AncestryBenjamin Franklin's father, , was a , soaper, and maker. Josiah Franklin was born at , England on December 23, 1657, the son of blacksmith and farmer Thomas Franklin and Jane White. Benjamin's father and all four of his grandparents were born in England. Josiah Franklin had a total of seventeen children with his two wives. He married his first wife, Anne Child, in about 1677 in Ecton and emigrated with her to in 1683; they had three children before emigration, and four after. Following her death, Josiah was married to on July 9, 1689, in the by Reverend Samuel Willard, and would eventually have ten children with her. Benjamin, their eighth child, was Josiah Franklin's fifteenth child overall, and his tenth and final son. Benjamin Franklin's mother, Abiah, was born in , , on August 15, 1667, to Peter Folger, a miller and schoolteacher, and his wife, , a former . Mary Folger came from a Puritan family that was among the first Pilgrims to flee to Massachusetts for , sailing for in 1635 after had begun persecuting Puritans. Her father Peter was "the sort of rebel destined to transform colonial America." As , he was jailed for disobeying the local magistrate in defense of middle-class shopkeepers and artisans in conflict with wealthy landowners. Benjamin Franklin followed in his grandfather's footsteps in his battles against the wealthy family that owned the .
Early life in BostonBenjamin Franklin was born on Milk Street, in , , on January 17, 1706, and at Old South Meeting House. As a child growing up along the Charles River, Franklin recalled that he was "generally the leader among the boys." Josiah wanted Ben to attend school with the clergy but only had enough money to send him to school for two years. He attended but did not graduate; he continued his education through voracious reading. Although "his parents talked of the church as a career" for Franklin, his schooling ended when he was ten. He worked for his father for a time, and at 12 he became an to his brother James, a printer, who taught Ben the printing trade. When Ben was 15, James founded '' '', which was the first truly independent newspaper in the colonies. When denied the chance to write a letter to the paper for publication, Franklin adopted the pseudonym of " Silence Dogood", a middle-aged widow. Mrs. Dogood's letters were published and became a subject of conversation around town. Neither James nor the ''Courants readers were aware of the ruse, and James was unhappy with Ben when he discovered the popular correspondent was his younger brother. Franklin was an advocate of free speech from an early age. When his brother was jailed for three weeks in 1722 for publishing material unflattering to the governor, young Franklin took over the newspaper and had Mrs. Dogood (quoting '' '') proclaim: "Without freedom of thought there can be no such thing as wisdom and no such thing as public liberty without freedom of speech." Franklin left his apprenticeship without his brother's permission, and in so doing became a .Carl Van Doren, ''Benjamin Franklin''. (1938).
PhiladelphiaAt age 17, Franklin ran away to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, seeking a new start in a new city. When he first arrived, he worked in several printer shops around town, but he was not satisfied by the immediate prospects. After a few months, while working in a printing house, Franklin was convinced by Pennsylvania governor Sir William Keith to go to London, ostensibly to acquire the equipment necessary for establishing another newspaper in Philadelphia. Finding Keith's promises of backing a newspaper empty, Franklin worked as a in a printer's shop in what is now the Church of St Bartholomew-the-Great in the area of London. Following this, he returned to Philadelphia in 1726 with the help of Thomas Denham, a merchant who employed Franklin as clerk, shopkeeper, and bookkeeper in his business.
Junto and libraryIn 1727, Benjamin Franklin, then 21, formed the Junto, a group of "like minded aspiring artisans and tradesmen who hoped to improve themselves while they improved their community." The Junto was a discussion group for issues of the day; it subsequently gave rise to many organizations in Philadelphia. The Junto was modeled after English coffeehouses that Franklin knew well, and which had become the center of the spread of Enlightenment ideas in Britain. Reading was a great pastime of the Junto, but books were rare and expensive. The members created a library initially assembled from their own books after Franklin wrote: This did not suffice, however. Franklin conceived the idea of a , which would pool the funds of the members to buy books for all to read. This was the birth of the : its charter was composed by Franklin in 1731. In 1732, Franklin hired the first American librarian, . The Library Company is now a great scholarly and .
NewspapermanUpon Denham's death, Franklin returned to his former trade. In 1728, Franklin had set up a printing house in partnership with ; the following year he became the publisher of a newspaper called '' ''. The ''Gazette'' gave Franklin a forum for agitation about a variety of local reforms and initiatives through printed essays and observations. Over time, his commentary, and his adroit cultivation of a positive image as an industrious and intellectual young man, earned him a great deal of social respect. But even after Franklin had achieved fame as a scientist and statesman, he habitually signed his letters with the unpretentious 'B. Franklin, Printer.' In 1732, Ben Franklin published the first newspaper in America – ''Die Philadelphische Zeitung'' – although it failed after only one year because four other newly founded German papers quickly dominated the newspaper market. Franklin printed religious books in German. Franklin often visited , staying at the Moravian Sun Inn. In a 1751 pamphlet on demographic growth and its implications for the colonies, he called the Pennsylvania Germans "Palatine Boors" who could never acquire the "Complexion" of the English settlers and referred to "Blacks and Tawneys" as weakening the social structure of the colonies. Although Franklin apparently reconsidered shortly thereafter, and the phrases were omitted from all later printings of the pamphlet, his views may have played a role in his political defeat in 1764. According to Ralph Frasca. Franklin promoted the printing press as a device to instruct colonial Americans in moral virtue. Frasca argues he saw this as a service to God, because he understood moral virtue in terms of actions, thus, doing good provides a service to God. Despite his own moral lapses, Franklin saw himself as uniquely qualified to instruct Americans in morality. He tried to influence American moral life through the construction of a printing network based on a chain of partnerships from the Carolinas to New England. Franklin thereby invented the first newspaper chain. It was more than a business venture, for like many publishers since he believed that the press had a public-service duty. When Franklin established himself in Philadelphia, shortly before 1730, the town boasted two "wretched little" news sheets, 's ''The American Weekly Mercury'', and 's ''Universal Instructor in all Arts and Sciences, and Pennsylvania Gazette''. This instruction in all arts and sciences consisted of weekly extracts from ''Chambers's Universal Dictionary''. Franklin quickly did away with all this when he took over the ''Instructor'' and made it ''The Pennsylvania Gazette''. The ''Gazette'' soon became Franklin's characteristic organ, which he freely used for satire, for the play of his wit, even for sheer excess of mischief or of fun. From the first, he had a way of adapting his models to his own uses. The series of essays called " The Busy-Body", which he wrote for Bradford's ''American Mercury'' in 1729, followed the general form, already modified to suit homelier conditions. The thrifty Patience, in her busy little shop, complaining of the useless visitors who waste her valuable time, is related to the women who address Mr. Spectator. The Busy-Body himself is a true Censor Morum, as had been in the ''Tatler''. And a number of the fictitious characters, Ridentius, Eugenius, Cato, and Cretico, represent traditional 18th-century classicism. Even this Franklin could use for contemporary satire, since Cretico, the "sowre Philosopher", is evidently a portrait of Franklin's rival, . Franklin had mixed success in his plan to establish an inter-colonial network of newspapers that would produce a profit for him and disseminate virtue. Over the years he sponsored two dozen printers in Pennsylvania, South Carolina, New York, Connecticut and even the Caribbean. By 1753, eight of the 15 English language newspapers in the colonies were published by Franklin or his partners. He began in , in 1731. After Franklin's second editor died, the widow Elizabeth Timothy took over and made it a success, 1738–1746. She was one of the colonial era's first woman printers. For three decades Franklin maintained a close business relationship with her and her son Peter Timothy who took over the '' South Carolina Gazette'' in 1746. The ''Gazette'' was impartial in political debates, while creating the opportunity for public debate, which encouraged others to challenge authority. Editor Peter Timothy avoided blandness and crude bias, and after 1765 increasingly took a patriotic stand in the growing crisis with Great Britain. However, Franklin's ''Connecticut Gazette'' (1755–68) proved unsuccessful. As the Revolution approached political strife slowly tore his network apart.
FreemasonryIn 1730 or 1731, Franklin was initiated into the local . He became a in 1734, indicating his rapid rise to prominence in Pennsylvania., ''Mysteries of the Freemasons: America'', video documentary, August 1, 2006, written by Noah Nicholas and Molly Bedell The same year, he edited and published the first Masonic book in the Americas, a reprint of James Anderson's '' ''. He was the of St. John's Lodge in Philadelphia from 1735 to 1738. Franklin remained a Freemason for the rest of his life.
Common-law marriage to Deborah ReadAt age 17 in 1723, Franklin proposed to 15-year-old while a boarder in the Read home. At that time, Read's mother was wary of allowing her young daughter to marry Franklin, who was on his way to London at Governor Sir William Keith’s request, and also because of his financial instability. Her own husband had recently died, and she declined Franklin's request to marry her daughter. While Franklin was in London, his trip was extended, and there were problems with Sir William's promises of support. Perhaps because of the circumstances of this delay, Deborah married a man named John Rodgers. This proved to be a regrettable decision. Rodgers shortly avoided his debts and prosecution by fleeing to with her , leaving her behind. Rodgers's fate was unknown, and because of laws, Deborah was not free to remarry. Franklin established a with Deborah Read on September 1, 1730. They took in Franklin's recently acknowledged young illegitimate son, , and raised him in their household. They had two children together. Their son, , was born in October 1732 and died of in 1736. Their daughter, Sarah "Sally" Franklin, was born in 1743 and grew up to marry , have seven children, and look after her father in his old age. Deborah's fear of the sea meant that she never accompanied Franklin on any of his extended trips to Europe, and another possible reason why they spent so much time apart is that he may have blamed her for possibly preventing their son Francis from being inoculated against the disease that subsequently killed him. Deborah wrote to him in November 1769 saying she was ill due to "dissatisfied distress" from his prolonged absence, but he did not return until his business was done. Deborah Read Franklin died of a stroke on December 14, 1774, while Franklin was on an extended mission to Great Britain; he returned in 1775.
William FranklinIn 1730, 24-year-old Franklin publicly acknowledged the existence of his son , who was deemed "illegitimate," as he was born out of wedlock, and raised him in his household. William was born February 22, 1730, and his mother's identity is still unknown. He was educated in Philadelphia, and beginning at about age 30, studied law in London in the early 1760s. He himself fathered an illegitimate son, , born on the same date, February 22, 1760. The boy's mother was never identified, and he was placed in foster care. In 1762, the elder William Franklin married Elizabeth Downes, daughter of a from , in London. After William passed the bar, his father helped him gain an appointment one year later in 1763 as the last royal governor of New Jersey. A to the king, William Franklin and his father Benjamin eventually broke relations over their differences about the , as Benjamin Franklin could never accept William's position. Deposed in 1776 by the revolutionary government of New Jersey, William, who was Royal Governor, was placed under house arrest at his home in for six months. After the , William was formally taken into custody by order of the , an entity which he refused to recognize, regarding it as an "illegal assembly." He was incarcerated in Connecticut for two years, in and Middletown, and after being caught surreptitiously engaging Americans into supporting the Loyalist cause, was held in solitary confinement at Litchfield for eight months. When finally released in a prisoner exchange in 1778, he moved to New York City, which was still occupied by the British at the time. While in New York City, he became leader of the Board of Associated Loyalists, a quasi-military organization chartered by and headquartered in New York City. They initiated guerrilla forays into , southern , and New York counties north of the city. When British troops evacuated from New York, William Franklin left with them and sailed to England. He settled in London, never to return to North America. In the preliminary peace talks in 1782 with Britain, "... Benjamin Franklin insisted that loyalists who had borne arms against the United States would be excluded from this plea (that they be given a general pardon). He was undoubtedly thinking of William Franklin."
Success as an authorIn 1733, Franklin began to publish the noted '' '' (with content both original and borrowed) under the pseudonym Richard Saunders, on which much of his popular reputation is based. Franklin frequently wrote under pseudonyms. Although it was no secret that Franklin was the author, his Richard Saunders character repeatedly denied it. "Poor Richard's Proverbs", adages from this almanac, such as "A penny saved is twopence dear" (often misquoted as "A penny saved is a penny earned") and "Fish and visitors stink in three days", remain common quotations in the modern world. Wisdom in folk society meant the ability to provide an apt adage for any occasion, and Franklin's readers became well prepared. He sold about ten thousand copies per year—it became an institution. In 1741, Franklin began publishing ''The General Magazine and Historical Chronicle for all the British Plantations in America'', the first such monthly magazine of this type published in America. In 1758, the year he ceased writing for the Almanack, he printed ''Father Abraham's Sermon'', also known as '' The Way to Wealth''. Franklin's The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin, autobiography, begun in 1771 but published after his death, has become one of the classics of the genre. Daylight saving time (DST) is often erroneously attributed to a 1784 satire that Franklin published anonymity, anonymously. Modern DST was first proposed by George Vernon Hudson in 1895.
Inventions and scientific inquiriesFranklin was a prodigious inventor. Among his many creations were the , glass harmonica (a glass instrument, not to be confused with the Harmonica, metal harmonica), , bifocals, bifocal glasses and the flexible urinary catheterization, urinary catheter. Franklin never patented his inventions; in his The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin, autobiography he wrote, "... as we enjoy great advantages from the inventions of others, we should be glad of an opportunity to serve others by any invention of ours; and this we should do freely and generously."
ElectricityFranklin started exploring the phenomenon of electricity in 1746 when he saw some of Archibald Spencer's lectures using static electricity for illustrations. Franklin proposed that "vitreous" and "resinous" electricity were not different types of "Aether theories, electrical fluid" (as electricity was called then), but the same "fluid" under different pressures. (The same proposal was made independently that same year by William Watson (scientist), William Watson.) Franklin was the first to label them as electric charge, positive and negative respectively, and he was the first to discover the principle of charge conservation, conservation of charge. In 1748, he constructed a multiple plate capacitor, that he called an "electrical battery" (not to be confused with Alessandro Volta, Volta's Voltaic pile, pile) by placing eleven panes of glass sandwiched between lead plates, suspended with silk cords and connected by wires. In pursuit of more pragmatic uses for electricity, remarking in spring 1749 that he felt "chagrin'd a little" that his experiments had heretofore resulted in "Nothing in this Way of Use to Mankind," Franklin planned a practical demonstration. He proposed a dinner party where a turkey was to be killed with electric shock and roasted on an electrical spit. After having prepared several turkeys this way, Franklin noted that "the birds kill'd in this manner eat uncommonly tender." Franklin recounted that in the process of one of these experiments, he was shocked by a pair of Leyden jars, resulting in numbness in his arms that persisted for one evening, noting "I am Ashamed to have been Guilty of so Notorious a Blunder." In recognition of his work with electricity, Franklin received the Royal Society's Copley Medal in 1753, and in 1756, he became one of the few 18th-century Americans elected as a Fellow of the Society. He received honorary degrees from Harvard and Yale universities (his first). The centimetre–gram–second system of units, CGS unit of electric charge has been named after him: one ''franklin'' (Fr) is equal to one statcoulomb. Franklin advised Harvard University in its acquisition of new electrical laboratory apparatus after the complete loss of its original collection, in a fire that destroyed the original Harvard Hall in 1764. The collection he assembled would later become part of the Harvard Collection of Historical Scientific Instruments, now on public display in its Harvard Science Center, Science Center. Franklin briefly investigated electrotherapy, including the use of the electric bath (electrotherapy), electric bath. This work led to the field becoming widely known.
Kite experiment and lightning rodFranklin published a proposal for an experiment to prove that lightning is electricity by Kite experiment, flying a kite in a storm that appeared capable of becoming a lightning storm. On May 10, 1752, Thomas-François Dalibard of France conducted Franklin's experiment using a iron rod instead of a kite, and he extracted electrical sparks from a cloud. On June 15, 1752, Franklin may possibly have conducted his well-known kite experiment St. Stephen's Episcopal Church (Philadelphia), in Philadelphia, successfully extracting sparks from a cloud. Franklin described the experiment in the '' '' on October 19, 1752, without mentioning that he himself had performed it. This account was read to the Royal Society on December 21 and printed as such in the ''Philosophical Transactions''.National Archives
Population studiesFranklin had a major influence on the emerging science of demography, or population studies. In the 1730s and 1740s, Franklin began taking notes on population growth, finding that the American population had the fastest growth rate on Earth. Emphasizing that population growth depended on food supplies, Franklin emphasized the abundance of food and available farmland in America. He calculated that America's population was doubling every twenty years and would surpass that of England in a century. In 1751, he drafted Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind, Peopling of Countries, etc., ''Observations concerning the Increase of Mankind, Peopling of Countries, etc.'' Four years later, it was anonymously printed in Boston, and it was quickly reproduced in Britain, where it influenced the economist Adam Smith and later the demographer Thomas Malthus, who credited Franklin for discovering a rule of population growth. Franklin's predictions how British mercantilism was unsustainable alarmed British leaders who did not want to be surpassed by the colonies, so they became more willing to impose restrictions on the colonial economy. Kammen (1990) and Drake (2011) say Franklin's ''Observations concerning the Increase of Mankind'' (1755) stands alongside Ezra Stiles' "Discourse on Christian Union" (1760) as the leading works of eighteenth-century Anglo-American demography; Drake credits Franklin's "wide readership and prophetic insight." Franklin was also a pioneer in the study of slave demography, as shown in his 1755 essay. Benjamin Franklin, in his capacity as a farmer, wrote at least one critique about the negative consequences of price controls, trade restrictions, and subsidy of the poor. This is succinctly preserved in his letter to the ''London Chronicle'' published November 29, 1766, titled 'On the Price of Corn, and Management of the poor'.
Atlantic Ocean currentsAs deputy postmaster, Franklin became interested in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean circulation patterns. While in England in 1768, he heard a complaint from the Colonial Board of Customs: Why did it take British packet ships carrying mail several weeks longer to reach New York than it took an average merchant ship to reach Newport, Rhode Island? The merchantmen had a longer and more complex voyage because they left from London, while the packets left from Falmouth, Cornwall, Falmouth in Cornwall. Franklin put the question to his cousin Timothy Folger, a whaler captain, who told him that merchant ships routinely avoided a strong eastbound mid-ocean current. The mail packet captains sailed dead into it, thus fighting an adverse current of . Franklin worked with Folger and other experienced ship captains, learning enough to chart the current and name it the Gulf Stream, by which it is still known today. Franklin published his Gulf Stream chart in 1770 in England, where it was completely ignored. Subsequent versions were printed in France in 1778 and the U.S. in 1786. The British edition of the chart, which was the original, was so thoroughly ignored that everyone assumed it was lost forever until Phil Richardson, a Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole oceanographer and Gulf Stream expert, discovered it in the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris in 1980. This find received front-page coverage in ''The New York Times''. It took many years for British sea captains to adopt Franklin's advice on navigating the current; once they did, they were able to trim two weeks from their sailing time. In 1853, the oceanographer and cartographer Matthew Fontaine Maury noted that while Franklin charted and codified the Gulf Stream, he did not discover it:
Wave theory of lightFranklin was, along with his contemporary Leonhard Euler, the only major scientist who supported Christiaan Huygens's wave theory of light, which was basically ignored by the rest of the scientific community. In the 18th century, Isaac Newton, Newton's corpuscular theory of light, corpuscular theory was held to be true; only after Thomas Young (scientist), Young's well-known slit experiment in 1803 were most scientists persuaded to believe Huygens's theory.
MeteorologyOn October 21, 1743, according to the popular myth, a storm moving from the southwest denied Franklin the opportunity of witnessing a lunar eclipse. Franklin was said to have noted that the prevailing winds were actually from the northeast, contrary to what he had expected. In correspondence with his brother, Franklin learned that the same storm had not reached Boston until after the eclipse, despite the fact that Boston is to the northeast of Philadelphia. He deduced that storms do not always travel in the direction of the prevailing wind, a concept that greatly influenced meteorology. After the Icelandic volcanic eruption of Laki in 1783, and the subsequent harsh European winter of 1784, Franklin made observations connecting the causal nature of these two separate events. He wrote about them in a lecture series.
Traction kitingThough Benjamin Franklin has been most noted kite-wise for his lightning experiments, he has also been noted by many for using kites to pull humans and ships across waterways. The George Pocock (inventor), George Pocock in the book ''A TREATISE on The Aeropleustic Art, or Navigation in the Air, by means of Kites, or Buoyant Sails'' noted being inspired by Benjamin Franklin's traction of his body by kite power across a waterway. In his later years, he suggested using the technique for pulling ships.
Concept of coolingFranklin noted a principle of refrigeration by observing that on a very hot day, he stayed cooler in a wet shirt in a breeze than he did in a dry one. To understand this phenomenon more clearly Franklin conducted experiments. In 1758 on a warm day in Cambridge, England, Franklin and fellow scientist John Hadley (chemist), John Hadley experimented by continually wetting the ball of a mercury thermometer with diethyl ether, ether and using bellows to evaporate the ether. With each subsequent evaporation, the thermometer read a lower temperature, eventually reaching . Another thermometer showed that the room temperature was constant at . In his letter ''Cooling by Evaporation'', Franklin noted that, "One may see the possibility of freezing a man to death on a warm summer's day."
Temperature's effect on electrical conductivityAccording to Michael Faraday, Franklin's experiments on the non-conduction of ice are worth mentioning, although the law of the general effect of liquefaction on electrolytes is not attributed to Franklin. However, as reported in 1836 by Prof. A. D. Bache of the University of Pennsylvania, the law of the effect of heat on the conduction of bodies otherwise non-conductors, for example, glass, could be attributed to Franklin. Franklin writes, "... A certain quantity of heat will make some bodies good conductors, that will not otherwise conduct ..." and again, "... And water, though naturally a good conductor, will not conduct well when frozen into ice."
Oceanography findingsAn aging Franklin accumulated all his oceanographic findings in ''Maritime Observations'', published by the Philosophical Society's ''transactions'' in 1786. It contained ideas for sea anchors, catamaran hulls, watertight compartments, shipboard lightning rods and a soup bowl designed to stay stable in stormy weather.
Decision-makingIn a 1772 letter to Joseph Priestley, Franklin lays out the earliest known description of the Pro & Con list, a common decision-making technique, now sometimes called a decisional balance sheet:
Oil on waterWhile traveling on a ship, Franklin had observed that the wake of a ship storm oil, was diminished when the cooks scuttled their greasy water. He studied the effects on a large pond in Clapham Common, London. "I fetched out a cruet of oil and dropt a little of it on the water ... though not more than a teaspoon full, produced an instant calm over a space of several yards square." He later used the trick to "calm the waters" by carrying "a little oil in the hollow joint of my cane".
Musical endeavorsFranklin is known to have played the violin, the harp, and the guitar. He also composed music, notably a string quartet in classical period (music), early classical style. While he was in London, he developed a much-improved version of the glass harmonica, in which the glasses rotate on a shaft, with the player's fingers held steady, instead of the other way around. He worked with the London glassblower Charles James to create it, and instruments based on his mechanical version soon found their way to other parts of Europe. Joseph Haydn, a fan of Franklin's enlightened ideas, had a glass harmonica in his instrument collection. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Mozart composed for Franklin's glass harmonica, as did Ludwig van Beethoven, Beethoven. Gaetano Donizetti used the instrument in the accompaniment to Amelia's aria "Par che mi dica ancora" in the tragic opera ''Il castello di Kenilworth'' (1821), as did Camille Saint-Saëns in his 1886 ''The Carnival of the Animals''. Richard Strauss calls for the glass harmonica in his 1917 ''Die Frau ohne Schatten'', and numerous other composers used Franklin's instrument as well.
ChessFranklin was an avid chess player. He was playing chess by around 1733, making him the first chess player known by name in the American colonies. His essay on "The Morals of Chess" in ''Columbian Magazine'' in December 1786 is the second known writing on chess in America. This essay in praise of chess and prescribing a code of behavior for the game has been widely reprinted and translated. He and a friend also used chess as a means of learning the Italian language, which both were studying; the winner of each game between them had the right to assign a task, such as parts of the Italian grammar to be learned by heart, to be performed by the loser before their next meeting. Franklin was able to play chess more frequently against stronger opposition during his many years as a civil servant and diplomat in England, where the game was far better established than in America. He was able to improve his playing standard by facing more experienced players during this period. He regularly attended Old Slaughter's Coffee House in London for chess and socializing, making many important personal contacts. While in Paris, both as a visitor and later as ambassador, he visited the famous Café de la Régence, which France's strongest players made their regular meeting place. No records of his games have survived, so it is not possible to ascertain his playing strength in modern terms. Franklin was inducted into the World Chess Hall of Fame, U.S. Chess Hall of Fame in 1999. The Franklin Mercantile Chess Club in Philadelphia, the second oldest chess club in the U.S., is named in his honor.
Early steps in PennsylvaniaIn 1736, Franklin created the Union Fire Company, one of the first Volunteer fire department, volunteer firefighting companies in America. In the same year, he printed a new currency for based on innovative anti-counterfeiting techniques he had devised. Throughout his career, Franklin was an advocate for Banknote, paper money, publishing ''A Modest Enquiry into the Nature and Necessity of a Paper Currency'' in 1729, and his printer printed money. He was influential in the more restrained and thus successful monetary experiments in the Middle Colonies, which stopped deflation without causing excessive inflation. In 1766 he made a case for paper money to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, British House of Commons. As he matured, Franklin began to concern himself more with public affairs. In 1743, he first devised a scheme for The Academy and College of Philadelphia, the Academy, Charity School, and College of Philadelphia. However, the person he had in mind to run the academy, Rev. Richard Peters (priest), Richard Peters, refused and Franklin put his ideas away until 1749 when he printed his own pamphlet, ''Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pensilvania.'' He was appointed president of the Academy on November 13, 1749; the Academy and the charity school opened on August 13, 1751. In 1743, Franklin founded the to help scientific men discuss their discoveries and theories. He began the electrical research that, along with other scientific inquiries, would occupy him for the rest of his life, in between bouts of politics and moneymaking. During King George's War (1744–1748), Franklin raised a militia called the Association for General Defense, because the legislators of the city decided to take no action to defend Philadelphia "either by erecting fortifications or building Ships of War". He raised money to create earthwork defenses and buy artillery. The largest of these was the "Association Battery" or "Grand Battery" of 50 guns. In 1747, Franklin (already a very wealthy man) retired from printing and went into other businesses. He created a partnership with his foreman, David Hall (publisher), David Hall, which provided Franklin with half of the shop's profits for 18 years. This lucrative business arrangement provided leisure time for study, and in a few years he had made discoveries that gave him a reputation with educated persons throughout Europe and especially in France. Franklin became involved in Philadelphia politics and rapidly progressed. In October 1748, he was selected as a councilman, in June 1749 he became a Justice of the Peace for Philadelphia, and in 1751 he was elected to the Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly, Pennsylvania Assembly. On August 10, 1753, Franklin was appointed deputy postmaster-general of British North America, (#Postmaster, see below). His most notable service in domestic politics was his reform of the postal system, with mail sent out every week. In 1751, Franklin and Thomas Bond (American physician), Thomas Bond obtained a charter from the Pennsylvania legislature to establish a hospital. Pennsylvania Hospital was the first hospital in what was to become the United States of America. In 1752, Franklin organized the Philadelphia Contributionship, the first homeowner's insurance company in what would become the United States. Between 1750 and 1753, the "educational triumvirate" of Benjamin Franklin, the American Samuel Johnson (American educator), Samuel Johnson of Stratford, Connecticut, and the immigrant Scottish schoolteacher William Smith (Episcopal priest), William Smith built on Franklin's initial scheme and created what James Madison (bishop), Bishop James Madison, president of the College of William & Mary, called a "new-model" plan or style of American college. Franklin solicited, printed in 1752, and promoted an American textbook of ethics, moral philosophy by Samuel Johnson, titled ''Elementa Philosophica'', to be taught in the new colleges to replace courses in denominational divinity. In June 1753, Johnson, Franklin, and Smith met in Stratford. They decided the new-model college would focus on the professions, with classes taught in English instead of Latin, have subject matter experts as professors instead of one tutor leading a class for four years, and there would be no religious test for admission. Johnson went on to found King's College (now Columbia University) in New York City in 1754, while Franklin hired Smith as Provost of the College of Philadelphia, which opened in 1755. At its first commencement, on May 17, 1757, seven men graduated; six with a Bachelor of Arts and one as Master of Arts. It was later merged with the University of the State of Pennsylvania to become the . The college was to become influential in guiding :Template:Founding Documents of America, the founding documents of the United States: in the Continental Congress, for example, over one-third of the college-affiliated men who contributed the ''United States Declaration of Independence, Declaration of Independence'' between September 4, 1774, and July 4, 1776, was affiliated with the college. In 1753, both Harvard University, Harvard and Yale awarded him honorary master of arts degrees. In 1754, he headed the Pennsylvania delegation to the Albany Congress. This meeting of several colonies had been requested by the Board of Trade in England to improve relations with the Indians and defense against the French. Franklin proposed a broad Albany Plan, Plan of Union for the colonies. While the plan was not adopted, elements of it found their way into the Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution, Constitution. In 1756, Franklin received an honorary Master of Arts degree from the College of William & Mary. Later in 1756, Franklin organized the Pennsylvania Militia (see "Associated Regiment of Philadelphia" under heading of Pennsylvania's 103rd Artillery and 111th Infantry Regiment (United States), 111th Infantry Regiment at Continental Army). He used Tun Tavern as a gathering place to recruit a regiment of soldiers to go into battle against the Native American uprisings that beset the American colonies. Reportedly Franklin was elected "Colonel" of the Associated Regiment but declined the honor.
Decades in LondonFrom the mid-1750s to the mid-1770s, Franklin spent much of his time in London. Officially he was there on a political mission, but he used his time to further his scientific explorations as well, meeting many notable people.
Political work in LondonIn 1757, he was sent to England by the Pennsylvania Assembly as a colonial agent to protest against the political influence of the Penn family, the proprietary colony, proprietors of the colony. He remained there for five years, striving to end the proprietors' prerogative to overturn legislation from the elected Assembly, and their exemption from paying taxes on their land. His lack of influential allies in Whitehall led to the failure of this mission. At this time, many members of the Pennsylvania Assembly were feuding with List of colonial governors of Pennsylvania#Proprietors, William Penn's heirs, who controlled the colony as proprietors. After his return to the colony, Franklin led the "anti-proprietary party" in the struggle against the Penn family, and was elected Speaker of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives, Speaker of the Pennsylvania House in May 1764. His call for a change from proprietary to royal government was a rare political miscalculation, however: Pennsylvanians worried that such a move would endanger their political and religious freedoms. Because of these fears, and because of political attacks on his character, Franklin lost his seat in the October 1764 Assembly elections. The anti-proprietary party dispatched Franklin to England again to continue the struggle against the Penn family proprietorship. During this trip, events drastically changed the nature of his mission.J.A. Leo Lematy, "Franklin, Benjamin". ''American National Biography Online'', February 2000. In London, Franklin opposed the Stamp Act 1765, 1765 Stamp Act. Unable to prevent its passage, he made another political miscalculation and recommended a friend to the post of stamp distributor for Pennsylvania. Pennsylvanians were outraged, believing that he had supported the measure all along, and threatened to destroy his home in Philadelphia. Franklin soon learned of the extent of colonial resistance to the Stamp Act, and he testified during the House of Commons proceedings that led to its repeal. With this, Franklin suddenly emerged as the leading spokesman for American interests in England. He wrote popular essays on behalf of the colonies. Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia, , and Massachusetts also appointed him as their agent to the Crown. Franklin lodged in a house in Craven Street, just off Strand, London, The Strand in central London. During his stays there, he developed a close friendship with his landlady, Margaret Stevenson, and her circle of friends and relations, in particular, her daughter Mary, who was more often known as Polly. Their house, which he used on various lengthy missions from 1757 to 1775, is the only one of his residences to survive. It opened to the public as the Benjamin Franklin House museum in 2006. Franklin conversed and corresponded with many important Britons during this period. Among his inner circle were the printer William Strahan (publisher), William Strahan and the jurist Richard Jackson (colonial agent), Richard Jackson. He also corresponded with leading figures in the Scottish Enlightenment, including David Hume. Whilst in London, Franklin became involved in Radicalism (historical), radical politics. He belonged to a gentleman's club (which he called "the honest Radical Whigs, Whigs"), which held stated meetings, and included members such as Richard Price, the minister of Newington Green Unitarian Church who ignited the Revolution controversy, and Andrew Kippis. In 1763, Franklin's illegitimate son William Franklin, by then an attorney and assistant to Franklin's colonial advocacy in London, was appointed Governor of New Jersey, Colonial Governor of New Jersey.
Scientific work in LondonIn 1756, Franklin had become a member of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures & Commerce (now the Royal Society of Arts or RSA), which had been founded in 1754 and whose early meetings took place in English coffeehouses in the 17th and 18th centuries, Covent Garden coffee shops. After his return to the United States in 1775, Franklin became the Society's Corresponding Member, continuing a close connection. The RSA instituted a Benjamin Franklin Medal (Royal Society of Arts), Benjamin Franklin Medal in 1956 to commemorate the 250th anniversary of his birth and the 200th anniversary of his membership of the RSA. The study of natural philosophy (what we would call science) drew him into overlapping circles of acquaintance. Franklin was, for example, a corresponding member of the Lunar Society of Birmingham, which included such other scientific and industrial luminaries as Matthew Boulton, James Watt, Josiah Wedgwood and Erasmus Darwin; on occasion he visited them. In 1759, the University of St Andrews awarded Franklin an honorary doctorate in recognition of his accomplishments. He was also awarded an honorary doctorate by Oxford University in 1762. Because of these honors, Franklin was often addressed as " Franklin." While living in London in 1768, Benjamin Franklin's phonetic alphabet, he developed a phonetic alphabet in ''A Scheme for a new Alphabet and a Reformed Mode of Spelling''. This reformed alphabet discarded six letters Franklin regarded as redundant (c, j, q, w, x, and y), and substituted six new letters for sounds he felt lacked letters of their own. This alphabet never caught on, and he eventually lost interest.
Travels around Britain and IrelandFranklin used London as a base to travel. In 1771, he made short journeys through different parts of England, staying with Joseph Priestley at Leeds, Thomas Percival at Manchester and Erasmus Darwin at Lichfield.Sparks, Jared
Visits to EuropeFranklin spent two months in German lands in 1766, but his connections to the country stretched across a lifetime. He declared a debt of gratitude to German scientist Otto von Guericke for his early studies of electricity. Franklin also co-authored the first Treaty of Amity and Commerce (Prussia–United States), treaty of friendship between Prussia and America in 1785. In September 1767, Franklin visited Paris with his usual traveling partner, Sir John Pringle, 1st Baronet. News of his electrical discoveries was widespread in France. His reputation meant that he was introduced to many influential scientists and politicians, and also to Louis XV of France, King Louis XV.Isaacson, Walter. ''Benjamin Franklin: An American Life''. Simon & Schuster. 2003.
Defending the American causeOne line of argument in Parliament was that Americans should pay a share of the costs of the French and Indian War, and that therefore taxes should be levied on them. Franklin became the American spokesman in highly publicized testimony in Parliament in 1766. He stated that Americans already contributed heavily to the defense of the Empire. He said local governments had raised, outfitted and paid 25,000 soldiers to fight France—as many as Britain itself sent—and spent many millions from American treasuries doing so in the French and Indian War alone. In 1773, Franklin published two of his most celebrated pro-American satirical essays: s:Rules By Which A Great Empire May Be Reduced To A Small One, "Rules by Which a Great Empire May Be Reduced to a Small One", and "An Edict by the King of Prussia".
Hutchinson letters leakIn 1772, Franklin obtained private letters of Thomas Hutchinson (governor), Thomas Hutchinson and Andrew Oliver, Governor of Massachusetts, governor and Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts, lieutenant governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, proving that they had encouraged the Crown to crack down on Bostonians. Franklin sent them to America, where they escalated the tensions. The letters were finally News leak, leaked to the public in the ''Boston Gazette'' in mid-June 1773, causing a political firestorm in Massachusetts and raising significant questions in England., p. 29 The British began to regard him as the fomenter of serious trouble. Hopes for a peaceful solution ended as he was systematically ridiculed and humiliated by Solicitor General for England and Wales, Solicitor-General Alexander Wedderburn, 1st Earl of Rosslyn, Alexander Wedderburn, before the Privy Council of the United Kingdom, Privy Council on January 29, 1774. He returned to Philadelphia in March 1775, and abandoned his accommodationist stance.
Agent for British and Hellfire club membershipFranklin is known to have occasionally attended the Hellfire Club's meetings during 1758 as a non-member during his time in England. However, some authors and historians would argue Benjamin Franklin was in fact a British spy. As there are no records left (having been burned in 1774), many of these members are just assumed or linked by letters sent to each other. One early proponent that Franklin was a member of the Hellfire Club and a double agent was the historian Donald McCormick, who has a history of making controversial claims.
Coming of revolutionIn 1763, soon after Franklin returned to Pennsylvania from England for the first time, the western frontier was engulfed in a bitter war known as Pontiac's Rebellion. The Paxton Boys, a group of settlers convinced that the Pennsylvania government was not doing enough to protect them from Native Americans in the United States, American Indian raids, murdered a group of peaceful Susquehannock Indians and marched on Philadelphia. Franklin helped to organize a local militia to defend the capital against the mob. He met with the Paxton leaders and persuaded them to disperse. Franklin wrote a scathing attack against the racism, racial prejudice of the Paxton Boys. "If an ''Indian'' injures me", he asked, "does it follow that I may revenge that Injury on all ''Indians''?" He provided an early response to British surveillance through his own network of Surveillance art, counter-surveillance and manipulation. "He waged a public relations campaign, secured secret aid, played a role in privateering expeditions, and churned out effective and inflammatory propaganda."
Declaration of IndependenceBy the time Franklin arrived in Philadelphia on May 5, 1775, after his second mission to Great Britain, the had begun—with skirmishes breaking out between colonials and British at Battles of Lexington and Concord, Lexington and Concord. The New England militia had forced the main British army to remain inside Boston. The Pennsylvania Assembly unanimously chose Franklin as their delegate to the Second Continental Congress. In June 1776, Franklin was appointed a member of the Committee of Five that drafted the United States Declaration of Independence, Declaration of Independence. Although he was temporarily disabled by gout and unable to attend most meetings of the committee, Franklin made several "small but important" changes to the draft sent to him by Thomas Jefferson. At the signing, he is quoted as having replied to a comment by John Hancock that they must all hang together: "Yes, we must, indeed, all hang together, or most assuredly we shall all hang separately."
PostmasterWell known as a printer and publisher, Franklin was appointed postmaster of Philadelphia in 1737, holding the office until 1753, when he and publisher William Hunter (publisher), William Hunter were named deputy postmasters–general of British North America, the first to hold the office. (Postmaster General of the United Kingdom#Two Postmasters General, Joint appointments were standard at the time, for political reasons.) Franklin was responsible for the British colonies from Pennsylvania north and east, as far as the Newfoundland (island), island of Newfoundland. A post office for local and outgoing mail had been established in Halifax, Nova Scotia, by local stationer Benjamin Leigh, on April 23, 1754, but service was irregular. Franklin opened the first post office to offer regular, monthly mail in what would later become Canada, at Halifax, on December 9, 1755. Meantime, Hunter became postal administrator in Colonial Williamsburg, Williamsburg, Virginia and oversaw areas south of Annapolis, Maryland. Franklin reorganized the service's accounting system, then improved speed of delivery between Philadelphia, New York and Boston. By 1761, efficiencies led to the first profits for the colonial post office. When the lands of New France were ceded to the British under the Treaty of Paris (1763), Treaty of Paris in 1763, the new British Province of Quebec (1763–91), province of Quebec was created among them, and Franklin saw mail service expanded between Montreal, Trois-Rivières, Quebec City, and New York. For the greater part of his appointment, Franklin lived in England (from 1757 to 1762, and again from 1764 to 1774)—about three-quarters of his term. Eventually, his sympathies for the rebel cause in the American Revolution led to his dismissal on January 31, 1774. On July 26, 1775, the Second Continental Congress established the United States Postal Service, United States Post Office and named Benjamin Franklin as the first . Franklin had been a postmaster for decades and was a natural choice for the position. He had just returned from England and was appointed chairman of a Committee of Investigation to establish a postal system. The report of the committee, providing for the appointment of a postmaster general for the 13 American colonies, was considered by the Continental Congress on July 25 and 26. On July 26, 1775, Franklin was appointed Postmaster General, the first appointed under the Continental Congress. It established a postal system that became the United States Post Office, a system that continues to operate today.
Ambassador to France: 1776–1785In December 1776, Franklin was dispatched to France as commissioner for the United States. He took with him as secretary his 16-year-old grandson, . They lived in a home in the Parisian suburb of Passy, donated by Jacques-Donatien Le Ray de Chaumont, who supported the United States. Franklin remained in France until 1785. He conducted the affairs of his country toward the French nation with great success, which included securing a critical military alliance in 1778 and negotiating the Treaty of Paris (1783). Among his associates in France was Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau—a French Revolutionary writer, orator and statesman who in early 1791 would be elected president of the National Constituent Assembly (France), National Assembly. In July 1784, Franklin met with Mirabeau and contributed anonymous materials that the Frenchman used in his first signed work: ''Considerations sur l'ordre de Cincinnatus''. The publication was critical of the Society of the Cincinnati, established in the United States. Franklin and Mirabeau thought of it as a "noble order", inconsistent with the egalitarian ideals of the new republic. During his stay in France, Benjamin Franklin was active as a freemasonry, Freemason, serving as Venerable Master of the Lodge Les Neuf Sœurs from 1779 until 1781. He was the 106th member of the Lodge. In 1784, when Franz Mesmer began to publicize his theory of "animal magnetism" which was considered offensive by many, Louis XVI of France, Louis XVI appointed a commission to investigate it. These included the chemist Antoine Lavoisier, the physician Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, the astronomer Jean Sylvain Bailly, and Benjamin Franklin. In doing so, the committee concluded, through blind trials that Mesmerism only seemed to work when the subjects expected it, which not only discredited Mesmerism, but was the first major demonstration of the placebo effect, which was described at that time as "imagination." In 1781, he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Franklin's advocacy for religious tolerance in France contributed to arguments made by French philosophers and politicians that resulted in Louis XVI of France, Louis XVI's signing of the Edict of Versailles in November 1787. This edict effectively nullified the Edict of Fontainebleau, which had denied non-Catholics civil status and the right to openly practice their faith. Franklin also served as American minister to Sweden, although he never visited that country. He negotiated a Treaty of Amity and Commerce (United States–Sweden), treaty that was signed in April 1783. On August 27, 1783, in Paris, Franklin witnessed the world's first hydrogen balloon (aircraft), balloon flight. ''Robert brothers#First hydrogen balloon, Le Globe'', created by professor Jacques Charles and Robert brothers, Les Frères Robert, was watched by a vast crowd as it rose from the Champ de Mars (now the site of the Eiffel Tower). Franklin became so enthusiastic that he subscribed financially to the next project to build a manned hydrogen balloon. On December 1, 1783, Franklin was seated in the special enclosure for honored guests when ''Robert brothers#First manned hydrogen balloon flight, La Charlière'' took off from the Jardin des Tuileries, piloted by Jacques Charles and Robert brothers, Nicolas-Louis Robert.
Constitutional ConventionWhen he returned home in 1785, Franklin occupied a position only second to that of George Washington as the champion of American independence. Franklin returned from France with an unexplained shortage of 100,000 pounds in Congressional funds. In response to a question from a member of Congress about this, Franklin, quoting the Bible, quipped: "Muzzle not the ox that treadeth out his master's grain." The missing funds were never again mentioned in Congress. Le Ray honored him with a commissioned portrait painted by Joseph Duplessis, which now hangs in the National Portrait Gallery (United States), National Portrait Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. After his return, Franklin became an Abolitionism, abolitionist and freed his two slaves. He eventually became president of the Pennsylvania Abolition Society. In 1787, Franklin served as a delegate to the Philadelphia Convention. He held an honorary position and seldom engaged in debate. He is the only Founding Father who is a signatory of all four of the major documents of the founding of the United States: the Declaration of Independence, the Treaty of Alliance (1778), Treaty of Alliance with France, the Treaty of Paris (1783), Treaty of Paris and the United States Constitution. In 1787, a group of prominent ministers in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, proposed the foundation of a new college named in Franklin's honor. Franklin donated £200 towards the development of Franklin College (now called Franklin & Marshall College). Between 1771 and 1788, he finished his The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin, autobiography. While it was at first addressed to his son, it was later completed for the benefit of mankind at the request of a friend. Franklin strongly supported the right to freedom of speech:
President of PennsylvaniaSpecial balloting conducted October 18, 1785, unanimously elected Franklin the sixth List of governors of Pennsylvania, president of the Supreme Executive Council of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, replacing John Dickinson. The office was practically that of List of governors of Pennsylvania, governor. Franklin held that office for slightly over three years, longer than any other, and served the constitutional limit of three full terms. Shortly after his initial election, he was re-elected to a full term on October 29, 1785, and again in the fall of 1786 and on October 31, 1787. In that capacity he served as host to the Constitutional Convention (United States), Constitutional Convention of 1787 in Philadelphia.
Virtue, religion, and personal beliefsLike the other advocates of Republicanism in the United States, republicanism, Franklin emphasized that the new republic could survive only if the people were virtuous. All his life he explored the role of civic and personal virtue, as expressed in ''Poor Richard's'' aphorisms. Franklin felt that organized religion was necessary to keep men good to their fellow men, but rarely attended religious services himself. When Franklin met Voltaire in Paris and asked his fellow member of the Enlightenment vanguard to bless his grandson, Voltaire said in English, "God and Liberty", and added, "this is the only appropriate benediction for the grandson of Monsieur Franklin." Franklin's parents were both pious Puritans. The family attended the Old South Church, the most liberal Puritan congregation in Boston, where Benjamin Franklin was baptized in 1706. Franklin's father, a poor chandlery, chandler, owned a copy of a book, ''Bonifacius: Essays to Do Good'', by the Puritan preacher and family friend Cotton Mather, which Franklin often cited as a key influence on his life. Franklin's first pen name, Silence Dogood, paid homage both to the book and to a widely known sermon by Mather. The book preached the importance of forming voluntary associations to benefit society. Franklin learned about forming do-good associations from Cotton Mather, but his organizational skills made him the most influential force in making Voluntarism (action), voluntarism an enduring part of the American ethos. Franklin formulated a presentation of his beliefs and published it in 1728. It did not mention many of the Puritan ideas regarding salvation, the divinity of Jesus, or indeed much religious dogma. He clarified himself as a Deism, deist in his 1771 autobiography, although still considered himself a Christian. He retained a strong faith in a God as the wellspring of morality and goodness in man, and as a Providential actor in history responsible for American independence. It was Ben Franklin who, at a critical impasse during the Philadelphia Convention, Constitutional Convention in June 1787, attempted to introduce the practice of daily common prayer with these words: The motion met with resistance and was never brought to a vote. Franklin was an enthusiastic supporter of the evangelical minister George Whitefield during the First Great Awakening. Franklin did not subscribe to Whitefield's theology, but he admired Whitefield for exhorting people to worship God through good works. Franklin published all of Whitefield's sermons and journals, thereby earning a lot of money and boosting the Great Awakening. When he stopped attending church, Franklin wrote in his autobiography: Franklin retained a lifelong commitment to the Puritan virtues and political values he had grown up with, and through his civic work and publishing, he succeeded in passing these values into the American culture permanently. He had a "passion for virtue". These Puritan values included his devotion to egalitarianism, education, industry, thrift, honesty, temperance, charity and community spirit. The classical authors read in the Enlightenment period taught an abstract Republicanism in the United States, ideal of republican government based on hierarchical social orders of king, aristocracy and commoners. It was widely believed that English liberties relied on their balance of power, but also hierarchal deference to the privileged class. "Puritanism ... and the epidemic evangelism of the mid-eighteenth century, had created challenges to the traditional notions of social stratification" by preaching that the Bible taught all men are equal, that the true value of a man lies in his moral behavior, not his class, and that all men can be saved.Bailyn, 1992, p. 303 Franklin, steeped in Puritanism and an enthusiastic supporter of the evangelical movement, rejected the salvation dogma, but embraced the radical notion of egalitarian democracy. Franklin's commitment to teach these values was itself something he gained from his Puritan upbringing, with its stress on "inculcating virtue and character in themselves and their communities." These Puritan values and the desire to pass them on, were one of Franklin's quintessentially American characteristics, and helped shape the character of the nation. Franklin's writings on virtue were derided by some European authors, such as Jackob Fugger in his critical work ''Portrait of American Culture''. Max Weber considered Franklin's ethical writings a culmination of the Protestant work ethic, Protestant ethic, which ethic created the social conditions necessary for the birth of capitalism. One of Franklin's notable characteristics was his respect, tolerance and promotion of all churches. Referring to his experience in Philadelphia, he wrote in The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin, his autobiography, "new Places of worship were continually wanted, and generally erected by voluntary Contribution, my Mite for such purpose, whatever might be the Sect, was never refused." "He helped create a new type of nation that would draw strength from its religious pluralism."Isaacson,2003 pp. 93ff The evangelical revivalists who were active mid-century, such as Franklin's friend and preacher, George Whitefield, were the greatest advocates of religious freedom, "claiming liberty of conscience to be an 'inalienable right of every rational creature.'" Whitefield's supporters in Philadelphia, including Franklin, erected "a large, new hall, that ... could provide a pulpit to anyone of any belief." Franklin's rejection of dogma and doctrine and his stress on the God of ethics and morality and civic virtue made him the "prophet of tolerance." Franklin composed "A Parable Against Persecution", an apocryphal 51st chapter of Genesis in which God teaches Abraham the duty of tolerance. While he was living in London in 1774, he was present at the birth of General Assembly of Unitarian and Free Christian Churches, British Unitarianism, attending the inaugural session of the Essex Street Chapel, at which Theophilus Lindsey drew together the first avowedly Unitarianism, Unitarian congregation in England; this was somewhat politically risky, and pushed religious tolerance to new boundaries, as a denial of the doctrine of the Trinity was illegal until Doctrine of the Trinity Act 1813, the 1813 Act. Although Franklin's parents had intended for him to have a career in the Church, Franklin as a young man adopted the Enlightenment religious belief in deism, that God's truths can be found entirely through nature and reason, declaring, "I soon became a thorough Deist." As a young man he rejected Christian dogma in a 1725 pamphlet ''A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain'', which he later saw as an embarrassment, while simultaneously asserting that God is "all wise, Omnibenevolence, all good, Omnipotence, all powerful." He defended his rejection of religious dogma with these words: "I think opinions should be judged by their influences and effects; and if a man holds none that tend to make him less virtuous or more vicious, it may be concluded that he holds none that are dangerous, which I hope is the case with me." After the disillusioning experience of seeing the decay in his own moral standards, and those of two friends in London whom he had converted to Deism, Franklin turned back to a belief in the importance of organized religion, on the pragmatic grounds that without God and organized churches, man will not be good. Moreover, because of his proposal that Christian prayer, prayers be said in the Constitutional Convention of 1787, many have contended that in his later life Franklin became a piety, pious Christian. According to David Morgan, Franklin was a proponent of religion in general. He prayed to "Powerful Goodness" and referred to God as "the infinite". John Adams noted that Franklin was a mirror in which people saw their own religion: "The Catholic Church, Catholics thought him almost a Catholic. The Church of England claimed him as one of them. The Presbyterianism, Presbyterians thought him half a Presbyterian, and the Quakers, Friends believed him a wet Quaker." Whatever else Franklin was, concludes Morgan, "he was a true champion of generic religion." In a letter to Richard Price, Franklin stated that he believed that religion should support itself without help from the government, claiming, "When a Religion is good, I conceive that it will support itself; and, when it cannot support itself, and God does not take care to support, so that its Professors are oblig'd to call for the help of the Civil Power, it is a sign, I apprehend, of its being a bad one." In 1790, just about a month before he died, Franklin wrote a letter to Ezra Stiles, president of Yale University, who had asked him his views on religion: On July 4, 1776, Congress appointed a three-member committee composed of Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and John Adams to design the Great Seal of the United States. Franklin's proposal (which was not adopted) featured the motto: "Rebellion to Tyrants is Obedience to God" and a scene from the Book of Exodus, with Moses, the Israelites, the Pillar of Fire (theophany), pillar of fire, and George III of the United Kingdom, George III depicted as Pharaohs in the Bible#Pharaoh of the Exodus, pharaoh. The design that was produced was never acted upon by Congress, and the Great Seal's design was not finalized until a third committee was appointed in 1782.
Thirteen VirtuesFranklin sought to cultivate his character by a plan of 13 virtues, which he developed at age 20 (in 1726) and continued to practice in some form for the rest of his life. His The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin, autobiography lists his 13 virtues as: # "Temperance (virtue), Temperance. Eat not to dullness; drink not to elevation." # "Silence. Speak not but what may benefit others or yourself; avoid trifling conversation." # "Order (virtue), Order. Let all your things have their places; let each part of your business have its time." # "Result, Resolution. Resolve to perform what you ought; perform without fail what you resolve." # "Frugality. Make no expense but to do good to others or yourself; i.e., waste nothing." # "Industry. Lose no time; be always employ'd in something useful; cut off all unnecessary actions." # "Sincerity. Use no hurtful deceit; think innocently and justly, and, if you speak, speak accordingly." # "Justice. Wrong none by doing injuries, or omitting the benefits that are your duty." # "Moderation. Avoid extremes; forbear resenting injuries so much as you think they deserve." # "Cleanliness. Tolerate no uncleanliness in body, clothes, or habitation." # "Tranquility. Be not disturbed at trifles, or at accidents common or unavoidable." # "Chastity. Rarely use Human sexuality, venery but for health or offspring, never to dullness, weakness, or the injury of your own or another's peace or reputation." # "Humility. Imitate Jesus and Socrates." Franklin did not try to work on them all at once. Instead, he would work on one and only one each week "leaving all others to their ordinary chance." While Franklin did not live completely by his virtues, and by his own admission he fell short of them many times, he believed the attempt made him a better man contributing greatly to his success and happiness, which is why in his autobiography, he devoted more pages to this plan than to any other single point; in his autobiography Franklin wrote, "I hope, therefore, that some of my descendants may follow the example and reap the benefit."
SlaveryFranklin owned as many as seven slaves, including two men who worked in his household and his shop. Franklin posted paid ads for the sale of slaves and for the capture of runaway slaves and allowed the sale of slaves in his general store. Franklin profited from both the international and domestic slave trade, even criticizing slaves who had run away from their masters to join the British Army during the various wars the Thirteen Colonies were involved in during the 1740s and 1750s. Franklin, however, later became an outspoken critic of slavery as practiced by the American upper class. In 1758, Franklin advocated the opening of a school for the education of black slaves in Philadelphia. Franklin took two slaves to England with him, Peter and King. King escaped with a woman to live in the outskirts of London and by 1758 he was working for a household in Suffolk. After returning from England in 1762, Franklin became notably more abolitionist in nature, attacking American slavery. In the wake of Somersett's case, Franklin voiced frustration at the British for celebrating the freeing of one slave (James Somersett) that had come to British soil while the refused to pass laws that would abolish the Atlantic slave trade, slave trade. Franklin, however, refused to publicly debate the issue of slavery at the 1787 Constitutional Convention. Franklin tended to take both sides of the issue of slavery, never fully divesting himself from the institution. At the time of the American Founding, there were about half a million slaves in the United States, mostly in the five southernmost states, where they made up 40 percent of the population. Many of the leading American Foundersmost notably Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, and James Madisonowned slaves, but many others did not. Benjamin Franklin thought that slavery was "an atrocious debasement of human nature" and "a source of serious evils." He and Benjamin Rush founded the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery in 1774. In his later years, as Congress was forced to deal with the issue of slavery, Franklin wrote several essays that stressed the importance of the Abolitionism in the United States, abolition of slavery and of the integration of blacks into American society. These writings included: * ''s:An Address to the Public, An Address to the Public'' (1789) * ''s:A Plan for Improving the Condition of the Free Blacks, A Plan for Improving the Condition of the Free Blacks'' (1789) * ''Sidi Mehemet Ibrahim on the Slave Trade'' (1790) In 1790, Quakers from New York and Pennsylvania presented their petition for abolition to Congress. Their argument against slavery was backed by the Pennsylvania Abolitionist Society and its president, Benjamin Franklin.
VegetarianismFranklin became a vegetarian when he was a teenager apprenticing at a print shop, after coming upon a book by the early vegetarian advocate Thomas Tryon. In addition, Franklin would have also been familiar with the moral arguments espoused by prominent vegetarian Quakers in colonial Pennsylvania, such as Benjamin Lay and John Woolman. His reasons for vegetarianism were based on health, ethics, and economy: Franklin also declared the consumption of meat to be "unprovoked murder". Despite his convictions, he Pescetarianism, began to eat fish after being tempted by fried cod on a boat sailing from Boston, justifying the eating of animals by having observed that the fish's stomach contained other fish. Nonetheless, Franklin recognized the faulty ethics in this argument, and would continue to be vegetarian on and off. He was "excited" by tofu, which he learned of from the writings of Spanish missionary to China, Domingo Fernández Navarrete. Franklin sent a sample of soybeans to prominent American botanist John Bartram, and had previously written to British diplomat and Chinese trade expert James Flint (merchant), James Flint inquiring as to Tofu#Production, how tofu was made, with their correspondence believed to be the first documented use of the word "tofu" in the English language. Franklin's "Second Reply to ''Vindex Patriae''", a 1766 letter advocating self-sufficiency and less dependence on England, lists various examples of the bounty of American agricultural products, and does not mention meat. Detailing new American customs, Franklin writes that, "[t]hey resolved last spring to eat no more lamb; and not a joint of lamb has since been seen on any of their tables … the sweet little creatures are all alive to this day, with the prettiest fleeces on their backs imaginable."
DeathFranklin suffered from obesity throughout his middle-aged and later years, which resulted in multiple health problems, particularly gout, which worsened as he aged. In poor health during the signing of the US Constitution in 1787, he was rarely seen in public from then until his death. Benjamin Franklin died from Pleurisy, pleuritic attack at his home in Philadelphia on April 17, 1790. He was aged 84 at the time of his death. His last words were reportedly, "a dying man can do nothing easy", to his daughter after she suggested that he change position in bed and lie on his side so he could breathe more easily. Franklin's death is described in the book ''The Life of Benjamin Franklin'', quoting from the account of John Paul Jones, John Jones: Approximately 20,000 people attended his funeral. He was interred in Christ Church Burial Ground in Philadelphia. In 1728, aged 22, Franklin wrote what he hoped would be his own epitaph: Franklin's actual grave, however, as he specified in his final will, simply reads "Benjamin and Deborah Franklin".
LegacyA signer of the , the Treaty of Paris (1783), Treaty of Paris and the Constitution, the only man to sign all three documents, Franklin is considered one of the . His pervasive influence in the early history of the nation has led to his being jocularly called "the only president of the United States who was never president of the United States". Franklin's likeness is ubiquitous. Since 1928, it has adorned American United States one hundred-dollar bill, $100 bills, which are sometimes referred to in slang as "Benjamins" or "Franklins." From 1948 to 1963, Franklin's portrait was on the Franklin half dollar, half-dollar. He has appeared on a United States fifty-dollar bill, $50 bill and on several varieties of the $100 bill from 1914 and 1918. Franklin appears on the $1,000 Series EE Treasury security#Savings bond, Savings bond. On April 12, 1976, as part of a United States Bicentennial, bicentennial celebration, United States Congress, Congress dedicated a marble statue in Philadelphia's Franklin Institute as the Benjamin Franklin National Memorial. Many of Franklin's personal possessions are also on display at the institute, one of the few national memorials located on property, private property. In London, his house at 36 Craven Street, which is the only surviving former residence of Benjamin Franklin, was first marked with a blue plaque and has since been opened to the public as the Benjamin Franklin House. In 1998, workmen restoring the building dug up the remains of six children and four adults hidden below the home. ''The Times'' reported on February 11, 1998: The Friends of Benjamin Franklin House (the organization responsible for the restoration) note that the bones were likely placed there by William Hewson (surgeon), William Hewson, who lived in the house for two years and who had built a small anatomy school at the back of the house. They note that while Franklin likely knew what Hewson was doing, he probably did not participate in any dissections because he was much more of a physicist than a medical man.
BequestFranklin bequest, bequeathed £1,000 (about $4,400 at the time, or about $125,000 in 2018 dollars) each to the cities of Boston and Philadelphia, in trust to gather interest for 200 years. The trust began in 1785 when the French mathematician Charles-Joseph Mathon de la Cour, who admired Franklin greatly, wrote a friendly parody of Franklin's ''Poor Richard's Almanack'' called ''Fortunate Richard''. The main character leaves a smallish amount of money in his will, five lots of 100 ''French livre, livres'', to collect interest over one, two, three, four or five full centuries, with the resulting astronomical sums to be spent on impossibly elaborate utopian projects. Franklin, who was 79 years old at the time, wrote thanking him for a great idea and telling him that he had decided to leave a bequest of 1,000 pounds each to his native Boston and his adopted Philadelphia. By 1990, more than $2,000,000 had accumulated in Franklin's Philadelphia trust, which had loaned the money to local residents. From 1940 to 1990, the money was used mostly for mortgage loans. When the trust came due, Philadelphia decided to spend it on scholarships for local high school students. Franklin's Boston trust fund accumulated almost $5,000,000 during that same time; at the end of its first 100 years a portion was allocated to help establish a Vocational school, trade school that became the Benjamin Franklin Institute of Technology, Franklin Institute of Boston, and the whole fund was later dedicated to supporting this institute.
Franklin on U.S. postageBenjamin Franklin is a prominent figure in American history comparable to Washington, Jefferson and Lincoln, and as such he has been honored on U.S. postage stamps many times. The image of Franklin, the first United States Postmaster General, postmaster general of the United States, occurs on the face of U.S. postage more than any other notable American save that of George Washington.Scotts Specialized Catalogue of United States Stamps Franklin appeared on the first U.S. postage stamp #Postmaster, (displayed above) issued in 1847. From 1908 through 1923, the U.S. Post Office issued a series of postage stamps commonly referred to as the Washington-Franklin Issues where, along with George Washington, Franklin was depicted many times over a 14-year period, the longest run of any one series in U.S. postal history. Along with the regular issue stamps Franklin however only appears on a few :File:Ben Franklin 250th 1956 issue-3c.jpg, commemorative stamps. Some of the finest portrayals of Franklin on record can be found on the engravings inscribed on the face of U.S. postage.
Bawdy Ben"Advice to a Friend on Choosing a Mistress" is a letter written by Benjamin Franklin, dated June 25, 1745, in which Franklin gives advice to a young man about channeling sexual urges. Due to its licentious nature, the letter was not published in collections of Franklin's papers during the nineteenth century. Federal court decisions from the mid-to-late twentieth century cited the document as a reason for overturning obscenity laws, using it to make a case against censorship.
Exhibitions"The Princess and the Patriot: Yekaterina Vorontsova-Dashkova, Ekaterina Dashkova, Benjamin Franklin and the Age of Enlightenment" exhibition opened in Philadelphia in February 2006 and ran through December 2006. Benjamin Franklin and Dashkova met only once, in Paris in 1781. Franklin was 75, and Dashkova was 37. Franklin invited Dashkova to become the first woman to join the American Philosophical Society; she was the only woman so honored for another 80 years. Later, Dashkova reciprocated by making him the first American member of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Places and things named after Benjamin FranklinAs a founding father of the United States, Franklin's name has been attached to many things. Among these are: * The State of Franklin, a short-lived independent state formed during the American Revolutionary War * County (United States), Counties in at least 16 U.S. states * The Franklin Institute Awards (presented by the Franklin Institute) for significant contributions in the fields of science and engineering. * The Franklin Inn Club, founded in 1902 as a literary society, was one of the four historic gentlemen's clubs in Philadelphia's Center City and was the first to open membership to women in Philadelphia. * Several major landmarks in and around , Pennsylvania, Franklin's longtime home, including: ** Franklin and Marshall College in nearby Lancaster, Pennsylvania, Lancaster ** Franklin Field, a American football, football field once home to the Philadelphia Eagles of the National Football League and the home field of the Penn Quakers football, University of Pennsylvania Quakers since 1895 ** Philadelphia's Benjamin Franklin Parkway (a major thoroughfare) ** The Benjamin Franklin Bridge across the Delaware River between Philadelphia and Camden, New Jersey * Several US Navy ships have been named the or the , the latter being a French translation of his penname "Poor Richard". Two aircraft carriers, and , were simultaneously in commission and in operation during World War II, and Franklin, therefore, had the distinction of having two simultaneously operational US Navy warships named in his honor. The French ship Franklin (1797), French ship ''Franklin'' (1797) was also named in Franklin's honor. * CMA CGM Benjamin Franklin, CMA CGM ''Benjamin Franklin'', a Chinese-built French-owned Explorer-class container ship *Franklin Park in Tacoma, Washington was originally named in honor of Benjamin Franklin. It was renamed in 2021 to honor Washington state senator Rosa Franklin.
See also* Benjamin Franklin in popular culture * United States Constitution#Sessions of the "House", U.S. Constitution, floor leader in Convention * The Royal Commission on Animal Magnetism * Fugio Cent, 1787 coin designed by Franklin * Thomas Birch's newly discovered Franklin letters * William Goddard (patriot/publisher), apprentice/partner of Franklin * Franklin's electrostatic machine * , apprentice/partner of Franklin * Elizabeth Timothy, apprentice/partner of Franklin * James Parker (publisher), apprentice/partner of Franklin * commons:Benjamin Franklin on stamps, Benjamin Franklin on postage stamps * ''Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind, Peopling of Countries, etc.'', by Franklin * Order (virtue) * Franklin's Jackass * List of richest Americans in history * List of wealthiest historical figures * List of slave owners * List of abolitionist forerunners * List of opponents of slavery
Further readingBiographies * Carl L. Becker, Becker, Carl Lotus. "Benjamin Franklin", ''Dictionary of American Biography'' (1931) – vol 3, with link
External links*Afsai, Shai (2019).