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Beatrice I (1143 – 15 November 1184) was
Countess of Burgundy Image:Blason comte fr Nevers.svg, 125px, Coat of arms of the Free County of Burgundy after the 13th century. This is a list of the County of Burgundy, counts of Burgundy, i.e., of the region known as Franche-Comté not to be confused with the Duchy ...
from 1148 until her death, and was also
Holy Roman Empress The Holy Roman Empress or Empress of the Holy Roman Empire (''Kaiserin des Heiligen Römischen Reiches'') was the wife or widow of the Holy Roman Emperor. The elective dignity of Holy Roman emperor was restricted to males only, but some empresse ...
by marriage to
Frederick Barbarossa Frederick Barbarossa (1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick I (german: Friedrich I, it, Federico I), was the Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator The La ...
. She was crowned empress by
Antipope Paschal III Antipope Paschal III (or Paschal III) ( – 20 September 1168) was a 12th-century clergyman who, from 1164 to 1168, was the second antipope to challenge the reign of Pope Alexander III. He had previously served as Cardinal (Catholic Church), Cardin ...
in
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
on 1 August 1167, and as Queen of Burgundy at
Vienne Vienne () is a landlocked department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and admin ...

Vienne
in August 1178. Beatrice was among the only two Holy Roman Empresses that had ever been captured, the other being her daughter-in-law
Empress Constance
Empress Constance
.


Life

Beatrice was the only surviving child of
Renaud III, Count of Burgundy Reginald III (french: Renaud; c. 1087 – 1148), son of Stephen I, Count of Burgundy, Stephen I and Beatrice of Lorraine, was the count of Burgundy between 1127 and 1148. Previously, he had been the count of Mâcon since his father's death in 11 ...
and
Agatha of Lorraine Agatha of Lorraine (c. 1120 – April 1147) was the wife of Renaud III, Count of Burgundy. She was the daughter of Simon I, Duke of Lorraine Simon I (1076 – 13 or 14 January 1139) was the duke of Lorraine from 1115 to his death, the eldest ...
. As the only child of her father, she was the heir of the County of Burgundy. At the death of her father in 1148, she inherited the vast
County of Burgundy The Free County of Burgundy or Franche-Comté (french: Franche Comté de Bourgogne; german: Freigrafschaft Burgund) was a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the ...
and became countess palatine. As such, she was one of the most desired brides in France. Her uncle,
William III of Mâcon William III of Mâcon (1088–1156), also known as William IV of Burgundy, was count of Mâcon (1102–1156), count of Auxonne (1127–1156), count of VienneThe Count of Vienne was the ruler of the Viennois, with his seat at Vienne Vienne () ...
, who acted as her regent, attempted to deprive of her rights and had her imprisoned; and a marriage was suggested to Emperor Frederick I, who stopped William.


Wedding

Frederick I likely suggested the marriage because the County of Burgundy would give him an alternative to the Brenner Pass and a strategically valuable position against Milan, and because of the additional troops of Burgundian knights available for his war.John B. Freed (2016), ''Frederick Barbarossa: The Prince and the Myth'' (Yale University Press). The wedding between Beatrice and Frederick took on 9 June 1156 at
Würzburg Würzburg (; Main-Franconian Main-Franconian (german: Mainfränkisch) is group of Upper German dialects being part of the East Franconian German, East Franconian group. The name is derived from the river Main (river), Main which meets the rive ...

Würzburg
.Gislebertus (of Mons), ''Chronicle of Hainaut'', transl. Laura Napran, (Boydell Press, 2005), 55 note245. After the wedding, the Bishop of Trier anointed Beatrice queen. The poem ''Carmen de gestis Frederici I imperatoris in Lombardia'', written about 1162, describes Beatrice upon her wedding day: :"''
Venus Venus is the second planet from the Sun. It is named after the Venus (mythology), Roman goddess of love and beauty. As List of brightest natural objects in the sky, the brightest natural object in Earth's night sky after the Moon, Venus can ...
did not have this virgin's beauty,'' :''
Minerva Minerva (; ett, Menrva) is the Roman goddess Roman mythology is the body of of as represented in the and . One of a wide variety of genres of , ''Roman mythology'' may also refer to the modern study of these representations, and to ...

Minerva
did not have her brilliant mind'' :''And
Juno Juno commonly refers to: *Juno (mythology), the Roman goddess of marriage and queen of the gods *Juno (film), ''Juno'' (film), 2007 Juno may also refer to: Arts, entertainment and media Fictional characters *Juno, in the film ''Jenny, Juno'' *Jun ...
did not have her wealth.'' :''There never was another except God's mother Mary'' :''And Beatrice is so happy she excels her''." After the death of William III, Frederick created his sons
Stephen Stephen or Steven is a common English first name First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record A world record is usually the best global and most important performance that is ever rec ...
and Girard titles as compensations, and Stephen attended the wedding of Beatrice.


Marriage

After their marriage, Frederick took control of the County of Burgundy by the right of his wife and became her co-ruler. Although formally co-rulers, Beatrice's name was seldom included in the charters managing the affairs of Burgundy before the year of 1166, after which more charters were issued in the name of both Beatrice and Frederick as joint rulers of Burgundy. Her actual involvement in the rule of Burgundy is unknown. Her younger son Otto was named the heir to Burgundy, rather than her elder son. Beatrice accompanied Frederick on his travels and campaigns across his empire. A legend states that in 1158 Beatrice visited Milan where was just conquered by Frederick, but was taken captive in a sally by the enraged Milanese and forced to ride backwards through the city on a donkey in a humiliating manner until getting out. Some sources of this legend indicate that Barbarossa implemented his revenge for this insult by forcing the magistrates of the city to remove a fig from the anus of a donkey using only their teeth. Another source states that Barbarossa took his wrath upon every able-bodied man in the city, and that it was not a fig they were forced to hold in their mouth, but excrement from the donkey. To add to this debasement, they were made to announce, ''"Ecco la fica"'' (meaning "behold the fig"), with the feces still in their mouths. It used to be said that the insulting gesture (called fico), of holding one's fist with the thumb in between the middle and forefinger came by its origin from this event. Beatrice at least once played a role in warfare: during the
Siege of Crema A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition warfare, attrition, or a well-prepared assault. This derives from la, sedere, lit=to sit. Siege warfare is a form of constant, low-intensity conf ...
in July 1159, she was able to provide the emperor with badly needed reinforcements from her own county of Burgundy, and arrived to Crema on 20 July of that year in the company of Henry the Lion, archbishop Conrad of Augsburg and 1,200 knights, providing him with the reinforcements he needed. After Frederick conquered Milan in 1162, the Milanese begged him for mercy, but in vain, so they turned to Beatrice. While Beatrice did not see them, they dropped a cross at her window. According to the Annals of Genoa, while the city of Milan had been destroyed, at the suggestion of Beatrice the lives and properties of the Milanese were saved.''Frauen der Staufer'', K Görich In 1162, Italian chronicler Acerbus Morea, having seen Beatrice at her hometown Lodi, said of Beatrice that she was: :"of medium height, with shining golden hair, a most beautiful face, and white, well shaped teeth; her posture was upright, her mouth small, her countenance modest, her eyes sparkled; she was bashful when charming and flattering words was addressed to her; she had most beautiful hands and a slender figure; she was completely submissive to her husband, feared him as her lord and loved him in every way as her husband; she was literate and devoted to God; and just as she was named Beatrix, so she was in fact happy Beata'. Beatrice was crowned Holy Roman Empress by
Antipope Paschal III Antipope Paschal III (or Paschal III) ( – 20 September 1168) was a 12th-century clergyman who, from 1164 to 1168, was the second antipope to challenge the reign of Pope Alexander III. He had previously served as Cardinal (Catholic Church), Cardin ...
in
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
on 1 August 1167, after Frederick took Rome. Beatrice has traditionally been attributed a role as a patron of literary works and chivalric ideals. It is true that the poet Gautier d'Arras dedicated his epic romance ''Ille et Galeron'' to her at Rome taking this chance, but this is all evidence of culture patronage known, and as she left Burgundy at the age of 12, she may not have had much memory of the Burgundian chivalric ideals. Then there was a plague in the army. When retreating, the emperor and empress were attacked by their enemies at
Pontremoli Pontremoli (; local egl, Pontrémal; la, Apua) is a small city, ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function T ...

Pontremoli
. The empress armed herself with two shields and could hardly escape the arrow rain. The emperor having escaped, the empress put on the clothes of a horse servant and stayed in hostile
Susa Susa (; Cuneiform Cuneiform is a Logogram, logo-Syllabary, syllabic writing system, script that was used to write several languages of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active use from the early Bronze Age until the beginning of the ...
until 1168. The relationship between Beatrice and Frederick is traditionally described as happy, and there is nothing to indicate that he was ever unfaithful to her. The English chronicler
Ralph of Diceto Ralph de Diceto (or Ralph of Diss; c. 1120c. 1202) was archdeacon of Middlesex The Archdeacon of Middlesex is a senior cleric in the Church of England. S/he is co-responsible for the Archdeaconry of "Middlesex", which mirrors the "Kensington" e ...
noted about their relationship, that "Although Frederick was always most constant in adversity, he was nevertheless reputed by many to be uxurious... and seeking how to please her in all things." There is no information about her dower or economy, but it is noted that the recipients of Imperial favors and all individuals who were restored to favor were required to give not only Frederick himself but also Beatrice personal gifts, many of which are recorded, as well as shares of gifts in gold and silver given to the emperor. Archbishop Conrad II of Salzburg promised money and gifts in hope that the empress would help him regain imperial favor through mediation. Though Beatrice was rumored to be greatly loved by Frederick and thereby attributed influence over him in the sense that he had great affection for her, there is nothing to indicate that she acted as his political adviser and she is confirmed to be directly involved in a major political affair only once. During the disputed Cambrai episcopal election of 1168, Beatrice supported the election of bishop Peter of Cambrai and at his request successfully blocked the attempt of the archbishop Philip to transfer the bishopric of Cambrai from the metropolitan province of Riems to Cologne, supported by archbishop Christian of Mainz and
Henry the Lion Henry the Lion (german: Heinrich der Löwe; 1129/1131 – 6 August 1195) was a member of the Welf dynasty who ruled as the duke of Saxony This article lists dukes, electors, and kings ruling over different territories named Saxony from the begi ...

Henry the Lion
: this was reputedly the only case Beatrice took decisive action in a major political affair.


Later years

For all the five times Frederick set expeditions to Italy, Beatrice was still with the army, but staying in cities rather than barracks, for Frederick wanted to keep her away from murder and violence. In 1174, Frederick plundered Susa as an avengement. According to
Godfrey of Viterbo Godfrey of ViterboAlso called Geoffrey of Viterbo, in Italian ''Goffredo da Viterbo'' and in German ''Gottfried von Viterbo'', from Latin ''Gaufridus'', ''Godefridus'' or ''Gotefredus Viterbensis''. (c. 1120 – c. 1196) was a Roman Catholic chronic ...
, the empress was pleased for the destruction of the hostile city. After conquering
Tortona Tortona (; pms, Torton-a , ; lat, Dhertona) is a ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides e ...

Tortona
, Beatrice saved the city's personal property. During
Battle of Legnano The Battle of Legnano was a battle between the imperial army of Frederick Barbarossa and the troops of the Lombard League on May 29, 1176, near the town of Legnano in present-day Lombardy, in Italy. Although the presence of the enemy nearby was ...

Battle of Legnano
, after Henry the lion refused to help, Frederick turn to Beatrice, but he was finally defeated. The escaped knights assembled at Pavia and told the news of death of the emperor to Beatrice. Beatrice and the whole empire mourned the death of the emperor with herself on mourning clothes, but the emperor came back three days later. After the
Peace of Venice The Treaty or Peace of Venice, 1177 in Italy, 1177, was a peace treaty between the papacy and its allies, the north Italian city-states of the Lombard League, and Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor. The Norman Kingdom of Sicily also took part in neg ...
of 1177, Beatrice was no longer referred to as ''Imperatrix'' ('empress') in the chancery productions, as her coronation as such had been made by an anti-pope and was thus declared nullified. The peace treaty also stipulated that if Frederick died and young Prince Henry succeeded to the throne with the empire actually ruled by Beatrice, Beatrice and her son should still observe it. On 30 July 1178, Frederick was crowned king of Burgundy in Arles in Provence. Beatrice was present, but she was not crowned with him. On 15 August 1178, however, Beatrice was crowned queen of Burgundy in Vienne. The reason as to why Beatrice was crowned in Vienne is unknown: it is speculated that this was made as a compensation because the
Peace of Venice The Treaty or Peace of Venice, 1177 in Italy, 1177, was a peace treaty between the papacy and its allies, the north Italian city-states of the Lombard League, and Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor. The Norman Kingdom of Sicily also took part in neg ...
had formally nullified her coronation as empress, as it had been performed by an anti-pope, but it could also have been to signal her new role as that of resident ruling Palatine Countess of Burgundy, as she seems to have stayed to govern Burgundy from this year forward rather than continue to follow Frederick. The event signified a change in the life of Beatrice. Frederick left Burgundy later that year, but there is no indication that Beatrice accompanied him back to Germany, or continued to follow him around the Empire. She is confirmed to have visited Germany on only three occasions after this: at feast of St Peter and Paul in 1179, and at the Pentecost courts of 1182 and 1184. Instead, Beatrice seems to have stayed in Burgundy, for the first time governing the county by herself: there are extant charters of her own before 1181, but nine between that year and her death, all of them concerning Burgundian affairs. Many of her Burgundian charters were witnessed by her younger son Otto, who was her designated heir to her own title, Count Palatine of Burgundy, and his teacher, who was evidently there with her. This was in fact an effective separation from Frederick, a reason for the discord hinted in the fact that Beatrice, in contrast to her spouse, continued to refer to herself as empress in her charters. Living in the Middle Ages with strict hierarchy, Beatrice was not indifferent to fame and wealth; like other contemporary empresses, she had strict view of hierarchy and valued reputation.


Death

In 1184, Beatrice fell ill with an unknown illness at
Jouhe Jouhe is a Communes of France, commune in the Jura (department), Jura Departments of France, department in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France. Population See also *Communes of the Jura department References INSEE statistics
...
and quickly died, aged about 40. She was buried in
Speyer Cathedral , native_name_lang = German , image = Speyer_dom_11.jpg , imagesize = 280px , imagelink = , imagealt = , landscape = , caption = , pushpin m ...
, but her heart was buried in
Jouhe Jouhe is a Communes of France, commune in the Jura (department), Jura Departments of France, department in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France. Population See also *Communes of the Jura department References INSEE statistics
...
's old Benedictine abbey. Frederick grieved for her early death, and in April 1189, a month before joining the Crusade, he donated to the Church of St. Etienne in Besancon.


Issue

She had the following children: #Beatrice (end 1162/early 1163 – at least early 1174/1179). King William II of Sicily first asked for her hand but the marriage negotiations never came through. She married Guillaume (II) count of Chalon in 1173 and was mother to Beatrix, countess of Chalon. #
Frederick V, Duke of Swabia Frederick V of Hohenstaufen (Pavia, 16 July 1164 – around 1170) was duke of Swabia from 1167 to his death.Decker-Hauff 1977, p. 355. He was the eldest son of Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick I Barbarossa and Beatrice I, Countess of Burgu ...

Frederick V, Duke of Swabia
(Pavia, 16 July 1164 – 28 November 1170). #
Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI (Heinrich VI) (November 1165 – 28 September 1197), a member of the House of Hohenstaufen, Hohenstaufen dynasty, was List of German monarchs, King of Germany (King of the Romans) from 1169 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 until his deat ...

Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor
(Nijmegen, November 1165 – Messina, 28 September 1197). #Conrad (Modigliana, February 1167 – Acre, 20 January 1191), later renamed
Frederick VI, Duke of Swabia Frederick VI of Hohenstaufen (February 1167 – 20 January 1191) was duke of Swabia from 1170 until his death at the Siege of Acre (1189–1191), siege of Acre. Life Born in Modigliana in the Italy, Italian region of Emilia-Romagna, he was the t ...
after the death of his older brother. # Daughter (Gisela?) (October/November 1168 – end 1184). She was betrothed to (later King of England) but died before they could be married. #
Otto I, Count of Burgundy Otto I (between 1167 and 1171 – 13 January 1200) was Count of Burgundy This is a list of the counts of Burgundy, i.e., of the region known as Franche-Comté Franche-Comté (, ; ; Frainc-Comtou dialect, Frainc-Comtou: ''Fraintche-Comtè ...
(June/July 1170 – killed, Besançon, 13 January 1200). #
Conrad II, Duke of Swabia Conrad II (February/March 1172 – 15 August 1196), was Duke of Rothenburg (1188–1191) and Swabia from 1191 until his death. He was the fifth son of Frederick I Barbarossa and Beatrice I, Countess of Burgundy. Life After the third-born son of ...
and Rothenburg (February/March 1172 – killed, Durlach, 15 August 1196). #Renaud (October/November 1173 – before April 1174/soon after October 1178). #William (June/July 1175 – soon after October 1178). #
Philip Philip, also Phillip, is a male given name, derived from the Greek language, Greek (''Philippos'', lit. "horse-loving" or "fond of horses"), from a compound of (''philos'', "dear", "loved", "loving") and (''hippos'', "horse"). Prominent Philip ...

Philip
(February/March 1177 – killed, Bamberg, 21 June 1208) ''
King of Germany King of the Romans ( la, Rex Romanorum; german: König der Römer) was the title used by the German king following his election An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual or multiple i ...
in 1198''.(ES)''Acercamiento Mutuo de Espana y Alemania'', Jaime Ferreiro Alemparte, ''España y Europa, un pasado jurídico común'', ed. Antonio Pérez Martín, (Cometa S.A., 1986), 181. #Agnes (early 1179 – 8 October 1184). She was betrothed to King
Emeric of Hungary Emeric, also known as Henry or Imre ( hu, Imre, hr, Emerik, sk, Imrich; 117430 November 1204), was King of Hungary and King of Croatia, Croatia between 1196 and 1204. In 1184, his father, Béla III of Hungary, ordered that he be crowned king, a ...

Emeric of Hungary
but died before they could be married.


In literature

Beatrice is a character in
Umberto Eco Umberto Eco (5 January 1932 – 19 February 2016) was an Italian medievalistMedieval studies is the academic interdisciplinary study of the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th t ...
's novel ''
Baudolino ''Baudolino'' is a 2000 in literature, 2000 novel by Umberto Eco about the adventures of a man named Baudolino in the known and mythical Christianity, Christian world of the 12th century. ''Baudolino'' was translated into English in 2001 by Will ...
'', whose (fictional) protagonist is deeply in love with her - a love never consummated except for a single kiss.


References

* *


External links

* Carson, Thomas. ''Barbarossa in Italy'', 1994.
Beatrix de Bourgogne
, - , - , - , - {{DEFAULTSORT:Beatrice 01, Countess of Burgundy 1140s births 1184 deaths Anscarids Countesses of Burgundy Holy Roman Empresses Burials at Speyer Cathedral Burgundy, Countess of, Beatrice 01 Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor 12th-century women rulers 12th-century women of the Holy Roman Empire 12th-century French people 12th-century French women