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Bergamo (, also ; ; lmo, label=
Eastern Lombard Eastern Lombard is a group of closely related dialects of Lombard language, Lombard, a Gallo-Italic languages, Gallo-Italic language spoken in Lombardy, mainly in the provinces of Bergamo, Brescia and Mantua, in the area around Crema, Italy, Crema ...
, Bèrghem ; lat, Bergŏmum) is a city in the
alpine Alpine may refer to: Places * Alps, a European mountain range * Alpine states, associated with the mountain range, or relating to any lofty mountain areas * Mountainous or alpine; the mountains. Australia * Alpine, New South Wales, a Northern Vill ...

alpine
Lombardy Lombardy ( ; it, Lombardia ; lmo, Lombardia, , ) is one of the twenty administrative , in the of the country, with an area of . About 10 million people live in Lombardy, forming more than one-sixth of Italy's population, and more than a fifth of ...
region of northern Italy, approximately northeast of
Milan Milan (, , Milanese Milanese (endonym in traditional orthography ''Milanes'', ''Meneghin'') is the central variety of the Western dialect of the Lombard language spoken in Milan, the rest of its Metropolitan City of Milan, metropolitan cit ...

Milan
, and approximately from
Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under a multi-party assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_t ...

Switzerland
, the
alpine lake Alpine lakes are classified as lakes at high altitudes, usually starting around 10,000 feet in elevation above sea level or above the tree line. Alpine lakes are usually clearer than lakes at lower elevations due to the colder water, which decre ...

alpine lake
s
Como Como (, ; lmo, Còmm, label=Comasco dialect, Comasco , or ; lat, Novum Comum; rm, Com; french: Côme) is a city and ''comune'' in Lombardy, Italy. It is the administrative capital of the Province of Como. Its proximity to Lake Como and t ...

Como
and
Iseo
Iseo
, and 70 km (43 mi) from
Garda
Garda
and
Maggiore
Maggiore
. The
Bergamo Alps The Bergamasque Alps or Bergamo Alps (Italian language, Italian: ''Alpi Orobie'', sometimes translated into English as Orobic Alps) are a mountain range in the Italy, Italian Alps. They are located in northern Lombardy and named after the city Berg ...
(''Alpi Orobie'') begin immediately north of the city. With a population of approximately 122,000, Bergamo is the fourth-largest city in Lombardy. Bergamo is the seat of the
Province of Bergamo The Province of Bergamo ( it, provincia di Bergamo; lmo, proìnsa de Bèrghem) is a Provinces of Italy, province in the Lombardy region of Italy. It has a population of 1,112,187 (2017), an area of , and contains 243 ''comuni''. Its capital is th ...
. The
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories under the same administrative division, sharing industry, infrastructure and housing. A metro area u ...

metropolitan area
of Bergamo extends beyond the administrative city limits, spanning over a densely urbanized area with slightly fewer than 500,000 inhabitants. The Bergamo metropolitan area is part of the broader
Milan metropolitan area The Milan metropolitan area, also known as Grande Milano ("Greater Milan"), is the largest metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrounding t ...
, home to more than eight million people. The city of Bergamo is composed of an old walled core, known as ''Città Alta'' ("Upper Town"), nestled within a
system of hills
system of hills
constituting a
regional parkA regional park is an area of land preserved on account of its natural beauty, historic interest, recreational use or other reason, and under the administration of a form of local government. Definition A regional park can be a special park distric ...

regional park
, and the modern expansion in the plains below. The upper town is encircled by massive Venetian defensive systems that are a
UNESCO World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
since 9 July 2017. Bergamo is well connected to several cities in Italy, thanks to the
motorway A4
motorway A4
stretching on the axis between
Turin Turin ( , : ; it, Torino ; lat, Augusta Taurinorum, then ''Taurinum'') is a city and an important business and cultural centre in . It is the of and of the , and was the first Italian capital from 1861 to 1865. The city is mainly on the wes ...

Turin
, Milan,
Verona Verona ( , ; vec, Verona or ''Veròna'') is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. ...

Verona
, Venice, and
Trieste Trieste ( , ; sl, Trst ; german: Triest ) is a city and seaport in northeastern Italy. It is the capital city, and largest city, of the Regions of Italy#Autonomous regions with special statute, autonomous region of Friuli Venezia Giulia, one of t ...

Trieste
. The city is served by
Il Caravaggio International Airport Orio al Serio International Airport (), branded as Milan Bergamo Airport, is the List of the busiest airports in Italy, third busiest international airport in Italy. It is located in the municipal territory of Orio al Serio, southeast of Bergamo ...
, the third-busiest airport in Italy with 13.9 million passengers in 2019. Bergamo is the second most visited city in Lombardy after Milan.


History


Antiquity

Bergamo occupies the site of the ancient town of ''Bergomum'', founded as a settlement by the
Celtic tribe This is a list of Celts, Celtic tribes, organized in order of the likely ethnolinguistic kinship of the peoples and tribes. In Classical antiquity, Celts were a large number and a significant part of the population in many regions of Western Eur ...
of Cenomani. In 49 BC it became a
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testament of the Christian Bible Roman ...

Roman
municipality, containing c. 10,000 inhabitants at its peak. An important hub on the military road between
Friuli Friuli ( fur, Friûl) is an area of with its own particular cultural and historical identity containing 1,000,000 . It comprises the major part of the autonomous region , i.e. the administrative of , , and , excluding . Names The multiethnic ...
and
Raetia 250px, Province of Raetia highlighted. Raetia ( ; ; also spelled Rhaetia) was a Roman province, province of the Roman Empire, named after the Rhaetian (''Raeti'' or ''Rhaeti'') people. It bordered on the west with the country of the Helvetii, ...

Raetia
, it was destroyed by
Attila Attila (; ), frequently called Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe between the 4th and 6th century AD. According to European tradition, t ...
in the 5th century.


Middle Ages

From the 6th century Bergamo was the seat of one of the most important
Lombard The term Lombard refers to members of or things related to Lombardy (man) it, Lombarda (woman) lmo, Lombard (man) lmo, Lombarda (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 ...
duchies of
northern Italy Northern Italy ( it, Italia settentrionale, it, Nord Italia, label=none, it, Alta Italia, label=none or just it, Nord, label=none) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of Italy. Non-administrative, it consists of eight adm ...
, together with
Brescia Brescia (, locally ; lmo, link=no, label=Lombard The term Lombard refers to members of or things related to Lombardy (man) it, Lombarda (woman) lmo, Lombard (man) lmo, Lombarda (woman) , population_note = , population_bla ...

Brescia
,
Trento Trento ( or ; Ladin language, Ladin and lmo, Trent; german: Trient ; cim, Tria; ), also anglicized as Trent, is a city on the Adige, Adige River in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol in Italy. It is the capital of the Trentino, autonomous province ...

Trento
, and
Cividale del Friuli Cividale del Friuli ( fur, Cividât (locally ); german: Östrich; sl, Čedad) is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Impo ...

Cividale del Friuli
: its first Lombard duke was Wallaris. After the conquest of the Lombard Kingdom by
Charlemagne Charlemagne (; ) or Charles the Great or ''Carolus'', whence in English or in German (for this individual, specifically ''Karl der Große''). The French form and the Italian or () come from his nickname ("Charles the Great")., ''Karil' ...

Charlemagne
, it became the seat of a county under one Auteramus (d. 816). An important Lombardic
hoard A hoard or "wealth deposit" is an archaeological Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthropology, but ...
dating from the 6th to 7th centuries was found in the vicinity of the city in the 19th century and is now in the
British Museum The British Museum is a public institution dedicated to human history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of hu ...

British Museum
. From the 11th century onwards, Bergamo was an independent
commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or with something, whether ...
, taking part in the
Lombard League The Lombard League (''Lega Lombarda'' in Italian language, Italian, ''Liga Lombarda'' in Lombard language, Lombard) was a medieval alliance formed in 1167, supported by the Pope, to counter the attempts by the Hohenstaufen Holy Roman Emperors to ...
which defeated
Frederick I Barbarossa Frederick Barbarossa (1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick I (german: Friedrich I, it, Federico I), was the Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator Romanorum ...
in 1165. The local
Guelph and Ghibelline The Guelphs and Ghibellines (, also ; it, guelfi e ghibellini ) were Political faction, factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in the Italian city-states of central and northern Italy. During the 12th and 13th cen ...
factions were the
Colleoni The Colleoni were a Guelf-allied family in medieval Italy, medieval Bergamo. Their Ghibelline opponents were the Suardi (dynasty), Suardi family, of which the Colleoni themselves were a branch. When the Visconti of Milan, Visconti of duchy of Milan ...

Colleoni
and Suardi, respectively. Feuding between the two initially caused the family of
Omodeo TassoOmodeo or Amadeo Tasso was the late-13th century Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance ...
to flee north , but he returned to Bergamo in the later 13th century to organize the city's couriers: this would eventually lead to the
Imperial Imperial is that which relates to an empire, emperor, or imperialism. Imperial or The Imperial may also refer to: Places United States * Imperial, California * Imperial, Missouri * Imperial, Nebraska * Imperial, Pennsylvania * Imperial, Texas * ...
Thurn und Taxis The Princely House of Thurn and Taxis (german: link=no, Fürstenhaus Thurn und Taxis ) is a family of German nobility that is part of the ''Briefadel''. It was a key player in the mail, postal services in Europe during the 16th century, until t ...
dynasty generally credited with organizing the first modern postal service.


Early modern

After a short period under the
House of Malatesta) , type = Noble house , country = Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the Alps, a ...
starting from 1407, Bergamo was ceded in 1428 by the
Duchy of Milan The Duchy of Milan was an Italian state located in northern Italy Northern Italy ( it, Italia settentrionale, it, Nord Italia, label=none, it, Alta Italia, label=none or just it, Nord, label=none) is a geographical and cultural region in th ...
to the
Republic of Venice The Republic of Venice ( it, Repubblica di Venezia; vec, Repùblega de Venèsia) or Venetian Republic ( it, Repubblica Veneta; vec, Repùblega Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima ( en, Most Serene Republic Most Serene Republic ( ...
in the context of the
Wars in Lombardy The Wars in Lombardy were a series of conflicts between the Republic of Venice The Republic of Venice ( it, Repubblica di Venezia; vec, Repùblega de Venèsia) or Venetian Republic ( it, Repubblica Veneta; vec, Repùblega Vèneta), traditi ...
and the aftermath of the 1427
Battle of Maclodio The Battle of Maclodio was fought on 11 October 1427, resulting in a victory for the Republic of Venice, Venetians under Francesco Bussone da Carmagnola, Carmagnola over the Milanese under Carlo I Malatesta. The battle was fought at Maclodio (or ...
. Despite the brief interlude granted by the Treaty of Lodi in 1454, the uneasy balance of power among the Northern Italian states precipitated the
Italian Wars The Italian Wars, often referred to as the Great Wars of Italy and sometimes as the Habsburg–Valois Wars, were a long series of wars fought between 1494 and 1559 in Italy during the Renaissance. The Italian peninsula, economically advanced bu ...
, a series of conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved, at various times, also the
Papal States The Papal States ( ; it, Stato Pontificio), officially the State of the Church ( it, Stato della Chiesa, ; la, Status Ecclesiasticus; also '), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Ital ...
,
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental country spanning Western Europe and Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Ame ...
, and the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
. The wars, which were both a result and cause of Venetian involvement in the power politics of mainland Italy, prompted Venice to assert its direct rule over its mainland domains. As much of the fighting during the Italian Wars took place during sieges, increasing levels of fortification were adopted, using such new developments as detached bastions that could withstand sustained artillery fire. The
Treaty of Campo Formio The Treaty of Campo Formio (today Campoformido) was signed on 17 October 1797 (26 Vendémiaire VI) by Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon Bonaparte ; co, Napulione Buonaparte. (born Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a ...
(17 October 1797) formally recognized the inclusion of Bergamo and other parts of Northern Italy into the
Cisalpine Republic The Cisalpine Republic ( it, Repubblica Cisalpina) was a sister republic of France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metrop ...
, a "
sister republic A sister republic (french: république sœur) was a republic established by French armies or by local revolutionaries and assisted by the First French Republic during the French Revolutionary Wars The French Revolutionary Wars (french: Guerres ...
" of the
French First Republic In the history of France, the First Republic (French: ''Première République''), officially the French Republic (''République française''), was founded on 21 September 1792 during the French Revolution. The First Republic lasted until the dec ...
that was superseded in 1802 by the short-lived Napoleonic Italian Republic and in 1805 by the
Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia; french: Royaume d'Italie) was a kingdom in Northern Italy Northern Italy ( it, Italia settentrionale, it, Nord Italia, label=none or just it, Nord, label=none) is a geographical and cultural region i ...

Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy
.


Late modern and contemporary

The 1815
Congress of Vienna The Congress of Vienna (, ) of 1814–1815 was an international diplomatic conference to reconstitute the European political order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon I Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) wa ...

Congress of Vienna
assigned Bergamo to the
Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia The Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia ( la, Regnum Langobardiae et Venetiae), commonly called the "Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom" ( it, Regno Lombardo-Veneto, german: Königreich Lombardo-Venetien), was a constituent land (crown land) of the Austrian Empi ...
, a
crown land Crown land (sometimes spelled crownland), also known as royal domain, is a territorial area belonging to the monarch, who personifies . It is the equivalent of an and passes with the monarchy, being inseparable from it. Today, in s such as Cana ...
of the
Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was a Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common History, historical, Society, social and cultural ...
. The visit of Emperor
Ferdinand I
 Ferdinand I
in 1838 coincided with the opening of the new boulevard stretching into the plains, leading to the railway station that was inaugurated in 1857. The Bergamasques welcomed Austrian rule at first, but later challenged it in Italian independentist insurrections in 1848.
Giuseppe Garibaldi Giuseppe Maria Garibaldi ( , ;In his native Ligurian language, he is known as ''Gioxeppe Gaibado. 4 July 1807 – 2 June 1882) was an Italian general, patriot, revolutionary, and republican. He contributed to the Italian unification Italia ...

Giuseppe Garibaldi
conquered Bergamo in 1859, during the
Second Italian War of Independence The second (symbol: s, abbreviation: sec) is the base unit of time Time is the indefinite continued sequence, progress of existence and event (philosophy), events that occur in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession fr ...
. As a result, the city became part of the newly proclaimed
Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state that existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Kingdom of Sardinia, Sardinia was proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy, proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946, when civil discontent l ...
founded in 1861. Due to its contribution to the
Italian unification The unification of Italy ( it, Unità d'Italia ), also known as the ''Risorgimento'' (, ; meaning "Resurgence"), was the 19th-century political and social movement that resulted in the Merger (politics), consolidation of List of historic stat ...

Italian unification
movement, Bergamo has become known as ''Città dei Mille'' ("City of the Thousand"), because a significant part of the rank-and-file supporting Giuseppe Garibaldi in his 1860
Expedition of the Thousand The Expedition of the Thousand ( it, Spedizione dei Mille) was an event of the Italian Risorgimento Italian unification ( it, Unità d'Italia ), also known as the Risorgimento (, ; meaning "Resurgence"), was the 19th-century political and ...
against the
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies ( nap, Regno d’ ’e Ddoje Sicilie; scn, Regnu dî Dui Sicili; it, Regno delle Due Sicilie; es, Reino de las Dos Sicilias) was a kingdom located in Southern Italy from 1816 to 1860. The kingdom was the larg ...
came from Bergamo and its environs. During the twentieth century, Bergamo became one of Italy's most industrialized areas. In 1907
Marcello PiacentiniMarcello Piacentini (December 8, 1881 – May 19, 1960) was an Italian urban theorist and one of the main proponents of Italian Fascist architecture. Biography Born in Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , ...
devised a new urban master plan that was implemented between 1912 and 1927, in a style reminiscent of
Novecento Italiano Novecento Italiano () was an Italian artistic movement founded in Milan Milan (, , Milanese: ; it, Milano ) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome. Milan served as the capital ...
and Modernist Rationalism. The 2017
43rd G7 summit The 43rd G7 summit was held on 26–27 May 2017 in Taormina (Metropolitan City of Messina, ME), Sicily, Italy. In March 2014, the Group of Seven, G7 declared that a meaningful discussion was currently not possible with Russia in the context of the ...
on agriculture took place in Bergamo, in the context of the broader international meeting organized in
Taormina Taormina ( , , also , ; scn, Taurmina; mt, Tormina; la, Tauromenium; grc, Ταυρομένιον, Tauroménion) is a ''comune'' (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Messina The Metropolitan City of Messina ( it, Città metropo ...

Taormina
(Sicily). The "Charter of Bergamo", an international commitment signed during the summit, aims to reduce hunger worldwide by 2030, strengthen cooperation for agricultural development in Africa, and ensure price transparency. In early 2020 during the
COVID-19 pandemic in Italy The COVID-19 pandemic in Italy is part of the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 () caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (). The virus was first confirmed to have spread to Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), offici ...
, Bergamo's healthcare system was overwhelmed by patients with
COVID-19 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease A contagious disease is a disease A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure A structure is an arrangement and organization o ...
. There were reports of doctors confronted with ethical dilemmas with too few ICU beds and mechanical ventilation systems. Morgues were overwhelmed, and images of military trucks carrying the bodies of COVID-19 victims out of the city were shared worldwide. Doctors pleaded with the rest of Italy, Europe and the world to take the spreading virus pandemic seriously. An investigative report by ''The New York Times'' found that faulty guidance and bureaucratic delays rendered the toll far worse than it had to be.


Geography


Climate

Bergamo has a
humid subtropical climate A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and cool to mild winters. These climates normally lie on the southeast side of all continents, generally between latitude In geography Geograp ...
(''Cfa'' in the
Köppen climate classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification Climate classification is a way of categorizing the world's s. A climate classification may correlate closely with a category, as climate is a major infl ...
); typical of the middle latitudes, rainy or generally humid in all seasons with very hot summers and pretty cold winters. Its proximity to
Lake Iseo Lake Iseo or Iseo lake ( ; it, Lago d'Iseo ; lmo, Lach d'Izé, label=Eastern Lombard Eastern Lombard is a group of closely related dialects of Lombard language, Lombard, a Gallo-Italic languages, Gallo-Italic language spoken in Lombardy, mainly ...

Lake Iseo
significantly affects winter temperatures which are decidedly higher than the average of the
Po Valley The Po Valley, Po Plain, Plain of the Po, or Padan Plain ( it, Pianura Padana , or ''Val Padana'') is a major geographical feature of Northern Italy Northern Italy ( it, Italia settentrionale, it, Nord Italia, label=none, it, Alta Italia, ...
; these factors also make it possible to avoid the persistent winter fog and the sultriness that characterize nearby
Milan Milan (, , Milanese Milanese (endonym in traditional orthography ''Milanes'', ''Meneghin'') is the central variety of the Western dialect of the Lombard language spoken in Milan, the rest of its Metropolitan City of Milan, metropolitan cit ...

Milan
. The favorable and rather mild climate has also positively influenced the production of wine and oil, and the diffusion of some species typical of the
Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by dry summers and mild, wet winters. The climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degre ...
. The average annual rainfall is distributed on average over 97 days and it present a summer and autumn peak with a relative minimum in winter. The rainfalls are concentrated between March and May and between October and late November. Winter lasts generally between mid-November and mid-March, and it is characterized by a very low percentage of rainfall compared to the Italian average; while summer lasts from the end of May to mid-September, and it is characterized by storm phenomena especially towards the end of season. The presence of snow is very discontinuous, generally arriving every winter but in discrete quantities. The causes are of various types such as the minimum too low or too high and rainfalls that are usually concentrated further north-west of the city. On the basis of the thirty-year reference average 1981–2010, the average temperature of the coldest month, January, is +3.1 °C; that of the hottest month, July, is +23.8 °C.


Cityscape

The town has two centres: ''Città alta'' ("upper city"), a hilltop medieval town, surrounded by 16th-century defensive walls, and the ''Città bassa'' ("lower city"). The two parts of the town are connected by
funicular A funicular (, , ) is a type of cable railway A cable railway is a railway that uses a Wire rope, cable, rope or chain to haul trains. It is a specific type of cable transportation. The most common use for a cable railway is to move vehicles ...

funicular
, roads, and footpaths.


Upper city

The upper city, surrounded by Venetian walls built in the 16th century, forms the historic centre of Bergamo. Notable buildings within the upper city include: *''Cittadella'' (Citadel), built under the rule of the Visconti in the mid-14th century. *''Piazza Vecchia'' *''Palazzo della Ragione''. This was the seat of the administration of the city in the medieval municipal period. Built in the
12th century The 12th century is the period from to in accordance with the . In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the and is sometimes called the Age of the s. The experienced a significant development, particularly ...
, it was revamped in the late 16th century by Pietro Isabello. The façade has the
Lion of Saint Mark The Lion of Saint Mark, representing Mark the Evangelist Mark the Evangelist ( la, Marcus; el, Μᾶρκος, Mârkos; Aramaic: ܡܪܩܘܣ ''Marqōs'') is the traditionally ascribed author of the Gospel of Mark. Mark is said to have founded ...

Lion of Saint Mark
over a mullioned window, testifying to the long period of Venetian rule. The atrium has a well-preserved 18th-century
sundial A sundial is a horological device that tells the time of day (in modern usage referred to as civil time In modern usage, civil time refers to statutory time scales designated by civilian authorities, or to local time indicated by clocks. M ...

sundial
. *''Palazzo Nuovo'' (
Biblioteca Civica Angelo Mai The Biblioteca Civica (est. 1760) of Bergamo, Italy, is a public library founded by Giuseppe Alessandro Furietti. Its headquarters occupy the on the Piazza Vecchia. References Bibliography in English * 1977? * in Italian * (Exhibit catalog) ...
). It was designed by Vincenzo Scamozzi in the early 17th century and completed in 1928. *Santa Maria Maggiore, Bergamo, Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore. It was built 1130s in architecture, from 1137 on the site of a previous religious edifice of the 7th century. Construction continued until Timeline of architecture#15th century, the 15th century. Of this first building the external Romanesque structure and the Greek cross plan remain. The interior was extensively modified in the 16th and 17th centuries. Noteworthy are the great Crucifix and the tomb of Gaetano Donizetti. *''Cappella Colleoni'', annexed to Santa Maria Maggiore, is a masterwork of Renaissance architecture and Decorative arts, decorative art. It contains the tomb of Bartolomeo Colleoni. *''Battistero'' (Baptistry), an elegant octagonal building dating from 1340. *Bergamo Cathedral. It was built in the late 17th century with later modifications. *''Rocca''. It was begun in 1331 on the hill of Sant'Eufemia by William of Castelbarco, vicar of John of Bohemia, and later completed by Azzone Visconti. A wider citadel was added, but is now partly lost. *''San Michele al Pozzo Bianco''. Built in the 12th century, this church contains several frescoes from the 12th to the 16th centuries, including paintings by Lorenzo Lotto. *''Museo Civico Archeologico''. It is housed in the Cittadella. *''Museo di Scienze Naturali Enrico Caffi''. It is housed in the Cittadella. *''Orto Botanico di Bergamo "Lorenzo Rota"'' (botanical garden).


Lower city

The lower city is the modern centre of Bergamo. At the end of the 19th century ''Città Bassa'' was composed of residential neighbourhoods built along the main roads that linked Bergamo to the other cities of Lombardy. The main boroughs were Borgo Palazzo along the road to
Brescia Brescia (, locally ; lmo, link=no, label=Lombard The term Lombard refers to members of or things related to Lombardy (man) it, Lombarda (woman) lmo, Lombard (man) lmo, Lombarda (woman) , population_note = , population_bla ...

Brescia
, Borgo San Leonardo along the road to
Milan Milan (, , Milanese Milanese (endonym in traditional orthography ''Milanes'', ''Meneghin'') is the central variety of the Western dialect of the Lombard language spoken in Milan, the rest of its Metropolitan City of Milan, metropolitan cit ...

Milan
and Borgo Santa Caterina along the road to Serio (river), Serio Valley. The city rapidly expanded during the 20th century. In the first decades, the municipality erected major buildings like the new courthouse and various administrative offices in the lower part of Bergamo to create a new center of the city. After World War II many residential buildings were constructed in the lower part of the city which are now divided into twenty-five neighborhoods: Boccaleone, Borgo Palazzo, Borgo Santa Caterina, Campagnola, Carnovali, Celadina, Centro-Papa Giovanni XXIII, Centro-Pignolo, Centro-Sant'Alessandro, Bergamo#Città Alta, Città Alta, Parco dei Colli di Bergamo, Colli, Colognola, Conca Fiorita, Grumello del Piano, , , Malpensata, Monterosso, Redona, San Paolo, San Tomaso de' Calvi, Santa Lucia, Valtesse-San Colombano, Valverde, Bergamo, Valverde con Valtesse-Sant'Antonio, Villaggio degli Sposi The most relevant sites are: *''Accademia Carrara'' *''Galleria d'Arte Moderna e Contemporanea'' (GAMeC, Gallery of Modern and Contemporary Art).


Government


Demographics

In 2010, there were 119,551 people residing in Bergamo (in which the greater area has about 500 000 inhabitants), located in the province of Bergamo, Lombardy, Lombardia, of whom 46.6% were male and 53.4% were female. Minors (children ages 18 and younger) totalled 16.79 percent of the population compared to pensioners who number 23.61 percent. This compares with the Italian average of 17.88 percent (minors) and 20.29 percent (pensioners). The average age of Bergamo residents is 45 compared to the Italian average of 43. In the eight years between 2002 and 2010, the population of Bergamo grew by 5.41 percent, while Italy as a whole grew by 5.77 percent. The city has sizable immigrant populations in its bustling industrial economy. They include those from Albania, Romania, Bolivia, China, the Arab World and Sub-Saharan Africa. About 10% of Bergamo residents are born outside Europe.


Economy

Bergamo is situated in
Lombardy Lombardy ( ; it, Lombardia ; lmo, Lombardia, , ) is one of the twenty administrative , in the of the country, with an area of . About 10 million people live in Lombardy, forming more than one-sixth of Italy's population, and more than a fifth of ...
, Italy's northern region where about a quarter of Economy of Italy, the country's GDP is produced. Nowadays, the city has an advanced tertiary economy focussed on banking, retail, and services associated to the industrial sector of its province. Corporations and firms linked to the area include UBI Banca, UBI banking group, Brembo (braking systems), Tenaris (steel), ABB Group, ABB (power and automation technology), S.Pellegrino, S. Pellegrino (beverage company based in San Pellegrino Terme), Italcementi (cement and concrete) and Ferretti Group, Riva-Ferretti (yachts and luxury ships based in Sarnico). Bergamo produces the Denominazione di origine controllata wines Moscato di Scanzo and Valcalepio. The church vestments designer, producer and restaurato
Atelier Sirio
who currently also supplies vestments to the Vatican, has its seat in Bergamo.


Pollution

Bergamo is at the at the second place of the ranking of European cities with the highest preventable mortality burdens for PM2.5 pollution in a new study published in January 2021 by The Lancet Planetary Health, which estimates the death rate associated with fine Particulates, particulate matter (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollution in 1000 European cities.
Brescia Brescia (, locally ; lmo, link=no, label=Lombard The term Lombard refers to members of or things related to Lombardy (man) it, Lombarda (woman) lmo, Lombard (man) lmo, Lombarda (woman) , population_note = , population_bla ...

Brescia
is first in the study by researchers from the University of Utrecht, Barcelona's Global Health Institute and the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute. Two other northern Italian cities were in the top 10, Vicenza (fourth) and Saronno (eighth). It said that Brescia would avoid 232 preventable deaths a year by applying WHO guidelines on PM2.5, while Bergamo would have 137 fewer deaths. The data show that many cities in the
Po Valley The Po Valley, Po Plain, Plain of the Po, or Padan Plain ( it, Pianura Padana , or ''Val Padana'') is a major geographical feature of Northern Italy Northern Italy ( it, Italia settentrionale, it, Nord Italia, label=none, it, Alta Italia, ...
suffer the most serious impact at European level due to poor air quality, first of all the metropolitan area of
Milan Milan (, , Milanese Milanese (endonym in traditional orthography ''Milanes'', ''Meneghin'') is the central variety of the Western dialect of the Lombard language spoken in Milan, the rest of its Metropolitan City of Milan, metropolitan cit ...

Milan
, 13th in the ranking in terms of fine particulate impact, where any year 3967 premature deaths – approximately 9% of the total.


Culture


Notable natives

Bergamo was the hometown and last resting place of Enrico Rastelli, a highly technical and world-famous juggler who lived in the town and, in 1931, died there at the early age of 34. There is a life-sized statue of Rastelli within his mausoleum. A number of painters were active in the town as well; among these were Giovanni Paolo Cavagna (1550-1627), Francesco Zucco (c. 1570 - 1627), and Enea Salmeggia (c. 1556 - 1626) each of whom painted works for the church of Santa Maria Maggiore. Sculptor Giacomo Manzù (1908-1991) and the bass-baritone opera singer Alex Esposito were born in Bergamo. The American electrical engineer and professor Andrew Viterbi, inventor of Viterbi's algorithm, was born in Bergamo, before migrating to the US during the Fascist era because of his Jewish origins. Designers born in Bergamo include the late Mariuccia Mandelli, the founder of Krizia and one of the first female fashion designers to create a successful line of men's wear.


Sports

* Bergamo's football team is Atalanta B.C., Atalanta, who play in the top level Serie A, plays its home games at the Gewiss Stadium. * The city has a women's volleyball team named Volley Bergamo, Foppapedretti Bergamo. * The city is also home to the Bergamo Lions American football team, one of the most successful in European Football League history, winning multiple Eurobowls. * In mid-September, Bergamo hosts the annual Lombardia Trophy, a figure skating event part of the ISU Challenger Series


Education


Transportation


Airport

Bergamo is served by
Il Caravaggio International Airport Orio al Serio International Airport (), branded as Milan Bergamo Airport, is the List of the busiest airports in Italy, third busiest international airport in Italy. It is located in the municipal territory of Orio al Serio, southeast of Bergamo ...
south-east of the town. The city is also served by Milan Linate Airport south-west of Bergamo.


Motorway

Motorway Autostrada A4 (Italy), A4 is the main axis connecting the city with the east and the west of the country, to cities such as
Milan Milan (, , Milanese Milanese (endonym in traditional orthography ''Milanes'', ''Meneghin'') is the central variety of the Western dialect of the Lombard language spoken in Milan, the rest of its Metropolitan City of Milan, metropolitan cit ...

Milan
,
Turin Turin ( , : ; it, Torino ; lat, Augusta Taurinorum, then ''Taurinum'') is a city and an important business and cultural centre in . It is the of and of the , and was the first Italian capital from 1861 to 1865. The city is mainly on the wes ...

Turin
,
Verona Verona ( , ; vec, Verona or ''Veròna'') is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. ...

Verona
, Venice and
Trieste Trieste ( , ; sl, Trst ; german: Triest ) is a city and seaport in northeastern Italy. It is the capital city, and largest city, of the Regions of Italy#Autonomous regions with special statute, autonomous region of Friuli Venezia Giulia, one of t ...

Trieste
.


Railway

Bergamo railway station is connected to
Milan Milan (, , Milanese Milanese (endonym in traditional orthography ''Milanes'', ''Meneghin'') is the central variety of the Western dialect of the Lombard language spoken in Milan, the rest of its Metropolitan City of Milan, metropolitan cit ...

Milan
, Lecco, Cremona, Treviglio,
Brescia Brescia (, locally ; lmo, link=no, label=Lombard The term Lombard refers to members of or things related to Lombardy (man) it, Lombarda (woman) lmo, Lombard (man) lmo, Lombarda (woman) , population_note = , population_bla ...

Brescia
and Monza with regional trains operated by Trenord. The city is also served by two daily Frecciargento services to Rome operated by Trenitalia.


Urban transport

Transport within Bergamo is managed by ATB and includes a network of bus lines together with two funicular systems opened in 1887 (Bergamo Funicular railway Upper Town - Lower Town, Bergamo Upper City funicular) and in 1912 (Bergamo - San Vigilio funicular). The Bergamo–Albino light rail was inaugurated in 2009. Two light rail lines are currently in the planning stage: * Line 2 Bergamo FS – Villa d'Almè – San Pellegrino Terme * Line 3 Hospital-Railway Station FS-Trade Fair – Bergamo Airport


International relations


Twin towns − sister cities

Bergamo is Twin towns and sister cities, twinned with: * Greenville, South Carolina, United States, since 1985 * Pueblo, Colorado, United States * Mulhouse, France, since 1989 * Tver, Russia, since 1989 * Bengbu, China, since 1988 * Cochabamba, Bolivia, since 2008 * Gmina Olkusz, Olkusz, Poland, since 2009 * Buenos Aires, Argentina Bergamo has a partnership with: * Dąbrowa Górnicza, Poland * Bolesław, Olkusz County, Bolesław, Poland * Posadas, Misiones, Posadas, Argentina, as Friendship and Cooperation city since 1998


Consulates

Bergamo is home to the following Consul (representative)#Consulates and embassies, consulates: * Bolivia * Malawi *
Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under a multi-party assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_t ...

Switzerland


Notable people

*Asteria of Bergamo, Saint Asteria of Bergamo *Giovanni Michele Alberto da Carrara *Gaetano Donizetti *Gianandrea Gavazzeni *Matteo Guerinoni *Claudio Corti (cyclist) *Pietro Locatelli *Lorenzo Lotto *Giacomo Manzù *Alfredo Piatti *Andrea Previtali *Giada Rossi


See also

*
Lombardy Lombardy ( ; it, Lombardia ; lmo, Lombardia, , ) is one of the twenty administrative , in the of the country, with an area of . About 10 million people live in Lombardy, forming more than one-sixth of Italy's population, and more than a fifth of ...
*
Province of Bergamo The Province of Bergamo ( it, provincia di Bergamo; lmo, proìnsa de Bèrghem) is a Provinces of Italy, province in the Lombardy region of Italy. It has a population of 1,112,187 (2017), an area of , and contains 243 ''comuni''. Its capital is th ...


References


Bibliography


External links


Municipality of Bergamo official website

Visit Bergamo
{{Authority control Bergamo, Castles in Italy History of Bergamo University towns in Italy Territories of the Republic of Venice