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The Bay of Bengal is the northeastern part of the
Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's five ocean The ocean (also the or the world ocean) is the body of that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of and contains 97% of . Another definition is "any of the large ...

Indian Ocean
, bounded on the west and northwest by
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

India
, on the north by
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh
, and on the east by
Myanmar Myanmar, ); UK pronunciations: US pronunciations incl. . Note: Wikipedia's IPA conventions require indicating /r/ even in British English although only some British English speakers pronounce r at the end of syllables. As John C. Wells, John ...

Myanmar
and the
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Andaman and Nicobar Islands is a union territory of India consisting of 572 islands, of which 38 are inhabited, at the juncture of the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. The territory is about north of Aceh in Indonesia and separated from Thai ...

Andaman and Nicobar Islands
of
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

India
. Its southern limit is a line between
Sangaman Kanda Sangaman Kanda or Sangaman Kandy ( ta, சங்கமன் கண்டி; si, සංගමන් කන්ද) is a small village in Ampara Ampara ( si, අම්පාර, ta, அம்பாறை) is the main town of Ampara District, go ...
,
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකාව, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO (); ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO ()), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is ...

Sri Lanka
and the north westernmost point of
Sumatra Sumatra is one of the Sunda Islands The Sunda Islands are a group of islands in the Malay Archipelago. They consist of the Greater Sunda Islands The Greater Sunda Islands are four tropical islands situated within Southeast Asia So ...

Sumatra
(Indonesia). It is the largest water region called a
bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface ...

bay
in the world. There are
countries dependent on the Bay of Bengal The countries of the Bay of Bengal include littoral and landlocked countries that depend on the bay for maritime usage. Historically, the Bay of Bengal has been a highway of transport, trade and cultural exchange between diverse peoples encompassing ...
in South Asia and Southeast Asia. In ancient
Classical India The Middle kingdoms of India were the political entities in India from the 3rd century BCE to the 13th century CE. The period begins after the decline of the Maurya Empire and the corresponding rise of the Satavahana dynasty, starting with Sim ...
, the Bay of Bengal was known as Kalinga Sagar (
KalingaKalinga may refer to: Geography, linguistics and/or ethnology * Kalinga (historical region) Kalinga is a historical region of India. It is generally defined as the eastern coastal region between the Mahanadi and the Godavari rivers, althoug ...
Sea). Later during the British India, it came forth as the Bay of Bengal after the historic
Bengal Bengal (; Bengali language, Bengali: ', ) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal, predominantly covering present-day Bang ...

Bengal
region, as the
Port of Kolkata Port of Kolkata or Kolkata Port (KoPT), officially known as Syama Prasad Mookerjee Port Trust, is the only riverine major port of India, located in the city of Kolkata Kolkata ( or , ; also known as Calcutta , List of renamed Indian ...
served as the gateway to the
Crown rule in India The British Raj (; from ''rāj'', literally, "rule" in Sanskrit and Hindustani language, Hindustani) was the rule by the The Crown, British Crown on the Indian subcontinent from 1858 to 1947.''Oxford English Dictionary'', 3rd edition (June ...
.
Cox's Bazar Cox's Bazar (; bn, কক্সবাজার, Kaksabājāra; ) is a city, fishing port, tourism centre, and district A district is a type of that, in some countries, is managed by the . Across the world, areas known as "districts" v ...

Cox's Bazar
, the longest sea beach in the world and
Sundarbans The Sundarbans is a mangrove A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water. The term is also used for tropical coastal vegetation consisting of such species. Mangroves occur worldwide in the tropics ...

Sundarbans
, the largest mangrove forest and the natural habitat of the
Bengal tiger The Bengal tiger is a tiger The tiger (''Panthera tigris'') is the largest living Living or The Living may refer to: Common meanings *Life, a condition that distinguishes organisms from inorganic objects and dead organisms ** extan ...

Bengal tiger
, are located along the bay. The Bay of Bengal occupies an area of . A number of large rivers flow into the Bay of Bengal: the
Ganges The Ganges ( ) (in India: Ganga ( ); in Bangladesh: Padma River, Padma ( )). "The Ganges Basin, known in India as the Ganga and in Bangladesh as the Padma, is an international river to which India, Bangladesh, Nepal and China are the riparian ...

Ganges
Hooghly
Hooghly
, the
Padma The Padma or Podda ( bn, পদ্মা ''Pôdda'') is a major river in Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, , ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in . It is the in the world, with a population exceeding 163 mill ...

Padma
, the
Brahmaputra The Brahmaputra (), called Yarlung Tsangpo The Yarlung Tsangpo, also called Yarlung Zangbo () or Yalu Zangbu () is the upper stream of the Brahmaputra River The Brahmaputra (), called Yarlung Tsangpo in Tibet, Siang/Dihang River in Aruna ...

Brahmaputra
Jamuna, the
Barak Barak ( or ; he, בָּרָק, Tiberian Hebrew: ''B-R-Q, Bārāq'', ar, البُراق ''al-Burāq'' "lightning") was a ruler of Ancient Israel. As military commander in the biblical Book of Judges, Barak, with Deborah, from the Tribe of Ephra ...

Barak
Surma
Surma
Meghna The Meghna River ( bn, মেঘনা নদী) is one of the major rivers in Bangladesh Bangladesh (; bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It is the List of count ...

Meghna
, the Irrawaddy, the
Godavari#REDIRECT Godavari River The Godavari is India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of ...

Godavari
, the
Mahanadi The Mahanadi is a major river in East Central India. It drains an area of around and has a total length of . Mahanadi is also known for the Hirakud Dam. The river flows through the states of Chhattisgarh and Odisha and finally merged with Bay of ...

Mahanadi
, the
Brahmani Brahmani (Sanskrit: ब्रह्माणी, IAST: Brahmāṇī) or Brahmi (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मी, IAST: Brāhmī), is one of the Sapta Matrika (seven Mother) Goddesses called Matrikas. She is a form of Saraswati and is consider ...

Brahmani
, the
Baitarani The Baitarani (also spelled Vaitarani) is one of six major rivers of Odisha, India. Venerated in popular Indian epic poetry, epics and legends, the Baitarani River is a source of water for agricultural irrigation. Most of the potentially arable ...
, the
Krishna Krishna (, ; sa, कृष्ण, ) is a major deity A deity or god is a supernatural being considered divinity, divine or sacred. The ''Oxford Dictionary of English'' defines deity as a God (male deity), god or goddess (in a polythei ...

Krishna
and the
Kaveri The Kaveri (also known as Cauvery, the name) is an Indian river flowing through the states of and . In Ancient times, It was also called as ''Ponni'' (the golden maid- as the Cauvery is sometimes called, in reference to the fine silt it dep ...

Kaveri
. Important ports include
Chennai Chennai (, ), also known as Madras (List of renamed Indian cities and states#Tamil Nadu, the official name until 1996), is the capital city of the states and territories of India, Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The state's largest city in area ...
,
Ennore Ennore is a neighbourhood in Chennai Chennai (, ; also known as Madras, List of renamed Indian cities and states#Tamil Nadu, the official name until 1996) is the Capital city, capital of the states and territories of India, Indian state of T ...
,
Chittagong Chittagong ( ; bn, চাটগাঁও, Cāṭgāon), officially Chattogram ( bn, চট্টগ্রাম), is a major coastal city and financial centre A financial centre, financial center, or financial hub is a location with a c ...
,
Colombo Colombo ( si, කොළඹ, translit=Koḷam̆ba, ; ta, கொழும்பு, translit=Koḻumpu, ) is the commercial capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction betwe ...

Colombo
,
Kolkata Kolkata ( or , ; also known as Calcutta , the official name until 2001) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upperca ...
-
Haldia Haldia is an industrial port city in Purba Medinipur in the Indian States and territories of India, state of West Bengal. It is a major river port and Haldia Industrial Belt, industrial belt located approximately southwest of Kolkata near the m ...

Haldia
, Mongla,
Paradip Paradeep, also spelt Paradip (originally Paradweep), is a major seaport city and a municipality in Jagatsinghpur district of Odisha, India. Paradeep Municipality was constituted as an NAC on 27 September 1979 and converted in to Municipality on 1 ...
,
Port Blair Port Blair () is the capital city of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, a union territory of India in the Bay of Bengal. It is also the local administrative sub-division (''tehsil'') of the islands, the headquarters for the Districts of India, d ...
, Matarbari,
Thoothukudi Thoothukudi (formerly Tuticorin) is a port city The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Trieste.html"_;"title="Barcola_near_Trieste">Barcola_near_Trieste,_a_small_local_port A_port_is_a_ Barcola_near_Trieste,_a_small_local_port">Tries ...
,
Visakhapatnam Visakhapatnam , List of renamed places in India, formerly known as Vizagapatam (also known as Vizag, Viśākha or Wāltair) is the largest and most populous city in the States and union territories of India, Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, an ...
and
Dhamra
Dhamra
. Among the smaller ports are
Gopalpur Port Gopalpur port is a deep sea port of Gopalpur in Ganjam District, Odisha, India. The port has been developed on the banks of the Bay of Bengal. The seaport will increase the sea trade of Odisha, as well as industry and employment. The Odisha govern ...
,
Kakinada Kakinada ( formerly called Kakinandiwada, Coringa, Cocanada) is the sixth largest city of the Indian state India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countr ...

Kakinada
and Payra.


Background


Extent

The
International Hydrographic Organization The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is an intergovernmental organisation representing hydrography. As of December 2021 the IHO comprised 96 Member States. A principal aim of the IHO is to ensure that the world's seas, oceans and ...
defines the limits of the Bay of Bengal as follows: ::''On the east:'' A line running from
Cape Negrais Cape Negrais, also known as Pagoda Point or Mawtin Point (Mawtin Zoon), is a cape in Burma (Myanmar), west of the Irrawaddy Delta. It is located 133 km to the NNE of Preparis Island and 193 kilometres from the nearest point in the Indian ...
(16°03'N) in Burma through the larger islands of the
Andaman
Andaman
group, in such a way that all the narrow waters between the islands lie Eastward of the line and are excluded from the Bay of Bengal, as far as a point in
Little Andaman Little Andaman Island ( Onge: ''Gaubolambe'') is the fourth largest of the Andaman Islands of India with an area of 707 km², lying at the southern end of the archipelago. It belongs to the South Andaman district, South Andaman administrative ...
Island in latitude 10°48'N, longitude 92°24'E and thence along the Southwest limit of the Burma Sea Oedjong_Raja"''_[''"Ujung_Raja"_or_"Point_Raja"''.html" ;"title="Point_Raja.html" ;"title=" line running from ''"
Oedjong_Raja"''_[''"Ujung_Raja"_or_"Point_Raja"''">Point_Raja.html"_;"title="_line_running_from_''"Point_Raja">Oedjong_Raja"''_[''"Ujung_Raja"_or_"Point_Raja"''()_in_Sumatra Sumatra_is_one_of_the_Sunda_Islands The_Sunda_Islands_are_a__group_of_islands_in_the__Malay_Archipelago. They_consist_of_the_Greater_Sunda_Islands The_Greater_Sunda_Islands_are_four_tropical_islands_situated_within_Southeast_Asia So_...

_to_ Oedjong_Raja"''_[''"Ujung_Raja"_or_"Point_Raja"''">Point_Raja.html"_;"title="_line_running_from_''"Point_Raja">Oedjong_Raja"''_[''"Ujung_Raja"_or_"Point_Raja"''()_in_Sumatra Sumatra_is_one_of_the_Sunda_Islands The_Sunda_Islands_are_a__group_of_islands_in_the__Malay_Archipelago. They_consist_of_the_Greater_Sunda_Islands The_Greater_Sunda_Islands_are_four_tropical_islands_situated_within_Southeast_Asia So_...

_to_Breueh_Island">Poeloe_Bras_ {{Infobox_islands ,_name=Breueh ,_native_name_=_Pulau_Breueh ,_coordinates={{coor_dms,_5,_42,_0,_N,_95,_4,_0,_E} ,_map_=_Indonesia_Sumatra#Bay_of_Bengal ,__country_=_Indonesia ,__country_admin_divisions_title___=_Region_ In_geography_ Geo_...
_(Breuëh)_and_on_through_the_Western_Islands_of_the_Nicobar_Islands.html" ;"title="Breueh_Island.html" "title="Point Raja">Oedjong Raja"'' [''"Ujung Raja" or "Point Raja"''">Point_Raja.html" ;"title=" line running from ''"Point Raja">Oedjong Raja"'' [''"Ujung Raja" or "Point Raja"''() in
Sumatra Sumatra is one of the Sunda Islands The Sunda Islands are a group of islands in the Malay Archipelago. They consist of the Greater Sunda Islands The Greater Sunda Islands are four tropical islands situated within Southeast Asia So ...

Sumatra
to Breueh Island">Poeloe Bras {{Infobox islands , name=Breueh , native_name = Pulau Breueh , coordinates={{coor dms, 5, 42, 0, N, 95, 4, 0, E} , map = Indonesia Sumatra#Bay of Bengal , country = Indonesia , country_admin_divisions_title = Region In geography Geo ...
(Breuëh) and on through the Western Islands of the Nicobar Islands">Nicobar Group to Sandy Point in Little Andaman Island, in such a way that all the narrow waters appertain to the Burma Sea]. ::''On the south:'' Adam's Bridge (between India and Ceylon) and from the Southern extreme of Dondra Head (South point of Ceylon) to the North point of Poeloe Bras (). Note: Oedjong means "
cape A cape is a sleeveless outer garment Outerwear is clothing File:KangaSiyu1.jpg, A kanga (African garment), kanga, worn throughout the African Great Lakes region Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel and attire) are items worn on the bo ...
" in Dutch language on maps of the
Netherlands East Indies The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; nl, Nederlands(ch)-Indië; ) was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a coun ...
(Indonesia).Glossary of Terms Appearing on Maps of the Netherlands East Indies
United States Army Map Service, page 115.


Etymology

The bay gets its name from the historical
Bengal Bengal (; Bengali language, Bengali: ', ) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal, predominantly covering present-day Bang ...

Bengal
region (Modern-day
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh
and the Indian state of
West Bengal West Bengal (, Bengali Bengali or Bengalee, or Bengalese may refer to: *something of, from, or related to Bengal, a large region in South Asia * Bengalis, an ethnic and linguistic group of the region * Bengali language, the language they sp ...

West Bengal
). In ancient scriptures, this water body may have been referred to as '''Mahodadhi (
Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor langua ...

Sanskrit
: महोदधि, lit. ''great water receptacle'') while it appears as ''Sinus Gangeticus'' or ''Gangeticus Sinus'', meaning "Gulf of the Ganges", in ancient maps. The other Sanskrit name for Bay of Bengal is '''Purvapayodhi (Sanskrit: पूर्वपयोधि, lit. ''Eastern Ocean''). Bengali name "Bongoposagor"(বঙ্গোপসাগর) has been derived from the English meaning of "Bay of Bengal". Similarly, Odia name "Bangaposagara"(ବଙ୍ଗୋପସାଗର) or other Indian names have been ascribed later by translating colonial dialect.


History

Northern Circars The Northern Circars (also spelt Sarkars) was a division of British India's Madras Presidency. It consisted of a narrow slip of territory lying along the western side of the Bay of Bengal from 15° 40′ to 20° 17′ north latitude, in the pres ...
occupied the western coast of the Bay of Bengal and is now considered to be India's Madras state.
Chola dynasty The Chola dynasty ( ta, சோழ வம்சம்) was a Tamil Tamil may refer to: * Tamils, an ethnic group native to India, Sri Lanka and some other parts of Asia **Sri Lankan Tamils, Tamil people native to Sri Lanka **Tamil Malaysia ...

Chola dynasty
(9th century to 12th century) when ruled by
Rajaraja Chola I Rajaraja I, born Arulmoli Varman, often described as Rajaraja the Great, was a Chola The Chola dynasty ( ta, சோழ வம்சம்) was a Tamil Tamil may refer to: * Tamils, an ethnic group native to India, Sri Lanka and some ...
and
Rajendra Chola I Rajendra Chola I, often described as Rajendra the Great, was a Tamil Emperor of the Chola Empire The Chola dynasty ( ta, சோழ வம்சம்) was a Tamil Tamil may refer to: * Tamils, an ethnic group native to India, Sri La ...
occupied and controlled the Bay of Bengal with
Chola Navy The Chola Navy (Tamil: சோழர் கடற்படை; Transliteration: ''Cōḻar kadatpadai'') comprised the naval forces of the Chola Dynasty, Chola Empire (4th Century BCE – 1279 CE), a Tamil people, Tamil thalassocratic empire of s ...
circa AD 1014, The Bay of Bengal was also called the Chola Sea or Chola Lake. The
Kakatiya dynasty The Kakatiya dynasty was a South India South India is a region consisting of the southern part of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dep ...
reached the western coastline of the Bay of Bengal between the Godavari and the Krishna rivers.
Kushanas The Kushan Empire ( grc, Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; xbc, Κυϸανο, ; Late Brahmi Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia b ...

Kushanas
about the middle of the
1st century AD The 1st century was the century A century is a period of 100 years. Centuries are numbered ordinally in English and many other languages. The word ''century'' comes from the Latin ''centum'', meaning ''one hundred''. ''Century'' is sometimes ...
invaded northern India perhaps extending as far as the Bay of Bengal.
Chandragupta Maurya Chandragupta Maurya (Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in So ...

Chandragupta Maurya
extended the
Maurya Dynasty The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human h ...
across northern India to the Bay of Bengal.
Hajipur Hajipur (, ) is the headquarters and largest city of Vaishali district Vaishali district is a district in the India, Indian state of Bihar. It is a part of Tirhut division. History Ancient Vaishali Vaishali derives its name from King Vi ...
was a stronghold for Portuguese Pirates. In the 16th century the Portuguese built trading posts in the north of the Bay of Bengal at Chittagong (Porto Grande) and
Satgaon Saptagram (colloquially called ''Satgaon'') was a major port, the chief city and sometimes capital of southern Bengal Bengal (; bn, বাংলা/বঙ্গ, translit=Bānglā/Bôngô, ) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical regio ...
(Porto Pequeno).


Historic sites

In alphabetical order: *
Arikamedu Arikamedu is an archaeological site in Southern India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the L ...

Arikamedu
is an archaeological site in Southern India, in Kakkayanthope, Ariyankuppam Commune, Puducherry. It is 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) from the capital, Pondicherry of the Indian territory of Puducherry * British penal colony:
Cellular Jail The Cellular Jail, (काला पानी) also known as Kālā Pānī (Hindi for ''Black Waters''), was a colonial prison in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. The prison was used by the British Empire, British for the express purpose ...

Cellular Jail
or "Black Waters" built in 1896 on
Ross Island Ross Island is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), sometim ...
, a part of the Andaman Island Chain. As early as 1858 this island was used as a British penal colony for political prisoners facing life imprisonment. * Buddhist heritage sites of Pavurallakonda, and
Bavikonda Bavikonda Buddhist Complex lies about 16 km from Visakhapatnam, in the States and union territories of India, Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, on a hill about 130 metres above mean sea level. The term Bavikonda in Telugu language, Telugu mean ...
lie along the coast of Bay of Bengal at
Visakhapatnam Visakhapatnam , List of renamed places in India, formerly known as Vizagapatam (also known as Vizag, Viśākha or Wāltair) is the largest and most populous city in the States and union territories of India, Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, an ...

Visakhapatnam
in India. *
Konark Konark is a medium town in the Puri district Puri district is a coastal district of the Odisha Odisha (English: , The 'sha' spelling comes about from the historical or Sanskritic letter śa (ଶ), however all Odia sibilants today are realis ...

Konark
is the home of the
Sun Temple #REDIRECT Sun temple A sun temple (or solar temple) is a building used for religious or spiritual activities, such as prayer and sacrifice, dedicated to the sun or a solar deity. Such temples were built by a number different cultures and are distr ...

Sun Temple
or Black Pagoda. This Brahman sanctuary was built of black granite mid-1200 AD and has been declared a
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
. *
Jagannath Temple The Jagannath Temple is an important Hindu temple A Hindu temple or mandir or Devasthana is a symbolic house, seat and body of divinity for Hindus. It is a structure designed to bring human beings and gods together, using symbolism to ...

Jagannath Temple
at
Puri Puri () is a coastal city and a Nagar Palika, municipality in the state of Odisha in eastern India. It is the district headquarters of Puri district and is situated on the Bay of Bengal, south of the state capital of Bhubaneswar. It is als ...

Puri
is the one of the four sacred places in Hindu pilgrimage along with Puri beach on the banks of Bay of Bengal. Mahodadhi was named after Lord
Jagannath Jagannath ( or, ଜଗନ୍ନାଥ, Jagannātha; ; formerly en, Juggernaut) is a deity worshipped in regional Hindu traditions Hindus () are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspect ...

Jagannath
. *
Ramanathaswamy Temple Ramanathaswamy Temple (''Rāmanātasvāmi Kōyil'') is a Hindu temple A Mandir or Hindu temple is a symbolic house, seat and body of divinity for Hindus Hindus () are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or r ...

Ramanathaswamy Temple
is at Dhanushkodi, where the Bay of Bengal and the Gulf of Mannar come together. *
Seven Pagodas of Mahabalipuram "Seven Pagodas" has served as a nickname for the south Indian city of Mamallapuram Mahabalipuram, also known as Mamallapuram, is a town in Chengalpattu district Chengalpattu District is one of the 38 districts of Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu ( ...
is the name for
Mahabalipuram Mahabalipuram, also known as Mamallapuram, is a town in Chengalpattu district in the southeastern Indian state of Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu () is a States and union territories of India, state in southern India. Its capital and largest city is Ch ...

Mahabalipuram
. Mahabalipuram's
Shore Temple The Shore Temple (c. 725 AD) is a complex of temples and shrines that overlooks the shore of the Bay of Bengal The Bay of Bengal is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's oceanic ...

Shore Temple
, a
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
was constructed in the 8th century AD and myth has it that six other temples were built here. *
Sri Vaisakheswara Swamy temple Shri (; Devanagari: श्री, ISO 15919, ISO: , , ), also transliterated as Shree, Sri, or Sree, is a South Asian word denoting a title of respect used before the name primarily used as an honorific. The word is widely used in languages of S ...
lie under the Bay of Bengal. Spokespeople from
Andhra University Andhra University (IAST: ''Āndhra Vișvakalāpariṣhat'') is a public university located in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. It was established in 1926.http://andhrauniversity.edu.in/about/au-profile History Andhra University was establ ...

Andhra University
Centre for
Marine Archaeology Maritime Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps, a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps * Maritime Region, a region in Togo * Maritime Southeast Asia * The Maritimes, the Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswic ...
say the temple may be opposite the Coastal Battery. * : It was constructed in 1842 by the American "Ice King"
Frederic Tudor Frederic Tudor (September 4, 1783 – February 6, 1864) was an American businessman and merchant. Known as Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most popul ...
to store and market ice year round. In 1897,
Swami Vivekananda Swami Vivekananda (; 12 January 1863 – 4 July 1902), born Narendranath Datta (), was an Indian Hindu Hindus () are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hind ...

Swami Vivekananda
's famous lectures were recorded here at Castle Kernan. The site is an exhibition devoted to Swami Vivekananda and his legacy.


Marine archaeology

Maritime archaeology Maritime Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps, a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps * Maritime Region, a region in Togo * Maritime Southeast Asia * The Maritimes, the Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswi ...

Maritime archaeology
or marine archaeology is the study of material remains of ancient peoples. A specialized branch,
Archaeology of shipwrecks The archaeology of shipwrecks is the field of archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthropolo ...
studies the salvaged artifacts of ancient ships. Stone anchors, amphorae shards, elephant tusks, hippopotamus teeth, ceramic pottery, a rare wood mast and lead ingots are examples which may survive submerged for centuries for archaeologists to discover, study, and place their salvaged findings into the time line of history. coral reefs, tsunamis, cyclones, mangrove swamps, battles and a criss cross of sea routes in a high trading area combined with pirating have all contributed to shipwrecks in the Bay of Bengal.


Shipwrecks and important shipping incidences

In chronological order: * 1778 to 1783 The
Naval operations in the American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from Thirteen Colonies, thirteen American colonies of Brit ...
or American War of Independence ranged as far as the Bay of Bengal. * c. 1816 ''Mornington'' ship burned in the Bay of Bengal. * 1850 American clipper brig ''Eagle'' is supposed to have sunk in the Bay of Bengal. * American Baptist missionary
Adoniram Judson Adoniram Judson, Jr. (August 9, 1788 – April 12, 1850) was an American Congregationalist and later Particular Baptist Reformed Baptists (sometimes known as Particular Baptists or Calvinistic Baptists) are Baptists that hold to a Calvin ...

Adoniram Judson
Jr. died 12 April 1850 and was buried at sea in the Bay of Bengal. * 1855 The Bark "Incredible" struck on a sunken rock in the Bay of Bengal. * 1865, a gale dismasted the ''Euterpe'' while traversing the Bay of Bengal typhoon. * 1875 ''Veleda'' 76 m (250 ft) long and 15 m (50 ft) wide is a part of a current salvage operation. * 1942 Japanese cruiser ''Yura'' of the Second Expeditionary Fleet, Malay Force, attacked merchant ships in the Bay of Bengal. * 1971 December 3 – Pakistan Navy submarine PNS Ghazi, PNS ''Ghazi'' got sunk under mysterious circumstances, near
Visakhapatnam Visakhapatnam , List of renamed places in India, formerly known as Vizagapatam (also known as Vizag, Viśākha or Wāltair) is the largest and most populous city in the States and union territories of India, Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, an ...

Visakhapatnam
, in the Bay of Bengal.


Significance


Economic importance

One of the first trading ventures along the Bay of Bengal was The Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies more commonly referred to as the British East India Company. Gopalpur-on-Sea was one of their main trading centers. Other trading companies along the Bay of Bengal shorelines were the English East India Company and the French East India Company. BIMSTEC Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) supports free trade internationally around the Bay of Bengal between
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh
, Bhutan,
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

India
, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The Sethusamudram Shipping Canal Project is a new venture proposed which would create a channel for a shipping route to link the Gulf of Mannar with the Bay of Bengal. This would connect India from east to west without the necessity of going around Sri Lanka. Thoni and catamaran fishing boats of fishing villages thrive along the Bay of Bengal shorelines. Fishermen can catch between 26 and 44 species of marine fish. In one year, the average catch is two million tons of fish from the Bay of Bengal alone. Approximately 31% of the world's coastal fishermen live and work on the bay.


Geostrategic importance

The Bay of Bengal is centrally located in South Asia, South and Southeast Asia. It lies at the center of two huge economic blocks, the SAARC and ASEAN. It influences China's southern landlocked region in the north and major sea ports of India and Bangladesh. China, India, and Bangladesh have forged naval cooperation agreements with Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia to increase cooperation in checking terrorism in the high seas. Its outlying islands (the Andaman and Nicobar Islands) and, most importantly, major ports such as
Paradip Paradeep, also spelt Paradip (originally Paradweep), is a major seaport city and a municipality in Jagatsinghpur district of Odisha, India. Paradeep Municipality was constituted as an NAC on 27 September 1979 and converted in to Municipality on 1 ...
Kolkata, Chennai,
Visakhapatnam Visakhapatnam , List of renamed places in India, formerly known as Vizagapatam (also known as Vizag, Viśākha or Wāltair) is the largest and most populous city in the States and union territories of India, Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, an ...

Visakhapatnam
, Tuticorin, Chittagong, and Mongla, along its coast with the Bay of Bengal added to its importance. China has recently made efforts to project influence into the region through tie-ups with Myanmar and Bangladesh. The United States has held major exercises with Bangladesh, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and recently India. The largest ever Military exercise, wargame in Bay of Bengal, known as Malabar 2007, was held in 2007 and naval warships from US, Bangladesh, Thailand, Singapore, Japan and Australia took part. India was a participant. Large deposits of natural gas in the areas within Bangladesh's sea zone incited a serious urgency by India and Myanmar into a territorial dispute. Disputes over rights of some oil and gas blocks have caused brief diplomatic spats between Myanmar and India with Bangladesh. The disputed maritime boundary between Bangladesh and Myanmar resulted in military tensions in 2008 and 2009. Bangladesh is pursuing a settlement with Myanmar and India to the boundary dispute through the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea.


Religious importance

The Bay of Bengal in the stretch of Pancha Tirtha, Puri, Swargadwar, the gateway to heaven in
Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor langua ...

Sanskrit
, in the Indian town of
Puri Puri () is a coastal city and a Nagar Palika, municipality in the state of Odisha in eastern India. It is the district headquarters of Puri district and is situated on the Bay of Bengal, south of the state capital of Bhubaneswar. It is als ...

Puri
is considered holy by Hindus. The Samudra arati is a daily tradition started by the present Shankaracharya of Puri 9 years ago to honour the sacred sea. The daily practise includes prayer and fire offering to the sea at Swargadwar in Puri by disciples of the Govardhana matha of the Shankaracharya. On Paush Purnima of every year the Shankaracharya himself comes out to offer prayers to the sea.


Key features


Beaches


Islands

The islands in the bay are numerous, including the Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands and Mergui Archipelago of India and Myanmar. The Cheduba group of islands, in the north-east, off the Burmese coast, are remarkable for a chain of mud volcanoes, which are occasionally active. Great Andaman is the main archipelago or island group of the Andaman Islands, whereas Ritchie's Archipelago consists of smaller islands. Only 37, or 6.5%, of the 572 islands and islets of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are inhabited.


Rivers

Many major Rivers of India and Bangladesh flow west to east before draining into the Bay of Bengal. The Ganges, Ganga is the northernmost of these rivers. Its main channel enters and flows through Bangladesh, where it is known as the Padma River, before joining the Meghna River. However, the Brahmaputra River flows from east to west in Assam before turning south and entering Bangladesh where it is called the Jamuna River. This joins the Padma where upon the Padma joins the Meghna River that finally drains into Bay of Bengal. The
Sundarbans The Sundarbans is a mangrove A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water. The term is also used for tropical coastal vegetation consisting of such species. Mangroves occur worldwide in the tropics ...

Sundarbans
is a mangrove forest in the southern part of the Ganges Delta, Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta which lies in the Indian state of
West Bengal West Bengal (, Bengali Bengali or Bengalee, or Bengalese may refer to: *something of, from, or related to Bengal, a large region in South Asia * Bengalis, an ethnic and linguistic group of the region * Bengali language, the language they sp ...

West Bengal
and in
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh
. The Brahmaputra at is the 28th List of rivers by length, longest River in the world. It originates in Tibet. The Hooghly River, another channel of the Ganga that flows through Kolkata drains into Bay of Bengal at Sagar Island, Sagar in West Bengal, India. The Ganga–Brahmaputra-Barak rivers deposit nearly 1000 million tons of sediment every year. The sediment from these three rivers form the Bengal Delta and the submarine fan, a vast structure that extends from
Bengal Bengal (; Bengali language, Bengali: ', ) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal, predominantly covering present-day Bang ...

Bengal
to south of the Equator, is up to thick, and contains at least 1,130 trillion tonnes of sediment, which has accumulated over the last 17 million years at an average rate of 665 million tons per annum. The fan has buried organic carbon at a rate of nearly 1.1 trillion mol/yr (13.2 million t/yr) since the early Miocene period. The three rivers currently contribute nearly 8% of the total organic carbon (TOC) deposited in the world's oceans. Due to high TOC accumulation in the deep sea bed of the Bay of Bengal, the area is rich in oil and natural gas and gas hydrate reserves. Bangladesh can Land reclamation, reclaim land substantially and economically gain from the sea area by constructing sea Levee, dikes, bunds, causeways and by trapping the sediment from its rivers. Further southwest of
Bengal Bengal (; Bengali language, Bengali: ', ) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal, predominantly covering present-day Bang ...

Bengal
, the Mahanadi River, Mahanadi, Godavari River, Godavari,
Krishna Krishna (, ; sa, कृष्ण, ) is a major deity A deity or god is a supernatural being considered divinity, divine or sacred. The ''Oxford Dictionary of English'' defines deity as a God (male deity), god or goddess (in a polythei ...

Krishna
and Kaveri Rivers also flow from west to east across Deccan Plateau in Peninsular India and drain into the Bay of Bengal forming River delta, deltas. Many small rivers also drain directly into the Bay of Bengal forming Estuary, estuaries; the shortest of them is the Cooum River at . The Irrawaddy River, Irrawaddy (or Ayeyarwady) River in Myanmar flows into the Andaman Sea of the Bay of Bengal and once had thick Myanmar Coast mangroves, mangrove forests of its own.


Seaports

Indian ports on the bay include Paradip Port, Port of Kolkata, Kolkata Port, Haldia Port, Chennai,
Visakhapatnam Visakhapatnam , List of renamed places in India, formerly known as Vizagapatam (also known as Vizag, Viśākha or Wāltair) is the largest and most populous city in the States and union territories of India, Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, an ...

Visakhapatnam
,
Kakinada Kakinada ( formerly called Kakinandiwada, Coringa, Cocanada) is the sixth largest city of the Indian state India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countr ...

Kakinada
, Pondicherry, Dhamra, Gopalpur-on-Sea, Gopalpur and Bangladeshi ports on the Bay are
Chittagong Chittagong ( ; bn, চাটগাঁও, Cāṭgāon), officially Chattogram ( bn, চট্টগ্রাম), is a major coastal city and financial centre A financial centre, financial center, or financial hub is a location with a c ...
, Mongla, Payra Port.


Oceanography

In alphabetical order.


Geology


Lithosphere and plate tectonics

The lithosphere of the earth is broken up into what are called Plate tectonics, tllectonic plates. Underneath the Bay of Bengal, which is part of the great Indo-Australian Plate and is slowly moving north east. This plate meets the Burma Plate, Burma Microplate at the Sunda Trench. The Nicobar Islands and the Andaman Islands are part of the Burma Microplate. The India Plate subducts beneath the Burma Plate at the Sunda Trench or Java Trench. Here, the pressure of the two plates on each other increase pressure and temperature resulting in the formation of volcanoes such as the List of volcanoes in Myanmar, volcanoes in Myanmar, and a volcanic arc called the Sunda Arc. The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and Asian tsunami was a result of the pressure at this zone causing a submarine earthquake which then resulted in a destructive tsunami.


Marine geology

A zone 50 m wide extending from the island of Sri Lanka and the Coromandel coast to the head of the bay, and thence southwards through a strip embracing the Andaman and Nicobar islands, is bounded by the 100 fathom line of sea bottom; some 50 m. beyond this lies the 500-fathom limit. Opposite the mouth of the Ganges, however, the intervals between these depths are very much extended by deltaic influence. Swatch of No Ground is a 14 km-wide deep sea canyon of the Bay of Bengal. The deepest recorded area of this valley is about 1340 m. The submarine canyon is part of the Bengal Fan, the largest submarine fan in the world.


Submarine fans

Submarine fan is also known as abyssal fan. Bay of Bengal fan, known as Bengal Fan, also known as the Ganges Fan is world's largest abyssal fan, also known as deep-sea fans, underwater deltas, and submarine fans. The fan is about long, wide with a maximum thickness of . The fan resulted from the uplift and erosion of the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau produced by the collision between the Indian Plate and the Eurasian Plate. Most of the sediment is supplied by the
Ganges The Ganges ( ) (in India: Ganga ( ); in Bangladesh: Padma River, Padma ( )). "The Ganges Basin, known in India as the Ganga and in Bangladesh as the Padma, is an international river to which India, Bangladesh, Nepal and China are the riparian ...

Ganges
and Brahmaputra rivers which supply the Lower
Meghna The Meghna River ( bn, মেঘনা নদী) is one of the major rivers in Bangladesh Bangladesh (; bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It is the List of count ...

Meghna
Ganges Delta, delta in Bangladesh and the Hooghly River, Hoogly delta in
West Bengal West Bengal (, Bengali Bengali or Bengalee, or Bengalese may refer to: *something of, from, or related to Bengal, a large region in South Asia * Bengalis, an ethnic and linguistic group of the region * Bengali language, the language they sp ...

West Bengal
(India). Several other large rivers in Bangladesh and India provide smaller contributions. Turbidity currents have transported the sediment through a series of submarine canyons, some of which are more than in length, to be deposited in the Bay of Bengal up to 30 degrees latitude from where it began. To date, the oldest sediments recovered from the Bengal fan are from Early Miocene age. Their mineralogical and geochemical characteristics allow to identify their Himalayan origin and demonstrate that the Himalaya was already a major mountain range 20 million years ago. The fan completely covers the floor of the Bay of Bengal. It is bordered to the west by the continental slope of eastern India, to the north by the continental slope of Bangladesh and to east by the northern part of Sunda Trench off
Myanmar Myanmar, ); UK pronunciations: US pronunciations incl. . Note: Wikipedia's IPA conventions require indicating /r/ even in British English although only some British English speakers pronounce r at the end of syllables. As John C. Wells, John ...

Myanmar
and the Andaman Islands, the accretionary wedge associated with subduction of the Indo-Australian Plate beneath the Sunda Plate and continues along the west side of the Ninety East Ridge. The Nicobar Fan, another lobe of the fan, lies east of the Ninety East Ridge. The fan is now being explored as a possible source of fossil fuels for the surrounding developing nations. The fan was first identified by bathymetric survey in the sixties by Bruce C. Heezen and Marie Tharp which identified the abyssal cone and canyon structures. It was delineated and named by Joseph Curray and David Moore following a geological and geophysical survey in 1968.


Oceanographic chemistry

Coastal regions bordering the Bay of Bengal are rich in minerals. Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka, Serendib, or ''Ratna – Dweepa'' which means Gem Island. Amethyst, beryl, ruby, sapphire, topaz, and garnet are just some of the gems of Sri Lanka. Garnet and other precious gems are also found in abundance in the states of India, Indian states of Odisha and Andhra Pradesh.


Oceanographic climate

From January to October, the current is northward flowing, and the clockwise circulation pattern is called the "East Indian Current". The Bay of Bengal Climate of India, monsoon moves in a northwest direction striking the Nicobar Islands, and the Andaman Islands first end of May, then coast of Mainland India by end of June. The remainder of the year, the counterclockwise current is southwestward flowing, and the circulation pattern is called the East Indian Winter Jet. September and December see very active weather, season varsha (or monsoon), in the Bay of Bengal producing severe cyclones which affect eastern India. Several efforts have been initiated to cope with storm surge.


Marine biology, flora and fauna

The Bay of Bengal is full of biological diversity, diverging amongst coral reefs, estuaries, fish spawning and nursery areas, and mangroves. The Bay of Bengal is one of the World's 64 Marine ecoregion, largest marine Marine ecosystem, ecosystems. ''Kerilia jerdonii'' is a sea snake of the Bay of Bengal. Glory of Bengal cone (''Conus bengalensis'') is just one of the seashells which can be photographed along beaches of the Bay of Bengal. An Endangered Species Act, endangered species, the olive ridley sea turtle can survive because of the nesting grounds made available at the Gahirmatha Marine Wildlife Sanctuary, Gahirmatha Beach, Odisha, India. Marlin, barracuda, skipjack tuna, skipjack tuna, (''Katsuwonus pelamis''), yellowfin tuna, Indo-Pacific hump-backed dolphin, Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin (''Sousa chinensis''), and Bryde's whale, Bryde's whale (''Balaenoptera edeni'') are a few of the marine animals. Bay of Bengal hogfish (''Bodianus neilli'') is a type of wrasse which live in turbid lagoon reefs or shallow coastal reefs. Schools of dolphins can be seen, whether they are the bottle nose dolphin, bottle nose dolphin (''Tursiops truncatus''), pantropical spotted dolphin, pantropical spotted dolphin (''Stenella attenuata'') or the spinner dolphin, spinner dolphin (''Stenella longirostris''). Tuna and dolphins usually reside in the same waters. In shallower and warmer coastal waters the Irrawaddy dolphin, Irrawaddy dolphins (''Orcaella brevirostris'') can be found. The Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve provides sanctuary to many animals some of which include the saltwater crocodile, saltwater crocodile (''Crocodylus porosus''), giant leatherback sea turtle, leatherback sea turtle (''Dermochelys coriacea''), and Cuora amboinensis, Malayan box turtle (''Cuora amboinensis kamaroma'') to name a few. Another endangered species Bengal tiger, royal Bengal tiger is supported by Sundarbans National Park, Sundarbans a large estuarine delta that holds a mangrove area in the Ganges Delta, Ganges River Delta.


Transboundary issues

A transboundary issue is defined as an environmental problem in which either the cause of the problem and/or its impact is separated by a national boundary; or the problem contributes to a global environmental problem and finding regional solutions is considered to be a global environmental benefit. The eight Bay of Bengal countries have (2012) identified three major transboundary problems (or areas of concern) affecting the health of the Bay, that they can work on together. With the support of the Bay Of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem Project (BOBLME), the eight countries are now (2012) developing responses to these issues and their causes, for future implementation as the Strategic Action Programme.


Ecological degradation


Fisheries overexploitation

Fisheries production in the Bay of Bengal is six million tonnes per year, more than seven percent of the world's catch. The major transboundary issues relating to shared fisheries are: a decline in the overall availability of fish resources; changes in species composition of catches; the high proportion of juvenile fish in the catch; and changes in marine biodiversity, especially through loss of vulnerable and endangered species. The transboundary nature of these issues are: that many fish stocks are shared between BOBLME countries through the transboundary migration of fish, or Ichthyoplankton, larvae. Fishing overlaps national jurisdictions, both legally and illegally – overcapacity and overfishing in one location forces a migration of fishers and vessels to other locations. All countries (to a greater or lesser degree) are experiencing difficulties in implementing fisheries management, especially the ecosystem approach to fisheries. Bay of Bengal countries contribute significantly to the global problem of loss of vulnerable species, vulnerable and endangered species. The main causes of the issues are: open access to fishing grounds; Government emphasis on increasing fish catches; inappropriate government subsidies provided to fishers; increasing fishing effort, especially from Fishing trawler, trawlers and purse seiners; high consumer demand for fish, including for seed and fishmeal for aquaculture; ineffective fisheries management; and illegal and destructive fishing.


Marine habitats degradation

The Bay of Bengal is an area of high biodiversity, with many endangered species, endangered and vulnerable species. The major transboundary issues relating to habitats are: the loss and degradation of mangrove habitats; Environmental issues with coral reefs, degradation of coral reefs; and the loss of, and damage to, seagrasses. The transboundary nature of these major issues are: that all three critical habitats occur in all BOBLME countries. Coastal development hazards, Coastal development for several varying uses of the land and sea are common in all BOBLME countries. Trade in products from all the habitats is transboundary in nature. Climate change impacts are shared by all BOBLME countries. The main causes of the issues are: food security needs of the coastal poor; lack of Coastal management, coastal development plans; increasing trade in products from coastal habitats; coastal development and industrialization; ineffective marine protected areas and lack of enforcement; upstream development that affects water-flow; Nonpoint source pollution, intensive upstream agricultural practices; and increasing tourism.


Environmental degradation


Environmental hazards

The Asian brown cloud, a layer of air pollution that covers much of South Asia and the Indian Ocean every year between January and March, and possibly also during earlier and later months, hangs over the Bay of Bengal. It is considered to be a combination of vehicle exhaust, smoke from cooking fires, and industrial discharges. Because of this cloud, satellites attempting to track ocean acidification and other ocean health indicators in the Bay have difficulty obtaining accurate measurements.


Pollution and water quality

The major transboundary issues relating to marine pollution, pollution and water quality are: sewage-borne pathogens and organic load; solid waste/marine litter; increasing nutrient inputs; oil pollution; persistent organic pollutants (Persistent organic pollutant, POPs) and persistent toxic substances (PTSs); sedimentation; and heavy metals. The transboundary nature of these issues are: discharge of untreated/partially treated sewage being a common problem. Sewage and organic discharges from the
Ganges The Ganges ( ) (in India: Ganga ( ); in Bangladesh: Padma River, Padma ( )). "The Ganges Basin, known in India as the Ganga and in Bangladesh as the Padma, is an international river to which India, Bangladesh, Nepal and China are the riparian ...

Ganges
-Brahmaputra-Meghna River are likely to be transboundary. Plastics and derelict fishing gear can be transported long distances across national boundaries. High nutrient discharges from rivers could intensify largescale hypoxia. Atmospheric transport of nutrients is inherently transboundary. Differences between countries with regard to regulation and enforcement of shipping discharges may drive discharges across boundaries. Tarball (oil), Tar balls are transported long distances. POPs/PTSs and Mercury (element), mercury, including organo-mercury, undergo long-range transport. Sedimentation and most heavy metal contamination tend to be localized and lack a strong transboundary dimension. The main causes of the issues are: increasing coastal population density and urbanization; higher consumption, resulting in more waste generated per person; insufficient funds allocated to waste management; migration of industry into BOBLME countries; and proliferation of small industries.


Tropical storms and cyclones

A tropical storm with rotating winds blowing at speeds of is called a cyclone when they originate over the Bay of Bengal, and called a hurricane in the Atlantic. Between 100,000 and 500,000 residents of Bangladesh were killed because of the 1970 Bhola cyclone. * 2020, Cyclone Nivar, Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Nivar * 2020, Cyclone Amphan, Super Cyclonic Storm Amphan * 2019, Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Bulbul * 2019, Cyclone Fani, Extremely Severe Cyclonic Storm Fani * 2018, Severe Cyclonic Storm Gaja *2018, Cyclone Titli *2017, Cyclone Mora, Severe Cyclonic Storm Mora * 2017, Cyclone Maarutha * 2016, Cyclone Vardah, Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Vardah * 2016, 2016 North Indian Ocean cyclone season#Cyclone Nada, Cyclone Nada * 2016, 2016 North Indian Ocean cyclone season#Cyclone Kyant, Cyclone Kyant * 2016, Cyclone Roanu * 2015, Cyclone Komen * 2014, Cyclone Hudhud, Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Hudhud * 2013, Cyclone Phailin, Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Phailin * 2013, Cyclone Viyaru * 2012, Cyclone Nilam * 2011, Cyclone Thane, Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Thane * 2010, Cyclone Giri, Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Giri * 2009, Cyclone Aila, Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Aila * 2008, Cyclone Nargis, Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Nargis * 2007, Cyclone Sidr, Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Sidr * 2006, Cyclone Mala, Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Mala * 1999, 1999 Odisha cyclone, Odisha Super Cyclonic Storm 05B * 1996, Konaseema Cyclone * 1991, 1991 Bangladesh cyclone, Super Cyclonic Storm 02B * 1989, November Typhoon Gay (1989), Typhoon Gay * 1985, May Tropical Storm One (1B) * 1982, April Cyclone One (1B) * 1982, May Tropical Storm Two (2B) * 1982, October Tropical Storm Three (3B) * 1981, December Cyclone Three (3B) * 1980, October Tropical Storm One (1B) * 1980, December Unknown Storm Four (4B) * 1980, December Tropical Storm Five (5B) * 1977, 1977 Andhra Pradesh cyclone, Andhra Pradesh Cyclone (6B) * 1971, 1971 Odisha cyclone, Odisha cyclone * 1970, November 1970 Bhola cyclone, Bhola cyclone * The 1864 Calcutta Cyclone: caused a storm surge of 40 feet. Barometer 28.025 inches of mercury. 50,000 direct deaths and 30,000 from disease. * The Backergunge cyclone of 1876: 10 to 30 or 40 feet storm surge. 100,000 direct deaths and 100,000 indirect from disease. * The Pre-1890 North Indian Ocean cyclone seasons, False Point cyclone of 1885: 22 feet of storm surge. Barometer 27.135 inches of mercury.


See also

* History of Indian influence on Southeast Asia * Maritime Silk Road


References


Further reading


The Maritime Boundary Dispute Between Bangladesh and Myanmar: Motivations, Potential Solutions, and Implications
by Jared Bissinger (''Asia Policy'', July 2010) published by National Bureau of Asian Research


External links

* *
487 V. Suryanarayan, Prospects for a Bay of Bengal Community

Arabian Sea: depth contours and undersea features – Map/Still – Britannica Concise



Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem Project
{{DEFAULTSORT:Bay of Bengal Bay of Bengal, Marginal seas of the Indian Ocean Bays of Asia Maritime archaeology Bangladesh–India border Bangladesh–Myanmar border Bays of India Bodies of water of Bangladesh Bays of Indonesia Bodies of water of Myanmar Bodies of water of Sri Lanka