level is deep in this region, then rises to the surface in the
Terai , image =Terai nepal.jpg , image_size = , image_alt = , caption =Aerial view of Terai plains near Biratnagar, Nepal , map = , map_size = , map_alt = , map_caption = , biogeographic_realm = Indomalayan realm The Indomalayan realm is one of ...
below where coarse alluvium gives way to less permeable
silt Silt is granular material A granular material is a conglomeration of discrete solid, macroscopic scale, macroscopic particles characterized by a loss of energy whenever the particles interact (the most common example would be friction when gra ...
and
clay Clay is a type of fine-grained natural soil Surface-water- gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland.">Northern_Ireland.html" ;"title="glacial till, Northern Ireland">glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of organic m ...

clay
. The
Ganges River The Ganges ( ) (in India: Ganga ( ); in Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is de ...

Ganges River
lies to the west and Sharda to the east. Being at the junction of Himalayas and the Indo-Gangetic Plain, Bhabar contains almost all the important trade and commerce hubs of
Uttarakhand Uttarakhand ( , or ; , lit. 'Northern Land'), formerly known as Uttaranchal ( ), is a state in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the "Devbhumi" (literally "Land of the Gods") due to its religious significance and numerous ...

Uttarakhand
state. Due to the top-soil replenishment every
monsoon A monsoon () is traditionally a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology ...

monsoon
, It is also a fertile area with large yields per unit area.


History

In 1901 Bhabar was also one of four division of
Nainital district Nainital district is a district in Kumaon division which is a part of Uttarakhand state, India. The headquarters is at Nainital. Nainital District is located in Kumaon Division, and is bounded on the north by the Almora District and on the s ...

Nainital district
.1857
The Imperial Gazetteer of India Image:Imperial gazetteer india1908.jpg, The 1908 edition, in 26 volumes, including the first four encyclopaedic volumes entitled ''Indian Empire: Descriptive, Historical, Economic and Administrative'', and the last volume (26), ''Atlas''., alt= ...
1909, v. 18, p. 325.
It included 4 towns and 511 villages with a combined population of 93,445 (1901), spread over .Nainital District
The Imperial Gazetteer of India Image:Imperial gazetteer india1908.jpg, The 1908 edition, in 26 volumes, including the first four encyclopaedic volumes entitled ''Indian Empire: Descriptive, Historical, Economic and Administrative'', and the last volume (26), ''Atlas''., alt= ...
1909, v. 18, p. 326. It corresponded to the current subdivision of
Haldwani Haldwani (Kumaoni language, Kumaoni: ''Haldvānī'') is the third List of cities in Uttarakhand by population, most populous city, and largest commercial market in the Indian state of Uttarakhand. It is also the largest city of the Kumaon divisi ...

Haldwani
.


References

{{reflist


External links

*
Eulaliopsis binata ''Eulaliopsis binata'', the sabaigrass or Chinese alpine rush, is a perennial plant belonging to the Poaceae, grass family that is grown in many Asian countries like China, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Bhutan, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia and Philippine ...
at ''
wikispecies Wikispecies is a wiki A wiki ( ) is a hypertext publication Collaborative editing, collaboratively edited and managed by its own audience directly using a web browser. A typical wiki contains multiple pages for the subjects or scope of th ...
'' Uttarakhand Geography of Uttarakhand Himalayas